Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: franchising

5 A Descriptive Approach towards the Understanding of the Central American Coffee Business Demography Phenomena

Authors: Jesus David Argueta Moreno, Justa Rufina Martel, Edith Gabriela Carrasco


The Central American Coffee small, medium, and large corporations search for excellence, sustainability, and continuous improvement, triggers in a still unknown scale the Local expansion, crusading, and franchising strategies towards a more suitable commercial opportunity, where the dynamics of the Central American business displacement can be explained through the markets permeability traits. By considering the previously mentioned, the present study aims to evaluate the franchising potentialities offered by Central American Coffee business scenario, in order to explain dynamics of the business demography phenomena and its relevance on the Central American competitiveness landscape.

Keywords: competitiveness, franchising, business demography, Central American Coffee

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4 Islamic State: Franchising Jihad through the New Caliphate

Authors: Janiel David Melamed Visbal


The Islamic State has become one of the most remarkable threats for international security through their religious extremism and their establishment of a new caliphate by force. The main objective of this organization is to obtain territorial expansions beyond the Middle East and eventually to consolidate an Islamic global order based on their extremist ideology. This paper will conduct an analysis regarding how, over the past year, many jihadist organizations worldwide have pledged their alliagance to the Islamic State, transforming it into the most important jihadist franchise globally.

Keywords: Islamic state, franchise, jihad, Islamic fundamentalism, caliphate

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3 Investigate the Current Performance of Burger King Ho Chi Minh City in Terms of the Controllable Variables of the Overall Retail Strategy

Authors: Nhi Ngoc Thien


Franchising is a popular trend in Vietnam retail industry, especially in fast food industry. Several famous foreign fast food brands such as KFC, Lotteria, Jollibee or Pizza Hut invested on this potential market since the 1990s. Following this trend, in 2011, Burger King - the second largest fast food hamburger chain all over the world - entered Vietnam with its first store located in Tan Son Nhat International Airport, with the expectation to become the leading brand in the country. However, the business performance of Burger King was not going well in the first few years making it questioned about its strategy. The given assumption was that its business performance was affected negatively by its store location selection strategy. This research aims to investigate the current performance of Burger King Vietnam in terms of the controllable variables like store location as well as to explore the key factors influencing customer decision to choose Burger King. Therefore, a case study research method was conducted to approach deeply on the opinions and evaluations of 10 Burger King’s customers, Burger King's staffs and other fast food experts on Burger King’s performance through in-depth interview, direct observation and documentary analysis. Findings show that there are 8 determinants affecting the decision-making of Burger King’s customers, which are store location, quality of food, service quality, store atmosphere, price, promotion, menu and brand reputation. Moreover, findings present that Burger King’s staffs and fast food experts also mentioned the main problems of Burger King, which are about store location and food quality. As a result, there are some recommendations for Burger King Vietnam to improve its performance in the market and attract more Vietnamese target customers by giving suitable promotional activities among its customers and being differentiated itself from other fast food brands.

Keywords: overall retail strategy, controllable variables, store location, quality of food

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2 Comparative Analysis between Thailand and the United States of a Wholesale Exemption for Vertical Restraint Regarding Intellectual Property Licensing

Authors: Sanpetchuda Krutkrua, Suphawatchara Malanond


Competition law is not a new thing in Thailand. Thailand first passed the first competition law during the Second World War in order to stop business operator monopolizing food and basic living supplies. The competition law in Thailand has been amended several times during the past eighty years in order to make it suitable for the current economic and social condition. In 2017, Thailand enacted the current Trade Competition Act of B.E. 2560, which contain several changes to the regime in order to enhance a prevention of collusive practices and monopolization through both vertical restraints and horizontal restraints. Section 56 of the Act provides exemptions for the vertical relationship; i.e., the arrangement in form of complementary relationship, between business operators, franchising agreements between franchisor and franchisee, and licensing agreement between licensor and licensee. The key is that such agreements must not be excessive, create monopolization or attempt to monopolize, or cause any impacts the consumers regarding price, quality, quantity of the goods. The goal of the paper is to explore the extent of the exemption under Section 56 and its sequential regulations regarding vertical trade restraints in the case intellectual property licensing. The research will be conducted in form of a comparative analysis on exemptions for collusive practices under the United States Antitrust law and the Thai Competition Act of B.E. 2560. The United Antitrust law, fairly similar to the Thai Competition Act of B.E. 2561, views the intellectual property licensing to have pro-competitive benefits to the market as long as the intellectual property licensing agreement does not harm the competition amongst the business operators that could have or would have been competitors. The United States Antitrust law identifies the relationship between the parties of the agreement whether such agreement is horizontal or vertical or both. Even though the nature of licensing agreements is primarily vertical, the relationship between licensor and licensees can also be horizontal if they could have been potential competitors in the market as well. The United States Antitrust law frowns upon, if not prohibits, the horizontal restraints regarding the intellectual property licensing but does not impose the same restrictions on the vertical trade restraints regarding intellectual property licensing.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, vertical restraint, intellectual property, intellectual property licensing, comparative law

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1 Issues of Accounting of Lease and Revenue according to International Financial Reporting Standards

Authors: Nadezhda Kvatashidze, Elena Kharabadze


It is broadly known that lease is a flexible means of funding enterprises. Lease reduces the risk related to access and possession of assets, as well as obtainment of funding. Therefore, it is important to refine lease accounting. The lease accounting regulations under the applicable standard (International Accounting Standards 17) make concealment of liabilities possible. As a result, the information users get inaccurate and incomprehensive information and have to resort to an additional assessment of the off-balance sheet lease liabilities. In order to address the problem, the International Financial Reporting Standards Board decided to change the approach to lease accounting. With the deficiencies of the applicable standard taken into account, the new standard (IFRS 16 ‘Leases’) aims at supplying appropriate and fair lease-related information to the users. Save certain exclusions; the lessee is obliged to recognize all the lease agreements in its financial report. The approach was determined by the fact that under the lease agreement, rights and obligations arise by way of assets and liabilities. Immediately upon conclusion of the lease agreement, the lessee takes an asset into its disposal and assumes the obligation to effect the lease-related payments in order to meet the recognition criteria defined by the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. The payments are to be entered into the financial report. The new lease accounting standard secures supply of quality and comparable information to the financial information users. The International Accounting Standards Board and the US Financial Accounting Standards Board jointly developed IFRS 15: ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’. The standard allows the establishment of detailed revenue recognition practical criteria such as identification of the performance obligations in the contract, determination of the transaction price and its components, especially price variable considerations and other important components, as well as passage of control over the asset to the customer. IFRS 15: ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ is very similar to the relevant US standards and includes requirements more specific and consistent than those of the standards in place. The new standard is going to change the recognition terms and techniques in the industries, such as construction, telecommunications (mobile and cable networks), licensing (media, science, franchising), real property, software etc.

Keywords: assessment of the lease assets and liabilities, contractual liability, division of contract, identification of contracts, contract price, lease identification, lease liabilities, off-balance sheet, transaction value

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