Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Neil Roy B. Rosales

48 The Ra 9262 (Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) in the Literature Classroom via the Movie ‘Enough’

Authors: Jay Neil Garciso Verano, Peter Rosales Bobiles


This study tried to integrate RA 9262 in literature through the use of film. It identified RA 9262 provisions reflected in the students’ concepts in their oral participation and written outputs and pointed out different attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women as shaped by the film through their responses. Four Literature 121 (World Literature) classes with more or less similar characteristics participated in this study. The discussion of Paulette Kelly’s I Got Flowers Today took place during the first session while the viewing of the film Enough and discussion of the film followed to enrich and bolster students’ concepts and awareness on violence against women and to introduce RA 9262 provisions. The students’ attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women were lifted from the students’ oral and written responses. The film Enough presented eight provisions from RA 9262 reflected in students’ concepts which centered on the acts of violence against women tarnishing women’s rights and dignity. There were 25 attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women which surfaced, 11 of which are what initiate the acts, seven tell about the results from or effects of violence against women, and another seven exemplify respect to women. With the findings, it can be viewed that RA 9262 can be integrated in a literature course to awaken students’ minds on the prevalent issues on violating women’s rights and dignity. The discussion of Paulette Kelly’s I Got Flowers Today reinforced by the viewing of Enough deduced issues on the violation of women’s rights and dignity, attitudes toward violence against women, and students’ perception with regard respect to women.

Keywords: Literature, Film, Feminism, anti-violence against women, enough

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47 Alcohol and Soda Consumption of University Students in Manila

Authors: Alexi Colleen F. Lim, Inna Felicia I. Agoncillo, Quenniejoy T. Dizon, Jennifer Joyce T. Eti, Carlota Aileen H. Monares, Neil Roy B. Rosales, Joshua F. Santillan, Alyssa Francesca D. S. Tanchuling, Josefina A. Tuazon, Mary Joan Therese C. Valera-Kourdache


Majority of leading causes of mortality in the Philippines are NCDs, which are preventable through control of known risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and alcohol. Sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda and energy drinks also contribute to NCD risk and are of concern particularly for youth. This study provides baseline data on beverage consumption of university students in Manila with the focus on alcohol and soda. It further aims to identify factors affecting consumption. Specific objectives include: (1) to describe beverage consumption practices of university students in Manila; and (2) to determine factors promoting excessive consumption of alcohol and soda including demographic characteristics, attitude, interpersonal and environmental variables. Methods: The study employed correlational design with randomly selected students from two universities in Manila. Students 18 years or older who agreed to participate were included after obtaining ethical clearance. The study had two instruments: (1) World Health Organization’s Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used with permission, to determine excessive alcohol consumption; and (2) a questionnaire to obtain information regarding soda and energy drink consumption. Results: Out of 400 students surveyed, 70% were female and 78.75% were 18-20 years old (mean=19.79; SD=3.76). Among them, 51.50% consumed alcohol, with 30.10% excessive drinkers. Soda consumption is 91.50% with 37.70% excessive consumers. For energy drinks, 36.75% consume this and only 4.76% drink excessively. Using logistic regression, students who were more likely to be excessive alcohol drinkers belonged to non-health courses (OR=2.21) and purchased alcohol from bars (OR=7.84). Less likely to drink excessively are students who do not drink due to stress (OR=0.05) and drink when it is accessible (OR=0.02). Excessive soda consumption was less likely for female students (OR=0.28), those who drink when it is accessible (OR=0.14), do not drink soda during stressful situations (OR=0.19), and do not use soda as hangover treatment (OR=0.15). Conclusion: Excessive alcohol consumption was greater among students in Manila (30.10%) than in US (20%). Drinking alcohol with friends was not related to excessive consumption but availability in bars was. It is expected that health sciences students are less likely to engage in excessive alcohol as they are more aware of its ill effects. Prevalence of soda consumption in Manila (91.50%) is markedly higher compared to 24.5% in the US. These findings can inform schools in developing appropriate health education interventions and policies. For greater understanding of these behaviors and factors, further studies are recommended to explore knowledge and other factors that may promote excessive consumption.

Keywords: Beverage Consumption, university students, alcohol consumption, energy drinks consumption, soda consumption

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46 L2 Reading in Distance Education: Analysis of Students' Reading Attitude and Interests

Authors: Ma. Junithesmer, D. Rosales


The study is a baseline description of students’ attitude and interests about L2 reading in a state university in the Philippines that uses distance education as a delivery mode. Most research conducted on this area dealt with the analysis of reading in a traditional school set-up. For this reason, this research was written to discover if there are implications as regards students’ preferences, interests and attitude reveal about L2 reading in a non-traditional set-up. To form the corpus of this study, it included the literature and studies about reading, preferred technological devices, titles of books and authors, reading medium traditional/ print and electronic books that juxtapose with students’ interest and feelings when reading at home and in school; and their views about their strengths and weaknesses as readers.

Keywords: Distance Education, Reading, L2 reading, reading attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
45 Contagion and Stock Interdependence in the BRIC+M Block

Authors: Christian Bucio Pacheco, Miriam Magnolia Sosa Castro, María Alejandra Cabello Rosales


This paper aims to analyze the contagion effect among the stock markets of the BRIC+M block (Brazil, Russia, India, China plus Mexico). The contagion effect is proved through increasing on dependence parameters during crisis periods. The dependence parameters are estimated through copula approach in a period of time from July 1997 to December 2015. During this period there are instability and calm episodes, allowing to analyze changes in the relations of dependence. Empirical results show strong evidence of time-varying dependence among the BRIC+M markets and an increasing dependence relation during global financial crisis period.

Keywords: copula, BRIC+M Block, Contagion effect, dependence

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44 Generator Subgraphs of the Wheel

Authors: Neil M. Mame


We consider only finite graphs without loops nor multiple edges. Let G be a graph with E(G) = {e1, e2, …., em}. The edge space of G, denoted by ε(G), is a vector space over the field Z2. The elements of ε(G) are all the subsets of E(G). Vector addition is defined as X+Y = X Δ Y, the symmetric difference of sets X and Y, for X, Y ∈ ε(G). Scalar multiplication is defined as 1.X =X and 0.X = Ø for X ∈ ε(G). The set S ⊆ ε(G) is called a generating set if every element ε(G) is a linear combination of the elements of S. For a non-empty set X ∈ ε(G), the smallest subgraph with edge set X is called edge-induced subgraph of G, denoted by G[X]. The set EH(G) = { A ∈ ε(G) : G[A] ≅ H } denotes the uniform set of H with respect to G and εH(G) denotes the subspace of ε(G) generated by EH(G). If εH(G) is generating set, then we call H a generator subgraph of G. This paper gives the characterization for the generator subgraphs of the wheel that contain cycles and gives the necessary conditions for the acyclic generator subgraphs of the wheel.

Keywords: wheel, edge space, edge-induced subgraph, generator subgraph

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43 The Impact of Usefulness and Ease of Using Mobile Learning Technology on Faculty Acceptance

Authors: Leena Ahmad Khaleel Alfarani, Maggie McPherson, Neil Morris


Over the last decade, m-learning has been widely accepted and utilized by many western universities. However, Saudi universities face many challenges in utilizing such technology, a central one being to encourage teachers to use such technology. Although there are several factors that affect faculty members’ participation in the adoption of m-learning, this paper focuses merely on two factors, the usefulness and ease of using m-learning. A sample of 279 faculty members in one Saudi university has responded to the online survey. The results of the study have revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship (at the 0.05 level) between both usefulness and ease of using m-learning factors and the intention of teachers to use m-learning currently and in the future.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, technology acceptance, diffusion of innovation theory, faculty adoption

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42 Inventory Management to Minimize Storage Costs and Improve Delivery Time in a Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Israel Becerril Rosales, Manuel González De La Rosa, Gerardo Villa Sánchez


In this work, the effects that produce not having a good inventory management is analyzed, in addition of the way that how it affects the storage costs. The research began conducting the historical analysis about stored products, its storage capacity, and distribution. The results were not optimal, since in all its raw materials (RM) have overstocking, the warehouse capacity is only used by 61%, does not have a specific place for each of its RM, causing that the delivery times increases and makes difficult a cyclical inventory. These shortcomings allowed to view and select as design alternatives the inventory ABC, so that depending on the consumption of each RM would be redistributed by using economic amount requested. Also, the Delphi method to ensure the practical applicability of the proposed tool was used, taking in account comments and suggestions of the involved experts, as well as the compliance of NOM-059-SSA1-2015 good manufacturing practices of drug. With the actions implemented, the utilization rate drops of 61% to 32% capacity, it shows that the warehouse was not designed properly due to there is not an industrial engineering area.

Keywords: Inventory Management, lead time, improve delivery, storage costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
41 Data Modeling and Calibration of In-Line Pultrusion and Laser Ablation Machine Processes

Authors: David F. Nettleton, Elodie Bugnicourt, Christian Wasiak, Alejandro Rosales, Jonas Dorissen, David Gillen, Alexandr Tretyak


In this work, preliminary results are given for the modeling and calibration of two inline processes, pultrusion, and laser ablation, using machine learning techniques. The end product of the processes is the core of a medical guidewire, manufactured to comply with a user specification of diameter and flexibility. An ensemble approach is followed which requires training several models. Two state of the art machine learning algorithms are benchmarked: Kernel Recursive Least Squares (KRLS) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The final objective is to build a precise digital model of the pultrusion and laser ablation process in order to calibrate the resulting diameter and flexibility of a medical guidewire, which is the end product while taking into account the friction on the forming die. The result is an ensemble of models, whose output is within a strict required tolerance and which covers the required range of diameter and flexibility of the guidewire end product. The modeling and automatic calibration of complex in-line industrial processes is a key aspect of the Industry 4.0 movement for cyber-physical systems.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Data Modeling, Industrial Processes, Calibration

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40 Rodriguez Diego, Del Valle Martin, Hargreaves Matias, Riveros Jose Luis

Authors: Nathainail Bashir, Neil Anderson


The objective of this study site was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection methods and recommend the best method and pattern of arrays to acquire the desire results. Proper site investigation in karst prone regions is extremely valuable in determining the location of possible voids. Two geophysical techniques were employed: multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT).The MASW data was acquired at each test location using different array lengths and different array orientations (to increase the probability of getting interpretable data in karst terrain). The ERT data were acquired using a dipole-dipole array consisting of 168 electrodes. The MASW data was interpreted (re: estimated depth to physical top of rock) and used to constrain and verify the interpretation of the ERT data. The ERT data indicates poorer quality MASW data were acquired in areas where there was significant local variation in the depth to top of rock.

Keywords: ERT, MASW, dipole-dipole, Karst terrains

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39 Analysis of the Transcriptional Response of Rhazia stricta to Jasmonic Acid Induction

Authors: Jamal S. M. Sabir, Nahid H. Hajrah, Neil Hall


The jasmonic pathway is ubiquitous in plants and is crucial to plant development. It Is involved in fertility, ripening, and sex determination as well as in response to environmental stresses such as herbivory, pathogen drought or temperature shock. Essentially the jasmonic pathway acts to shut down growth in order to induce defence pathways. These pathways include the production of secondary metabolites which have evolved to defend against herbivores and pathogens but are of increasing interest due to their roll in medicine and biotechnology. Here we describe the transcriptional response of Rhazia stricta (a poisonous shrub widely used in traditional medicine) to jasmonic acid, in order to better characterize the genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its response to stress. We observe coordinated upregulation of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway leading to flavonols, flavones and anthocyanins but no similar coordination of the monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Rhazia stricta, jasmonic acid, transcriptional analysis

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38 The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Creativity, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Behdoukht Mall Amiri, Zohreh Gheydar


The thrust of the current study was to investigate the relationship among EFL learners' creativity (CR), emotional intelligence (EI), and self-efficacy (SE). To this end, a group of 120 male and female learners, between the ages of 19 and 35 studying BA in English Translation and MA in Teaching English at Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran were selected using convenient sampling and were given three questionnaires: Bar-On’s EQ-I questionnaire by Bar-On (1997), the General Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire (SGSES) by Sherer et al. (1982), and a questionnaire of creativity (CR) by O'Neil, Abedi, and Spielberger (1992). Analysis of the results through Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient showed that there was not a significant relationship between students’ CR and EI, and EI and SE. In addition, CR and SE were correlated significantly but negatively. Multiple regressions revealed that CR could significantly predict SE. Regarding the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, materials developers, and educational policy makers to possess a broader perspective and heightened degree knowledge toward the TEFL practice and to take practical steps toward the attainments of the desired objectives of the profession.

Keywords: Learning, Creativity, Self-efficacy, Emotional Intelligence

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37 Effects of Surface Roughness on a Unimorph Piezoelectric Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Vibrational Energy Harvester Using Finite Element Method Modeling

Authors: Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Jean Marriz M. Manzano, Marc D. Rosales, Maria Theresa G. De Leon


This paper discusses the effects of surface roughness on a cantilever beam vibrational energy harvester. A silicon sample was fabricated using MEMS fabrication processes. When etching silicon using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at large etch depths, rougher surfaces are observed as a result of increased response in process pressure, amount of coil power and increased helium backside cooling readings. To account for the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of the cantilever beam, finite element method (FEM) modeling was performed using actual roughness data from fabricated samples. It was found that when etching about 550um of silicon, root mean square roughness parameter, Sq, varies by 1 to 3 um (at 100um thick) across a 6-inch wafer. Given this Sq variation, FEM simulations predict an 8 to148 Hz shift in the resonant frequency while having no significant effect on the output power. The significant shift in the resonant frequency implies that careful consideration of surface roughness from fabrication processes must be done when designing energy harvesters.

Keywords: MicroElectroMechanical Systems, Finite Element Method, Multiphysics Analysis, surface roughness, deep reactive ion etching, vibrational energy harvester

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36 Shotcrete Performance Optimisation and Audit Using 3D Laser Scanning

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez, Neil Slatcher, Marcus Properzi, Kan Seah


In many underground mining operations, shotcrete is used for permanent rock support. Shotcrete thickness is a critical measure of the success of this process. 3D Laser Mapping, in conjunction with Jetcrete, has developed a 3D laser scanning system specifically for measuring the thickness of shotcrete. The system is mounted on the shotcrete spraying machine and measures the rock faces before and after spraying. The calculated difference between the two 3D surface models is measured as the thickness of the sprayed concrete. Typical work patterns for the shotcrete process required a rapid and automatic system. The scanning takes place immediately before and after the application of the shotcrete so no convergence takes place in the interval between scans. Automatic alignment of scans without targets was implemented which allows for the possibility of movement of the spraying machine between scans. Case studies are presented where accuracy tests are undertaken and automatic audit reports are calculated. The use of 3D imaging data for the calculation of shotcrete thickness is an important tool for geotechnical engineers and contract managers, and this could become the new state-of-the-art methodology for the mining industry.

Keywords: Shotcrete, surface model, tunnel stability

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35 Application of Artificial Neural Network and Background Subtraction for Determining Body Mass Index (BMI) in Android Devices Using Bluetooth

Authors: Noel B. Linsangan, Neil Erick Q. Madariaga


Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the different ways to monitor the health of a person. It is based on the height and weight of the person. This study aims to compute for the BMI using an Android tablet by obtaining the height of the person by using a camera and measuring the weight of the person by using a weighing scale or load cell. The height of the person was estimated by applying background subtraction to the image captured and applying different processes such as getting the vanishing point and applying Artificial Neural Network. The weight was measured by using Wheatstone bridge load cell configuration and sending the value to the computer by using Gizduino microcontroller and Bluetooth technology after the amplification using AD620 instrumentation amplifier. The application will process the images and read the measured values and show the BMI of the person. The study met all the objectives needed and further studies will be needed to improve the design project.

Keywords: bluetooth, Artificial Neural Network, body mass index, vanishing point, wheatstone bridge load cell

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34 Tapping into Debt: The Effect of Contactless Payment Methods on Overdraft Fee Occurrence

Authors: Merle Van Den Akker, Neil Stewart, Andrea Isoni


Contactless methods of payment referred to as tap&go, have become increasingly popular globally. However, little is known about the consequences of this payment method on spending, spending habits, personal finance management, and debt accumulation. The literature on other payment methods such as credit cards suggests that, through increased ease and reduced friction, the pain of paying in these methods is reduced, leading to higher and more frequent spending, resulting in higher debt accumulation. Within this research, we use a dataset of 300 million transactions of 165.000 individuals to see whether the onset of using contactless methods of payment increases the occurrence of overdraft fees. Using the R package MatchIt, we find, when matching people on initial overdraft occurrence and salary, that people who do start using contactless incur a significantly higher number of overdraft fees, as compared to those who do not start using contactless in the same year. Having accounted for income, opting-in, and time-of-year effects, these results show that contactless methods of payment fall within the scope of earlier theories on credit cards, such as the pain of paying, meaning that this payment method leads to increasing difficulties managing personal finance.

Keywords: spending, contactless, debt accumulation, overdraft fees, payment methods

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33 Triggering Supersonic Boundary-Layer Instability by Small-Scale Vortex Shedding

Authors: Guohua Tu, Zhi Fu, Zhiwei Hu, Neil D. Sandham, Jianqiang Chen


Tripping of boundary-layers from laminar to turbulent flow, which may be required in specific practical applications, requires high amplitude disturbances to be introduced into the boundary layers without large drag penalties. As a possible improvement on fixed trip devices, a technique based on vortex shedding for enhancing supersonic flow transition is demonstrated in the present contribution for a Mach 1.5 boundary layer. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-order (fifth-order in space and third-order in time) finite difference method for small-scale cylinders suspended transversely near the wall. For cylinders with proper diameter and mount location, asymmetry vortices shed within the boundary layer are capable of tripping laminar-turbulent transition. Full three-dimensional simulations showed that transition was enhanced. A parametric study of the size and mounting location of the cylinder is carried out to identify the most effective setup. It is also found that the vortex shedding can be suppressed by some factors, such as wall effect.

Keywords: Flow control, vortex shedding, boundary layer instability, boundary layer transition, supersonic flows

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32 Analgesic Efficacy of Opiorphin and Its Analogue

Authors: Preet Singh, Kavitha Kongara, Dave Harding, Neil Ward, Paul Chambers


The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of opiorphin and its analogue with a mu-receptor agonist; morphine. Opiorphins (Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg) belong to the family of endogenous enkephalinase inhibitors, found in saliva of humans. They are inhibitors of two Zinc metal ectopeptidases (Neutral endopeptidase NEP, and amino-peptidase APN) which are responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous opioids; endorphins and enkephalins. Morphine and butorphanol exerts their analgesic effects by mimicking the actions of endorphins and enkephalins. The opiorphin analogue was synthesized based on the structure activity relationship of the amino acid sequence of opiorphin. The pharmacological profile of the analogue was tested by replacing Serine at position 4 with Proline. The hot plate and tail flick test were used to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy. There was a significant increase in the time for the tail flick response after an injection of opiorphin, which was similar to the morphine effect. There was no increase in time in the hot plate test after an injection of opiorphin. The results suggest that opiorphin works at spinal level only rather than both spinal and supraspinal. Further work is required to confirm our results. We did not find analgesic activity of the opiorphin analogue. Thus, Serine at position 4 is also important for its pharmacological action. Further work is required to illustrate the role of serine at position 4 in opiorphin.

Keywords: morphine, analgesic peptides, endogenous opioids, opiorphin

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31 Does Women Involvement in Politics Decrease Corruption? A Context Based Approach to the Corruption Rate Index of ASEAN Countries

Authors: Lu Anne A. Godinez, May Claudine I. Gador, Preacious G. Gumolon, Louiechi Von R. Mendoza, Neil Bryan N. Moninio


Gender equality and women empowerment is the third of eight Millennium Development Goals. Understanding corruption’s linkages to gender equality issues and how it impacts women’s empowerment is part of the broader process of advancing women’s rights and understanding the gender dimensions of democratic governance. Taking a long view of political (corruption index) and the social (women empowerment) dimension — a view from 2015 to 2030, a context based forecast was conducted to forecast the ASEAN corruption index in the next 15 years, answering the question: “Does women political involvement decrease corruption rate index of ASEAN countries in the next 15 years?” The study have established that there will be an increase women political involvement in the ASEAN countries in the next 15 years that will cause a drop on corruption rate index. There will be a significant decline on corruption rate index in 2030. This change entails reform not only in the political aspect of progress, but to the social aspect as well. Finally, the political aspect is increasing at a constant rate however a double or triple increase of the social aspect is seen to be the key solution for corruption.

Keywords: Women, Corruption, Rule of Law, educational attainment, women political involvement, gender equity index, economic participation, political empowerment, control of corruption, regulatory quality, voice and accountability government effectiveness, political stability and corruption perception index

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30 The Relationship between Trace Elements in Groundwater Linked to a History of Volcanic Activity in La Pampa and Buenos Aires Provinces, Argentina

Authors: Maisarah Jaafar, Neil I. Ward


Volcanic and geothermal activity can result in the release of arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), iron, selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) into natural waters. Several studies have reported high levels of these elements in surface and groundwater in Argentina. The main focus has been on As associated with volcanic ash deposits. This study reports the trace element levels of groundwater from an agricultural region of south-eastern La Pampa and southern Buenos Aires provinces, Argentina which have reported high levels of human health problems (bone/teeth disorders, depression, arthritis, etc). Fifty-eight groundwater samples were collected from wells adjacent to Ruta 35 and an Agilent 7700x inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were used for total elemental analysis. Physicochemical analysis confirmed pH range of 7.05-8.84 and variable conductivity (988-3880 µS/cm) with total dissolved solid content of 502-1989 mg/l. The majority water samples are in an oxidizing environment (Eh= 45-146 mV). Total As levels ranged from (µg/l): 13.08 – 319.4 for La Pampa (LP) and 39.6 – 189.4 for Buenos Aires (BA); all above the WHO Guideline for Drinking Water, 10 µg/l As. Interestingly, Mo (LP: 1.85 – 85.39 µg/l; BA: 4.61– 55.55 µg/l;), Se (LP: 1.2 – 16.59 µg/l; BA: 0.3– 6.94 µg/l;) and U (LP: 1.85 – 85.39 µg/l; BA: 4.61– 55.55 µg/l;) levels are lower than reported values for northern La Pampa. Inter-elemental correlation displayed positive statistically significant between As-Mo, A-Se, As-U while negative statistically significant between As-Mn and As-Fe. This confirms that the source of the trace element is similar to that reported for other region of Argentina, namely volcanic ash deposition.

Keywords: Groundwater, trace element, Argentina, volcanic activity

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29 Advancing Urban Sustainability through the Integration of Planning Evaluation Methodologies

Authors: Natalie Rosales


Based on an ethical vision which recognizes the vital role of human rights, shared values, social responsibility and justice, and environmental ethics, planning may be interpreted as a process aimed at reducing inequalities and overcoming marginality. Seen from this sustainability perspective, planning evaluation must utilize critical-evaluative and narrative receptive models which assist different stakeholders in their understanding of urban fabric while trigger reflexive processes that catalyze wider transformations. In this paper, this approach servers as a guide for the evaluation of Mexico´s urban planning systems, and postulates a framework to better integrate sustainability notions into planning evaluation. The paper is introduced by an overview of the current debate on evaluation in urban planning. The state of art presented includes: the different perspectives and paradigms of planning evaluation and their fundamentals and scope, which have focused on three main aspects; goal attainment (did planning instruments do what they were supposed to?); performance and effectiveness of planning (retrospective analysis of planning process and policy analysis assessment); and the effects of process-considering decision problems and contexts rather than the techniques and methods. As well as, methodological innovations and improvements in planning evaluation. This comprehensive literature review provides the background to support the authors’ proposal for a set of general principles to evaluate urban planning, grounded on a sustainability perspective. In the second part the description of the shortcomings of the approaches to evaluate urban planning in Mexico set the basis for highlighting the need of regulatory and instrumental– but also explorative- and collaborative approaches. As a response to the inability of these isolated methods to capture planning complexity and strengthen the usefulness of evaluation process to improve the coherence and internal consistency of the planning practice itself. In the third section the general proposal to evaluate planning is described in its main aspects. It presents an innovative methodology for establishing a more holistic and integrated assessment which considers the interdependence between values, levels, roles and methods, and incorporates different stakeholders in the evaluation process. By doing so, this piece of work sheds light on how to advance urban sustainability through the integration of evaluation methodologies into planning.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Sustainability, evaluation methodologies, innovative approaches

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28 Mg and MgN₃ Cluster in Diamond: Quantum Mechanical Studies

Authors: T. S. Almutairi, Paul May, Neil Allan


The geometrical, electronic and magnetic properties of the neutral Mg center and MgN₃ cluster in diamond have been studied theoretically in detail by means of an HSE06 Hamiltonian that includes a fraction of the exact exchange term; this is important for a satisfactory picture of the electronic states of open-shell systems. Another batch of the calculations by GGA functionals have also been included for comparison, and these support the results from HSE06. The local perturbations in the lattice by introduced Mg defect are restricted in the first and second shell of atoms before eliminated. The formation energy calculated with HSE06 and GGA of single Mg agrees with the previous result. We found the triplet state with C₃ᵥ is the ground state of Mg center with energy lower than the singlet with C₂ᵥ by ~ 0.1 eV. The recent experimental ZPL (557.4 nm) of Mg center in diamond has been discussed in the view of present work. The analysis of the band-structure of the MgN₃ cluster confirms that the MgN₃ defect introduces a shallow donor level in the gap lying within the conduction band edge. This observation is supported by the EMM that produces n-type levels shallower than the P donor level. The formation energy of MgN₂ calculated from a 2NV defect (~ 3.6 eV) is a promising value from which to engineer MgN₃ defects inside the diamond. Ion-implantation followed by heating to about 1200-1600°C might induce migration of N related defects to the localized Mg center. Temperature control is needed for this process to restore the damage and ensure the mobilities of V and N, which demands a more precise experimental study.

Keywords: empirical marker method, generalised gradient approximation, Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional, zero phono line

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27 Personal Characteristics and Personality Traits as Predictors of Compassion Fatigue among Counselors from Dominican Schools in the Philippines

Authors: Neil Jordan M. Uy, Fe Pelilia V. Hernandez


A counselor is always regarded as a professional who embodies the willingness to help others through the process of counseling. He is knowledgeable and skillful of the different theories, tools, and techniques that are useful in aiding the client to cope with their dilemmas. The negative experiences of the clients that are shared during the counseling session can affect the professional counselor. Compassion fatigue, a professional impairment, is characterized by the decline of one’s productivity and the feeling of anxiety and stress brought about as the counselor empathizes, listens, and cares for others. This descriptive type of research aimed to explore variables that are predictors of compassion fatigue utilizing three research instruments; Demographic Profile Sheet, Professional Quality of Life Scale, and Neo-Pi-R. The 52 respondents of this study were counselors from the different Dominican schools in the Philippines. Generally, the counselors have low level of compassion fatigue across personal characteristics (age, gender, years of service, highest educational attainment, and professional status) and personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism). ANOVA validated the findings of this that among the personal characteristics and personality traits, extraversion with f-value of 3.944 and p-value of 0.026, and conscientiousness, with f-value of 4.125 and p-value of 0.022 were found to have significant difference in the level of compassion fatigue. A very significant difference was observed with neuroticism with f-value of 6.878 and p-value 0.002. Among the personal characteristics and personal characteristics, only neuroticism was found to predict compassion fatigue. The computed r2 value of 0.204 using multiple regression analysis suggests that 20.4 percent of compassion fatigue can be predicted by neuroticism. The predicting power of neuroticism can be computed from the regression model Y=0.156x+26.464; where x is the number of neuroticism.

Keywords: Compassion Fatigue, big five personality traits, counselors, professional quality of life scale

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26 Transcriptomine: The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Transcriptome Database

Authors: Scott A. Ochsner, Christopher M. Watkins, Apollo McOwiti, David L. Steffen Lauren B. Becnel, Neil J. McKenna


Understanding signaling by nuclear receptors (NRs) requires an appreciation of their cognate ligand- and tissue-specific transcriptomes. While target gene regulation data are abundant in this field, they reside in hundreds of discrete publications in formats refractory to routine query and analysis and, accordingly, their full value to the NR signaling community has not been realized. One of the mandates of the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is to facilitate access of the community to existing public datasets. Pursuant to this mandate we are developing a freely-accessible community web resource, Transcriptomine, to bring together the sum total of available expression array and RNA-Seq data points generated by the field in a single location. Transcriptomine currently contains over 25,000,000 gene fold change datapoints from over 1200 contrasts relevant to over 100 NRs, ligands and coregulators in over 200 tissues and cell lines. Transcriptomine is designed to accommodate a spectrum of end users ranging from the bench researcher to those with advanced bioinformatic training. Visualization tools allow users to build custom charts to compare and contrast patterns of gene regulation across different tissues and in response to different ligands. Our resource affords an entirely new paradigm for leveraging gene expression data in the NR signaling field, empowering users to query gene fold changes across diverse regulatory molecules, tissues and cell lines, target genes, biological functions and disease associations, and that would otherwise be prohibitive in terms of time and effort. Transcriptomine will be regularly updated with gene lists from future genome-wide expression array and expression-sequencing datasets in the NR signaling field.

Keywords: Transcriptomics, Informatics, Gene expression, target gene database

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25 Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt from Off-Peak Electricity and Its Role in Balancing the Grid

Authors: Abdulla Rahil, Rupert Gammon, Neil Brown


The rapid growth of renewable energy sources and their integration into the grid have been motivated by the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the grid is unable to cope with the predicted growth of renewable energy which would lead to its instability. To solve this problem, energy storage devices could be used. Electrolytic hydrogen production from an electrolyser is considered a promising option since it is a clean energy source (zero emissions). Choosing flexible operation of an electrolyser (producing hydrogen during the off-peak electricity period and stopping at other times) could bring about many benefits like reducing the cost of hydrogen and helping to balance the electric systems. This paper investigates the price of hydrogen during flexible operation compared with continuous operation, while serving the customer (hydrogen filling station) without interruption. The optimization algorithm is applied to investigate the hydrogen station in both cases (flexible and continuous operation). Three different scenarios are tested to see whether the off-peak electricity price could enhance the reduction of the hydrogen cost. These scenarios are: Standard tariff (1 tier system) during the day (assumed 12 p/kWh) while still satisfying the demand for hydrogen; using off-peak electricity at a lower price (assumed 5 p/kWh) and shutting down the electrolyser at other times; using lower price electricity at off-peak times and high price electricity at other times. This study looks at Derna city, which is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (32° 46′ 0 N, 22° 38′ 0 E) with a high potential for wind resource. Hourly wind speed data which were collected over 24½ years from 1990 to 2014 were in addition to data on hourly radiation and hourly electricity demand collected over a one-year period, together with the petrol station data.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, hydrogen filling station off-peak electricity, off-peak electricity, electrolytic hydrogen

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24 Finite Element Modelling of Mechanical Connector in Steel Helical Piles

Authors: Ramon Omar Rosales-Espinoza


Pile-to-pile mechanical connections are used if the depth of the soil layers with sufficient bearing strength exceeds the original (“leading”) pile length, with the additional pile segment being termed “extension” pile. Mechanical connectors permit a safe transmission of forces from leading to extension pile while meeting strength and serviceability requirements. Common types of connectors consist of an assembly of sleeve-type external couplers, bolts, pins, and other mechanical interlock devices that ensure the transmission of compressive, tensile, torsional and bending stresses between leading and extension pile segments. While welded connections allow for a relatively simple structural design, mechanical connections are advantageous over welded connections because they lead to shorter installation times and significant cost reductions since specialized workmanship and inspection activities are not required. However, common practices followed to design mechanical connectors neglect important aspects of the assembly response, such as stress concentration around pin/bolt holes, torsional stresses from the installation process, and interaction between the forces at the installation (torsion), service (compression/tension-bending), and removal stages (torsion). This translates into potentially unsatisfactory designs in terms of the ultimate and service limit states, exhibiting either reduced strength or excessive deformations. In this study, the experimental response under compressive forces of a type of mechanical connector is presented, in terms of strength, deformation and failure modes. The tests revealed that the type of connector used can safely transmit forces from pile to pile. Using the results from the compressive tests, an analysis model was developed using the finite element (FE) method to study the interaction of forces under installation and service stages of a typical mechanical connector. The response of the analysis model is used to identify potential areas for design optimization, including size, gap between leading and extension piles, number of pin/bolts, hole sizes, and material properties. The results show the design of mechanical connectors should take into account the interaction of forces present at every stage of their life cycle, and that the torsional stresses occurring during installation are critical for the safety of the assembly.

Keywords: steel, FEA, Piles, mechanical connector

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23 A Comparison of Outcomes of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography vs. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Obstructive Jaundice from Hepatobiliary Tuberculosis: The Philippine General Hospital Experience

Authors: Margaret Elaine J. Villamayor, Lobert A. Padua, Neil S. Bacaltos, Virgilio P. Bañez


Significance: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Hepatobiliary Tuberculosis (HBTB) with biliary obstruction and to compare the outcomes of ERCP versus PTBD in these patients. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study involving patients from PGH who underwent biliary drainage from HBTB from January 2009 to June 2014. HBTB was defined as having evidence of TB (culture, smear, PCR, histology) or clinical diagnosis with the triad of jaundice, fever, and calcifications on imaging with other causes of jaundice excluded. The primary outcome was successful drainage and secondary outcomes were mean hospital stay and complications. Simple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with success of drainage, z-test for two proportions to compare outcomes of ERCP versus PTBD and t-test to compare mean hospital stay post-procedure. Results: There were 441 patients who underwent ERCP and PTBD, 19 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 11 underwent ERCP while 8 had PTBD. There were more successful cases in PTBD versus ERCP but this was not statistically significant (p-value 0.3615). Factors such as age, gender, location and nature of obstruction, vices, coexisting pulmonary or other extrapulmonary TB and presence of portal hypertension did not affect success rates in these patients. The PTBD group had longer mean hospital stay but this was not significant (p-value 0.1880). There were no complications reported in both groups. Conclusion: HBTB comprises 4.3% of the patients undergoing biliary drainage in PGH. Both ERCP and PTBD are equally safe and effective in the management of biliary obstruction from HBTB.

Keywords: cross-sectional, hepatobiliary tuberculosis, obstructive jaundice, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

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22 Improving the Safety Performance of Workers, by Assessing the Impact of Safety Culture on Workers Safety Behaviour in Nigeria Oil and Gas Industry: The Niger Delta Region (a Pilot Study)

Authors: Efua Ehiaguina, Haruna Moda, Neil Dagnall


Abstract—Nigeria oil and gas industry has contributed to the growth and development of the country in diverse ways. This industry is said to be one of the dangerous industries in terms of safety and health, as workers are often exposed to different occupational health hazard. Unsafe behaviour escalates the risk of injuries and accidents at workplaces and requires proper management. Poor safety culture is one of the major factors that influences employee’s safety behaviour at work, which may consequently result in injuries and accidents and strengthening such a culture can improve workers safety performance. The present study aim was to evaluate safety behaviour and its impact on safety performance among Nigeria oil and gas workers. To achieve this, a pilot study was carried-out by distributing questionnaire through Bristol online survey platform to four hundred and sixty-two frontline employees in fifteen different oil and gas industries located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The questionnaire included information about demographics, safety participation, safety compliance and management practices to safety, to obtain information on how employees in these industries perceive the current state of safety culture in their work place and the impact on their safety behaviour. This study found that safety management practices had a significant relationship to both safety participation and safety compliance. Work experience was significant to safety participation but not safety compliance. While, age and gender did not show any significant link with both safety participation and safety compliance. Findings from this study suggest that safety culture influences workers safety behaviour in the Nigerian oil and gas sector. This study concludes that there is a significant link among safety culture and workers safety behaviour and a poor safety culture can influence injuries and accidents of Nigeria oil and gas workers. Strengthening such a culture are important for occupational safety improvement in these industries. These finding will also provide useful guidance for practitioners and researchers for recognizing the mechanism of how to increase safety in the work place.

Keywords: petroleum industry, safety performance, safety culture, Safety behaviour

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21 Twist2 Is a Key Regulator of Cell Proliferation in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Authors: Magdalena Rusady Goey, Gordon Strathdee, Neil Perkins


Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most frequent type of childhood malignancy, accounting for 25% of all cases. TWIST2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, has been implicated in ALL development. Prior studies found that TWIST2 undergoes epigenetic silencing in more than 50% cases of ALL through promoter hypermethylation and suggested that re-expression of TWIST2 may inhibit cell growth/survival of leukaemia cell lines. TWIST2 has also been implicated as a regulator of NF-kappaB activity, which is constitutively active in leukaemia. Here, we use a lentiviral transductions system to confirm the importance of TWIST2 in controlling leukaemia cell growth and to investigate whether this is achieved through altered regulation of NF-kappaB activity. Method: Re-expression of TWIST2 in leukaemia cell lines was achieved using lentiviral-based transduction. The lentiviral vector also expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), allowing transduced cells to be tracked using flow cytometry. Analysis of apoptosis and cell proliferation were done using annexinV and VPD450 staining, respectively. Result and Discussion: TWIST2-expressing cells were rapidly depleted from a mixed population in ALL cell lines (NALM6 and Reh), indicating that TWIST2 inhibited cell growth/survival of ALL cells. In contrast, myeloid cell lines (HL60 and K562) were comparatively insensitive to TWIST2 re-expression. Analysis of apoptosis and cell proliferation found no significant induction of apoptosis, but did find a rapid induction of proliferation arrest in TWIST2-expressing Reh and NALM6 cells. Initial experiment with NF-kappaB inhibitor demonstrated that inhibition of NF-kappaB has similar impact on cell proliferation in the ALL cell lines, suggesting that TWITST2 may induce cell proliferation arrest through inhibition of NF-kappaB. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that epigenetic inactivation of TWIST2 in primary ALL leads to increased proliferation, potentially by altering the regulation of NF-kappaB.

Keywords: Leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, NF-kappaB, TWIST2, lentivirus

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20 Association between G2677T/A MDR1 Polymorphism with the Clinical Response to Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Alan Ruiz-Padilla, Brando Villalobos-Villalobos, Yeniley Ruiz-Noa, Claudia Mendoza-Macías, Claudia Palafox-Sánchez, Miguel Marín-Rosales, Álvaro Cruz, Rubén Rangel-Salazar


Introduction: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, resistance or poor response to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) may be a reflection of the increase in g-P. The expression of g-P may be important in mediating the effluence of DMARD from the cell. In addition, P-glycoprotein is involved in the transport of cytokines, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-4, from normal lymphocytes activated to the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus influencing the activity of RA. The involvement of P-glycoprotein in the transmembrane transport of cytokines can serve as a modulator of the efficacy of DMARD. It was shown that a number of lymphocytes with glycoprotein P activity is increased in patients with RA; therefore, P-glycoprotein expression could be related to the activity of RA and could be a predictor of poor response to therapy. Objective: To evaluate in RA patients, if the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms is associated with differences in the rate of therapeutic response to disease-modifying antirheumatic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Fifty seven patients with RA were included. They had an active disease according to DAS-28 (score >3.2). We excluded patients receiving biological agents. All the patients were followed during 6 months in order to identify the rate of therapeutic response according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. At the baseline peripheral blood samples were taken in order to identify the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms using PCR- Specific allele. The fragment was identified by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels stained with ethidium bromide. For statistical analysis, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of MDR1 gene polymorphism between responders and non-responders were determined. Chi-square tests as well as, relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed to identify differences in the risk for achieving therapeutic response. Results: RA patients had a mean age of 47.33 ± 12.52 years, 87.7% were women with a mean for DAS-28 score of 6.45 ± 1.12. At the 6 months, the rate of therapeutic response was 68.7 %. The observed genotype frequencies were: for G/G 40%, T/T 32%, A/A 19%, G/T 7% and for A/A genotype 2%. Patients with G allele developed at 6 months of treatment, higher rate for therapeutic response assessed by ACR20 compared to patients with others alleles (p=0.039). Conclusions: Patients with G allele of the - G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms had a higher rate of therapeutic response at 6 months with DMARD. These preliminary data support the requirement for a deep evaluation of these and other genotypes as factors that may influence the therapeutic response in RA.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Rheumatoid Arthritis, p-glycoprotein, MDR1, therapeutic response

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19 Multi-Scale Modelling of the Cerebral Lymphatic System and Its Failure

Authors: Alexandra K. Diem, Giles Richardson, Roxana O. Carare, Neil W. Bressloff


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and although it has been researched for over 100 years, there is still no cure or preventive medication. Its onset and progression is closely related to the accumulation of the neuronal metabolite Aβ. This raises the question of how metabolites and waste products are eliminated from the brain as the brain does not have a traditional lymphatic system. In recent years the rapid uptake of Aβ into cerebral artery walls and its clearance along those arteries towards the lymph nodes in the neck has been suggested and confirmed in mice studies, which has led to the hypothesis that interstitial fluid (ISF), in the basement membranes in the walls of cerebral arteries, provides the pathways for the lymphatic drainage of Aβ. This mechanism, however, requires a net reverse flow of ISF inside the blood vessel wall compared to the blood flow and the driving forces for such a mechanism remain unknown. While possible driving mechanisms have been studied using mathematical models in the past, a mechanism for net reverse flow has not been discovered yet. Here, we aim to address the question of the driving force of this reverse lymphatic drainage of Aβ (also called perivascular drainage) by using multi-scale numerical and analytical modelling. The numerical simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4 is used to develop a fluid-structure interaction model of a cerebral artery, which models blood flow and displacements in the artery wall due to blood pressure changes. An analytical model of a layer of basement membrane inside the wall governs the flow of ISF and, therefore, solute drainage based on the pressure changes and wall displacements obtained from the cerebral artery model. The findings suggest that an active role in facilitating a reverse flow is played by the components of the basement membrane and that stiffening of the artery wall during age is a major risk factor for the impairment of brain lymphatics. Additionally, our model supports the hypothesis of a close association between cerebrovascular diseases and the failure of perivascular drainage.

Keywords: alzheimer's disease, artery wall mechanics, cerebral blood flow, cerebral lymphatics

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