Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3963

Search results for: Islamic finance practices

3963 Islamic Finance: Its Theory, Products and a Brief View of Islamic Finance in Europe

Authors: Ahmet Sekreter

Abstract:

Although there are conceptual similarities in terms of financial products between conventional and Islamic finance, they are entirely different financial systems. Despite Islamic finance’s small size in the conventional finance world, its promising growth makes Islamic finance a hot topic both in academia and business world. Today customers can access sophisticated Islamic financial products not only in Muslim countries but also in Europe. This study analyzes Islamic finance and its products and includes a brief overview of Islamic finance in Europe. Literature review is the basis of this paper. The author analyzed the academic papers, numerical data, and estimations to set a perspective for the future of Islamic finance in Europe. Findings show that UK is the main hub for the Islamic finance, and it will remain so in the near future.

Keywords: islamic finance, islamic banking, islamic finance in Europe, finance

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3962 Islamic Finance: Challenges of Islamic Banking in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Zaheer Shaikh, Zhaoyong Zhang, Jaime Yong, Ume Laila Shah

Abstract:

Islamic finance is growing with remarkable pace, especially Islamic banking, a major segment of Islamic finance, is expanding rapidly. This paper discusses the position of Islamic finance and Islamic banking, around the world in general and particularly in Pakistan. History of Islamic banking in Pakistan is protested, presently a significant growth is observed. However Islamic banking is confronting with number of challenges, which are refraining from sustainable growth of this industry in Pakistan. Growth level of Islamic banks should be steeper to contribute substantial share in country’s economy. It is important to formulate effective policies, at institutional and operational level to address these challenges through close collaboration of key stakeholders.

Keywords: Islamic finance, challenges, Islamic banking, Pakistan

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3961 Toward Green Islamic Finance: A Case Study from an Emirati Islamic Bank

Authors: Nada Hamed, Mariam Aldhaheri, Sonia Abdennadher

Abstract:

Islamic Finance is not a new term that emerging in the global market, but it is still under scope by many countries. Its characteristics and regulation are not widely clear and implemented. In 2015, The United Nation announced a plan about potential benefits of using Islamic Finance as a sustainable development approach. Enhancing its application in financial markets could protect from unexpected crisis that might be created from the traditional tools of finance. This paper focuses on this area to test if Islamic finance could be used for maintaining sustainable development and if the term of 'Green Islamic Finance' could be implemented to minimize the deficiencies and 'pollution’ generated from traditional techniques and tools of finance. This paper intends to measure the impact on financial performance and sustainability when financial institutions use Islamic finance or better practice it. The objective of this explanatory research is to measure the performance of Islamic Finance with using a case study of an Islamic bank. The paper would analyze and compare the behavior of financial institutions that used traditional financing tools and converted to Islamic banking system. The methodology used is based on a case study of an Islamic bank in Dubai with comparing its performance before implementing Islamic Finance and after. The selected case study represents the first national bank in Emirates Arab Unis who adopt the Islamic finance approach. Based on a time series analysis, a quantitative analysis would be also used through looking at various set of ratios that are routinely used to measure bank performance.

Keywords: Islamic finance, financial stability, green finance, Islamic finance practices, financial ratios

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3960 The Dubai World Islamic Finance Arbitration Center and Jurisprudence Office as the Dispute Resolution Center and Mechanism for the Islamic Finance Industry

Authors: Camille Paldi

Abstract:

As the Islamic finance industry is growing annually at a rate of 10% to 15% per year, it is imperative that a unique, independent legal framework is established in order to effectively adjudicate Islamic finance disputes. Currently, Islamic finance disputes are being adjudicated in inadequate civil and common law courts and arbitration centers where the contracts in dispute are being transformed from Islamic to conventional transactions. Through case analysis combined with an exploration of the efficacy of existing arbitration centers and dispute resolution methods available to Islamic finance, this paper will seek to reveal that the Islamic finance industry currently lacks an adequate dispute resolution mechanism and facility to adjudicate disputes arising from Islamic finance contracts. Hence, now is the time for the Dubai World Islamic Finance Arbitration Center (DWIFAC) and Jurisprudence Office (DWIFACJO) as the Dispute Resolution Center and Mechanism for the Islamic Finance Industry.

Keywords: Islamic finance, dispute resolution, Dubai world Islamic finance arbitration center, jurisprudence office

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3959 Ethical Finance and Islamic Finance: Particularities, Possible Convergence and Potential Development

Authors: Safa Ougoujil, Sidi Mohamed Rigar

Abstract:

Economics is not an exact science. It cannot be from the moment it is a social science that concerns society organization, a human science that depends on the behavior of the men and women who make a part of this society. Therefore, it cannot ignore morality, the instinctive sense of good and evil, the natural order which place us between certain values, and which religion often sheds light on. In terms of finance, the reference to ethics is becoming more popular than ever. This is naturally due to the growing financial crises. Finance is less and less ethical, but some financial practices have continued to do so. This is the case of ethical finance and Islamic finance. After attempting to define the concepts of ethical finance and Islamic finance, in a period when financial innovation seeks to encourage differentiation in order to create more profit margins, this article attempts to expose the particularities, the convergences and the potentialities of development of these two sensibilities.

Keywords: convergences, ethical finance, Islamic finance, potential development

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3958 Islamic Finance in Tunisia: Reality and Development

Authors: Amira Kaddour, Hedia Teraoui, Khmayes Bougatef

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the major causes of the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia. Indeed, it’s surprising to note that Zitouna bank established in May 2010 is the first Islamic Tunisian bank although 99% of Tunisians are Muslim and Islam is the religion of the State according to the Constitution. So we rely in our paper on the opinions of number of professors of finance and economics as educated people to prove or reject our hypothesis that the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia can be explained by the ignorance of its main principles and advantages. Ours findings reveal that this branch of finance is still largely unknown, not only from public but also from professionals. The results obtained surprisingly show that this insignificance of Islamic banking cannot be explained by the fact that Tunisia has been governed since its independence by a secular left-wing party. Indeed, only 3% of respondents believe that legislation and regulation in Tunisia represent an obstacle to the development of Islamic finance. Moreover, respondents are not very optimistic about the future role of Islamic financing.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic insurance (takaful), Islamic law (shariah), usury (riba)

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3957 Islamic Finance: What is the Outlook for Italy?

Authors: Paolo Pietro Biancone

Abstract:

The spread of Islamic financial instruments is an opportunity to offer integration for the immigrant population and to attract, through the specific products, the richness of sovereign funds from the "Arab" countries. However, it is important to consider the possibility of comparing a traditional finance model, which in recent times has given rise to many doubts, with an "alternative" finance model, where the ethical aspect arising from religious principles is very important.

Keywords: banks, Europe, Islamic finance, Italy

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3956 Islamic Banking in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Shaibu Ali, Sherif Heiman Shaban, Musah Ismaila, Imoro Alhassan, Yusif Ali

Abstract:

Purpose: Islamic banking and finance is one of the most rapidly growing segments of the global finance industry. Starting with the Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, the number of Islamic financial institutions worldwide has shot up astronomically, to over three hundred, with operations in seventy-five countries and assets in excess of US$400 billion. The purpose of this study is to explore the prospects and challenges of Islamic banking introduction in a non-Islamic country like Ghana. Design/Methodology: Data for the study was collected via an expert opinion of three Islamic scholars on Islamic banking from Ghana. Findings: Findings from this study indicates some of the benefits of Islamic banking includes connecting financial markets and economic activity, promoting the principle of financial justice, greater stability, avoiding economic bubbles (and bursts) and reducing the impact of harmful products and practices. The study also identified lack of experts in various fields of Islamic banking, product innovation, moral hazard, and need for experienced staff in Islamic banking as some of the challenges to Islamic banking system’s introduction. Contribution: The study contributes to literature on Islamic banking from a non-Islamic country like Ghana.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari’ah, Riba, conventional banking

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3955 Strategic Orientation of Islamic Banks: A Review of Strategy Language

Authors: Imam Uddin, Imtiaz Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the ideological contextuality of market oriented strategy language used by Industry leaders to envision the future of Islamic financial Institutions (IFIs) in the light of Wittgenstein language-games and Foucault’s power-discourse framework. The analysis infers that the explicit market orientation of strategy language and modern knowledge of finance now defines various concepts related of Islamic finance, let alone Islamic finance theory itself. Theorizing and practicing Islamic finance therefore under the dominant influence of modern strategy discourse and modern knowledge of finance has significant implications for developing an ethical and spiritual orientation of Islamic banks. The concerned academia and scholarship therefore need to review such trends and work around the possible degradation to the public image of IFIs and resulting disappointments of religiously inspired customers.

Keywords: Islamic finance discourse, strategy discourse, language games, strategic intent, productive misunderstanding

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3954 Analyzing the Empirical Link between Islamic Finance and Growth of Real Output: A Time Series Application to Pakistan

Authors: Nazima Ellahi, Danish Ramzan

Abstract:

There is a growing trend among development economists regarding the importance of financial sector for economic development and growth activities. The development thus introduced, helps to promote welfare effects and poverty alleviation. This study is an attempt to find the nature of link between Islamic banking financing and development of output growth for Pakistan. Time series data set has been utilized for a time period ranging from 1990 to 2010. Following the Phillip Perron (PP) and Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) test of unit root this study applied Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method of estimation and found encouraging results in favor of promoting the Islamic banking practices in Pakistan.

Keywords: Islamic finance, poverty alleviation, economic growth, finance, commerce

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3953 The Tense Dichotomy Between Shari'ah Compliance and the Goals of an Economic Bank

Authors: Camille Paldi

Abstract:

The tense dichotomy between Shari’ah compliance and the economic goals of an Islamic Bank produces a proliferation of reverse engineered products, which are barely in compliance with Islamic law. The result is basically a hybrid conventional banking system with conventional products in Islamic disguise using Arabic and Islamic terminology. Many Islamic financial professionals and academics advocate for the use of conventional products and devices despite their non-Shari’ah compliance based on commercial necessity and the need to compete. However, this dangerous trend will lead to the demise of the Islamic finance industry. Rather than thoughtlessly following conventional products and practice, Islamic finance professionals should delve into the Shari’ah to find the answers to the current Islamic banking conundrum and lead the industry on the right path of developing Shari’ah based products and using Shari’ah devices to hedge risk.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari'ah, finance, investment

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3952 Study of the Use of Artificial Neural Networks in Islamic Finance

Authors: Kaoutar Abbahaddou, Mohammed Salah Chiadmi

Abstract:

The need to find a relevant way to predict the next-day price of a stock index is a real concern for many financial stakeholders and researchers. We have known across years the proliferation of several methods. Nevertheless, among all these methods, the most controversial one is a machine learning algorithm that claims to be reliable, namely neural networks. Thus, the purpose of this article is to study the prediction power of neural networks in the particular case of Islamic finance as it is an under-looked area. In this article, we will first briefly present a review of the literature regarding neural networks and Islamic finance. Next, we present the architecture and principles of artificial neural networks most commonly used in finance. Then, we will show its empirical application on two Islamic stock indexes. The accuracy rate would be used to measure the performance of the algorithm in predicting the right price the next day. As a result, we can conclude that artificial neural networks are a reliable method to predict the next-day price for Islamic indices as it is claimed for conventional ones.

Keywords: Islamic finance, stock price prediction, artificial neural networks, machine learning

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3951 Comparing the Theory to the Practice of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Zareen Khan

Abstract:

Islamic Banking has experienced high growth in Pakistan in recent years and has successfully survived the economic downturn of 2009-2011. Despite the increase in branch network and expansion of services, it is unclear if Islamic banks are truly following the theory and practical application of Shariah Law. This paper explores the theological basis of Islamic finance and examines the discrepancies between the theory and practice of Islamic banking using Pakistan as a case study. It discusses areas where Islamic banks lack proper Shariah compliance and analyzes the financial weaknesses of Islamic banks in terms of the services offered. Furthermore, the paper offers plausible explanations for the clientele of Islamic banks. The case study has three major findings. Firstly, most of the employees of Islamic banks come from conventional banking backgrounds and the banks have to invest in additional trainings to specialize employees in Islamic Banking. Secondly despite the efforts of State Bank of Pakistan, there is a lack of accounting and auditing standards tailored for Islamic Banking. Thirdly, majority of the clients of Islamic banks in Pakistan are accustomed to conventional banking causing the bankers to “speak the conventional banking language.” Combined, these three factors can create gaps in the practical application of Islamic finance in Islamic banks in Pakistan.

Keywords: islamic finance, comparing theory with practice, islamic banking, Pakistan

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3950 Incorporation of Hibah as a Catalyst for Channelling Profits and Compensations in Islamic Transactions

Authors: Ameen Alshugaa, Farrukh Habib

Abstract:

Shariah (the Islamic law) sanctions a plethora of profit-sharing arrangements for financial transactions. However, when it comes to the practice of Islamic banking, it is felt by the scholars and practitioners that many of these arrangements often fail to compensate different parties of a financial transaction compared to conventional banking, due to the Riba (interest / usury) element. This issue is caused by the parties inability to codify these compensations in any contract so as to avoid Riba. Here, hibah (gift) may be regarded as one of the solutions. In essence, hibah is a unilateral charity contract where a party voluntarily gives away something to another party without any counter value. This paper attempts to analyse theoretical and practical aspects of hibah from the perspective of Islamic law, enunciating its legality and detailing its allowance in Islamic banking. It also discusses several practices evaluating the role of hibah in resolving issues related to Riba. In particular, these practices demonstrate the validity of hibah as a way to distribute revenues and compensate parties in Islamic financial transactions, while achieving competitive advantage over conventional banking, and avoiding the element of Riba.

Keywords: hibah (gift), Islamic Finance, Islamic Law of Contract, profit distribution, Shariah

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3949 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: financial inclusion, intellectual capital, Qard-al-Hassanah, Islamic banking

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3948 Shari'ah Governance in Islamic Banking and Finance - A Comparison Between Malaysia and Other Selected Countries, Current Challenges and Potential Solution

Authors: Muhamad Badri Bin Othman

Abstract:

As a role model and leading country in the world that establishes and promotes Islamic banking and finance, Malaysia has set up and come up with a set of standards and frameworks to govern its Shari’ah function towards implementing the desired outcome of Islamic banking and finance as new source of wealth creation. This paper, examines and highlights, at the very minimum, the importance and application of Shari’ah governance in Islamic banking and finance in Malaysia as a leading country in Islamic banking and finance. This paper also, compares on Shari’ah governance, which is being adopted between Malaysia and other selected countries namely, Pakistan, Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar. This paper also, aims at highlighting the current challenges and issues faced by the scholars in Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) in deliberating their opinions and fatwa towards the implementation of new products in Islamic banking industry to promote innovation among the industry players. The author of this paper will highlight the major challenges and issues faced by the SSB members of Islamic banks in Malaysia, taking into account the complexity of the operation wise and products of Islamic banking, and how they overcome those challenges and issues identified. This will be done through a series of face-to-face interview sessions which will be conducted with a few prominent figures of Islamic banking and finance scholars in Malaysia to highlight the issues and challenges they are facing towards Islamic financial innovation and subsequently finding solutions for the identified issues and challenges.

Keywords: Shari’ah governance, Shari’ah supervisory board (SSB), Issues and challenges, Islamic financial innovation

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3947 A Critical Analysis of the Financial Reporting Practices of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFI)

Authors: Riaz Dhai

Abstract:

The inherent differences between Islamic and conventional finance have given rise to a debate on whether conventional accounting standards provide sufficient disclosure in the annual financial statements of Islamic financial institutions (IFI). This issue has become more pronounced due to the rapid growth of IFIs over the last decade. This paper seeks to collate the literature surrounding this debate as well as summarise the key macro and micro level financial reporting differences between conventional and Islamic accounting. Based on these findings we propose some important areas of future research in this emerging field.

Keywords: Islamic financial institutions, financial reporting, critical analysis, conventional accounting standards

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3946 Beneficial Ownership in Islamic Finance: The Need for Shari'ah Parameters

Authors: Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani, Mat Noor Mat Zain, Ahmad Dahlan Salleh

Abstract:

Ownership of asset is an important aspect in ensuring the validity of sale contract. Nevertheless, in Islamic finance, the issue of beneficial ownership as practiced in the current system is seriously debated among Shariah scholars. It has been argued as violating the real concept of ownership (milkiyyah) in Shariah law. This article aims at studying the status of beneficial ownership from the Shariah perspective. This study begins with examining the meaning of ownership and its attributes from the Islamic point of view and followed by the discussion on the origin of beneficial ownership from the legal perspective. The approach that is applied to clarify the concept of beneficial ownership is content analysis. Subsequently, this study explains some current applications of beneficial ownership in Islamic finance to be analyzed further from the Shariah aspect. The research finding suggests that beneficial ownership should be recognized as a real ownership due to the fact that Shariah allows the transfer of ownership after the execution of offer (ijab) and acceptance (qabul).

Keywords: beneficial ownership, ownership, Islamic finance, parameter

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3945 The Viability of Islamic Finance and Its Impact on Global Financial Stability: Evidence from Practical Implications

Authors: Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Saarim Ghazi, Amir Khalil ur Rehman

Abstract:

This study examines the factors which influence and contribute towards the financial viability of Islamic finance and its impact on global financial stability. However, the purpose of this paper is to differentiate the practical implications of both Islamic and conventional finance on global financial stability. The Islamic finance is asset backed financing which creates wealth through trade, commerce and believes in risk and return sharing. Islamic banking is asset driven as against to conventional banking which is liability driven. In order to introduce new financial products for market, financial innovation in Islamic finance must be within the Shari’ah parameters that are tested against the ‘Maqasid al-Shari’ah’. Interest-based system leads to income and wealth inequalities and mis-allocation of resources. Moreover, this system has absence of just and equitable aspect of distribution that may exploit either the debt holder or the financier. Such implications are reached to a tipping point that leaves only one choice: change or face continued decline and misery.

Keywords: viability, global financial stability, practical implications, asset driven, tipping point

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3944 Risk Management in Islamic Banks: A Case Study of the Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Saad Ahmed Hussien

Abstract:

This paper discusses the risk management in Islamic banks and aims to determine the difference in the practices and methods of risk management in those banks compared to the conventional banks, and to make a case study of the biggest Islamic bank in Egypt (Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt) to identify the most important financial risks faced and how to manage those risks. It was found that Islamic banks face two types of risks. The first type is similar to the risks in conventional banks; the second type is the additional risks which facing the Islamic banks only as a result of some Islamic modes of financing. With regard to the risk management, Islamic banks such as conventional banks applied the regulatory rules issued by the Central Banks and the Basel Committee; Islamic banks also applied the instructions and procedures issued by the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB). Also, Islamic banks are similar to the conventional banks in the practices and methods which they use to manage the risks. And there are some factors that may affect the risk management in Islamic banks, such as the size of the bank and the efficiency of the administration and the staff of the bank.

Keywords: conventional banks, Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt, Islamic banks, risk management

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3943 Wave of Islamic Fintech: Revolutionizing Malaysia's Islamic Banking and Finance Regulatory Landscape

Authors: Ho Wen Hui, Azwina Wati Abdull Manaf, Asfarina Kartika Mohd Shakri

Abstract:

The global trend of Fintech had taken the Malaysian shore by storm in recent years, thus making the studies and observations of its impacts more critical than ever. Additionally, Fintech has grown to become an unavoidable subject in the Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF) industry. In relation to that, this paper seeks to analyze the development of Fintech parallel with the IBF industry and its connection to Islamic economics. While the scarcity of studies on this area is apparent, it is found that there is a need to regulate the development of the Fintech Industry and its effects while analyzing the ramifications and positive effects of Fintech towards parties involved in IBF industry. This paper objectively studies the phenomenon of Islamic Fintech around the world as a whole as well as more specifically in Malaysia. The paper will then explore on the existing regulatory instruments in Malaysia, study their boundaries as well as limitations and contribute on possible reform to regulate Islamic Fintech in this jurisdiction. It is aimed that this paper will prompt and encourage more thorough studies to be conducted on the topic of Fintech which would subsequently contribute to a positive growth of the IBF industry worldwide.

Keywords: financial technology, FinTech, Islamic banking & finance, regulation

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3942 Effect of Islamic Finance on Jobs Generation in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: B. Ashraf, A. M. Malik

Abstract:

The study was accomplished at the Department of Economics and Agriculture Economics, Pir Mahar Ali Shah ARID Agriculture University, Punjab, Pakistan during 2013-16 with a purpose to discover the effect of Islamic finance/banking on employment in Punjab, Pakistan. Islamic banking system is sub-component of conventional banking system in various countries of the world; however, in Pakistan, it has been established as a separate Islamic banking system. The Islamic banking operates under the doctrine of Shariah. It is claimed that the referred banking is free of interest (Riba) and addresses the philosophy and basic values of Islam in finance that reduces the factors of uncertainty, risk and others speculative activities. Two Islamic bank’s; Meezan Bank Limited (Pakistan) and Al-Baraka Bank Limited (Pakistan) from North Punjab (Bahawalnagar) and central Punjab (Lahore) west Punjab (Gujrat), Pakistan were randomly selected for the conduct of research. A total of 206 samples were collected from the define areas and banks through questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Multiple linear regressions were applied to prove the hypothesis. The results revealed that the assets formation had significant positive; whereas, the technology, length of business (experience) and bossiness size had significant negative impact with employment generation in Islamic finance/banking in Punjab, Pakistan. This concludes that the employment opportunities may be created in the country by extending the finance to business/firms to start new business and increase the Public awareness by the Islamic banks through intensive publicity. However; Islamic financial institutions may be encouraged by Government as it enhances the employment in the country.

Keywords: assets formation, borrowers, employment generation, Islamic banks, Islamic finance

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3941 Determinants of the Shadow Economy with an Islamic Orientation: An Application to Organization of Islamic Cooperation and Non-Organization of Islamic Cooperation Countries

Authors: Shabeer Khan

Abstract:

The main objective of Islamic Finance is to promote social justice thorough financial inclusion and redistribution of economic resources between rich and poor. The approach of Islamic finance is more comprehensive in nature and covers both formal and informal sectors of the economy, first, through reducing the gap between both sectors, and second by using specific Islamic values to reallocate the wealth between formal and informal sectors. Applying Generalized Method of Movements (GMM) to the annual data spanning from 1995-2015 for 141 countries, this study explores the determinants of informal business sector in Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries and then compares with Non-OIC countries. Economic freedom and institutions variables as well as economic growth and money supply are found to reduce informal business sector in both OIC and Non-OIC nations while government expenditure are found to increase informal business sector in both group of nations. Informal Business sector remain the same in both types of countries but still the majority Muslim population in OIC economies create main difference between both groups of nations and justify the potential role of Islamic Finance in informal business sector in OIC nations. The study suggests that institutions quality should be improved and entrepreneurs’ friendly business environment must be provided. This study refines the main features of informal business sector and discuss their implications on policy designing and implementation, particularly in the context of Islamic finance fight against poverty, inequality and improving living standards of informal sector participants in OIC countries.

Keywords: Islamic finance, informal Business Sector, Generalized Method of Movements (GMM) and OIC

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3940 Financial Market Turmoil and Performance of Islamic Equity Indices

Authors: Abul Shamsuddin

Abstract:

The Islamic stock market indices are constructed by screening out stocks that are incompatible with Islam’s prohibition of interest and certain lines of business. This study examines the effects of Islamic screening on the risk-return characteristics of Islamic vis-a-vis mainstream equity portfolios. We use data on Dow Jones Islamic market indices and FTSE Global Islamic indices over 1993-2013. We observe that Islamic equity indices outperform their mainstream counterparts in both raw and risk-adjusted returns. In addition, Islamic equity indices are more resilient to turbulence in international markets than that of their mainstream counterparts. The findings are robust across a variety of portfolio performance measures.

Keywords: Dow Jones Islamic market index, FTSE global Islamic index, ethical investment, finance

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3939 Islamic Banking and Finance in Theory and Practice: The Experience of Malaysia and Algeria

Authors: Zidane Abderrezaq

Abstract:

This paper’s primary objective is to identify the relative importance of various Islamic financial products, in theory and in practice, by examining the financing records of the Bank Islam Malaysia (Berhad) and the Algeria Islamic Bank. Currently, seven available Islamic financing products are considered viable alternatives to interest-based conventional contracts: mudarabah (trust financing), musharakah (equity financing), ijarah (lease financing), murabahah (trade financing), qard al-hassan (welfare loan), bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil (deferred payment financing), and istisna` (progressive payments). Among these financial products, mudarabah and musharakah are the most distinct. Their unique characteristics (at least in theory) make Islamic banks and Islamic financing viable alternatives to the conventional interest-based financial system. The question before us is to determine the extent of mudarabah and musharakah in Islamic financing in practice. The data are as follows: the average mudarabah is 5% of total financing, and the average musharakah is less than 3%. The combined average of mudarabah and musharakah for the two Islamic banks is less than 4% of the total finance and advances. The average qard al-hassan is about 4%, while istisna` does not yet exist in practice. Murabahah is the most popular and dominates all other modes of Islamic financing. The average use of murabahah is over 54%. When the bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil is added to the murabahah, the percentage of total financing is shown to be 82.68%. This paper also explores some possible reasons why these two Islamic banks appear to prefer murabahah to mudarabah and musharakah.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Islamic banking rofitability, investment banking

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3938 Musharakah Mutanaqisah Partnership as a Tool for House Financing, Its Sustainability and Issues

Authors: Imran Mehboob Shaikh, Kamaruzaman Noordin

Abstract:

Musharakah Mutanaqisah or Diminishing Partnership is a derivative of Musharakah contract, which is used by Islamic banks for housing finance facility. Most of the banks offer housing finance based on the concept of Musharakah Mutanaqisah, apart from few which still offer housing finance using BBA, Tawarruq (commodity Murabahah) and Istisna. This research attempts to compare the practice of DP housing finance offered in Malaysia. This paper will further look into challenges in Musharakah Mutanaqisah practice and its sustainability as a mortgage product. In practice there are certain issues related to Musharakah Mutanaqisah also known as Musharakah al Muntaiah bi tamlik, widely accepted and mostly used for housing finance by the Islamic banks. In Malaysia, it is in transforming stage from Bay bithamman Ajil, which is mostly used for housing finance in ASEAN region i.e., Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. In order to conduct this study, a discussion was carried out with few researchers who had worked on the topic previously and some Islamic bank officers attached to a full-fledged Islamic bank in Malaysia. Apart from that previous literature on Musharakah Mutanaqisah was also reviewed and various books, as well as online data, was considered for this study, and websites of different Islamic banks with information for Diminishing partnership, home financing were retrieved. This paper will highlight issues surrounding Diminishing Partnership contract and its conformity to Maqasid al Shariah (objectives of Shariah). Diminishing Partnership is widely accepted in different parts of the world and is mostly used for housing finance. The future prospect of DP is believed to be affirmative. As the product is a better substitute for BBA and most of the Islamic banks around the world have utilized their housing portfolio using the contract but at the same time, there are certain issues that need to be overcome. Even though Islamic banks are striving to sustain and compete the conventional banks but securing the customers from Gharar and other issues should be the primary objective of Islamic financial institutions.

Keywords: BBA, home financing, musharakah mutanaqisah, tawarruq

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3937 Commerce and Islamic Banking System

Authors: Rahmoune Abdelhaq

Abstract:

Systemic Islamic banking has been in practice for long but started receiving due attention and high popularity since last decade. It has received a warm welcome from all over the world and these banks operating on Islamic principles have been able to get a sizeable business not only in Islamic countries but in non-Islamic countries too. Despite exemplary advancements and achievements, there remains number of controversies over various underlying concepts and practices. This paper basically explores and highlights all those controversies and challenges which are in minds of different school of thoughts and are needed to be addressed and overcome if Islamic banking continues flourishing the way it is at present. The authors have also tried to suggest suitable remedies to overcome these challenges where appropriate. As well, This paper makes an attempt to review major principles surrounding the working of Islamic banking and its historical growth. A brief overview of main differences between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking. In addition, references are particularly made to implications arising from the emergence of e-commerce and the realities that the Islamic Shari’ah law has to consider in adopting the new phenomenon into its banking system. This paper shows, whilst the conventional banking and financial system is based on the principle of rationality and interest, the Islamic financial system is based on morality and social justice which prohibits interest as a means of speculation and injustice. The concepts of e-business such as e-commerce and e-banking are acceptable in Islam as since in Islam anything is halal unless prohibited by Shari’ah, dealing with business by internet is considered as Shari’ah compliant. This paper, therefore, provides the latest thinking of e-business from an Islamic viewpoint, thus creating a reference point and valued information for a future research.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, principles of Islamic banking, Islamic commerce, Shari’ah compliant

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3936 Efficiency in Islamic Banks: Some Empirical Evidences in Indonesian Finance Market

Authors: Ahmed Sameer El Khatib

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to examine the revenue efficiency of the Indonesian Islamic banking sector. The study also seeks to investigate the potential internal (bank specific) and external (macroeconomic) determinants that influence the revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks. We employ the whole gamut of domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in the Indonesian Islamic banking sector during the period of 2009 to 2018. The level of revenue efficiency is computed by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Furthermore, we employ a panel regression analysis framework based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the potential determinants of revenue efficiency. The results indicate that the level of revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks is lower compared to their foreign Islamic bank counterparts. We find that bank market power, liquidity, and management quality significantly influence the improvement in revenue efficiency of the Indonesian domestic Islamic banks during the period under study. By calculating these efficiency concepts, we can observe the efficiency levels of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks. In addition, by comparing both cost and profit efficiency, we can identify the influence of the revenue efficiency on the banks’ profitability.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, Islamic Banks, Revenue Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis

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3935 Affinity between Sociology and Islamic Economy: An Inquiry into the Possibilities of Social Constructivism

Authors: Hideki Kitamura

Abstract:

Since Islamic banking has broadly started in the late 1970s, Islamic economy has been paid much attention by both academia and the business world. However, despite abundant studies, descriptive exploration of practices of Islamic economy from a sociological/anthropological perspective is underrepresented, and most are basically designed for evaluating current practice or proposing ideal types of Islamic economy in accordance with their religious conviction. Overall, their interest is not paid to actors of Islamic economy such as practitioner’s decision-making and thought, while sociological/anthropological studies on Muslim’s religious life can be observed well. Herein, the paper aims to look into the possibilities of sociology/anthropology for exploration of the role of actors of Islamic economy, by revisiting the benefit of sociological/anthropological studies on the religion of Islam and its adaptability to the research on Islamic economy. The paper suggests that practices of Islamic economy can be assumed as results of practitioner’s dilemma between Islamic ideals and market realities in each society, by applying the perspective of social constructivism. The paper then proposes focusing on the human agency of practitioners in translating Islamic principles into economic behavior, thereby enabling a more descriptive inquiry into how Islamic economy is produced and operated.

Keywords: Islamic economy, economic sociology/anthropology, human agency, social constructivism

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3934 Alternative Islamic Finance Channels and Instruments: An Evaluation of the Potential and Considerations in Light of Sharia Principles

Authors: Tanvir A. Uddin, Blake Goud

Abstract:

Emerging trends in FinTech-enabled alternative finance, which includes channels and instruments emerging outside the traditional financial system, heralds unprecedented opportunities to improve financial intermediation and increase access to finance. With widespread criticism of the mainstream Islamic banking and finance sector as either mimicking the conventional system, failing to achieve inclusive growth or both, industry stakeholders are turning to technology to show that finance can be done differently. This paper will outline the critical elements for successful deployment of technology to maximize benefit and minimize potential for harm from introduction of Islamic FinTech and propose recommendations for Islamic financial institutions, FinTech companies, regulators and other stakeholders who are integrating or who are considering introducing FinTech solutions. The paper will present an overview of literature, present relevant case studies and summarize the lessons from interviews conducted with Islamic FinTech founders from around the world. With growing central bank concerns about leveraged loans and ballooning private credit markets globally (estimated at $1.4 trillion), current and future Islamic FinTech operators are at risk of contributing to the problems they aim to solve by operating in a 'shadow banking' system. The paper will show that by systematising a robust theory of change linked to positive outcomes, utilising objective impact frameworks (e.g., the Impact Measurement Project) and instilling a risk management culture that is proactive about potential social harm (e.g., irresponsible lending), FinTech can enable the Islamic finance industry to support positive social impact and minimize harm in support of the maqasid. The adoption of FinTech within the Islamic finance context is still at a nascent stage and the recommendations we provide based on the limited experience to date will help address some of the major cross-cutting issues related to FinTech. Further research will be needed to elucidate in more detail issues relating to individual sectors and countries within the broader global Islamic finance industry.

Keywords: alternative finance, FinTech, Islamic finance, maqasid, theory of change

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