Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 918

Search results for: Islamic insurance (takaful)

918 The Search for an Alternative to Tabarru` in Takaful Models

Authors: Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad, Muhammad Ayub

Abstract:

Tabarru` (unilateral gratuitous contribution) is thought to be the basic concept that distinguishes Takaful from conventional non-Sharīʿah compliant insurance. The Sharīʿah compliance of its current practice has been questioned in the premise that, a) it is a form of commutative contract; b) it is akin to the commercial corporate structure of insurance companies due to following the same marketing strategies, allocation to reserves, sharing of underwriting surplus by the companies one way or the other, providing loans to the Takaful funds, and resultantly absorbing the underwriting losses. The Sharīʿah scholars are of the view that the relationship between participants in Takaful should be in the form of commitment to donate, under which a contributor makes commitments himself to donate a sum of money for mutual help and cooperation on the condition that the balance, if any, should be returned to him. With the aim of finding solutions to the above mentioned concerns and other Sharīʿah related issues the study seeks to investigate whether the Takaful companies are functioning in accordance with the Islamic principles of brotherhood, solidarity, and cooperative risk sharing. Given that it discusses the cooperative model of Takaful to address the current and future Sharīʿah related and legal concerns. The study proposed an alternative model and considers it to best serve the objectives of Takaful which operates on the basis of ta`awun or mutual co-operation.

Keywords: hibah, musharakah ta`awuniyyah, Tabarru`, Takaful

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917 Islamic Finance in Tunisia: Reality and Development

Authors: Amira Kaddour, Hedia Teraoui, Khmayes Bougatef

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the major causes of the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia. Indeed, it’s surprising to note that Zitouna bank established in May 2010 is the first Islamic Tunisian bank although 99% of Tunisians are Muslim and Islam is the religion of the State according to the Constitution. So we rely in our paper on the opinions of number of professors of finance and economics as educated people to prove or reject our hypothesis that the underdevelopment of Islamic finance in Tunisia can be explained by the ignorance of its main principles and advantages. Ours findings reveal that this branch of finance is still largely unknown, not only from public but also from professionals. The results obtained surprisingly show that this insignificance of Islamic banking cannot be explained by the fact that Tunisia has been governed since its independence by a secular left-wing party. Indeed, only 3% of respondents believe that legislation and regulation in Tunisia represent an obstacle to the development of Islamic finance. Moreover, respondents are not very optimistic about the future role of Islamic financing.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic insurance (takaful), Islamic law (shariah), usury (riba)

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916 [Keynote Talk]: Let Us Move to Ethical Finance: A Case Study of Takaful

Authors: Syed Ahmed Salman

Abstract:

Ethicality is essential in our daily activities, including personal and commercial activities. This is evidenced by referring to the historical development of the corporate governance and ethical guidelines. The first corporate governance guideline, i.e. Cadbury Report from U.K. focuses the responsibility of board members towards the shareholders only. Gradually, realising the need to take care of the society and community, stakeholders are now concerns of business entities. Consequently, later codes of corporate governance started extending the responsibility to the other stakeholders in addition to the shareholders. One prevailing corporate governance theory, i.e. stakeholder theory, has been widely used in the research to explore the effects of business entities on society. In addition, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is the leading organisation which promotes social care from businesses for sustainable development. Conventionally, history shows that ethics is key to the long term success of businesses. Many organisations, societies, and regulators give full attention and consideration to ethics. Several countries have introduced ethical codes of conduct to direct trade activities. Similarly, Islam and other religions prohibit the practice of interest, uncertainty, and gambling because of its unethical nature. These prohibited practices are not at all good for the society, business, and any organisation especially as it is detrimental to the well-being of society. In order to avoid unethicality in the finance industry, Shari’ah scholars come out with the idea of Islamic finance which is free from the prohibited elements from the Islamic perspective. It can also be termed ethical finance. This paper highlights how Takaful as one of the Islamic finance products offers fair and just products to the contracting parties and the society. Takaful is framed based on ethical guidelines which are extracted from Shari’ah principles and divine sources such as the Quran and Sunnah. Takaful products have been widely offered all over the world, including in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. It seems that it is gaining acceptance regardless of religion. This is evidence that Takaful is being accepted as an ethical financial product.

Keywords: ethics, insurance, Islamic finance, religion and takaful

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915 An Integrated Approach of Islamic Social Financing for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) Through Crowdfunding: A Model for Sharing Economy for Community Development in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Abu Yousuf

Abstract:

Islamic social financing (ISF) refers to the fair distribution of wealth and financial dealings and prevents economic exploitation at all levels. ISF instruments include Islamic institutions Zakat (obligatory charity), Sadaqah (voluntary charity) and Waqf (endowment) based on philanthropy such and Qard-al Hasan (beautiful loan), micro takaful (insurance) and social investments through Sukuk (bonds) based on cooperation. ISF contributes to socio-economic development, end poverty, protects environmental sustainability, promotes education, equality, social justice and above all, establishes social well-being since the birth of Islam. ISF tools are instrumental towards achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) set by United Nations (UN). The present study will explore the scope of ISF for community development in Bangladesh and examine the challenges in implementing ISF tools and will provide the most practical model of ISF. The study will adopt a mixed-method (MM) design in the process of data collection and analysis. The researcher will consider all issues related to ethics, reliability, validity and feasibility while conducting the study.

Keywords: Islamic social financing, sustainable development goals, poverty eradication, zakat, waqf, sadaqah, Islamic microfinance

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914 Collaboration-Based Islamic Financial Services: Case Study of Islamic Fintech in Indonesia

Authors: Erika Takidah, Salina Kassim

Abstract:

Digital transformation has accelerated in the new millennium. It is reshaping the financial services industry from a traditional system to financial technology. Moreover, the number of financial inclusion rates in Indonesia is less than 60%. An innovative model needed to elucidate this national problem. On the other hand, the Islamic financial service industry and financial technology grow fast as a new aspire in economic development. An Islamic bank, takaful, Islamic microfinance, Islamic financial technology and Islamic social finance institution could collaborate to intensify the financial inclusion number in Indonesia. The primary motive of this paper is to examine the strategy of collaboration-based Islamic financial services to enhance financial inclusion in Indonesia, particularly facing the digital era. The fundamental findings for the main problems are the foundations and key ecosystems aspect involved in the development of collaboration-based Islamic financial services. By using the Interpretive Structural Model (ISM) approach, the core problems faced in the development of the models have lacked policy instruments guarding the collaboration-based Islamic financial services with fintech work process and availability of human resources for fintech. The core strategies or foundations that are needed in the framework of collaboration-based Islamic financial services are the ability to manage and analyze data in the big data era. For the aspects of the Ecosystem or actors involved in the development of this model, the important actor is government or regulator, educational institutions, and also existing industries (Islamic financial services). The outcome of the study designates that strategy collaboration of Islamic financial services institution supported by robust technology, a legal and regulatory commitment of the regulators and policymakers of the Islamic financial institutions, extensive public awareness of financial inclusion in Indonesia. The study limited itself to realize financial inclusion, particularly in Islamic finance development in Indonesia. The study will have an inference for the concerned professional bodies, regulators, policymakers, stakeholders, and practitioners of Islamic financial service institutions.

Keywords: collaboration, financial inclusion, Islamic financial services, Islamic fintech

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913 Evaluating the Possibility of Expanding National Health Insurance Funding From Zakat, Sudan

Authors: Fawzia Mohammed Idris

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Zakat is an Islamic procedure for wealth distribution as a social protection mechanism for needy people. This study aimed to assess the possibility to expand the share of fund for national health insurance fund from zakat funds allocated for poor people by measuring the reduction of poverty that result from the investing on direct payment to the needy or by covering them in social health insurance. This study used stata regression as a statistical analysis tool and the finding clarified that there is no significant relationship between the poverty rate as the main indicator and, the number of poor people covered by national health insurance on one hand and the number of benefits poor people from the distribution of zakat fund. This study experienced many difficulties regarding the quality and the consistency of the data. The study suggested that a joint mission between national health insurance fund and zakat chamber to conduct study to assess the efficient use of zakat fund allocated to poor people.

Keywords: health finance, poverty, social health insurance, zakat

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912 Islamic Finance: Its Theory, Products and a Brief View of Islamic Finance in Europe

Authors: Ahmet Sekreter

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Although there are conceptual similarities in terms of financial products between conventional and Islamic finance, they are entirely different financial systems. Despite Islamic finance’s small size in the conventional finance world, its promising growth makes Islamic finance a hot topic both in academia and business world. Today customers can access sophisticated Islamic financial products not only in Muslim countries but also in Europe. This study analyzes Islamic finance and its products and includes a brief overview of Islamic finance in Europe. Literature review is the basis of this paper. The author analyzed the academic papers, numerical data, and estimations to set a perspective for the future of Islamic finance in Europe. Findings show that UK is the main hub for the Islamic finance, and it will remain so in the near future.

Keywords: islamic finance, islamic banking, islamic finance in Europe, finance

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911 National Health Insurance: An Exploratory Study of Patient Satisfaction

Authors: Nihayatul Munaa, Nyoman A. Damayanti

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This study seeks to understand what factors might influence a patient’s perception of health care under national health insurance in early implementation. In Indonesia, National Health Insurance was first implemented in 2014 and planned to achieve universal health coverage by 2019. However, the little understanding of this new policy lead to increase of complaint in hospital as a health care provider. This is a observational descriptive study with cross sectional design method. Data was collected through in-depth interview with 96 patient from Jemursari Islamic Hospital of Surabaya (Rumah Sakit Islam Jemursari Surabaya) who participate in National Health Insurance. Subject was selected by simple random sampling. The findings demonstrated that from five categories, 82,3% patient was satisfied in reliability aspect and 85,4% in assurance aspect, while in tangible, responsiveness and empathy aspect > 90% patient was satisfied. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, the minimum service standard of healthcare of patient satisfaction is 90%.

Keywords: patient’s satisfaction, national health insurance, hospital, complaint

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910 Insurance of Agricultural Activities as the Basis for Food Security

Authors: J. B. Akshataeva, G. T. Aigarinova, A. Amankulova, D. S. Kalkanova

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This article examines some aspects of the insurance of agricultural activities, strategic documents on deepening investment opportunities. Insurance market development is before the society and the state. It also examines problems of agricultural insurance development in the market economy of Kazakhstan as the basis for food security.

Keywords: agriculture, food safety, insurance, privacy issues

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909 Islamic Finance: Challenges of Islamic Banking in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Zaheer Shaikh, Zhaoyong Zhang, Jaime Yong, Ume Laila Shah

Abstract:

Islamic finance is growing with remarkable pace, especially Islamic banking, a major segment of Islamic finance, is expanding rapidly. This paper discusses the position of Islamic finance and Islamic banking, around the world in general and particularly in Pakistan. History of Islamic banking in Pakistan is protested, presently a significant growth is observed. However Islamic banking is confronting with number of challenges, which are refraining from sustainable growth of this industry in Pakistan. Growth level of Islamic banks should be steeper to contribute substantial share in country’s economy. It is important to formulate effective policies, at institutional and operational level to address these challenges through close collaboration of key stakeholders.

Keywords: Islamic finance, challenges, Islamic banking, Pakistan

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908 The Effect of Catastrophic Losses on Insurance Cycle: Case of Croatia

Authors: Drago Jakovčević, Maja Mihelja Žaja

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This paper provides an analysis of the insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and whether they are affected by catastrophic losses on a global level. In general, it is considered that insurance cycles are particularly pronounced in periods of financial crisis, but are also affected by the growing number of catastrophic losses. They cause the change of insurance cycle and premium growth and intensification and narrowing of the coverage conditions, so these variables move in the same direction and these phenomena point to a new cycle. The main goal of this paper is to determine the existence of insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and investigate whether catastrophic losses have an influence on insurance cycles.

Keywords: catastrophic loss, insurance cycle, premium, Republic of Croatia

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907 Evaluation of Demand of Fire Insurance in Iran and Embrace Digitalization to Improve It

Authors: Mahsa Ghorbani Jazin

Abstract:

The insurance industry has a prominent place in the economy of every country in the world. Fire insurance policies are types of non-life insurance, which protect insureds against financial losses of fire and related risks. In this paper, factors that are affecting the demand for fire insurance in Iran have been examined. Due to this reason, information and data have been collected during the period 1989-2019. In this research, the final model was estimated. The obtained results represent that as the population and literacy rate increase, people are more willing to purchase fire insurance. On the other hand, the actual per capita income has a negative influence on the demand for this type of insurance. Also, the amount of compensation that is paid in losses can be assumed as an indirect advertisement for fire insurance and attracts people to buy this policy. Finally, the new technology in the insurance industry is examined as a new underestimated way for increasing demand, especially in Iran.

Keywords: fire insurance, demand, per capita income, literacy rate, population, compensation paid, Insurtech

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906 Sustainability of Healthcare Insurance in India: A Review of Health Insurance Scheme Launched by States in India

Authors: Mohd Zuhair, Ram Babu Roy

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This paper presents an overview of the accessibility, design, and functioning of health insurance plans launched by state governments in India. In recent years, the governments of several states in India have come forward to provide health insurance coverage for the low-income group and rural population to reduce the out of pocket expenditure (OPE) on healthcare. Different health insurance schemes have different structures and offerings which differ in the different demographic factors. This study will portray a comparative analysis of the various health insurance schemes by analyzing different offerings and finance generation of the schemes. The comparative analysis will explain the lesson to be learned from these schemes and extend the existing knowledge of the health insurance in India. This would help in recognizing tension between various drivers and identifying issues pertaining to the sustainability of health insurance schemes in India.

Keywords: health insurance, out of pocket expenditure, universal healthcare, sustainability

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905 Mystical Principles of Islamic Art

Authors: Seyed Razi Nousavi Gilani

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Islamic culture and especially the Shia is full of mystical and philosophical elements. A close look at the history of Islamic civilization, which is supposed to represent the teachings and words of faith leaders with the knowledge and use of the philosophical and mystical concepts, has influenced Islamic art. This article explains the influence of Shiite Islamic teachings and their teachings of mystical elements on Islamic art and examines as case studies in the arts such as architecture, calligraphy and painting. These arts have always been associated with mystical and philosophical teachings in view of traditional artists.

Keywords: mystics, Islamic Art, Islamic culture, mystic

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904 Historical Metaphors in Insurance: A Journey

Authors: Anjuman Antil, Anuj Kapoor, Neha Saini

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the evolution of insurance in India and the world. The paper also traced the historical basis of life insurance in the world and how it emerged as a major sector in India’s economy. The promotional strategies and distribution channel of top three companies in the Indian insurance sector are also discussed. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examined the secondary data which includes the reports issued by Insurance Regulatory Authority of India, websites of companies, books, and journals relevant to the study. Findings: The paper argued the role and importance of insurance in an emerging economy. The challenges and opportunities of the insurance sector are briefed out. The emerging areas in the insurance sector in terms of promotional strategies and distribution channel are also listed. Implications: The historical evolution can be studied by companies while formulating their strategies. It will help them analyse the insurance sector, how things have changed and how to change with the changing times. Originality/value: This paper gives comprehensive data regarding the background of the insurance sector. Along with historical perspective, marketing and distribution, current and future trends have been discussed.

Keywords: insurance, evolution, life insurance, marketing, distribution channels

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903 Risks in the Islamic Banking Model and Methods Adopted to Manage Them

Authors: K. P. Fasalu Rahman

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The financial services industry of Islam include large number of institutions, such as investment banks and commercial banks, investment companies and mutual insurance companies. All types of these financial institutions should have to deal with many issues and risks in their field of work. Islamic banks should expect to face two types of risks: risks that are similar to those faced by conventional financial intermediaries and risks that are unique to the Islamic Banks due to their compliance with the Shariah. The use of financial services and products that comply with the Shariah principles cause special issues for supervision and risk management. Risks are uncertain future events that could influence the achievement of the bank’s objectives, including strategic, operational, financial and compliance objectives. In Islamic banks, effective risk management deserves special attention. As an operational problem, risk management is the classification and identification of methods, processes, and risks in banks to supervise, monitor and measure them. In comparison to conventional banks, Islamic banks face big difficulties in identifying and managing risks due to bigger complexities emerging from the profit loss sharing (PLS) concept and nature of particular risks of Islamic financing. As the developing of managing risks tool becomes very essential, especially in Islamic banking as most of the products are depending on PLS principle, identifying and measuring each type of risk is highly important and critical in any Islamic finance based systems. This paper highlights the special and general risks surrounding Islamic banking. And it investigates in detail the need for risk management in Islamic banks. In addition to analyzing the effectiveness of risk management strategies adopted by Islamic financial institutions at present, this research is also suggesting strategies for improving risk management process of Islamic banks in future.

Keywords: Islamic banking, management, risk, risk management

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902 Islamic Transaction: An Alternative for Customer Satisfaction in the Islamic Banking

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Maiik

Abstract:

Islamic marketing ethics combines the principle of value maximization with the principles of equity and justice for the welfare of the society. Adherence to the Islamic ethics in the Islamic banking industry can help elevate the standards of both behavior and living of bankers and customers alike. In a rapidly changing marketing environment, the need to be customer-focused has never been as important as it is today. At present where customers are becoming more demanding and increasingly mobile between competing financial providers, being customer-focused is not enough. Islamic banks and more specifically their customer-contact employees (customer relation advisers or officers) need to be perceived by their customers as being Islamic. This study represents an initial step in analyzing the role of Islamic ethical sales behavior as it may be perceived by the customers of Islamic Banks.

Keywords: Islam, ethics, marketing, Islamic banks

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901 Multivariate Dependent Frequency-Severity Modeling of Insurance Claims: A Vine Copula Approach

Authors: Islem Kedidi, Rihab Bedoui Bensalem, Faysal Manssouri

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In traditional models of insurance data, the number and size of claims are assumed to be independent. Relaxing the independence assumption, this article explores the Vine copula to model dependence structure between multivariate frequency and average severity of insurance claim. To illustrate this approach, we use the Wisconsin local government property insurance fund which offers several insurance protections for motor vehicles, property and contractor’s equipment claims. Results show that the C-vine copula can better characterize the multivariate dependence structure between frequency and severity. Furthermore, we find significant dependencies especially between frequency and average severity among different coverage types.

Keywords: dependency modeling, government insurance, insurance claims, vine copula

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900 Islamic Architecture and the Challenges against It

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

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Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to lack of necessary information and also successive wars which have overtaken the Muslims as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Muslims but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art and culture of Muslims and civilization.

Keywords: art, culture, civilization, Islamic architecture, Muslims

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899 Financial Market Turmoil and Performance of Islamic Equity Indices

Authors: Abul Shamsuddin

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The Islamic stock market indices are constructed by screening out stocks that are incompatible with Islam’s prohibition of interest and certain lines of business. This study examines the effects of Islamic screening on the risk-return characteristics of Islamic vis-a-vis mainstream equity portfolios. We use data on Dow Jones Islamic market indices and FTSE Global Islamic indices over 1993-2013. We observe that Islamic equity indices outperform their mainstream counterparts in both raw and risk-adjusted returns. In addition, Islamic equity indices are more resilient to turbulence in international markets than that of their mainstream counterparts. The findings are robust across a variety of portfolio performance measures.

Keywords: Dow Jones Islamic market index, FTSE global Islamic index, ethical investment, finance

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898 Organizational Mortality of Insurance Organizations under the Conditions of Environmental Changes

Authors: Erdem Kirkbesoglu, A. Bugra Soylu, E. Deniz Kahraman

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The aim of this study is to examine the effects of some variables on organizational mortality of the Turkish insurance industry and calculate the carrying capacities of Turkish insurance industry according to cities and regions. In the study, organizational mortality was tested with the level of reaching the population's carrying capacity. The findings of this study show that the insurance sales potentials can be calculated according to the provinces and regions of Turkey. It has also been proven that the organizations that feed on the same source will have a carrying capacity in the evolutionary process.

Keywords: insurance, carrying capacity, organizational mortality, organization

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897 A Comparative Study of Insurance Policies Worldwide in Public Private Partnerships

Authors: Guanqun Shi, Xueqing Zhang

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The frequent occurrence of failures in PPP projects which caused great loss has raised attention from the government as well as the concessionaire. PPPs are complex arrangements for its long operation period and multiple players. Many types of risks in PPP projects may cause the project fail. The insurance is an important tool to transfer the risks. Through a comparison and analysis of international government PPP guidelines and contracts as well as the case studies worldwide, we have identified eight main insurance principles, discussed thirteen insurance types in different stages. An overall procedure would be established to improve the practices in PPP projects.

Keywords: public private partnerships, insurance, contract, risk

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896 Impact of Brexit on the Structure of the European Insurance Market: A Solvency and Financial Condition Report Content Analysis of UK Insurance Companies

Authors: Antonia Müller, Svend Reuse

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The Brexit referendum in June 2016 led to different publications analysing potential consequences for European and British insurance companies under the European Passport. This study addresses a research gap, regarding the measures taken by insurance companies based in the United Kingdom and thus on structural changes to the European insurance market by an innovative structured Solvency and Financial Condition Report content analysis. In scope are all insurance companies based in the United Kingdom, that fall under the Solvency II supervisory regime. The results show that the majority of British Solvency II insurance companies in scope, conducting cross-border business to the European Union, have applied and reported measures to be able to continue operating this cross-border business after Brexit. In addition, the study shows that 34 new insurance companies based in the European Union were established as a result of Brexit, indicating structural changes to the European insurance market.

Keywords: brexit, europe, insurance market, solvency and financial condition repot, structural changes

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895 By-Line Analysis of Determinants Insurance Premiums : Evidence from Tunisian Market

Authors: Nadia Sghaier

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In this paper, we aim to identify the determinants of the life and non-life insurance premiums of different lines for the case of the Tunisian insurance market over a recent period from 1997 to 2019. The empirical analysis is conducted using the linear cointegration techniques in the panel data framework, which allow both long and short-run relationships. The obtained results show evidence of long-run relationship between premiums, losses, and financial variables (stock market indices and interest rate). Furthermore, we find that the short-run effect of explanatory variables differs across lines. This finding has important implications for insurance tarification and regulation.

Keywords: insurance premiums, lines, Tunisian insurance market, cointegration approach in panel data

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894 An Assessment of the Extent and Impact of Motor Insurance Fraud Claims in Nigeria

Authors: Olatokunbo Shoyemi, Mario Brito, Ian Dawson

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In recent times, the Nigerian motor insurers have experienced high volume of motor insurance claim pay-outs and insignificant contribution to the net premium income of the Nigerian insurance market, which has been a major concern for the shareholders/stakeholders. It has been argued that there are many factors that have brought about these concerns. However, anecdotal evidence (ongoing debates among industry practitioners) suggests prevalence of fraud due to poor practices in motor insurance business in Nigeria. This study is therefore aimed to carry out an assessment of fraud in motor insurance claims as perceived by experts in the Nigerian insurance market. This study adopted a descriptive research design, and the analysis was built on a survey among insurance experts in Nigeria using a designed questionnaire. A purposive and snowball sampling were used to select our sample (N = 120) - representing a selection of all professionally qualified insurance experts in Nigeria insurance industry. The study found that Nigerian insurance experts (i) largely agree that there is a problematic level of fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry; (ii) perceive soft fraud to be about 3 times more common than hard fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry, and (iii) strongly agree there are problematic impacts from fraud on the solvency of the Nigerian motor insurers. This paper has provided an empirical understanding of the existence, extent, and impact of fraud risks within the Nigerian insurance market based on expert knowledge and insights rather than, as has often been the case, a reliance on individual anecdotes.

Keywords: claims, net premium income, motor insurance, soft fraud, hard fraud

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893 Islamic Banks and the Most Important Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Mahmood Mohammed Abdulsattar Aljumaili

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Praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. Islamic banks have not only made a lot of great achievements in a short period, but they imposed themselves in the global market, not to mention the transformation of some conventional interest-based banks to Islamic banks to the large demand on them, this transformation has pushed the Dow Jones Global Foundation to develop a new economic indicator released it (the Dow Jones Islamic market) for those who wish to invest in Islamic financial institutions. The success of Islamic financial institutions today face significant and serious challenges, that embody the serious consequences created by the current events on Islamic banking industry. This modest study, deals with these serious challenges facing the Islamic banking industry, and reflected on the success recorded in the previous period. The study deals with four main topics: The emergence of Islamic banks, the goals of Islamic banks, International challenges facing Islamic banks, internal challenges facing Islamic banks, and finally it touches on, (Basel 1-2) Agreement and its implications for Islamic banks.

Keywords: Islamic banks, Basel 1-2 agreement, most important contemporary challenges, islamic banking industry, Dow Jones Islamic market

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892 Agro-Insurance and Farming Development Opportunities in Georgia

Authors: Tamar Lazariashvili

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Introduction: The agro-insurance has great importance for agricultural development in the country. In the article, the insurance market of the Georgian agricultural sector has been studied, the level of interest of farmers with insurance products and the trend of demand for those products are revealed; also, the importance of insurance is substantiated. Methodology: The following research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical (selection, grouping, observation, trend) and qualitative research (in-depth interview with farmers). They claim that the main reason for aggravation is the low level of trust, less awareness about the conditions of the insurance contract. In order to eradicate distrust towards agro-insurance, it is recommended to increase awareness of insured farmers in terms of an insurance agreement. In the case of disputable issues between insurance companies and the customers (farmers), it is advisable to enact the Mediation Service, which will be able to protect the rights of insured farmers. Main Findings: Insurance companies prefer to deal with large farmers, the number of them is very small in Georgia as the credit market. The government interference in this sector is also a very cautious topic. However, the government can strengthen the awareness of farmers about the characteristics and advantages of the insurance system in order to increase the number of insured and reduce insurance premiums for farmers. Conclusion: Enactment of agro-insurance will increase the interest and confidence of financial institutions in the farming sector, financial resources will be accessible to the farmers that will facilitate the stable development of the sector in the country. The size of the agro-insurance market in the country should be increased, and the new territories should be covered. The State must have an obligation to ensure the risk of farmers and subsidize insurance companies. Based on the analysis of the insurance market, the conclusions on agro-insurance issues and the relevant recommendations are proposed.

Keywords: Agro-insurance, agricultural product, Agro-market, farming

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891 Islamic State: Franchising Jihad through the New Caliphate

Authors: Janiel David Melamed Visbal

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The Islamic State has become one of the most remarkable threats for international security through their religious extremism and their establishment of a new caliphate by force. The main objective of this organization is to obtain territorial expansions beyond the Middle East and eventually to consolidate an Islamic global order based on their extremist ideology. This paper will conduct an analysis regarding how, over the past year, many jihadist organizations worldwide have pledged their alliagance to the Islamic State, transforming it into the most important jihadist franchise globally.

Keywords: Islamic state, franchise, jihad, Islamic fundamentalism, caliphate

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890 Risk Management of Natural Disasters on Insurance Stock Market

Authors: Tarah Bouaricha

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The impact of worst natural disasters is analysed in terms of insured losses which happened between 2010 and 2014 on S&P insurance index. Event study analysis is used to test whether natural disasters impact insurance index stock market price. There is no negative impact on insurance stock market price around the disasters event. To analyse the reaction of insurance stock market, normal returns (NR), abnormal returns (AR), cumulative abnormal returns (CAR), cumulative average abnormal returns (CAAR) and a parametric test on AR and on CAR are used.

Keywords: study event, natural disasters, insurance, reinsurance, stock market

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889 Islamic Banking in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Shaibu Ali, Sherif Heiman Shaban, Musah Ismaila, Imoro Alhassan, Yusif Ali

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Purpose: Islamic banking and finance is one of the most rapidly growing segments of the global finance industry. Starting with the Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, the number of Islamic financial institutions worldwide has shot up astronomically, to over three hundred, with operations in seventy-five countries and assets in excess of US$400 billion. The purpose of this study is to explore the prospects and challenges of Islamic banking introduction in a non-Islamic country like Ghana. Design/Methodology: Data for the study was collected via an expert opinion of three Islamic scholars on Islamic banking from Ghana. Findings: Findings from this study indicates some of the benefits of Islamic banking includes connecting financial markets and economic activity, promoting the principle of financial justice, greater stability, avoiding economic bubbles (and bursts) and reducing the impact of harmful products and practices. The study also identified lack of experts in various fields of Islamic banking, product innovation, moral hazard, and need for experienced staff in Islamic banking as some of the challenges to Islamic banking system’s introduction. Contribution: The study contributes to literature on Islamic banking from a non-Islamic country like Ghana.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari’ah, Riba, conventional banking

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