Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12501

Search results for: elevation effect

12501 Effect of Elevation and Wind Direction on Silicon Solar Panel Efficiency

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Homadi


As a great source of renewable energy, solar energy is considered to be one of the most important in the world, since it will be one of solutions cover the energy shortage in the future. Photovoltaic (PV) is the most popular and widely used among solar energy technologies. However, PV efficiency is fairly low and remains somewhat expensive. High temperature has a negative effect on PV efficiency and cooling system for these panels is vital, especially in warm weather conditions. This paper presents the results of a simulation study carried out on silicon solar cells to assess the effects of elevation on enhancing the efficiency of solar panels. The study included four different terrains. The study also took into account the direction of the wind hitting the solar panels. To ensure the simulation mimics reality, six silicon solar panels are designed in two columns and three rows, facing to the south at an angle of 30 o. The elevations are assumed to change from 10 meters to 200 meters. The results show that maximum increase in efficiency occurs when the wind comes from the north, hitting the back of the panels.

Keywords: solar panels, elevation, wind direction, efficiency

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12500 Satellite LiDAR-Based Digital Terrain Model Correction using Gaussian Process Regression

Authors: Keisuke Takahata, Hiroshi Suetsugu


Forest height is an important parameter for forest biomass estimation, and precise elevation data is essential for accurate forest height estimation. There are several globally or nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) like SRTM and ASTER. However, its accuracy is reported to be low particularly in mountainous areas where there are closed canopy or steep slope. Recently, space-borne LiDAR, such as the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI), have started to provide sparse but accurate ground elevation and canopy height estimates. Several studies have reported the high degree of accuracy in their elevation products on their exact footprints, while it is not clear how this sparse information can be used for wider area. In this study, we developed a digital terrain model correction algorithm by spatially interpolating the difference between existing DEMs and GEDI elevation products by using Gaussian Process (GP) regression model. The result shows that our GP-based methodology can reduce the mean bias of the elevation data from 3.7m to 0.3m when we use airborne LiDAR-derived elevation information as ground truth. Our algorithm is also capable of quantifying the elevation data uncertainty, which is critical requirement for biomass inventory. Upcoming satellite-LiDAR missions, like MOLI (Multi-footprint Observation Lidar and Imager), are expected to contribute to the more accurate digital terrain model generation.

Keywords: digital terrain model, satellite LiDAR, gaussian processes, uncertainty quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
12499 Comparing Two Unmanned Aerial Systems in Determining Elevation at the Field Scale

Authors: Brock Buckingham, Zhe Lin, Wenxuan Guo


Accurate elevation data is critical in deriving topographic attributes for the precision management of crop inputs, especially water and nutrients. Traditional ground-based elevation data acquisition is time consuming, labor intensive, and often inconvenient at the field scale. Various unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide the capability of generating digital elevation data from high-resolution images. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of two UAS with different global positioning system (GPS) receivers in determining elevation at the field scale. A DJI Phantom 4 Pro and a DJI Phantom 4 RTK(real-time kinematic) were applied to acquire images at three heights, including 40m, 80m, and 120m above ground. Forty ground control panels were placed in the field, and their geographic coordinates were determined using an RTK GPS survey unit. For each image acquisition using a UAS at a particular height, two elevation datasets were generated using the Pix4D stitching software: a calibrated dataset using the surveyed coordinates of the ground control panels and an uncalibrated dataset without using the surveyed coordinates of the ground control panels. Elevation values for each panel derived from the elevation model of each dataset were compared to the corresponding coordinates of the ground control panels. The coefficient of the determination (R²) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used as evaluation metrics to assess the performance of each image acquisition scenario. RMSE values for the uncalibrated elevation dataset were 26.613 m, 31.141 m, and 25.135 m for images acquired at 120 m, 80 m, and 40 m, respectively, using the Phantom 4 Pro UAS. With calibration for the same UAS, the accuracies were significantly improved with RMSE values of 0.161 m, 0.165, and 0.030 m, respectively. The best results showed an RMSE of 0.032 m and an R² of 0.998 for calibrated dataset generated using the Phantom 4 RTK UAS at 40m height. The accuracy of elevation determination decreased as the flight height increased for both UAS, with RMSE values greater than 0.160 m for the datasets acquired at 80 m and 160 m. The results of this study show that calibration with ground control panels improves the accuracy of elevation determination, especially for the UAS with a regular GPS receiver. The Phantom 4 Pro provides accurate elevation data with substantial surveyed ground control panels for the 40 m dataset. The Phantom 4 Pro RTK UAS provides accurate elevation at 40 m without calibration for practical precision agriculture applications. This study provides valuable information on selecting appropriate UAS and flight heights in determining elevation for precision agriculture applications.

Keywords: unmanned aerial system, elevation, precision agriculture, real-time kinematic (RTK)

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12498 Study on the Seismic Response of Slope under Pulse-Like Ground Motion

Authors: Peter Antwi Buah, Yingbin Zhang, Jianxian He, Chenlin Xiang, Delali Atsu Y. Bakah


Near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses are considered to cause significant damage to structures or slopes compared to ordinary ground motions without velocity pulses. The double pulsed pulse-like ground motion is as well known to be stronger than the single pulse. This study has numerically justified this perspective by studying the dynamic response of a homogeneous rock slope subjected to four pulse-like and two non-pulse-like ground motions using the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions (FLAC3D) software. Two of the pulse-like ground motions just have a single pulse. The results show that near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses can cause a higher dynamic response than regular ground motions. The amplification of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) in horizontal direction increases with the increase of the slope elevation. The seismic response of the slope under double pulse ground motion is stronger than that of the single pulse ground motion. The PGV amplification factor under the effect of the non-pulse-like records is also smaller than those under the pulse-like records. The velocity pulse strengthens the earthquake damage to the slope, which results in producing a more strong dynamic response.

Keywords: velocity pulses, dynamic response, PGV magnification effect, elevation effect, double pulse

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12497 Grassland Phenology in Different Eco-Geographic Regions over the Tibetan Plateau

Authors: Jiahua Zhang, Qing Chang, Fengmei Yao


Studying on the response of vegetation phenology to climate change at different temporal and spatial scales is important for understanding and predicting future terrestrial ecosystem dynamics andthe adaptation of ecosystems to global change. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset and climate data were used to analyze the dynamics of grassland phenology as well as their correlation with climatic factors in different eco-geographic regions and elevation units across the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that during 2003–2012, the start of the grassland greening season (SOS) appeared later while the end of the growing season (EOS) appeared earlier following the plateau’s precipitation and heat gradients from southeast to northwest. The multi-year mean value of SOS showed differences between various eco-geographic regions and was significantly impacted by average elevation and regional average precipitation during spring. Regional mean differences for EOS were mainly regulated by mean temperature during autumn. Changes in trends of SOS in the central and eastern eco-geographic regions were coupled to the mean temperature during spring, advancing by about 7d/°C. However, in the two southwestern eco-geographic regions, SOS was delayed significantly due to the impact of spring precipitation. The results also showed that the SOS occurred later with increasing elevation, as expected, with a delay rate of 0.66 d/100m. For 2003–2012, SOS showed an advancing trend in low-elevation areas, but a delayed trend in high-elevation areas, while EOS was delayed in low-elevation areas, but advanced in high-elevation areas. Grassland SOS and EOS changes may be influenced by a variety of other environmental factors in each eco-geographic region.

Keywords: grassland, phenology, MODIS, eco-geographic regions, elevation, climatic factors, Tibetan Plateau

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12496 A Concept for Design of Road Super-Elevation Based on Horizontal Radius, Vertical Gradient and Accident Rate

Authors: U. Chattaraj, D. Meena


Growth of traffic brings various negative effects, such as road accidents. To avoid such problems, a model is developed for the purpose of highway safety. In such areas, fuzzy logic is the most well-known simulation in the larger field. A model is accomplished for hilly and steep terrain based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), for which output is super elevation and input data is horizontal radius, vertical gradient, accident rate (AR). This result shows that the system can be efficaciously applied as for highway safety tool distinguishing hazards components correlated to the characteristics of the highway and has a great influence to the making of decision for accident precaution in transportation models. From this model, a positive relationship between geometric elements, accident rate, and super elevation is also identified.

Keywords: accident rate, fuzzy inference system, fuzzy logic, gradient, radius, super elevation

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12495 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda


In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: pitch rate, elevation angle, PID controller, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, phugoid

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12494 A Diurnal Light Based CO₂ Elevation Strategy for Up-Scaling Chlorella sp. Production by Minimizing Oxygen Accumulation

Authors: Venkateswara R. Naira, Debasish Das, Soumen K. Maiti


Achieving high cell densities of microalgae under obligatory light-limiting and high light conditions of diurnal (low-high-low variations of daylight intensity) sunlight are further limited by CO₂ supply and dissolved oxygen (DO) accumulation in large-scale photobioreactors. High DO levels cause low growth due to photoinhibition and/or photorespiration. Hence, scalable elevated CO₂ levels (% in air) and their effect on DO accumulation in a 10 L cylindrical membrane photobioreactor (a vertical tubular type) are studied in the present study. The CO₂ elevation strategies; biomass-based, pH control based (types II & I) and diurnal light based, were explored to study the growth of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG under single-sided LED lighting in the laboratory, mimicking diurnal sunlight. All the experiments were conducted in fed-batch mode by maintaining N and P sources at least 50% of initial concentrations of the optimized BG-11 medium. It was observed that biomass-based (2% - 1st day, 2.5% - 2nd day and 3% - thereafter) and well-known pH control based, type-I (5.8 pH throughout) strategies were found lethal for FC2 growth. In both strategies, the highest peak DO accumulation of 150% air saturation was resulted due to high photosynthetic activity caused by higher CO₂ levels. In the pH control based type-I strategy, automatically resulted CO₂ levels for pH control were recorded so high (beyond the inhibition range, 5%). However, pH control based type-II strategy (5.8 – 2 days, 6.3 – 3 days, 6.7 – thereafter) showed final biomass titer up to 4.45 ± 0.05 g L⁻¹ with peak DO of 122% air saturation; high CO₂ levels beyond 5% (in air) were recorded thereafter. Thus, it became sustainable for obtaining high biomass. Finally, a diurnal light based (2% - low light, 2.5 % - medium light and 3% - high light) strategy was applied on the basis of increasing/decreasing photosynthesis due to increase/decrease in diurnal light intensity. It has resulted in maximum final biomass titer of 5.33 ± 0.12 g L⁻¹, with total biomass productivity of 0.59 ± 0.01 g L⁻¹ day⁻¹. The values are remarkably higher than constant 2% CO₂ level (final biomass titer: 4.26 ± 0.09 g L⁻¹; biomass productivity: 0.27 ± 0.005 g L⁻¹ day⁻¹). However, 135% air saturation of peak DO was observed. Thus, the diurnal light based elevation should be further improved by using CO₂ enriched N₂ instead of air. To the best of knowledge, the light-based CO₂ elevation strategy is not reported elsewhere.

Keywords: Chlorella sp., CO₂ elevation strategy, dissolved oxygen accumulation, diurnal light based CO₂ elevation, high cell density, microalgae, scale-up

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12493 An Electromyographic Study of Muscle Coordination during Dynamic Glenohumeral Joint Elevation

Authors: Omid Khaiyat, David Hawkes


Introduction: There remains a lack of information on sophisticated coordination patterns across shoulder girdle muscles. Considering the stability of the shoulder being heavily dependent on coordinated muscle activity during its wide-ranging movements, it is important that key intermuscular relationships are well-defined for a better understanding of underlying pathology. This study investigated shoulder intermuscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Materials and Methods: EMG was recorded from 14 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants during shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction, and extension. Cross-correlation by means of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) was used to examine the coordination between different muscles and muscle groups. Results: Coordination between rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups was significantly higher (p =0.020-0.035) during the initial (PCC) = 0.79) and final (PCC = 0.74) phases of elevation compared to the mid-range (PCC = 0.34). Furthermore, a high level of coordination (PCC = 0.89) was noted between the deltoid group and the adductor group (latissimus dorsi and teres major) during the initial stage of shoulder elevation. Conclusion: The destabilising force of the deltoid during the initial stage of shoulder elevation is balanced by coordinated activity of rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi, and teres major. This is also the case for the end-range of movement, where increased demand for stability again leads to higher coordination between the deltoid and rotator cuff muscle groups. Appreciation of the sophistication of normal shoulder function evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for conditions such as subacromial impingement syndrome or shoulder instability can be developed.

Keywords: shoulder, coordination, EMG, muscle activity, upper limb

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12492 An Investigation on the Effect of Railway Track Elevation Project in Taichung Based on the Carbon Emissions

Authors: Kuo-Wei Hsu, Jen-Chih, Chao, Pei-Chen, Wu


With the rapid development of global economy, the increasing population, the highly industrialization, greenhouse gas emission and the ozone layer damage, the Global Warming happens. Facing the impact of global warming, the issue of “green transportation” began to be valued and promoted in each city. Taichung has been elected as the model of low-carbon city in Taiwan. To comply with international trends and the government policy, we tried to promote the energy saving and carbon reduction to create a “low-carbon Taichung with green life and eco-friendly economy”. To cooperate with the “green transportation” project, Taichung has promoted a number of public transports constructions and traffic policy in recent years like BRT, MRT, etc. The elevated railway is one of those important constructions. Cooperating with the green transport policy, elevated railway could help to achieve the carbon reduction for this low-carbon city. The current studies of the carbon emissions associated with railways and roads are focusing on the assessment on paving material, institutional policy and economic benefit. Except for changing the mode of transportation, elevated railways/roads also create space under the bridge. However, there is no research about the carbon emissions of the space underneath the elevated section up until now. This study investigated the effect of railway track elevation project in Taichung based on the carbon emissions and the factors that affect carbon emissions by research related theory and literature analysis. This study concluded that : railway track elevation increased the public transit, the bike lanes, the green areas and walking spaces. In the other hand it reduced the traffic congestions, the use of motorcycles as well as automobiles for carbon emissions.

Keywords: low-carbon city, green transportation, carbon emissions, Taichung, Taiwan

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12491 Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinal) Root Extract on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Normal and Alloxan-Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed


Ginger is one of the most important medicinal plants, which is widely used in folk medicine. This study was designed to go further step and evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the aqueous ginger root extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Results revealed that the aqueous ginger has a significant hypoglycemic effect (P<0.05) in diabetic rabbits but a non-significant hypoglycemic effect (P>0.05) in normal rabbits. There were also significant decreases in the concentrations (P<0.05) in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL – cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Although there was an elevation in serum HDL- cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits, these elevations were non-significant (P>0.05). Our data suggest the aqueous ginger has a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits and lipid-lowering properties in both normal and diabetic rabbits.

Keywords: aqueous extract of ginger root (AEGR), hypoglycemic, cholesterol, triglyceride

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12490 A Case Series on Isolated Lead aVR ST-Segment Elevation Clinical Significance and Outcome

Authors: Fae Princess Bermudez


Background: One of the least significant leads on a 12-lead electrocardiogram is the augmented right lead (aVR), as it is not as specific compared to the other leads. In this case series, the value of lead aVR, which is more often than not ignored, is highlighted. Three cases of aVR ST segment elevation on 12-lead electrocardiogram are described, with the end outcome of demise of all three patients. The importance of immediate revascularization is described to improve prognosis in this group of patients. Objectives: This case series aims to primarily present under-reported cases of isolated aVR ST-segrment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), their course and outcome. More specific aims are to identify the criteria in determination of isolated aVR STEMI, know its clinical significance, and determine appropriate management for patients with this ECG finding. Method: A short review of previous studies, case reports, articles and guidelines from 2011-2016 was done. The author reviewed available literature, sorted out those that proved to be significant for the presented cases, and described them in conjunction with the aforementioned cases. Findings: Based on the limited information on these rare or under-reported cases, it was found that isolated aVR STEMI had a poorer prognosis that led to significant mortality and morbidity of patients. The significance of aVR ST-elevation was that of an occlusion of the left coronary artery or a severe three-vessel disease in the presence of an Acute Coronary Syndrome. Guidelines from American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation in 2013 already recognized ST-elevation of lead aVR in isolation as a STEMI; hence, recommended that patients with this particular ECG finding should undergo reperfusion strategies to improve prognosis. Conclusion: The indispensability of isolated aVR ST-segment elevation on ECG should alert physicians, especially Emergency physicians, to the high probability of Acute Coronary Syndrome with a very poor prognosis. If this group of patients is not promptly managed, demise may ensue, with cardiogenic shock as the most probable cause. With this electrocardiogram finding, physicians must be quick to make clinical decisions to increase chances of survival of this group of patients.

Keywords: AVR ST-elevation, diffuse ST-segment depression, left coronary artery infarction, myocardial infarction

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12489 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation

Authors: Houmame Benbouali


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: irregularity, seismic, response, structure, ductility

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12488 Modified Norhaya Upper Limp Elevation Sling-Quick Approach Ensuring Timely Limb Elevation

Authors: Prem, Norhaya, Vwrene C., Mohammad Harris A., Amarjit, Fazir M.


Upper limb surgery is a common orthopedic procedure. After surgery, it is necessary to raise the patient's arm to reduce limb swelling and promote recovery. After an injury or surgery, swelling (edema) in the limbs is common. This swelling can be painful, cause stiffness, and affect movement and ability to do daily activities. One of the easiest ways to manage swelling is to elevate the swollen limb. The goal is to elevate the swollen limb slightly above the level of the heart. This helps the extra fluid move back towards the heart for circulation to the rest of the body. Conventional arm sling or pillows are usually placed under the arm to raise it, but in this way the arm cannot be fixed well and easily slide down, without ideal raising effect. Conventional arm sling need experience to tie the sling and this delay in the application process. To reduce the waiting time and cost, modified Norhaya upper limb elevation sling was designed and made readily available. The sling is made from calico fabric, readily available in the ward. Measurements of patients’ arm lengths are obtained, and fabric sizes are cut into the average arm lengths, as well as 1 size above and below. The cut calico fabric is then sewn together with thick sewing threads. Its application is easy and junior most staff or doctor will be able to apply it on patient. The time taken to set up the sling is also reduced. Feedback gathered from ground staff regarding ease of setting up the sling was tremendous and patient also feel comfort in the modified Norhaya sling. The device can freely adjust the raising height of the affected limb and effectively fix the affected limb to reduce its swelling, thus promoting recovery. This device is worthy to be clinically popularized and applied. The Modified Norhaya upper limb elevation sling is the quickest to set up and the delay in elevating the patient’s hand is significantly reduced. Moreover, it is reproducible and there is also significant cost savings.

Keywords: elevate, effective, sling, timely

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12487 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation on the Dynamic Behavior of the Building

Authors: Yassine Sadji


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities, and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accélérogramme) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: irregularity, seismic, response, structure, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
12486 Surface Elevation Dynamics Assessment Using Digital Elevation Models, Light Detection and Ranging, GPS and Geospatial Information Science Analysis: Ecosystem Modelling Approach

Authors: Ali K. M. Al-Nasrawi, Uday A. Al-Hamdany, Sarah M. Hamylton, Brian G. Jones, Yasir M. Alyazichi


Surface elevation dynamics have always responded to disturbance regimes. Creating Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to detect surface dynamics has led to the development of several methods, devices and data clouds. DEMs can provide accurate and quick results with cost efficiency, in comparison to the inherited geomatics survey techniques. Nowadays, remote sensing datasets have become a primary source to create DEMs, including LiDAR point clouds with GIS analytic tools. However, these data need to be tested for error detection and correction. This paper evaluates various DEMs from different data sources over time for Apple Orchard Island, a coastal site in southeastern Australia, in order to detect surface dynamics. Subsequently, 30 chosen locations were examined in the field to test the error of the DEMs surface detection using high resolution global positioning systems (GPSs). Results show significant surface elevation changes on Apple Orchard Island. Accretion occurred on most of the island while surface elevation loss due to erosion is limited to the northern and southern parts. Concurrently, the projected differential correction and validation method aimed to identify errors in the dataset. The resultant DEMs demonstrated a small error ratio (≤ 3%) from the gathered datasets when compared with the fieldwork survey using RTK-GPS. As modern modelling approaches need to become more effective and accurate, applying several tools to create different DEMs on a multi-temporal scale would allow easy predictions in time-cost-frames with more comprehensive coverage and greater accuracy. With a DEM technique for the eco-geomorphic context, such insights about the ecosystem dynamic detection, at such a coastal intertidal system, would be valuable to assess the accuracy of the predicted eco-geomorphic risk for the conservation management sustainability. Demonstrating this framework to evaluate the historical and current anthropogenic and environmental stressors on coastal surface elevation dynamism could be profitably applied worldwide.

Keywords: DEMs, eco-geomorphic-dynamic processes, geospatial Information Science, remote sensing, surface elevation changes,

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12485 Bathymetric Change of Brahmaputra River and Its Influence on Flooding Scenario

Authors: Arup Kumar Sarma, Rohan Kar


The development of physical model of River like Brahmaputra, which finds its origin in the Chema Yundung glacier of Tibet and flows through India and Bangladesh, is always expensive and very much time consuming. With the advancement of computational technique, mathematical modeling has found wide application. MIKE 21C is one such commercial software, developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), with the depth-averaged approach and a two-dimensional curvilinear finite-difference model, which is capable of modeling hydrodynamic and morphological processes with some limitations. The main purpose of this study are to generate bathymetry of the River Brahmaputra starting from “Sadia” at upstream to “Dhubri,” at downstream stretching a distance of approximately 695 km, for four different years: 1957, 1971, 1977, and 1981 over the grid generated in the MIKE 21C and to carry out the hydrodynamic simulation for these years to analyze the effect of bathymetry change on the surface water elevation. The study has established that bathymetric change can influence the flood level significantly in some of the river reaches and therefore the modification or updating of regular bathymetry is very much essential for the reliable flood routing in alluvial rivers.

Keywords: bathymetry, brahmaputra river, hydrodynamic model, surface water elevation

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12484 Topography Effects on Wind Turbines Wake Flow

Authors: H. Daaou Nedjari, O. Guerri, M. Saighi


A numerical study was conducted to optimize the positioning of wind turbines over complex terrains. Thus, a two-dimensional disk model was used to calculate the flow velocity deficit in wind farms for both flat and complex configurations. The wind turbine wake was assessed using the hybrid methods that combine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) with the actuator disc model. The wind turbine rotor has been defined with a thrust force, coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations that were resolved by an open source computational code (Code_Saturne V3.0 developed by EDF) The simulations were conducted in atmospheric boundary layer condition considering a two-dimensional region located at the north of Algeria at 36.74°N longitude, 02.97°E latitude. The topography elevation values were collected according to a longitudinal direction of 1km downwind. The wind turbine sited over topography was simulated for different elevation variations. The main of this study is to determine the topography effect on the behavior of wind farm wake flow. For this, the wake model applied in complex terrain needs to selects the singularity effects of topography on the vertical wind flow without rotor disc first. This step allows to determine the existence of mixing scales and friction forces zone near the ground. So, according to the ground relief the wind flow waS disturbed by turbulence and a significant speed variation. Thus, the singularities of the velocity field were thoroughly collected and thrust coefficient Ct was calculated using the specific speed. In addition, to evaluate the land effect on the wake shape, the flow field was also simulated considering different rotor hub heights. Indeed, the distance between the ground and the hub height of turbine (Hhub) was tested in a flat terrain for different locations as Hhub=1.125D, Hhub = 1.5D and Hhub=2D (D is rotor diameter) considering a roughness value of z0=0.01m. This study has demonstrated that topographical farm induce a significant effect on wind turbines wakes, compared to that on flat terrain.

Keywords: CFD, wind turbine wake, k-epsilon model, turbulence, complex topography

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12483 Modelling the Impacts of Geophysical Parameters on Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Pre and Post Ban Logging Periods in Hindu Kush Himalayas

Authors: Alam Zeb, Glen W. Armstrong, Muhammad Qasim


Loss of forest cover is one of the most important land cover changes and has been of great concern to policy makers. This study quantified forest cover changes over pre logging ban (1973-1993) and post logging ban (1993-2015) to examine the role of geophysical factors and spatial attributes of land in the two periods. We show that despite a complete ban on green felling, forest cover decreased by 28% and mostly converted to rangeland. Nevertheless, the logging ban was completely effective in controlling agriculture expansion. The binary logistic regression revealed that the south facing aspects at low elevation witnessed more deforestation in the pre-ban period compared to post-ban. Opposite to deforestation, forest degradation was more prominent on the northern aspects at higher elevation during the policy period. Agriculture expansion was widespread in the low elevation flat areas with gentle slope, while during the policy period agriculture contraction in the form of regeneration was observed on the low elevation areas of north facing slopes. All proximity variables, except distance to administrative boundary, showed a similar trend across the two periods and were important explanatory variables in understanding forest and agriculture expansion. The changes in determinants of forest and agriculture expansion and contraction over the two periods might be attributed to the influence of policy and a general decrease in resource availability.

Keywords: forest conservation , wood harvesting ban, logistic regression, deforestation, forest degradation, agriculture expansion, Chitral, Pakistan

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12482 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim


Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

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12481 Dem Based Surface Deformation in Jhelum Valley: Insights from River Profile Analysis

Authors: Syed Amer Mahmood, Rao Mansor Ali Khan


This study deals with the remote sensing analysis of tectonic deformation and its implications to understand the regional uplift conditions in the lower Jhelum and eastern Potwar. Identification and mapping of active structures is an important issue in order to assess seismic hazards and to understand the Quaternary deformation of the region. Digital elevation models (DEMs) provide an opportunity to quantify land surface geometry in terms of elevation and its derivatives. Tectonic movement along the faults is often reflected by characteristic geomorphological features such as elevation, stream offsets, slope breaks and the contributing drainage area. The river profile analysis in this region using SRTM digital elevation model gives information about the tectonic influence on the local drainage network. The steepness and concavity indices have been calculated by power law of scaling relations under steady state conditions. An uplift rate map is prepared after carefully analysing the local drainage network showing uplift rates in mm/year. The active faults in the region control local drainages and the deflection of stream channels is a further evidence of the recent fault activity. The results show variable relative uplift conditions along MBT and Riasi and represent a wonderful example of the recency of uplift, as well as the influence of active tectonics on the evolution of young orogens.

Keywords: quaternary deformation, SRTM DEM, geomorphometric indices, active tectonics and MBT

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
12480 Rosuvastatin Improves Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Nidhi Garg, Pawan Krishan


Background: Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are depleted and contribute to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Statins exert a protective effect in CAD partly by promoting EPC mobilization. This vasculoprotective effect of statin has not yet been investigated in RA. We aimed to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on EPCs in RA. Methods: 50 RA patients were randomized to receive 6 months of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day, n=25) and placebo (n=25) as an adjunct to existing stable antirheumatic drugs. EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) were quantified by Flow Cytometry. Inflammatory measures included DAS28, CRP and ESR were measured at baseline and after treatment. Lipids and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1) were estimated at baseline and after treatment. Results: At baseline, inflammatory measures and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated and EPCs depleted among both groups. At baseline, EPCs inversely correlated with DAS28 and TNF-α in both groups. EPCs increased significantly (p < 0.01) after treatment with rosuvastatin but did not show significant change with placebo. Rosuvastatin exerted positive effect on lipid spectrum: lowering total cholesterol, LDL, non HDL and elevation of HDL as compared with placebo. At 6 months, DAS28, ESR, CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 improved significantly in rosuvastatin group. Significant negative correlation was observed between EPCs and DAS28, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 after treatment with rosuvastatin. Conclusion: First study to show that rosuvastatin improves inflammation and EPC biology in RA possibly through its anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effect. This beneficial effect of rosuvastatin may provide a novel strategy to prevent cardiovascular events in RA.

Keywords: RA, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, rosuvastatin, cytokines

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
12479 Inventory of Local Forages in Indonesia That Potentially Reduce Methane (CH4) Emissions and Increase Productivity in Ruminants

Authors: Amriana Hifizah, Philip Edward Vercoe, Graeme Bruce Martin, Teuku Reza Ferasy, Muhammad Hambal


Many native forage plant species have been used in Indonesia as feed for ruminants. However, less information is available about how these plants affect productivity, let alone methane emissions. In the province of Aceh, where the traditional practice is to feed local forages to small ruminants, the farmers are not satisfied with the productivity of their livestock, and they attribute this problem to poor availability and too few options for good quality forages. Forage quality is reduced by high environmental temperatures which increase the amount of lignification. In addition to reducing productivity, these factors also increase enteric methane production. A preliminary survey about potential forage species was completed in three different districts, two of low elevation and one of high elevation: Syiah Kuala (05°30’5.08” N to 095°24’7.35” E), elevation 29 m MSL; Kajhu (05°32’34.6” N to 095°21’17.7” E), elevation 30 m MSL; Lembah Seulawah (05°28'06.4" N to 095°43' 14.2" E), elevation 254 m MSL. Information about local plants was collected in a semi-structured interview with scientists, government field officers and local farmers, in the city of Banda Aceh and in those three districts. The outcome was a list 40 species that could be useful, of which 21 were selected for further study. The selection process was based on several criteria: high availability, high protein content, low toxicity, and evidence of secondary metabolites (eg, history of medicinal plants for both human and animals). For some of the selected medicinal plants, there is experimental evidence of effects on methane production during rumen fermentation. Subsequently, the selected forages were tested for their effects on rumen fermentation in vitro, using batch culture. The data produced will be used to identify forages with the potential to reduce CH4 emissions. These candidates will then be assessed for their benefits (fermentability and productivity) and potential deleterious side-effects.

Keywords: batch culture, forage, methane, rumen

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
12478 Identification of Landslide Features Using Back-Propagation Neural Network on LiDAR Digital Elevation Model

Authors: Chia-Hao Chang, Geng-Gui Wang, Jee-Cheng Wu


The prediction of a landslide is a difficult task because it requires a detailed study of past activities using a complete range of investigative methods to determine the changing condition. In this research, first step, LiDAR 1-meter by 1-meter resolution of digital elevation model (DEM) was used to generate six environmental factors of landslide. Then, back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) was adopted to identify scarp, landslide areas and non-landslide areas. The BPNN uses 6 environmental factors in input layer and 1 output layer. Moreover, 6 landslide areas are used as training areas and 4 landslide areas as test areas in the BPNN. The hidden layer is set to be 1 and 2; the hidden layer neurons are set to be 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; the learning rates are set to be 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5. When using 1 hidden layer with 7 neurons and the learning rate sets to be 0.5, the result of Network training root mean square error is 0.001388. Finally, evaluation of BPNN classification accuracy by the confusion matrix shows that the overall accuracy can reach 94.4%, and the Kappa value is 0.7464.

Keywords: digital elevation model, DEM, environmental factors, back-propagation neural network, BPNN, LiDAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
12477 A Study of ZY3 Satellite Digital Elevation Model Verification and Refinement with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

Authors: Bo Wang


As the first high-resolution civil optical satellite, ZY-3 satellite is able to obtain high-resolution multi-view images with three linear array sensors. The images can be used to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM) through dense matching of stereo images. However, due to the clouds, forest, water and buildings covered on the images, there are some problems in the dense matching results such as outliers and areas failed to be matched (matching holes). This paper introduced an algorithm to verify the accuracy of DEM that generated by ZY-3 satellite with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Since the accuracy of SRTM (Internal accuracy: 5 m; External accuracy: 15 m) is relatively uniform in the worldwide, it may be used to improve the accuracy of ZY-3 DEM. Based on the analysis of mass DEM and SRTM data, the processing can be divided into two aspects. The registration of ZY-3 DEM and SRTM can be firstly performed using the conjugate line features and area features matched between these two datasets. Then the ZY-3 DEM can be refined by eliminating the matching outliers and filling the matching holes. The matching outliers can be eliminated based on the statistics on Local Vector Binning (LVB). The matching holes can be filled by the elevation interpolated from SRTM. Some works are also conducted for the accuracy statistics of the ZY-3 DEM.

Keywords: ZY-3 satellite imagery, DEM, SRTM, refinement

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12476 Air Dispersion Modeling for Prediction of Accidental Emission in the Atmosphere along Northern Coast of Egypt

Authors: Moustafa Osman


Modeling of air pollutants from the accidental release is performed for quantifying the impact of industrial facilities into the ambient air. The mathematical methods are requiring for the prediction of the accidental scenario in probability of failure-safe mode and analysis consequences to quantify the environmental damage upon human health. The initial statement of mitigation plan is supporting implementation during production and maintenance periods. In a number of mathematical methods, the flow rate at which gaseous and liquid pollutants might be accidentally released is determined from various types in term of point, line and area sources. These emissions are integrated meteorological conditions in simplified stability parameters to compare dispersion coefficients from non-continuous air pollution plumes. The differences are reflected in concentrations levels and greenhouse effect to transport the parcel load in both urban and rural areas. This research reveals that the elevation effect nearby buildings with other structure is higher 5 times more than open terrains. These results are agreed with Sutton suggestion for dispersion coefficients in different stability classes.

Keywords: air pollutants, dispersion modeling, GIS, health effect, urban planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
12475 2D Surface Flow Model in The Biebrza Floodplain

Authors: Dorota Miroslaw-Swiatek, Mateusz Grygoruk, Sylwia Szporak


We applied a two-dimensional surface water flow model with irregular wet boundaries. In this model, flow equations are in the form of a 2-D, non-linear diffusion equations which allows to account spatial variations in flow resistance and topography. Calculation domain to simulate the flow pattern in the floodplain is congruent with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid. The rate and direction of sheet flow in wetlands is affected by vegetation type and density, therefore the developed model take into account spatial distribution vegetation resistance to the water flow. The model was tested in a part of the Biebrza Valley, of an outstanding heterogeneity in the elevation and flow resistance distributions due to various ecohydrological conditions and management measures. In our approach we used the highest-possible quality of the DEM in order to obtain hydraulic slopes and vegetation distribution parameters for the modelling. The DEM was created from the cloud of points measured in the LiDAR technology. The LiDAR reflects both the land surface as well as all objects on top of it such as vegetation. Depending on the density of vegetation cover the ability of laser penetration is variable. Therefore to obtain accurate land surface model the “vegetation effect” was corrected using data collected in the field (mostly the vegetation height) and satellite imagery such as Ikonos (to distinguish different vegetation types of the floodplain and represent them spatially). Model simulation was performed for the spring thaw flood in 2009.

Keywords: floodplain flow, Biebrza valley, model simulation, 2D surface flow model

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
12474 Magnesium Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Authors: D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, M. T. Abdel-Aziz


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. LPS administration induces systemic inflammation that mimics many of the initial clinical features of sepsis and has deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of magnesium, a well-known cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and a critical component of the antioxidant system, on hepatic damage associated with LPS induced- endotoxima in mice. Mg (20 and 40 mg/kg, po) was administered for 7 consecutive days. Systemic inflammation was induced one hour after the last dose of Mg by a single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg, ip) and three hours thereafter plasma was separated, animals were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. LPS-treated mice suffered from hepatic dysfunction revealed by histological observation, elevation in plasma transaminases activities, C-reactive protein content and caspase-3, a critical marker of apoptosis. Liver inflammation was evident by elevation in liver cytokines contents (TNF-α and IL-10) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased liver lipoperoxidation, glutathione depletion, elevated total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with Mg largely mitigated these alternations through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Mg, therefore, could be regarded as an effective strategy for prevention of liver damage associated with septicemia.

Keywords: LPS, liver damage, magnesium, septicemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
12473 The Effect of Nursing Teamwork Training on Nursing Teamwork Effectiveness

Authors: Manar Ahmed Elbadawy


Background: Empirical evidence suggested that improving nursing teamwork (NTW) may be the key to reducing medical error. The functioning nursing teams require open communication, mutual respect, and shared mental models to activate quality patient care. The complexity and the high demands for specialized nursing knowledge and skill also require nursing staff to consult with one another and work in teams regularly. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of the nursing teamwork training program on nursing teamwork effectiveness. Design: A quasi-experimental (one group pretest-posttest) design was utilized. Three medical intensive care units at a teaching hospital affiliated to Cairo University Hospital, Egypt. Subjects: A convenient sample of 48 nursing staff worked at the selected units. The Nursing Teamwork Observational Checklist was used. Results: Total (NTW) mean scores exhibited quite elevation post-program implementation compared to preprogram and showed little decrease 3 months later ( = 2.52, SD = ± 0.27, mean % =51.98, = 2.72, SD = ± 0.20, mean %=72.45, = 2.67, SD = ± 0.11, mean %= 67.48 respectively). Conclusion: Implementation of (NTW) training program had a positive effect on increasing (NTW) effectiveness. Regular and frequent short-term teamwork training is important to be introduced as well as sustainable monitoring is required to ensure nursing attitudes, knowledge and skills’ change about teamwork effectiveness.

Keywords: effectiveness, nursing, teamwork, training

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12472 Hepatoxicity induced Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Baron in albino rats

Authors: Manal E. A Elhalwagy, Nadia Amin Abdulmajeed, Hanan S. Alnahdi, Enas N. Danial


Baron is herbicide includes (48% glyphosate) widely used in Egypt. The present study assesses the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of baron on rats liver. Two groups of rats were treated orally with 1/10 LD 50, (275.49 mg kg -1) and 1/40 LD 50, (68.86 mg kg-1) glyphosate for 28 days compared with control group. Serum and liver tissues were taken at 14 and 28 days of treatment. An inhibition in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were recorded at both treatment periods and reduction in total serum protein (TP) and albumin (ALB). However, non-significant changes in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Elevation in oxidative stress biomarker malondyaldehyde (MDA) and the decline in detoxification biomarker total reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues led to increase in percentage of DNA damage. Destruction in liver tissue architecture was observed . Although, Baron was classified in the safe category pesticides repeated exposure to small doses has great danger effect.

Keywords: glyphosate, liver toxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage, commet assay

Procedia PDF Downloads 276