Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Edwin Christmann

41 An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Student Achievement in Differing Science Content Areas

Authors: Edwin Christmann, John Hicks

Abstract:

This meta-analysis compared the mathematics achievement of students who received either traditional instruction or traditional instruction supplemented with computer-assisted instruction (CAI). From the 27 conclusions, an overall mean effect size of 0.236 was calculated, indicating that, on average, students receiving traditional instruction supplemented with CAI attained higher mathematics achievement than did 59.48 percent of those receiving traditional instruction per se.

Keywords: CAI, science, meta-analysis, traditional

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40 An Exploration of Early Cinematic Technology (1890s-1920s) and Shifting Cinematic Styles

Authors: Adam L. Miller

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to look back to the very beginning of cinematic history and explore the connection between the differing technology used, and the varying styles adopted by early filmmakers. The paper will be structured chronologically, first looking at the advances that predated Thomas Edison and his Kinetograph and Kinetogram. This paper will then explore how Edison’s technology and films varied from the Lumiere brothers and their Cinematograph. Finally, the paper will go on to draw parallels and differences between French filmmakers such as Alice Guy and George Melies, and American filmmakers like Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith.

Keywords: film studies, early cinema, silent cinema, early cinematic technology, Thomas Edison, Alice Guy, George Melies, Edwin S. Porter, Lumiere brothers, D. W. Griffith

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39 Noncommutative Differential Structure on Finite Groups

Authors: Ibtisam Masmali, Edwin Beggs

Abstract:

In this paper, we take example of differential calculi, on the finite group A4. Then, we apply methods of non-commutative of non-commutative differential geometry to this example, and see how similar the results are to those of classical differential geometry.

Keywords: differential calculi, finite group A4, Christoffel symbols, covariant derivative, torsion compatible

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38 Structural Damage Detection Using Sensors Optimally Located

Authors: Carlos Alberto Riveros, Edwin Fabián García, Javier Enrique Rivero

Abstract:

The measured data obtained from sensors in continuous monitoring of civil structures are mainly used for modal identification and damage detection. Therefore when modal identification analysis is carried out the quality in the identification of the modes will highly influence the damage detection results. It is also widely recognized that the usefulness of the measured data used for modal identification and damage detection is significantly influenced by the number and locations of sensors. The objective of this study is the numerical implementation of two widely known optimum sensor placement methods in beam-like structures

Keywords: optimum sensor placement, structural damage detection, modal identification, beam-like structures.

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37 Algorithm and Software Based on Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks for Estimating Channel Use in the Spectral Decision Stage in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Johana Hernández, Edwin Rivas

Abstract:

The use of the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) technique is presented to estimate the future state of use of a licensed channel by primary users (PUs); this will be useful at the spectral decision stage in cognitive radio networks (CRN) to determine approximately in which time instants of future may secondary users (SUs) opportunistically use the spectral bandwidth to send data through the primary wireless network. To validate the results, sequences of occupancy data of channel were generated by simulation. The results show that the prediction percentage is greater than 60% in some of the tests carried out.

Keywords: cognitive radio, neural network, prediction, primary user

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36 Use of Artificial Intelligence Based Models to Estimate the Use of a Spectral Band in Cognitive Radio

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Fernando Pedraza

Abstract:

Currently, one of the major challenges in wireless networks is the optimal use of radio spectrum, which is managed inefficiently. One of the solutions to existing problem converges in the use of Cognitive Radio (CR), as an essential parameter so that the use of the available licensed spectrum is possible (by secondary users), well above the usage values that are currently detected; thus allowing the opportunistic use of the channel in the absence of primary users (PU). This article presents the results found when estimating or predicting the future use of a spectral transmission band (from the perspective of the PU) for a chaotic type channel arrival behavior. The time series prediction method (which the PU represents) used is ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System). The results obtained were compared to those delivered by the RNA (Artificial Neural Network) algorithm. The results show better performance in the characterization (modeling and prediction) with the ANFIS methodology.

Keywords: ANFIS, cognitive radio, prediction primary user, RNA

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35 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan

Abstract:

Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: decentralized, optimal control, output, singular perturb

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34 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: cognitive radio, base station, best effort, MLPNN, prediction, real time

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33 Competition in Kenya: The Legal and Institutional Framework and an Appraisal of Key Market Players

Authors: Edwin Njoroge Kimani, Alan M. Munyao

Abstract:

Despite Kenya’s status as a regional economic powerhouse, it struggles with economic shocks that expose the consumers. This, however, seems not to affect major cooperates such as those in the telecommunication and energy sectors. Through their operations, they have not only been able to fluctuate prices at will but also they have been accused of curtailing their rivals from penetrating the market. This study, through literature review of the legal and institutional framework, reports and publications interrogates the law and uncovers the following; i) failings of the legal framework to define market dominance and abuse of such positions, ii) the participation of the state, iii) the inertia of the government to prosecute corporations that abuse their market dominance, iv) the role of the state as a market player and as a regulator through the Competition Authority of Kenya. This study concludes that the market distortion is as a result of weak legal and institutional framework as well as conflict of interest by the government. Not much has been researched in the field of competition law the greater East Africa. This research is intended to form part of the growing research in the field and inform legal reform.

Keywords: competition law, economic power, dominance, Kenya

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32 Homoleptic Complexes of a Tetraphenylporphyrinatozinc(II)-conjugated 2,2':6',6"-Terpyridine

Authors: Angelo Lanzilotto, Martin Kuss-Petermann, Catherine E. Housecroft, Edwin C. Constable, Oliver S. Wenger

Abstract:

We recently described the synthesis of a new tetraphenylporphyrinatozinc(II)-conjugated 2,2':6',6"-terpyridine (1) in which the tpy domain enables the molecule to act as a metalloligand. The synthetic route to 1 has been optimized, the importance of selecting a particular sequence of synthetic steps will be discussed. Three homoleptic complexes have been prepared, [Zn(1)₂]²⁺, [Fe(1)₂]²⁺ and [Ru(1)₂]²⁺, and have been isolated as the hexafluoridophosphate salts. Spectroelectrochemical measurements have been performed and the spectral changes ascribed to redox processes are partitioned on either the porphyrin or the terpyridine units. Compound 1 undergoes a reversible one-electron oxidation/reduction. The removal/gain of a second electron leads to a further irreversible chemical transformation. For the homoleptic [M(1)₂]²⁺ complexes, a suitable potential can be chosen at which both the oxidation and the reduction of the {ZnTPP} core are reversible. When the homoleptic complex contains a redox active metal such as Fe or Ru, spectroelectrochemistry has been used to investigate the metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition. The latter is sensitive to the oxidation state of the metal, and electrochemical oxidation of the metal center suppresses it. Detailed spectroelectrochemical studies will be presented.

Keywords: homoleptic complexes, spectroelectrochemistry, tetraphenylporphyrinatozinc(II), 2, 2':6', 6"-terpyridine

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31 Developers’ Gains and Losses from the Economic Incentives of Green Building: Explanations from the Transitional Gains Trap and Transaction Cost Economics

Authors: Ke Fan, Edwin H. W. Chan

Abstract:

Economic incentives of green building (GB) have been implemented to promote green building and address the market barriers. However, if developers could gain from the incentives, why not all the buildings are green? This paper aims to study this problem and provide a new perspective to look at the economic incentives. The theories of Transitional Gains Trap (TGP) and Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) are employed to explain the developers’ gains and losses from the economic incentives. This paper takes the GFA (gross floor area) concession incentive in Hong Kong, which is one of the most popular incentives, as the case to conduct in-depth case study and it did interview to validate the results. The results show that after implementing the GFA concession scheme, the benefit of the GFA concession is capitalized into land value. Therefore, developers have to bear the increased land cost, which supports the theory of the TGP. Even though, some developers are still not willing to participate in the incentive scheme because of high transaction costs (TCs).

Keywords: green building, economic incentives, transitional gains trap, transaction cost

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30 Life Cycle Assesment (LCA) Study of Shrimp Fishery in the South East Coast of Arabian Sea

Authors: Leela Edwin, Rithin Joseph, P. H. Dhiju Das, K. A. Sayana, P. S. Muhammed Sherief

Abstract:

The shrimp trawl fishery is considered one of the more valuable fisheries from the South east Coast of Arabian Sea. Inventory data for the shrimp were collected over 1 year period and used to carry out a life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA was performed to assess and compare the environmental impacts associated with the fishing operations related to shrimp fishery. This analysis included the operation of the vessels, together with major inputs related to the production of diesel, trawl nets, or anti-fouling paints. Data regarding vessel operation was obtained from the detailed questionnaires filled out by 180 trawlers. The analysis on environmental impacts linked to shrimp extraction on a temporal scale, showed that varying landings enhanced the environmental burdens mainly associated with activities related to diesel production, transport and consumption of the fishing vessels. Discard rates for trawlers were also identified as a major environmental impact in this fishery.

Keywords: shrimp trawling, life cycle assesment (LCA), Arabian sea, environmental impacts

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29 Survey of Potential Adverse Health Effects of Mobile Phones, and Wireless Base Stations in Nigeria

Authors: Nureni A. Yekini, Isaac T. Babalola, Edwin E. Aighokhan, Agnes K. Akinwole, N. Stephen Igwe

Abstract:

Survey was conducted to gather information on potential adverse health effects of Mobile Phones, and Telecommunication Tower Base Stations in Nigeria. Data was sourced from two sampled populations. Firstly from the people living in close proximity to base stations, and secondly from cell phone users. Questionnaire was used to gathered information from 574 people on thirteen non-specific health symptoms. Data obtained was presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that people living close to the based stations over a long period of time with or without cell phone, and also the heavy phone users with close proximity to the base stations are liable to have some potential health hazards, such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentrating, depression, memory loss, visual disruptions, irritability, hearing disruptions, skin problems, cardiovascular disorders, and dizziness.

Keywords: health hazards, wireless base stations, phone users, mobile phones, Nigeria

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28 Development of K-Factor for Road Geometric Design: A Case Study of North Coast Road in Java

Authors: Edwin Hidayat, Redi Yulianto, Disi Hanafiah

Abstract:

On the one hand, parameters which are used for determining the number of lane on the new road construction are average annual average daily traffic (AADT) and peak hour factor (K-factor). On the other hand, the value of K-factor listed in the guidelines and manual for road planning in Indonesia is a value of adoption or adaptation from foreign guidelines or manuals. Thus, the value is less suitable for Indonesian condition due to differences in road conditions, vehicle type, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study is to provide an example on how to determine k-factor values at a road segment with particular conditions in north coast road, West Java. The methodology is started with collecting traffic volume data for 24 hours over 365 days using PLATO (Automated Traffic Counter) with the approach of video image processing. Then, the traffic volume data is divided into per hour and analyzed by comparing the peak traffic volume in the 30th hour (or other) with the AADT in the same year. The analysis has resulted that for the 30th peak hour the K-factor is 0.97. This value can be used for planning road geometry or evaluating the road capacity performance for the 4/2D interurban road.

Keywords: road geometry, K-factor, annual average daily traffic, north coast road

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27 Impact of Emergency Medicine Department Crowding on Mortality

Authors: Morteza Gharibi, Abdolghader Pakniat, Somayeh Bahrampouri

Abstract:

Introduction: Emergency department (E.R.) crowding is a serious widespread problem in hospitals that leads to irregularities, a slower rate of delivery of services to patients, and a long-term stay. In addition, the long-term stay in the E.D. reduces the possibility of providing services with appropriate quality to other patients who are undergoing medical emergencies, which leads to dissatisfaction among patients. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ED-crowding and the mortality rate of the patients referred to the E.D. In a retrospective cohort study, all patients who expired in first 24 hours of admission were enrolled in the study. Crowding index at the moment of admission was calculated using Edwin Score. The data including history and physical examination, time of arrival in the E.D., diagnosis (using ICD 10 code), time of death, cause of death, demographic information was recoded based on triage forms on admission and patients’ medical files. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics and chi square test, ANOVA tests using SPSS ver. 19. The time of arrival in E.D. to death in crowded E.D. conditions, with an average of five hours and 25 minutes, was significantly higher than the average admission Time of arrival in E.D. to death in active and crowded E.D. conditions. More physicians and nurses can be employed during crowded times to reduce staff fatigue and improve their performance during these hours.

Keywords: mortality, emergency, department, crowding

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26 Cash Management and the Impact of Cashless Policy in a Developing Nation: Nigeria as a Case Study

Authors: Ossai Paulinus Edwin

Abstract:

Cash Management is a broad area having to do with the collection, concentration, and disbursement of cash including measuring the level of liquidity and managing the cash balance and short-Term Investments. Cash Management involves the efficient collection and disbursement of cash and cash equivalents. It also includes management of marketable securities because, in modern Terminology, money comprises marketable securities and actual cash in hand or in a bank. This cash management is concerned with management of cash inflow and cash outflow of a business especially as it concerns a developing nation like Nigeria. The paper throws light on the impact of cashless policy in Nigeria as it was introduced by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in December 2011 and was kick-started in Lagos in January 2012. Survey research was adopted with the questionnaires as data collection instrument. Responses show that cashless policy if adopted generally shall increase employment opportunities, reduce cash related robbery thereby reducing risk of carrying cash; it shall also reduce cash related corruption and attract more foreign investors to the country. It is expected that the introduction of cashless policy in Nigeria is a step in the right direction as it shall bring about modernization of Nigeria payment system, reduction in the cost of banking services, reduction in high security and safety risk and also curb banking related corruptions.

Keywords: cashless economy, cash management, cashless policy, e-banking, Nigeria

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25 Cash Management in a Cashless Economy of a Developing Nation, Problems and Prospects: Nigeria a Case Study

Authors: Ossai Paulinus Edwin

Abstract:

Cash Management is a broad area having to do with the collection, concentration and disbursement of cash including measuring the level of liquidity and managing the cash balance and Short-Term Investments. Cash Management involves the efficient collection and disbursement of cash and cash equivalents. It also includes management of marketable securities because, in modern Terminology, money comprises marketable securities and actual cash in hand or in a bank. This cash management is concerned with management of cash inflow and cash outflow of a business especially as it concerns a developing nation like Nigeria. The paper throws light on the impact of cashless policy in Nigeria as it was introduced by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in December 2011 and was kick started in Lagos in January 2012. Survey research was adopted with the questionnaires as data collection instrument. Responses show that cashless policy if adopted generally shall increase employment opportunities, reduce cash related robbery thereby reducing risk of carrying cash; it shall also reduce cash related corruption and attract more foreign investors to the country. It is expected that the introduction of cashless policy in Nigeria is a step in the right direction as it shall bring about modernization of Nigeria payment system, reduction in the cost of banking services, reduction in high security and safety risk and also curb banking related corruptions.

Keywords: cashless economy, cash management, cashless policy, e-banking, Nigeria

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24 Track and Trace Solution on Land Certificate Production: Indonesian Land Certificate

Authors: Adrian Rifqi, Febe Napitupulu, Erdi Hermawan, Edwin Putra, Yang Leprilian

Abstract:

This article focuses on the implementation of the production improvement process of the Indonesian land certificate product that printed in Perum Peruri as the state-owned enterprises. Based on the data obtained, there are several complaints from customers of the 2019 land certificate production. The complaints become a negative value to loyal customers of Perum Peruri. Almost all the complaints are referring to ‘defective printouts and the difference between products in packaging and packaging labels both in terms of type and quantity’. To overcome this problem, we intend to make an improvement to the production process that focuses on complaints ‘there is a difference between products in packaging with packaging labels’. Improvements in the land certificate production process are relying on the technology of the scales and QR code on the packaging label. In addition, using the QR code on the packaging label will facilitate the process of tracking product data. With this method, we hope to reduce the error rate between products in packaging with the packaging label both in terms of quantity, type, and product number on the land certificate and error rate of sending land certificates, which will be sent to many places to 0%. With this solution, we also hope to get precise data and real-time reports on the production of land certificates in the near future, so track and trace implementation can be done as the solution of the land certificate production.

Keywords: land certificates, QR code, track and trace, packaging

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23 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (Evar) with Endoanchors: For Tandem Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (Aaa) with Hostile Neck & Proximal Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

Authors: Von Jerick Tenorio, Jonald Lucero, Marivic Vestal, Edwin Tiempo

Abstract:

In patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy, the risks of proximal seal complications and stent migration remain with EVAR despite improved endograft technology. This case report discusses how the technical challenges of the hostile neck anatomy, proximal penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and tortuous femoral access were addressed. The CT aortogram of a 63-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with recurring abdominal discomfort revealed a fusiform infra-renal aneurysm measuring 8.8 cm in length and 5.7 cm in diameter. The proximal landing zone only has a 3 mm healthy neck with a conicity of > 10% and a thrombus of 4 mm thick. Proximal to the aneurysm is a PAU with a circumferential mural thrombus. The right femoral artery is tortuous with > 90o angulation. A 20% oversized Endurant II endograft and Aptus Heli-FX EndoAnchors were deployed as prophylaxis for type I endoleaks and endograft migration consequent to the conical neck and proximal aneurysm extension consequent to the PAU. A stiff Backup Meier guide wire facilitated the deployment of the endograft. Coil embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed as prophylaxis for type II endoleaks. EndoAnchors can be used as an adjunct to EVAR as prophylaxis for proximal seal complications and stent migration in patients with hostile aortic aneurysm neck anatomy and concomitant proximal PAU.

Keywords: endoAnchors, endoleaks, EVAR, hostile neck

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22 Calcined Tertiaries Hydrotalcites as Supports of Cobalt-Molybdenum Based Catalysts for the Hydrodesulfurization Reaction of Dibenzothiophene

Authors: Edwin Oviedo, Carlos Linares, Philippe Ayrault, Sylvette Brunet

Abstract:

Nowadays, light conventional crude oils are going down. Therefore, the exploitation of heavy crude oils has been increasing. Hence, a major quantity of refractory sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) should be removed. Many efforts have been carried out to modify hydrotreatment typical supports in order to increase hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions. The present work shows the synthesis of tertiaries MgFeAl(0.16), MgFeAl(0.32), CoFeAl, ZnFeAl hydrotalcites, as supports of CoMo based catalysts, where 0.16 and 0.32 are the Fe3+/Al3+ molar ratio. Solids were characterized by different techniques (XRD, CO2-TPD, H2-TPR, FT-IR, BET, Chemical Analysis and HRTEM) and tested in the DBT HDS reaction. The reactions conditions were: Temp=325°C, P=40 Bar, H2/feed=475. Results show that the catalysts CoMo/MgFeAl(0.16) and CoMo/MgFeAl(0.32), which were the most basics, reduced the sulfur content from 500ppm to less than 1 ppm, increasing the cyclohexylbenzene content, i.e. presented a higher selective toward the HYD pathway than reference catalyst CoMo/γ- Al2O3. This is suitable for improving the fuel quality due to the increase of the cetane number. These catalysts were also more active to the HDS reaction increasing the direct desulfurization (DDS) way and presented a good stability. It is advantageous when the gas oil centane number should be improved. Cobalt, iron or zinc species inside support could avoid the Co and Mo dispersion or form spinel species which could be less active to hydrodesulfuration reactions, while hydrotalcites containing Mg increases the HDS activity probably due to improved Co/Mo ratio.

Keywords: catalyst, cetane number, dibenzothiophene, diesel, hydrodesulfurization, hydrotreatment, MoS2

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21 Conceptualizing a Strategic Facilities Management Decision Framework for Heritage Building Maintenance Management

Authors: Adegoriola Mayowa I., Lai Joseph H. K., Yung Esther H. K., Chan Edwin H. K.

Abstract:

Heritage buildings (HBs) as structures with historical and architectural relevance that form an integral part of contemporary society. These buildings deserve to be protected for as long as possible to retain their significance. Therefore, the need to prioritize HB maintenance management is pertinent. However, the decision-making process of HBMM can be relatively daunting. The decision-making challenge may be attributed to the multiple 'stakeholders' expectation and requirement which needs to be met. To this end, professionals in the built environment have identified the need to apply the strategic concept of facilities management (FM) in decision making. Furthermore, the different maintenance dimensions have been applied to maintenance management of residential, commercial, and health facilities. Unfortunately, these different maintenance approaches, such as FM, sustainable FM, urban FM, green FM, and strategic FM, are yet to be fully explored in the decision-making process of HBMM. To bridge this gap, this study focuses on developing a framework for strategic decision-making HBMM, which helps achieve HBMM sustainability. At the study's inception, relevant works of literature in the domains of HBMM and FM were conducted. This review helped in the identification of contemporary maintenance practices and their applicability to HBMM. Afterward, a conceptual framework to aid decision-making in HBMM was developed. This framework integrated the concept of FM scope (people, place, process, and technology) while ensuring that decisions plans were made at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. Also, the different characteristics of HBs and stakeholders' requirements were considered in the framework. The conceptual framework presents a holistic guide for professionals in HBMM to ensure that decision processes and outcomes are practical and efficient. It also contributes to the existing body of knowledge on the integration of FM in HBMM. Furthermore, it will serve as a basis for future studies by applying the conceptualized framework in actual cases.

Keywords: decision-making, facility management, strategy, sustainability, heritage building, maintenance

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20 Enhanced Growth of Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultivated in Different Organic Waste and Effective Conversion of Algal Oil to Biodiesel

Authors: Ajith J. Kings, L. R. Monisha Miriam, R. Edwin Raj, S. Julyes Jaisingh, S. Gavaskar

Abstract:

Microalgae are a potential bio-source for rejuvenated solutions in various disciplines of science and technology, especially in medicine and energy. Biodiesel is being replaced for conventional fuels in automobile industries with reduced pollution and equivalent performance. Since it is a carbon neutral fuel by recycling CO2 in photosynthesis, global warming potential can be held in control using this fuel source. One of the ways to meet the rising demand of automotive fuel is to adopt with eco-friendly, green alternative fuels called sustainable microalgal biodiesel. In this work, a microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultivated and optimized in different media compositions developed from under-utilized waste materials in lab scale. Using the optimized process conditions, they are then mass propagated in out-door ponds, harvested, dried and oils extracted for optimization in ambient conditions. The microalgal oil was subjected to two step esterification processes using acid catalyst to reduce the acid value (0.52 mg kOH/g) in the initial stage, followed by transesterification to maximize the biodiesel yield. The optimized esterification process parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.32 (v/v), sulphuric acid 10 vol.%, duration 45 min at 65 ºC. In the transesterification process, commercially available alkali catalyst (KOH) is used and optimized to obtain a maximum biodiesel yield of 95.4%. The optimized parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.33(v/v), alkali catalyst 0.1 wt.%, duration 90 min at 65 ºC 90 with smooth stirring. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is employed as a tool for optimizing the process parameters. The biodiesel was then characterized with standard procedures and especially by GC-MS to confirm its compatibility for usage in internal combustion engine.

Keywords: microalgae, organic media, optimization, transesterification, characterization

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19 Anti-architecture and Spaces of Marginality against a Hidden Genocide

Authors: Edwin E. Dilone Berumen

Abstract:

After having waged war and perpetrating acts of genocide against humanity since the birth of what could be called originality, aestheticism and orthodoxy are now dead. This is a reality often rejected by the masses and those at the apex of societal constructs for two very different reasons. The first is to create an architecture where all ideas are safeguarded against all forms of criticism in so-called “safe spaces,” either virtual or tangible. The second is to create architectures of domination and repression that create dogma and inquisition any opposition in a popular massacre. Both are predicated upon ideologies of denial towards the self. This very day, architecture is built against the “other” in towers that repeatedly peer outdoors and target those found outside in marginal space. One may belong to one or the other, but never in the margin. Marginal space is, therefore, anti-architecture, the opposite of architecture and its established role in concealment, denial, and genocide. To clarify, anti-architecture is not simply the reciprocal of explicit space, interior vs. exterior space, but rather the mediation between what can be called spaces of influence and spaces that are influenced. The mediation between utopia and reality. Suggested amongst these designs is an architecture that becomes outwardly and in desire of criticism as much as it desires to do the same unto the occupant. An architecture entirely unapologetic, however, also welcoming to those that seek it out. The marginal space intrinsically becomes a place of expansion and transit that completely transforms the way a space is perceived. Exterior and interior are no longer places to be, but only spaces in addition to circulation. Timelessness is no longer apparent, overtaken by wants of temporariness and the need to continuously understand and change. Stagnation is to be avoided at all costs. Using methods outlining how spaces of acceptance and acceptance of spaces might be visualized, the aim of this exploration: to understand the basis of erasure through hierarchical analysis and its relationship with genocide, to understand levels of concealment, denial and the role choice involves itself, examining current examples in architecture, and suggesting an alternative approach to perceptions surrounded by the superficiality of space fixated upon elimination of the “other.”

Keywords: aestheticism, anti-architecture, denial, genocide, margin, safe space

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18 The Role of Institutions in Community Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe

Authors: Herbert Ntuli, Edwin Muchapondwa

Abstract:

This study used a sample of 336 households and community level data from 30 communities around the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe to analyse the association between ability to self-organize or cooperation and institutions on one hand and the relationship between success of biodiversity outcomes and cooperation on the other hand. Using both the ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation with heteroskedasticity-based instruments, our results confirmed that sound institutions are indeed an important ingredient for cooperation in the respective communities and cooperation positively and significantly affects biodiversity outcomes. Group size, community level trust, the number of stakeholders and punishment were found to be important variables explaining cooperation. From a policy perspective, our results show that external enforcement of rules and regulations does not necessarily translate into sound ecological outcomes but better outcomes are attainable when punishment is rather endogenized by local communities. This seems to suggest that communities should rather be supported in such a way that robust institutions that are tailor made to suit the needs of local condition will emerge that will in turn facilitate good environmental husbandry. Cooperation, training, benefits, distance from the nearest urban canter, distance from the fence, social capital average age of household head, fence and information sharing were found to be very important variables explaining the success of biodiversity outcomes ceteris paribus. Government programmes should target capacity building in terms of institutional capacity and skills development in order to have a positive impact on biodiversity. Hence, the role of stakeholders (e.g., NGOs) in capacity building and government effort should complement each other to ensure that the necessary resources are mobilized and all communities receive the necessary training and resources.

Keywords: institutions, self-organize, common pool resources, wildlife, conservation, Zimbabwe

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17 Ideology and the Writer's Commitment to National Development: Profiling the Nigerian Soldier in Isidore Okpewho's ‘The Last Duty and Festus Iyayi's Heroes’

Authors: Edwin Onwuka, Segun Omidiora, Eugenia Abiodun-Eniaiyekan

Abstract:

The Nigerian military is often the subject of active critical inquiries having played significant roles in Nigeria’s national development. However, the soldier is one of the most vilified characters in Nigeria’s imaginative literature, be it in poetry, drama or prose fiction. In the main, the characterization of soldiers is predictable because of their entrenched stereotype as oppressors, tyrants, bullies, rapists, despots, killers or at best law-breakers subject to no authority outside the military institution. In most novels, the soldier’s personality is associated with force and violence; still, few have defied the norm to portray soldiers that go against the grain of notoriety. Such novels have characterized the Nigerian soldier positively as a civil, thinking and human personality in relating to civil society. To a great extent, two major impetuses that influence literary representation of characters and institutions in African literature are ideology and commitment, and one necessarily impacts on the other in shaping the artistic vision of the writer. Using two war novels therefore as templates, this paper argues that the ideology that drives the Nigerian writer’s socio-cultural commitment to national development shapes their portrayal of the Nigerian soldier in imaginative literature. A major objective of this study, therefore, is to show through close textual analysis that the writers’ ideologies influence their perception and characterization of the Nigerian soldier in Isidore Okpewho’s The Last Duty and Festus Iyayi’s Heroes, two representative novels of both persuasions described above. New Historicism is the critical framework applied in this study and its conclusion is that the Nigerian writer’s characterization of the soldier is influenced by his ideological perception of the military in the policy against the backdrop of their past socio-political activities.

Keywords: commitment, ideology, national development, new historicism, Nigerian soldier

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16 Enhancing the Stability of Vietnamese Power System - from Theory to Practical

Authors: Edwin Lerch, Dirk Audring, Cuong Nguyen Mau, Duc Ninh Nguyen, The Cuong Nguyen, The Van Nguyen

Abstract:

The National Load Dispatch Centre of Electricity Vietnam (EVNNLDC) and Siemens PTI investigated the stability of the electrical 500/220 kV transportation system of Vietnam. The general scope of the investigations is improving the stability of the Vietnam power system and giving the EVNNLDC staff the capability to decide how to deal with expected stability challenges in the future, which are related to the very fast growth of the system. Rapid system growth leads to a very high demand of power transmission from North to South. This was investigated by stability studies of interconnected power system with neighboring countries. These investigations are performed in close cooperation and coordination with the EVNNLDC project team. This important project includes data collection, measurement, model validation and investigation of relevant stability phenomena as well as training of the EVNNLDC staff. Generally, the power system of Vietnam has good voltage and dynamic stability. The main problems are related to the longitudinal system with more power generation in the North and Center, especially hydro power, and load centers in the South of Vietnam. Faults on the power transmission system from North to South risks the stability of the entire system due to a high power transfer from North to South and high loading of the 500 kV backbone. An additional problem is the weak connection to Cambodia power system which leads to interarea oscillations mode. Therefore, strengthening the power transfer capability by new 500kV lines or HVDC connection and balancing the power generation across the country will solve many challenges. Other countermeasures, such as wide area load shedding, PSS tuning and correct SVC placement will improve and stabilize the power system as well. Primary frequency reserve should be increased.

Keywords: dynamic power transmission system studies, blackout prevention, power system interconnection, stability

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15 Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides (POPs) in Water, Sediment, Fin Fishes (Schilbes mystus and Hemichromis fasciatus) from River Ogun, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Edwin O. Clarke, Akintade O. Adeboyejo

Abstract:

Intensive use of pesticides resulted in dispersal of pollutants throughout the globe. This study was carried out to investigate persistent Organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in water, sediment and fin fishes, Schilbes mystus and Hemichromis fasciatus from two different sampling stations along River Ogun between the month of June 2012 and January 2013. The Organochlorine pesticides analyzed include DDT (pp’1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDD, DDE (pp1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene, HCH (gamma 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane, HCB hexachlorobenzene),Dieldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a octahydro- 1,4,5,8 dimethanonaphthalene). The analysis was done using Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture Detector. In water sample, the result showed that PPDDT, Endrin aldehyde, Endrin ketone concentrations were high in both stations. The mean value of Organochlorine analyzed in water range from Beta BHC (0.50±0.10µg/l) to PP DDT (162.86±0.21µg/l) in Kara sample station and Beta BHC (0.20±0.07µg/l) to Endrin Aldehyde (76.47±0.02µg/l) in Odo-Ogun sample station. The levels of POPs obtained in sediments ranged from 0.40±0.23µg/g (Beta BHC) to 259.90 ± 1.00µg/kg (Endosulfan sulfate) in Kara sample station and 0.64±0.00µg/g (Beta BHC) to 379.77 ±0.15 µg/g (Endosulfan sulfate) in Odo-Ogun sample station. The levels of POPs obtained in fin fish samples ranged from 0.29±0.00µg/g (Delta BHC) to 197.87 ± 0.31µg/g (PP DDT) in Kara sample station and in Odo-Ogun sample station the mean value for fish samples range from 0.29 ± 0.00 µg/g (Delta BHC) to 197.87 ± 0.32 µg/g (PP DDT). The study showed that the accumulation of POPs affect the environment and reduce water quality. The results showed that the concentrations were found to exceed the maximum acceptable concentration of 0.10µg/l value set by the European Union for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and this can be hazardous if the trend is not checked.

Keywords: hazardous, persistent, pesticides, biomes

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14 Rheological and Crystallization Properties of Dark Chocolate Formulated with Essential Oil of Orange and Carotene Extracted from Pineapple Peels

Authors: Mayra Pilamunga, Edwin Vera

Abstract:

The consumption of dark chocolate is beneficial due to its high content of flavonoids, catechins, and procyanidins. To improve its properties, fortification of chocolate with polyphenols, anthocyanins, soy milk powder and other compounds has been evaluated in several studies. However, to our best knowledge, the addition of carotenes to chocolate has not been tested. Carotenoids, especially ß-carotene and lutein, are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables so that they could be extracted from agro-industrial waste, such as fruit processing. On the other hand, limonene produces crystalline changes of cocoa butter and improves its consistency and viscosity. This study aimed to evaluate the production of dark chocolate with the addition of carotenes extracted from an agro industrial waste and to improve its rheological properties and crystallization, with orange essential oil. The dried and fermented cocoa beans were purchased in Puerto Quito, Ecuador, and had a fat content of 51%. Six types of chocolates were formulated, and two formulations were chosen, one at 65% cocoa and other at 70% cocoa, both with a solid: fat ratio of 1.4:1. With the formulations selected, the influence of the addition of 0.75% and 1.5% orange essential oil was evaluated, and analysis to measure the viscosity, crystallization and sensory analysis were done. It was found that essential oil does not generate significant changes in the properties of chocolate, but has an important effect on aroma and coloration, which changed from auburn to brown. The best scores on sensory analysis were obtained for the samples formulated with 0.75% essential oil. Prior to the formulation with carotenes, the extraction of these compounds from pineapple peels were performed. The process was done with and without a previous enzymatic treatment, with three solid-solvent ratios. The best treatment was using enzymes in a solids-solvent ratio of 1:12.5; the extract obtained under these conditions had 4.503 ± 0.214 μg Eq. β-carotene/mL. This extract was encapsulated with gum arabic and maltodextrin, and the solution was dried using a freeze dryer. The encapsulated carotenes were added to the chocolate in an amount of 1.7% however 60,8 % of them were lost in the final product.

Keywords: cocoa, fat crystallization, limonene, carotenoids, pineapple peels

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13 Effect of Psychological Stress to the Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil Edwin Nurdin

Abstract:

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. Most patients with FD complain of symptoms related to the intake of meals. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and had an effect on ulcers associated Hp, and may also trigger worsen symptoms in inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal. Cells in mucosal gastric stimulate the production of several cytokines, which might associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The cascade of biological events leading to stress-induced FD remains poorly understood. Aim of Study: To determine the prion-flammatory cytokine IL-6, and Helicobacter pylori activity on mucosal gastric of FD and their association with psychological stress. Methods: The subjects of this study were dyspeptic patients who visited M. Djamil General Hospital and in two Community Health Centers in Padang. On the basis of the stress index scale to identify psychological stress by using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 42), subjects were divided into two groups of 20 each, stress groups and non-stress groups. All diagnoses were confirmed by review of cortisol and esophagogastroduodenoscopy reports. Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were taken during diagnostic procedures. Immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosal. The data were statistically analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis. All procedures of this study were approved by Research Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty Andalas University. Results: In this study, we enrolled 40 FD patients (26 woman and 14 men) in range between 35-56 years old. Cortisol level of blood FD patients as parameter of stress hormone which taken in the morning was significantly higher in stress group than non-stress group. The expression of IL-6 in gastric mucosa was significantly higher in stress group in compared to non-stress group (p<0,05). Helicobacter pylori activity in gastric mucosal in stress group were significantly higher than non-stress group. Conclusion: The present study showed that psychological stress can induce gastric mucosal inflammation and increase of Helicobacter pylori activity.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, interleukin-6, psychological stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
12 Winners and Losers of Severe Drought and Grazing on a Dryland Grassland in Limpopo Province

Authors: Vincent Mokoka, Kai Behn, Edwin Mudongo, Jan Ruppert, Kingsley Ayisi, Anja Linstädter

Abstract:

Severe drought may trigger a transition of vegetation composition in dryland grasslands, with productive perennial grasses often being replaced by annual grasses. Grazing pressure is thought to exacerbate drought effects, but little is known on the joint effects of grazing and drought on the functional and taxonomic composition of the herbaceous vegetation in African savannas. This study thus aimed to elucidate which herbaceous species and plant functional types (PFTs) are most resistant to prolonged drought and grazing and whether resting plays a role in this context. Thus, we performed a six-year field experiment in South Africa’s Limpopo province, combining drought and grazing treatments. Aboveground herbaceous biomass was harvested annually and separated into species. We grouped species into five PFTs, i.e. very broad-leaved perennial grasses, broad-leaved perennial grasses, narrow-leaved perennial grasses, annual grasses, and forbs. For all species, we also recorded three-leaf traits (leaf area - LA, specific leaf area – SLA, and leaf dry matter content – LDM) to describe their resource acquisition strategies. We used generalized linear models to test for treatment effects and their interaction. Association indices were used to detect the relationship between species and treatments. We found that there were no absolute winner species or PFTs, as the six-year severe drought had a pronounced negative impact on the biomass production of all species and PFTs. However, we detected relative winners with increases in relative abundances, mainly forbs and less palatable narrow-leafed grasses with comparatively low LA and high LDMC, such as Aristida stipidata Hack. These species and PFTs also tended to be favored by grazing. Although few species profited from resting, for most species, the combination of drought and resting proved to be particularly unfavorable. Winners and losers can indicate ecological transition and may be used to guide management decisions.

Keywords: aboveground net primary production, drought, functional diversity, winner and loser species

Procedia PDF Downloads 82