Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3044

Search results for: the linkages of external innovation

3044 Governing External Innovation: Lessons from Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android

Authors: Amir Mohagheghzadeh, Solaleh Salimi, Ramin Tafazzoli

Abstract:

Ecosystem and networks plays significant roles in product innovation. External innovation within developing firms can bring a wide range of advantages for a firm in a competitive market. Using external innovation can be mentioned as one of the most significant concepts regarding the firm’s transition phase into openness. Derivative concepts such as open or shared platform and app stores are the main result of this thinking within the firms. However, adopting this concept and leverage the defined advantages of external innovation should be aligned with other strategies and policies of a firm. Consequently, one of the key aspects that have been raised while using external innovation is how to govern external innovation within a developing firm. This paper describes the frameworks that two pioneer companies in mobile operating system development have used in order to control and govern external innovation through platform.

Keywords: external innovation, open innovation, governance, governance mechanisms, innovation, Apple, iOS, Google, Android

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3043 Study on the Characteristics of Chinese Urban Network Space from the Perspective of Innovative Collaboration

Authors: Wei Wang, Yilun Xu

Abstract:

With the development of knowledge economy era, deepening the mechanism of cooperation and adhering to sharing and win-win cooperation has become new direction of urban development nowadays. In recent years, innovative collaborations between cities are becoming more and more frequent, whose influence on urban network space has aroused many scholars' attention. Taking 46 cities in China as the research object, the paper builds the connectivity of innovative network between cities and the linkages of urban external innovation using patent cooperation data among cities, and explores urban network space in China by the application of GIS, which is a beneficial exploration to the study of social network space in China in the era of information network. The result shows that the urban innovative network space and geographical entity space exist differences, and the linkages of external innovation are not entirely related to the city innovative capacity and the level of economy development. However, urban innovative network space and geographical entity space are similar in hierarchical clustering. They have both formed Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta three metropolitan areas and Beijing-Shenzhen-Shanghai-Hangzhou four core cities, which lead the development of innovative network space in China.

Keywords: innovative collaboration, urban network space, the connectivity of innovative network, the linkages of external innovation

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3042 Technology Planning with Internal and External Resource for Open Innovation

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

Technology planning with both internal capacity and external resource is necessary for successful open innovation. Until now, many types of research have been conducted for this issue. However, technology planning for open innovation at the national level has not been researched sufficiently. This study proposes Open roadmap for open innovation at the national level. The proposed open roadmap can manage the inflow & outflow open innovation systematically. Six types of open roadmap are classified with respect to the innovation direction and characteristics. The proposed open roadmap is applied to the open innovation cases of the Roman period. The proposed open roadmap is expected to be helpful tool for technology policy planning at the national level.

Keywords: technology planning, open innovation, internal resource, external resource, technology management

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3041 The Importance of Knowledge Innovation for External Audit on Anti-Corruption

Authors: Adel M. Qatawneh

Abstract:

This paper aimed to determine the importance of knowledge innovation for external audit on anti-corruption in the entire Jordanian bank companies are listed in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). The study importance arises from the need to recognize the Knowledge innovation for external audit and anti-corruption as the development in the world of business, the variables that will be affected by external audit innovation are: reliability of financial data, relevantly of financial data, consistency of the financial data, Full disclosure of financial data and protecting the rights of investors to achieve the objectives of the study a questionnaire was designed and distributed to the society of the Jordanian bank are listed in Amman Stock Exchange. The data analysis found out that the banks in Jordan have a positive importance of Knowledge innovation for external audit on anti-corruption. They agree on the benefit of Knowledge innovation for external audit on anti-corruption. The statistical analysis showed that Knowledge innovation for external audit had a positive impact on the anti-corruption and that external audit has a significantly statistical relationship with anti-corruption, reliability of financial data, consistency of the financial data, a full disclosure of financial data and protecting the rights of investors.

Keywords: knowledge innovation, external audit, anti-corruption, Amman Stock Exchange

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3040 External Networking for Innovation in Construction Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Megat Zuhairy, Megat Tajuddin, Hadijah Iberahim, Noraini Ismail

Abstract:

This paper aims to discuss the impact of external networking on innovation and organizational performance in the construction industry. In Malaysia, the construction industry is known to be one of the industries that contribute significantly towards her economic growth. The construction industry is described as a fragmented and complex product system as construction projects implementation requires involvement of varying combination of large and small organizations across the supply chain spectrum. The innovation and performance of Malaysian construction industry are reported to be at underachieving and efforts for its improvement have inspired this study initiative. External networking among industry players is capable in bringing them to work together as a team, reducing the adversarial relationships among them for innovation effort and greater performance. The instrument in measuring innovation and organizational performance specific to the construction industry was developed by adapting measures introduced by several scholars in these fields. Contractors and consulting companies were the sampling frames of this study representing the construction industry in Malaysia. The population lists were developed from the lists provided by CIDB, BEM, BOA and BQSM. The samples were selected based on a stratified sampling method to gauge representation of the different groups in the population. Regression analysis was performed in this quantitative study to assess relationships amongst variables. The results revealed that principally, external networking is significant in influencing both innovation and organizational performance. Nevertheless, external networking with different industry players has a different impact on innovation and organizational performance. The study revealed that external networking with project players is significant on project performance but not on innovation. On the other hand, external networking with government agencies, academic institutions and professional bodies is significant in influencing innovation but not on organizational performance.

Keywords: innovation, external networking, organizational performance, construction industry

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3039 The Impact of External Technology Acquisition and Exploitation on Firms' Process Innovation Performance

Authors: Thammanoon Charmjuree, Yuosre F. Badir, Umar Safdar

Abstract:

There is a consensus among innovation scholars that knowledge is a vital antecedent for firm’s innovation; e.g., process innovation. Recently, there has been an increasing amount of attention to more open approaches to innovation. This open model emphasizes the use of purposive flows of knowledge across the organization boundaries. Firms adopt open innovation strategy to improve their innovation performance by bringing knowledge into the organization (inbound open innovation) to accelerate internal innovation or transferring knowledge outside (outbound open innovation) to expand the markets for external use of innovation. Reviewing open innovation research reveals the following. First, the majority of existing studies have focused on inbound open innovation and less on outbound open innovation. Second, limited research has considered the possible interaction between both and how this interaction may impact the firm’s innovation performance. Third, scholars have focused mainly on the impact of open innovation strategy on product innovation and less on process innovation. Therefore, our knowledge of the relationship between firms’ inbound and outbound open innovation and how these two impact process innovation is still limited. This study focuses on the firm’s external technology acquisition (ETA) and external technology exploitation (ETE) and the firm’s process innovation performance. The ETA represents inbound openness in which firms rely on the acquisition and absorption of external technologies to complement their technology portfolios. The ETE, on the other hand, refers to commercializing technology assets exclusively or in addition to their internal application. This study hypothesized that both ETA and ETE have a positive relationship with process innovation performance and that ETE fully mediates the relationship between ETA and process innovation performance, i.e., ETA has a positive impact on ETE, and turn, ETE has a positive impact on process innovation performance. This study empirically explored these hypotheses in software development firms in Thailand. These firms were randomly selected from a list of Software firms registered with the Department of Business Development, Ministry of Commerce of Thailand. The questionnaires were sent to 1689 firms. After follow-ups and periodic reminders, we obtained 329 (19.48%) completed usable questionnaires. The structure question modeling (SEM) has been used to analyze the data. An analysis of the outcome of 329 firms provides support for our three hypotheses: First, the firm’s ETA has a positive impact on its process innovation performance. Second, the firm’s ETA has a positive impact its ETE. Third, the firm’s ETE fully mediates the relationship between the firm’s ETA and its process innovation performance. This study fills up the gap in open innovation literature by examining the relationship between inbound (ETA) and outbound (ETE) open innovation and suggest that in order to benefits from the promises of openness, firms must engage in both. The study went one step further by explaining the mechanism through which ETA influence process innovation performance.

Keywords: process innovation performance, external technology acquisition, external technology exploitation, open innovation

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3038 National System of Innovation in Zambia: Towards Socioeconomic Development

Authors: Ephraim Daka, Maxim Kotsemir

Abstract:

The National system Innovation (NSI) have recently proliferated as a vehicle for addressing poverty and national competitiveness in the developing countries. While several governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have adopted the developed countries’ models of innovation to local conditions, the Zambian case is rather unique. This study highlights conceptual and socioeconomic challenges directed to the performances of the NSI. The paper analyses science and technology strategies with the inclusion of “innovation” and its effect towards improving socioeconomic elements. The authors reviewed STI policy and national strategy documents, followed by interviews compared to economical regional and national data sets. The NSI and its related to inter-linkages and support mechanism to socioeconomic development were explored.

Keywords: national system of innovation, socioeconomics, development, Zambia

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3037 The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation

Authors: R. Hashim, A. J. Bock, S. Cooper

Abstract:

Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative (GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, construction industry, environmental, green innovation

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3036 Partner Selection for Innovation Projects Related to New Product Concept Design

Authors: Odd Jarl Borch, Marina Z. Solesvik

Abstract:

The paper analyses partner selection approaches related to large scale R&D-based innovation projects at the different stages of development. We emphasize innovation projects in the maritime value chain and how partners are selected to improve quality according to high spec customer demands, and to reduce investment costs on new production technology such as advanced offshore service vessels. We elaborate on the differences in innovation approach and especially the role that purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge from external partners may be used to accelerate internal innovation. We present three cases related to different projects in terms of specificity and scope. We explore how the partner selection criteria change over time when the goals move from wide scope to a very specific R&D tasks.

Keywords: partner selection, innovation, offshore industry, concept design

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3035 Obstacles to Innovation for SMEs: Evidence from Germany

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer

Abstract:

Achieving effective innovation is a complex task and during this process firms (especially SMEs) often face obstacles. However, research into obstacles to innovation focusing on SMEs is very scarce. In this study, we propose a theoretical framework for describing these obstacles to innovation and investigate their influence on the innovative performance of SMEs. Data were collected in 2013 through face-to-face interviews with executives of 49 technology SMEs from Germany. The semi-structured interviews were designed on the basis of scales for measuring innovativeness, financial/competitive performance and obstacles to innovation, next to purely open questions. We find that the internal obstacles lack the know-how, capacity overloading, unclear roles and tasks, as well as the external obstacle governmental bureaucracy negatively influence the innovative performance of SMEs. However, in contrast to prior findings this study shows that cooperation ties of firms might also negatively influence the innovative performance.

Keywords: innovation, innovation process, obstacles, SME

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3034 The Impact of Innovation Efficiency on the Production of New Knowledge: A Manufacturing Firm Level Perspective

Authors: Vasilios Kanellopoulos

Abstract:

The present paper examines the effect of innovation efficiency on the production of new knowledge from a firm level perspective. It resorts to the Greek version of community innovation survey (CIS 2012-2014 microdata) and employs 1274 firms of the manufacturing, which constitutes the main sector of examination. It assumes a knowledge production function (KPF) and finds that R&D spillovers related to the expenditures on innovation activities, internal R&D, external R&D, skilled labor, and the expenditures in the acquisition of machinery have a positive and significant effect on the production of new knowledge when OLS techniques are applied. However, innovation efficiency comes from a Banker and Morey (1986) data envelopment analysis (DEA) with categorical variables has a statistically insignificant impact on the production of new knowledge measured by firm’s turnover.

Keywords: firms, innovation efficiency, production of new knowledge, R&D spillovers

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3033 Effect of Access to Finance on Innovation and Productivity of SMEs in Nigeria: Evidence from the World Bank Enterprise Survey

Authors: Abidemi C. Adegboye, Samuel Iweriebor

Abstract:

The primary link between financial institutions and economic performance is the provision of resources by these institutions to businesses in order to drive enterprise expansion, sustainability, and development. In this study, the role of access to finance in driving innovations and productivity in Nigerian SMEs is investigated using the World Bank Enterprise Survey (ES) dataset. Innovation is defined based on the ES analysis using five compositions including product, method, organisational, use of foreign-licensed technology, and spending on R&D. The study considers finance in terms of source in meeting investment needs and in terms of access. Moreover, finance access is categorized as external and internal to a firm with each having different implications. The research methodology adopted a survey analysis based on the 2014 World Bank Enterprise Survey of 19 states in Nigeria. The survey comprised over 10,000 manufacturing and services firms, both at the small scale and medium scale levels. The logit estimation technique is used to estimate the relationships in the study. The results from the empirical analysis show that in general, access to finance drives SME innovation in Nigeria. In particular, ease of accessing bank loans and credit is shown to be the strongest positive force in driving all types of innovation among SMEs in Nigeria. In the same vein, the type of finance source for investment matters in terms of how it affects innovation: it is shown that both internal and external sources improve investment in product, process, and organisational innovation, but only external financing has effect on R&D spending and use of foreign licensed technology. Overall spending on R&D is only driven by access to external finance by the SMEs. For productivity, the results show that while structure of financing investment improves productivity, increased access to finance may actually lead to productivity decline among SMEs in Nigeria. There is a need for the financial system to evolve structures to increase fund availability to SMEs in Nigeria, especially for the purpose of innovation investment.

Keywords: access to finance, financing investment, innovation, productivity, SMEs

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3032 Formal Innovations vs. Informal Innovations: The Case of the Mining Sector in Nigeria

Authors: Jegede Oluseye Oladayo

Abstract:

The study mapped innovation activities in the formal and informal mining sector in Nigeria. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through guided questionnaire administration, guided interviews and personal observation. A purposive sampling method was adopted to select firms that are micro, small and medium enterprises. The study covered 100 (50 in the formal sector and 50 in the informal sector) purposively selected companies in south-western Nigeria. Secondary data were collected from different published sources. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the four types of technological innovations sampled, organisational innovation was found to be highest both in the formal (100%) and informal (100%) sectors, followed by process innovation: 60% in the formal sector and 28% in the informal sector, marketing innovation and diffusion based innovation were implemented by 64% and 4% respectively in the formal sector. There were no R&D activities (intramural or extramural) in both sectors, however, innovation activities occur at moderate levels in the formal sector. This is characterised by acquisition of machinery, equipment, hardware (100%), software (56), training (82%) and acquisition of external knowledge (60%) in the formal sector. In the informal sector, innovation activities were characterised by acquisition of external knowledge (100%), training/learning by experience (100%) and acquisition of tools (68%). The impact of innovation on firm’s performance in the formal sector was expressed mainly as increased capacity of production (100%), reduced production cost per unit of labour (88%), compliance with governmental regulatory requirements (72%) and entry on new markets (60%). In the informal sector, the impact of innovation was mainly expressed in improved flexibility of production (70%) and machinery/energy efficiency (70%). The important technological driver of process innovation in the mining sector was acquisition of machinery which accounts for the prevalence of 100% both in the formal and informal sectors. Next to this is training and re-training of technical staff, 74% in both the formal and the informal sector. Other factors influencing organisational innovation are skill of workforce with a prevalence of 80% in both the formal and informal sector. The important technological drivers include educational background of the manager/head of technical department (54%) for organisational innovation and (50%) for process innovation in the formal sector. The study concluded that innovation competence of the firms was mostly organisational changes.

Keywords: innovation prevalence, innovation activities, innovation performance, innovation drivers

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3031 Social Media Idea Ontology: A Concept for Semantic Search of Product Ideas in Customer Knowledge through User-Centered Metrics and Natural Language Processing

Authors: Martin H¨ausl, Maximilian Auch, Johannes Forster, Peter Mandl, Alexander Schill

Abstract:

In order to survive on the market, companies must constantly develop improved and new products. These products are designed to serve the needs of their customers in the best possible way. The creation of new products is also called innovation and is primarily driven by a company’s internal research and development department. However, a new approach has been taking place for some years now, involving external knowledge in the innovation process. This approach is called open innovation and identifies customer knowledge as the most important source in the innovation process. This paper presents a concept of using social media posts as an external source to support the open innovation approach in its initial phase, the Ideation phase. For this purpose, the social media posts are semantically structured with the help of an ontology and the authors are evaluated using graph-theoretical metrics such as density. For the structuring and evaluation of relevant social media posts, we also use the findings of Natural Language Processing, e. g. Named Entity Recognition, specific dictionaries, Triple Tagger and Part-of-Speech-Tagger. The selection and evaluation of the tools used are discussed in this paper. Using our ontology and metrics to structure social media posts enables users to semantically search these posts for new product ideas and thus gain an improved insight into the external sources such as customer needs.

Keywords: idea ontology, innovation management, semantic search, open information extraction

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3030 Innovation Management: A Comparative Analysis among Organizations from United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Brazil and China

Authors: Asmaa Abazaid, Maram Al-Ostah, Nadeen Abu-Zahra, Ruba Bawab, Refaat Abdel-Razek

Abstract:

Innovation audit is defined as a tool that can be used to reflect on how the innovation is managed in an organization. The aim of this study is to audit innovation in the second top Engineering Firms in the world, and one of the Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) companies that are working in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The obtained results are then compared with four international companies from China and Brazil. The Diamond model has been used for auditing innovation in the two companies in UAE to evaluate their innovation management and to identify each company’s strengths and weaknesses from an innovation perspective. The results of the comparison between the two companies (Jacobs and Hyper General Contracting) revealed that Jacobs has support for innovation, its innovation processes are well managed, the company is committed to the development of its employees worldwide and the innovation system is flexible. Jacobs was doing best in all innovation management dimensions: strategy, process, organization, linkages and learning, while Hyper General Contracting did not score as Jacobs in any of the innovation dimensions. Furthermore, the audit results of both companies were compared with international companies to examine how well the two construction companies in UAE manage innovation relative to SABIC (Saudi company), Poly Easy and Arnious (Brazilian companies), Huagong tools and Guizohou Yibai (Chinese companies). The results revealed that Jacobs is doing best in learning and organization dimensions, while PolyEasy and Jacobs are equal in the linkage dimension. Huagong Tools scored the highest score in process dimension among all the compared companies. However, the highest score of strategy dimension was given to PolyEasy. On the other hand, Hyper General Contracting scored the lowest in all of the innovation management dimensions. It needs to improve its management of all the innovation management dimensions with special attention to be given to strategy, process, and linkage as they got scores below 4 out of 7 comparing with other dimensions. Jacobs scored the highest in three innovation management dimensions related to the six companies. However, the strategy dimension is considered low, and special attention is needed in this dimension.

Keywords: Brazil, China, innovation audit, innovation evaluation, innovation management, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

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3029 Commercialization of Research Outputs in Kenyan Universities

Authors: John Ayisi, Gideon M. Kivengea, George A. Ombakho

Abstract:

In this emerging era of knowledge economy, universities, as major centres of learning and research, are becoming increasingly important as sources of ideas, knowledge, skills, innovation and technological advances. These ideas can be turned into new products, processes and systems needed to drive their respective national economies, and thus placing universities at the centre of the national innovation systems. Thus, commercialization of research outputs from universities to industry has become an area of strong policy interest in African countries. To assess the level of commercialization of research outputs in Kenyan universities, a standardized questionnaire covering seven sub-sections, namely: University Commercialization Environment, Management of Commercialization Activities, Commercialization Office, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), Early Stage Financing and Venture Capital; Industrial Linkages; and Technology Parks and Incubators was administered among a few selected public and private universities. Results show that all the universities have a strategic plan; though not all have innovation and commercialization as part of it. Half the nineteen surveyed universities indicated they have created designated offices for fostering commercialization. Majority have guidelines on IPRs which advocate IP to be co-owned by researcher/university. University-industry linkages are weak. Most universities are taking precursory steps to incentivise and encourage entrepreneurial activities among their academic staff and students, even though the level of resources devoted to them is low. It is recommended that building capacity in entrepreneurship among staff and students and committing more resources to R&D activities hold potential to increased commercialization of university research outputs.

Keywords: commercialization, knowledge, R&D, university

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3028 Models of Innovation Processes and Their Evolution: A Literature Review

Authors: Maier Dorin, Maier Andreea

Abstract:

Today, any organization - regardless of the specific activity - must be prepared to face continuous radical changes, innovation thus becoming a condition of survival in a globalized market. Not all managers have an overall view on the real size of necessary innovation potential. Unfortunately there is still no common (and correct) understanding of the term of innovation among managers. Moreover, not all managers are aware of the need for innovation. This article highlights and analyzes a series of models of innovation processes and their evolution. The models analyzed encompass both the strategic level and the operational one within an organization, indicating performance innovation on each landing. As the literature review shows, there are no easy answers to the innovation process as there are no shortcuts to great results. Successful companies do not have a silver innovative bullet - they do not get results by making one or few things better than others, they make everything better.

Keywords: innovation, innovation process, business success, models of innovation

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3027 Breakthrough Innovation Thinking Technology of a Conglomerate for Next Generation Plan

Authors: Dongkyu Lee, Doan-Quoc Hoan, Soomi Shin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to suggest the Value Innovation type Breakthrough Innovation which is a Big Thinking Process that realizes a creative idea for the next generation innovation Master Plan of a company. The BI based on the PVI methodology is believed to contribute to the launching of a new business, the acquisition of new markets, and the development of an innovative management process.

Keywords: value, innovation, breakthrough innovation, Korean firm

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3026 The Impact of Total Quality Management Practices on Innovation: An Empirical Study

Authors: Oumayma Tajouri

Abstract:

The relationship between total quality management (TQM) practices and innovation is conflictual. Some scholars suggest that TQM has an effect on incremental improvement and would not lead to innovation and creativity. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between TQM and different types of innovation. Our goal is to examine to what extent the implementation of TQM practices is indeed supporting innovation in the Tunisian ISO 9001 certified industries. Using a self-administered survey to sample ISO9001 certified industry companies, this study examines five hypotheses and tests the relation between TQM practices and innovation. The principal finding of this study is that TQM has significant and positive effects on innovation in the Tunisian context. The results support that TQM has an influence on incremental, radical, and administrative innovation.

Keywords: total quality management, incremental innovation product and/service, radical innovation product/service, incremental innovation process, radical innovation process, administrative innovation

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3025 Identification of Configuration Space Singularities with Local Real Algebraic Geometry

Authors: Marc Diesse, Hochschule Heilbronn

Abstract:

We address the question of identifying the configuration space singularities of linkages, i.e., points where the configuration space is not locally a submanifold of Euclidean space. Because the configuration space cannot be smoothly parameterized at such points, these singularity types have a significantly negative impact on the kinematics of the linkage. It is known that Jacobian methods do not provide sufficient conditions for the existence of CS-singularities. Herein, we present several additional algebraic criteria that provide the sufficient conditions. Further, we use those criteria to analyze certain classes of planar linkages. These examples will also show how the presented criteria can be checked using algorithmic methods.

Keywords: linkages, configuration space-singularities, real algebraic geometry, analytic geometry

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3024 Juxtaposing South Africa’s Private Sector and Its Public Service Regarding Innovation Diffusion, to Explore the Obstacles to E-Governance

Authors: Petronella Jonck, Freda van der Walt

Abstract:

Despite the benefits of innovation diffusion in the South African public service, implementation thereof seems to be problematic, particularly with regard to e-governance which would enhance the quality of service delivery, especially accessibility, choice, and mode of operation. This paper reports on differences between the public service and the private sector in terms of innovation diffusion. Innovation diffusion will be investigated to explore identified obstacles that are hindering successful implementation of e-governance. The research inquiry is underpinned by the diffusion of innovation theory, which is premised on the assumption that innovation has a distinct channel, time, and mode of adoption within the organisation. A comparative thematic document analysis was conducted to investigate organisational differences with regard to innovation diffusion. A similar approach has been followed in other countries, where the same conceptual framework has been used to guide document analysis in studies in both the private and the public sectors. As per the recommended conceptual framework, three organisational characteristics were emphasised, namely the external characteristics of the organisation, the organisational structure, and the inherent characteristics of the leadership. The results indicated that the main difference in the external characteristics lies in the focus and the clientele of the private sector. With regard to organisational structure, private organisations have veto power, which is not the case in the public service. Regarding leadership, similarities were observed in social and environmental responsibility and employees’ attitudes towards immediate supervision. Differences identified included risk taking, the adequacy of leadership development, organisational approaches to motivation and involvement in decision making, and leadership style. Due to the organisational differences observed, it is recommended that differentiated strategies be employed to ensure effective innovation diffusion, and ultimately e-governance. It is recommended that the results of this research be used to stimulate discussion on ways to improve collaboration between the mentioned sectors, to capitalise on the benefits of each sector.

Keywords: E-governance, ICT, innovation diffusion, comparative analysis

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3023 Macro Corruption: A Conceptual Analysis of Its Dimensions and Forward and Backward Linkages

Authors: Ahmed Sakr Ashour, Hoda Saad AboRemila

Abstract:

An attempt was made to fill the gap in the macro analysis of corruption by suggesting a conceptual framework that differentiates four types of macro corruption: state capture, political, bureaucratic and financial/corporate. The economic consequences or forward linkages (growth, inclusiveness and sustainability of development) and macro institutional determinants constituting the backward linkages of each type were delineated. The research implications of the macro perspective and proposed framework were discussed. Implications of the findings for theory, research and reform policies addressing macro corruption issues were discussed.

Keywords: economic growth, inclusive growth, macro corruption, sustainable development

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3022 The Influence of Absorptive Capacity on Process Innovation: An Exploratory Study in Seven Leading and Emerging Countries

Authors: Raphael M. Rettig, Tessa C. Flatten

Abstract:

This empirical study answer calls for research on Absorptive Capacity and Process Innovation. Due to the fourth industrial revolution, manufacturing companies face the biggest disruption of their production processes since the rise of advanced manufacturing technologies in the last century. Therefore, process innovation will become a critical task to master in the future for many manufacturing firms around the world. The general ability of organizations to acquire, assimilate, transform, and exploit external knowledge, known as Absorptive Capacity, was proven to positively influence product innovation and is already conceptually associated with process innovation. The presented research provides empirical evidence for this influence. The findings are based on an empirical analysis of 732 companies from seven leading and emerging countries: Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, and the United States of America. The answers to the survey were collected in February and March 2018 and addressed senior- and top-level management with a focus on operations departments. The statistical analysis reveals the positive influence of potential and Realized Absorptive Capacity on successful process innovation taking the implementation of new digital manufacturing processes as an example. Potential Absorptive Capacity covering the acquisition and assimilation capabilities of an organization showed a significant positive influence (β = .304, p < .05) on digital manufacturing implementation success and therefore on process innovation. Realized Absorptive Capacity proved to have significant positive influence on process innovation as well (β = .461, p < .01). The presented study builds on prior conceptual work in the field of Absorptive Capacity and process innovation and contributes theoretically to ongoing research in two dimensions. First, the already conceptually associated influence of Absorptive Capacity on process innovation is backed by empirical evidence in a broad international context. Second, since Absorptive Capacity was measured with a focus on new product development, prior empirical research on Absorptive Capacity was tailored to the research and development departments of organizations. The results of this study highlight the importance of Absorptive Capacity as a capability in mechanical engineering and operations departments of organizations. The findings give managers an indication of the importance of implementing new innovative processes into their production system and fostering the right mindset of employees to identify new external knowledge. Through the ability to transform and exploit external knowledge, own production processes can be innovated successfully and therefore have a positive influence on firm performance and the competitive position of their organizations.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, digital manufacturing, dynamic capabilities, process innovation

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3021 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: literature review, policy innovation, determinants, antecedents

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3020 Constructing Service Innovation Model for SMEs in Automotive Service Industries: A Case Study of Auto Repair Motorcycle in Makassar City

Authors: Muhammad Farid, Jen Der Day

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the construct of service innovation model for Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in automotive service industries. A case study of repair shop of the motorcycle at Makassar city illustrates measure innovation implementation, the degree of innovation, and identifies the type of innovation by the service innovation model for SMEs. In this paper, we interview 10 managers of SMEs and analyze their answers. We find that innovation implementation has been slowly; only producing new service innovation 0.62 unit average per year. Incremental innovation is the present option for SMEs, because they choose safer roads to improve service continuously. If want to create radical innovation, they still consider the aspect of cost, system, and readiness of human resources.

Keywords: service innovation, incremental innovation, SMEs, automotive service industries

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3019 Organizational Performance and Impact of Social Innovation

Authors: Alfonso Unceta, Javier Castro-Spila

Abstract:

This paper offers a conceptual and empirical exploration between the organizational performance and the impact of social innovation. The paper contributes on the social innovation field in three domains: a) It provides analytical and empirical evidence linking organizational performance to the impact of social innovation; b) it provides a first outline of impact assessment of social innovation when it is developed by a diversity of heterogeneous actors (systemic social innovation); c) it provides a first outline for the development of innovation policies to support social innovations according to a typology of organizations and a typology of impact.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, social innovation impact, organizational performance, RESINDEX, Basque Country

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3018 Creative Culture to Innovative Culture: Transformal Operation

Authors: Peer M. Sathikh

Abstract:

Creativity and innovation have become an important phenomenon today, whose potential is being realized through the success of Apple, Google/Android, Nike, Virgin, Dyson and other multinationals that are a household name today. Creativity and Innovation are, many times, used interchangeably, causing confusion as to what each represents and are capable of. Attempts to understand creativity and innovation clearly point to the difference, and at the same time, inter-dependency of one on the other. The assumption that having more creative personnel in a team will translate into innovation sooner or later seems generally counterproductive. What helps define the role of creativity and innovation in an organization and how can one build an innovative team? This paper points to the importance of understanding creative culture and innovation culture in order to bring about the desired innovation outcome and proposes a means to transform one to another as ideas move from mere ideas to useful innovation.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, creative culture, innovation culture, transformal operators

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3017 Overcoming Open Innovation Challenges with Technology Intelligence: Case of Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Akhatjon Nasullaev, Raffaella Manzini, Vincent Frigant

Abstract:

The prior research largely discussed open innovation practices both in large and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Open Innovation compels firms to observe and analyze the external environment in order to tap new opportunities for inbound and/or outbound flows of knowledge, ideas, work in progress innovations. As SMEs are different from their larger counterparts, they face several limitations in utilizing open innovation activities, such as resource scarcity, unstructured innovation processes and underdeveloped innovation capabilities. Technology intelligence – the process of systematic acquisition, assessment and communication of information about technological trends, opportunities and threats can mitigate this limitation by enabling SMEs to identify technological and market opportunities in timely manner and undertake sound decisions, as well as to realize a ‘first mover advantage’. Several studies highlighted firm-level barriers to successful implementation of open innovation practices in SMEs, namely challenges in partner selection, intellectual property rights and trust, absorptive capacity. This paper aims to investigate the question how technology intelligence can be useful for SMEs to overcome the barriers to effective open innovation. For this, we conduct a case study in four Estonian life-sciences SMEs. Our findings revealed that technology intelligence can support SMEs not only in inbound open innovation (taking into account inclination of most firms toward technology exploration aspects of open innovation) but also outbound open innovation. Furthermore, the results of this study state that, although SMEs conduct technology intelligence in unsystematic and uncoordinated manner, it helped them to increase their innovative performance.

Keywords: technology intelligence, open innovation, SMEs, life sciences

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3016 The Moderating Effect of Intellectual Capital on the Relationship of Innovation Practices in SME’s Performance

Authors: Hussen Nasir, Mohd Fitri Mansor, Noor Hidayah Abu

Abstract:

Liberation of the SME market led to a dynamic competitive business environment. SMEs are considered as an engine for economic growth of most nations. SMEs must be willing to adopt the latest technology and incorporate innovation as part of their business strategies. The aim of this study is to examine the innovation practices (innovation strategy and innovation culture) towards sustaining SME’s performance and the moderating effect of intellectual capital on the relationship of innovation practices on SME’s performance. The study will identify the strongest variables that influence the SMEs performance and proposed several hypothesis toward innovation and intellectual capital. Finally, the study will propose a theoretical framework. The current study will contribute to the knowledge of important on the element of intellectual capital as well as innovation practices in the SMEs performance.

Keywords: intellectual capital, innovation practices, SMEs, performance, innovation strategy, innovation culture

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3015 Electronically Controlled Motorized Steering System (E-Mo Steer)

Authors: M. Prasanth, V. Nithin, R. Keerthana, S.Kalyani

Abstract:

In the current scenario, the steering system in automobiles is such that the motion from the steering wheel is transferred to driving wheel by mechanical linkages. In this paper, we propose a method to design a steering mechanism using servomotors to turn the wheels instead of linkages. In this method, a steering angle sensor senses the turn angle of the steering wheel and its output is processed by an electronical control module. Then the ECM compares the angle value to that of a standard value from a look-up database. Then it gives the appropriate input power and the turning duration to the motors. Correspondingly, the motors turn the wheels by means of bevel gears welded to both the motor output shafts and the wheel hubs. Thus, the wheels are turned without the complicated framework of linkages, reducing the driver’s effort and fatigue considerably.

Keywords: electronic control unit, linkage-less steering, servomotors, E-Mo Steer

Procedia PDF Downloads 186