Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Babak Darvish Rouhani

35 The Efferent of Different Levels of Recycled Soybean Oil(RSO) on Growth and Performance of Broilers

Authors: Seyed Babak Asadi


In this experiment the effect of recycled soybean oil (RSO) on the growth and performance carcass of broiler was investigated. The percentages of recycled soybean oil (RSO) used in this experiment were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. In this regard, 300 one-day-old broilers were selected randomly consisting of five treatments and three replicates(20 chickens per replicate). The chicks were kept in an accumulated manner for the first week, then divided between treatments and kept until they reached the age of 42 days. Body weight at 21 and 42, weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio in starter (0-21 d), finisher (21-42 d) and overall were measured. At the end of the experiment (42 days-old) 2 chicks from each replicate which had the nearest weight to the average group in their group were selected, slaughtered and different parts of their carcass were weight separately. The result showed that the rate of feed intake and feed conversion coefficient have significantly increased with higher levels of recycled soybean oil. There was not a significant different between experimental groups for liver, heart, intestine and the weight of carcass. Results from this experiment showed that it is possible to use recycled soybean oil for up to 8 percent of food ration for broiler chicks without any significant effects on carcass quality.

Keywords: Growth, Performance, broiler, recycled soybean oil (RSO)

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34 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Potential of IL-2 as Biomarker for the Discrimination of Active and Latent Tuberculosis

Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi, Majid Marjani


In the last years, the potential role of distinct T-cell subsets as biomarkers of active tuberculosis TB and/or latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in whole blood stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-G-IT) for the discrimination of active and latent tuberculosis. After 72-h of stimulation by antigens from the QFT-G-IT assay, IL-2 secretion was quantitated in supernatants by using ELISA (Mabtech AB, Sweden). Observing the level of IL-2 released after 72-h of incubation, we found that the level of IL-2 were significantly higher in LTBI group than in patients with active TB infection or control group (P value=0.019, Kruskal–Wallis test). The discrimination performance (assessed by the area under ROC curve) between LTBI and patients with active TB was 0.816 (95%CI: 0.72-0.97). Maximum discrimination was reached at a cut-off of 13.9 pg/mL for IL-2 following stimulation with 82% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In conclusion, although cytokine analysis has greatly contributed to the understanding of TB pathogenesis, data on cytokine profiles that might distinguish progression from latency of TB infection are scarce and even controversial. Our data indicate that the concomitant evaluation of IFN- γ and IL-2 could be instrumental in discriminating of active and latent TB infection.

Keywords: Discrimination, interleukin-2, active TB, latent TB

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
33 Enhancing Sensitivity in Multifrequency Atomic Force Microscopy

Authors: Babak Eslami


Bimodal and trimodal AFM have provided additional capabilities to scanning probe microscopy characterization techniques. These capabilities have specifically enhanced material characterization of surfaces and provided subsurface imaging in addition to conventional topography images. Bimodal and trimodal AFM, being different techniques of multifrequency AFM, are based on exciting the cantilever’s fundamental eigenmode with second and third eigenmodes simultaneously. Although higher eigenmodes provide a higher number of observables that can provide additional information about the sample, they cause experimental challenges. In this work, different experimental approaches for enhancing AFM images in multifrequency for different characterization goals are provided. The trade-offs between eigenmodes including the advantages and disadvantages of using each mode for different samples (ranging from stiff to soft matter) in both air and liquid environments are provided. Additionally, the advantage of performing conventional single tapping mode AFM with higher eigenmodes of the cantilever in order to reduce sample indentation is discussed. These analyses are performed on widely used polymers such as polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate and air nanobubbles on different surfaces in both air and liquid.

Keywords: Soft Matter, Polymer, Sensitivity, multifrequency

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32 Metamorphic Computer Virus Classification Using Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Babak Bashari Rad


A metamorphic computer virus uses different code transformation techniques to mutate its body in duplicated instances. Characteristics and function of new instances are mostly similar to their parents, but they cannot be easily detected by the majority of antivirus in market, as they depend on string signature-based detection techniques. The purpose of this research is to propose a Hidden Markov Model for classification of metamorphic viruses in executable files. In the proposed solution, portable executable files are inspected to extract the instructions opcodes needed for the examination of code. A Hidden Markov Model trained on portable executable files is employed to classify the metamorphic viruses of the same family. The proposed model is able to generate and recognize common statistical features of mutated code. The model has been evaluated by examining the model on a test data set. The performance of the model has been practically tested and evaluated based on False Positive Rate, Detection Rate and Overall Accuracy. The result showed an acceptable performance with high average of 99.7% Detection Rate.

Keywords: hidden Markov model, malware classification, computer virus classification, metamorphic virus, metamorphic malware

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
31 The Evolving Customer Experience Management Landscape: A Case Study on the Paper Machine Companies

Authors: Babak Mohajeri, Sen Bao, Timo Nyberg


Customer experience is increasingly the differentiator between successful companies and those who struggle. Currently, customer experiences become more dynamic; and they advance with each interaction between the company and a customer. Every customer conversation and any effort to evolve these conversations would be beneficial and should ultimately result in a positive customer experience. The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolving customer experience management landscape and the relevant challenges and opportunities. A case study on the “paper machine” companies is chosen. Hence, this paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities in customer experience management of paper machine companies for the case of “road to steel”. Road to steel shows the journey of steel from raw material to end product (i.e. paper machine in this paper). ALPHA (Steel company) and BETA (paper machine company), are chosen and their efforts to evolve the customer experiences are investigated. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with experts in those companies to identify the challenges and opportunities of the evolving customer experience management from their point of view. The findings of this paper contribute to the theory and business practices in the realm of the evolving customer experience management landscape.

Keywords: risk analysis, Value Chain Management, Customer Experience Management, Paper Machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
30 Recognizing and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Productivity of Human Resources Through Using Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution Method

Authors: Amirmehdi Dokhanchi, Babak Ziyae


Studying and prioritizing effective factors on productivity of human resources through TOPSIS method is the main aim of the present research study. For this reason, while reviewing concepts existing in productivity, effective factors were studied. Managers, supervisors, staff and personnel of Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Company are considered subject of this study. Of total individuals, 160 of them were selected through the application of random sampling method as 'subject'. Two questionnaires were used for collecting data in this study. The factors, which had the highest effect on productivity, were recognized through the application of software packages. TOPSIS method was used for prioritizing recognized factors. For this reason, the second questionnaire was put available to statistics sample for studying effect of each of factors towards predetermined indicators. Therefore, decision-making matrix was obtained. The result of prioritizing factors shows that existence of accurate organizational strategy, high level of occupational skill, application of partnership and contribution system, on-the-job-training services, high quality of occupational life, dissemination of appropriate organizational culture, encouraging to creativity and innovation, and environmental factors are prioritized respectively.

Keywords: TOPSIS, productivity of human resources, productivity indicators, prioritizing factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
29 Improving Sustainability of the Apparel Industry with Joining the Forces among the Brand Owners: The Case Study of Digital Textile Printing

Authors: Babak Mohajeri, Timo Nyberg, Elina Ilen


Sustainability has become an important topic in contemporary business. The apparel industry is a good example to assess sustainability in practice. Value chains in the apparel industry are faced with various challenges regarding sustainability issues. Apparel companies pay higher attention to economic sustainability issues, and environmental and social sustainability issues of the apparel industry are often underrated. In this paper, we analyze the role of the different players in the value chain of the apparel industry in terms of sustainability. We realize that the brand owners have the highest impact on improving the sustainability of the apparel industry. We design a collaborative business model to join the forces among the brand owners for improving the sustainability of the apparel industry throughout the value chain. We have conducted a case study of shifting from conventional screen-printing to more environmentally sustainable digital textile printing. We suggest that this shift can be accelerated if the brand owners join their forces together to shift from conventional printing to digital printing technology in the apparel industry. Based on the proposed business model, we suggest future directions for using joining the forces among the brand owners for case of sustainability

Keywords: Sustainability, Apparel Industry, Digital Textile Printing, joining forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
28 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Buckling Analysis at Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi


In the present study we have investigated axial buckling characteristics of nanocomposite beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Various types of beam theories including Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory and Reddy beam theory were used to analyze the buckling behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was utilized to discretize the governing differential equations along with four commonly used boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite beams were obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites which were embedded by amorphous polyethylene matrix. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were matched with those calculated by the mixture rule to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results were presented to indicate the influences of nanotube volume fractions and end supports on the critical axial buckling loads of nanocomposite beams relevant to long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), axial buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
27 Preparation of Zno/Ag Nanocomposite and Coating on Polymers for Anti-Infection Biomaterial Application

Authors: Babak Sadeghi, Parisa Ghayomipour


ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were prepared by chemical reduction method, for anti-infection biomaterial application. There is a growing interest in attempts in using biomolecular as the templates to grow inorganic nanocomposites in controlled morphology and structure. By optimizing the experiment conditions, we successfully fabricated high yield of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite with full coverage of high-density polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating. More importantly, ZnO/Ag nanocomposites were shown to significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus in solution. It was further shown that ZnO/Ag nanocomposites induced thiol depletion that caused death of S. aureus. The coatings were fully characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Most importantly, compared to uncoated metals, the coatings on PVC promoted healthy antibacterial activity. Importantly, compared to ZnO-Ag -uncoated PVC, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated was approximately triplet more effective in preventing bacteria attachment. The result of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are chemically stable in the temperature range from 50 to 900 ºC. This result, for the first time, demonstrates the potential of using ZnO/Ag nanocomposites as a coating material for numerous anti-bacterial applications.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, antibacterial activity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD)

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26 The Predictive Value of Extensor Grip Test for the Effectiveness of Treatment for Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Mohammad Javad Zehtab, Ali Majlesara, Parvin Tajik, Babak Siavashi


Objective: There are different modalities proposed for tennis elbow treatment with few randomized trials comparing them. We designed a study to compare the effectiveness of five different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina hospital of Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfill trial entry criteria, among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT result. Stratified on EGT result, patients allocated randomly to 5 treatment groups: Brace (B) group, physiotherapy (P), brace + physiotherapy (BP), injection (I) and injection + physiotherapy (IP). Results: Patients who had positive result of EGT had better response to treatments: less SOC (p = 0.06), less PFFQ and patients’ satisfaction scores (p < 0.001). Among the treatment IP was the most successful, then BP, P and B, respectively; injection was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing; in which positive EGT was correlated with a dramatic response to treatment. Conclusion: In all patients IP and then BP is recommended but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, tennis elbow, extensor grip test, tennis elbow treatment

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25 Environmental Justice and Citizenship Rights in the Tehran Health Plan

Authors: Bahareh Arghand, Mahdi Babaee, Mohammad Parvaresh, Davood Nourmohammadi


Environmental degradation is caused by social inequalities and the inappropriate use of nature and a factor in the violation of human rights. Indeed, the right to a safe, healthy and ecologically-balanced environment is an independent human right. Therefore, the relationship between human rights and environmental protection is crucial for the study of social justice and sustainable development, and environmental problems are a result of the failure to realize social and economic justice. In this regard, 'article 50 of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as a general principle have many of the concepts of sustainable development, including: the growth and improvement of human life, the rights of present and future generations, and the integrity of the inner and outer generation, the prohibition of any environmental degradation'. Also, Charter on Citizen’s Rights, which was conveyed by the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Mr. Rouhani refers to the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. In this regard in 2013, Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. defined a plan called 'Tehran’s Health Line' was includes Western and Eastern part by about 26 kilometers of water transferring pipelines varied 1000 to 2000 mm diameters. This project aims to: (1) Transfer water from the northwest water treatment plant to the southwest areas, which suffer from qualitative and quantitative water, in order to mix with the improper wells’ water; (2) Reducing the water consumption provided by harvesting from wells which results in improving the underground water resources, causing the large settlements and stopping the immigrating slums into the center or north side of the city. All of the financial resources accounted for 53,000,000 US$ which is mobilized by Tehran Province Water and Wastewater Co. to expedite the work. The present study examines the Tehran Health Line plan and the purpose of implementation of this plan to achieve environmental protection, environmental justice and citizenship rights for all people who live in Tehran.

Keywords: International Environmental Law, Environmental Justice, erga omnes, charter on citizen's rights, Tehran health line

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24 Comparing the Effectiveness of Social Skills Training and Stress Management on Self Esteem and Agression in First Grade Students of Iranian West High School

Authors: Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Hossein Nikandam Kermanshah, Babak Samavatian, Akbar Hemmati Sabet


This is a quasi-experimental study that has been conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of social skills training and stress management training on self-esteem and aggression in first grade high school students. Forty-five people were selected from research community and were put randomly in there groups of social skills training, stress management training and control ones. Collecting data tools in this study was devise, self-esteem and AGQ aggression questionnaire. Self-esteem and aggression questionnaires has been conducted as the pre-test and post-test. Social skills training and stress management groups participated in eight 1.5 hour session in a week. But control group did not receive any therapy. For descriptive analysis of data, statistical indicators like mean, standard deviation were used, and in inferential statistics level multi variable covariance analysis have been used. The finding result show that group training social skills and stress management is significantly effective on the self-esteem and aggression, there is a meaningful difference between training social skills and stress management on self-esteem that the preference is with group social skills training, in the difference between group social skills training and stress management on aggression, the preference is with group stress management.

Keywords: Psychological Sciences, social skill training, stress management training, self-esteem aggression

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23 Enhancing Seismic Performance of Ductile Moment Frames with Delayed Wire-Rope Bracing Using Middle Steel Plate

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Babak Dizangian, Akram Ghalandari


Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, if this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limit, it can impose unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame. Therefore, adding a bracing system with the capability of preserving the capacity of high energy absorption and controlling displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates the retrofitting of a single storey steel moment frame through a delayed wire-rope bracing system using a middle steel plate. In this model, the steel plate lies where the wire ropes meet, and the model geometry is such that the cables are continuously under tension so that they can take the most advantage of the inherent potential they have in tolerating tensile stress. Using the steel plate also reduces the system stiffness considerably compared to cross bracing systems and preserves the ductile frame’s energy absorption capacity. In this research, the software models of delayed wire-rope bracing system have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers’ laboratory test results.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, cyclic loading, hysteresis curve, delayed wire rope bracing, ductile moment frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
22 Proposing a New Design Method for Added Viscoelastic Damper’s Application in Steel Moment-Frame

Authors: Saeed Javaherzadeh, Babak Dindar Safa


Structure, given its ductility, can depreciate significant amount of seismic energy in the form of hysteresis behavior; the amount of energy depreciation depends on the structure ductility rate. So in seismic guidelines such as ASCE7-10 code, to reduce the number of design forces and using the seismic energy dissipation capacity of structure, when entering non-linear behavior range of the materials, the response modification factor is used. Various parameters such as ductility modification factor, overstrength factor and reliability factor, are effective in determining the value of this factor. Also, gradually, energy dissipation systems, especially added dampers, have become an inseparable part of the seismic design. In this paper, in addition to reviewing of previous studies, using the response modification factor caused by using more added viscoelastic dampers, a new design method has introduced for steel moment-frame with added dampers installed. To do this, in addition to using bilinear behavior models and quick ways such as using the equivalent lateral force method and capacity spectrum method for the proposed design methodology, the results has been controlled with non-linear time history analysis for a number of structural. The analysis is done by Opensees Software.

Keywords: response modification factor, added viscoelastic damper, design base shear, non-linear time history

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21 Assessment Power and Oscillation Damping Using the POD Controller and Proposed FOD Controller

Authors: Yahya Naderi, Tohid Rahimi, Babak Yousefi, Seyed Hossein Hoseini


Today’s modern interconnected power system is highly complex in nature. In this, one of the most important requirements during the operation of the electric power system is the reliability and security. Power and frequency oscillation damping mechanism improve the reliability. Because of power system stabilizer (PSS) low speed response against of major fault such as three phase short circuit, FACTs devise that can control the network condition in very fast time, are becoming popular. However, FACTs capability can be seen in a major fault present when nonlinear models of FACTs devise and power system equipment are applied. To realize this aim, the model of multi-machine power system with FACTs controller is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using Sim Power System (SPS) blockiest. Among the FACTs device, Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) due to high speed changes its reactance characteristic inductive to capacitive, is effective power flow controller. Tuning process of controller parameter can be performed using different method. However, Genetic Algorithm (GA) ability tends to use it in controller parameter tuning process. In this paper, firstly POD controller is used to power oscillation damping. But in this station, frequency oscillation dos not has proper damping situation. Therefore, FOD controller that is tuned using GA is using that cause to damp out frequency oscillation properly and power oscillation damping has suitable situation.

Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), power oscillation damping (POD), frequency oscillation damping (FOD), Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)

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20 Investigating the Pedestrian Willingness to Pay to Choose Appropriate Policies for Improving the Safety of Pedestrian Facilities

Authors: Babak Mirbaha, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Fatemeh Mohajeri


Road traffic accidents lead to a higher rate of death and injury, especially in vulnerable road users such as pedestrians. Improving the safety of facilities for pedestrians is a major concern for policymakers because of the high number of pedestrian fatalities and direct and indirect costs which are imposed to the society. This study focuses on the idea of determining the willingness to pay of pedestrians for increasing their safety while crossing the street. In this study, three different scenarios including crossing the street with zebra crossing facilities, crossing the street with zebra crossing facilities and installing a pedestrian traffic light and constructing a pedestrian bridge with escalator are presented. The research was conducted based on stated preferences method. The required data were collected from a questionnaire that consisted of three parts: pedestrian’s demographic characteristics, travel characteristics and scenarios. Four different payment amounts are presented for each scenario and a logit model has been built for each proposed payment. The results show that sex, age, education, average household income and individual salary have significant effect on choosing a scenario. Among the policies that have been mentioned through the questionnaire scenarios, the scenario of crossing the street with zebra crossing facilities and installing a traffic lights is the most frequent, with willingness to pay 10,000 Rials and the scenario of crossing the street with a zebra crossing with a willingness to pay 100,000 Rials having the least frequency. For all scenarios, as the payment is increasing, the willingness to pay decreases.

Keywords: Safety, Immunization, willingness to pay, pedestrians

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19 Nonlocal Beam Models for Free Vibration Analysis of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Various End Supports

Authors: Babak Safaei, Ahmad Ghanbari, Arash Rahmani


In the present study, the free vibration characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are investigated. The small-scale effects are taken into account using the Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The nonlocal elasticity equations are implemented into the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT) to analyze the free vibrations of DWCNTs in which each wall of the nanotubes is considered as individual beam with van der Waals interaction forces. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to discretize the governing differential equations of each nonlocal beam model along with four commonly used boundary conditions. Then molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed for a series of armchair and zigzag DWCNTs with different aspect ratios and boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those of nonlocal beam models to extract the appropriate values of the nonlocal parameter corresponding to each type of chirality, nonlocal beam model and boundary condition. It is found that the present nonlocal beam models with their proposed correct values of nonlocal parameter have good capability to predict the vibrational behavior of DWCNTs, especially for higher aspect ratios.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, double-walled carbon nanotubes, nonlocal continuum elasticity, free vibrations, generalized differential quadrature method

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
18 Clinical Outcomes and Surgical Complications in Patients with Cervical Disk Degeneration

Authors: Mansouri Pejman, Mirzashahi Babak, Najafi Arvin, Farzan Mahmoud


Introduction: There are several surgical treatment choices for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes and surgical complications in patients with cervical disk degeneration (CDD) undergoing either anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or cervical laminectomy and fusion. Methods: This prospective case series study included 45 consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy between January 2010 and November 2014. There were 28 males and 17 females, with a mean age of 47 (range 37-68) years. The mean clinical follow-up was 14 months (range 3-24 months). The Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) neck and arm pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as the functional outcome measurements. All of the complications in our patients were recorded. Results: In our study group, 26 patients underwent only one or two level anterior cervical discectomy. Ten patients underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and nine cases underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion. We have found a statistically significant improvement between mean preoperative (29, range 19-43) and postoperative (7, range 0-12) NDI scores following surgery (P < 0.05). Also, there was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-operative VAS and SF-36 score (p < 0.05). There was a 7% overall complication rate (n = 3). The only complication in our patients was surgical site cellulitis which has been managed with oral antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Both anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or posterior laminectomy and fusion are safe and efficacious treatment options for the management of CSM. The clinical outcomes seem to be fairly reproducible.

Keywords: Fusion, Cervical, myelopathy, discectomy, laminectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
17 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Vibration Analysis at Nanocomposite Plates

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi


Polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites have a wide range of promising applications Due to their enhanced properties. In this work, free vibration analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates is conducted in which carbon nanotubes are embedded in an amorphous polyethylene. The rule of mixture based on various types of plate model namely classical plate theory (CLPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) was employed to obtain fundamental frequencies of the nanocomposite plates. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was used to discretize the governing differential equations along with the simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite plates were evaluated using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were fitted with those calculated by the rule of mixture to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results are presented to address the influences of nanotube volume fraction and edge supports on the value of fundamental frequency of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates corresponding to both long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, free vibration, generalized, differential quadrature (GDQ) method

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16 MXene-Based Self-Sensing of Damage in Fiber Composites

Authors: Latha Nataraj, Todd Henry, Micheal Wallock, Asha Hall, Christine Hatter, Babak Anasori, Yury Gogotsi


Multifunctional composites with enhanced strength and toughness for superior damage tolerance are essential for advanced aerospace and military applications. Detection of structural changes prior to visible damage may be achieved by incorporating fillers with tunable properties such as two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with high aspect ratios and more surface-active sites. While 2D graphene with large surface areas, good mechanical properties, and high electrical conductivity seems ideal as a filler, the single-atomic thickness can lead to bending and rolling during processing, requiring post-processing to bond to polymer matrices. Lately, an emerging family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, MXenes, has attracted much attention since their discovery in 2011. Metallic electronic conductivity and good mechanical properties, even with increased polymer content, coupled with hydrophilicity make MXenes a good candidate as a filler material in polymer composites and exceptional as multifunctional damage indicators in composites. Here, we systematically study MXene-based (Ti₃C₂) coated on glass fibers for fiber reinforced polymer composite for self-sensing using microscopy and micromechanical testing. Further testing is in progress through the investigation of local variations in optical, acoustic, and thermal properties within the damage sites in response to strain caused by mechanical loading.

Keywords: Fiber Composites, damage sensing, MXene, self-sensing

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15 The Effects of Applying Wash and Green-A Syrups as Substitution of Sugar on Dough and Cake Properties

Authors: Banafsheh Aghamohammadi, Masoud Honarvar, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi


Usage of different components has been considered to improve the quality and nutritional properties of cakes in recent years. The effects of applying some sweeteners, instead of sugar, have been evaluated in cakes and many bread formulas up to now; but there has not been any research about the usage of by-products of sugar factories such as Wash and Green-A Syrups in cake formulas. In this research, the effects of substituting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sugar with Wash and Green-A Syrups on some dough and cake properties, such as pH, viscosity, density, volume, weight loss, moisture, water activity, texture, staling, color and sensory evaluations, are studied. The results of these experiments showed that the pH values were not significantly different among any of the all cake batters and also most of the cake samples. Although differences among viscosity and specific gravity of all treatments were both significant and insignificant, these two parameters resulted in higher volume in all samples than the blank one. The differences in weight loss, moisture content and water activity of samples were insignificant. Evaluating of texture showed that the softness of most of samples is increased and the staling is decreased. Crumb color and sensory evaluations of samples were also affected by the replacement of sucrose with Wash and Green-A Syrups. According to the results, we can increase the shelf life and improve the quality and nutritional values of cake by using these kinds of syrups in the formulation.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, cake, green-A syrup, quality tests, wash syrup

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14 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Potential of IL-2 after Specific Antigen Stimulation with PE35 (Rv3872) and PPE68 (Rv3873) for the Discrimination of Active and Latent Tuberculosis

Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi, Mostafa Teymuri, Majid Marjani


Although cytokine analysis has greatly contributed to the understanding of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, data on cytokine profiles that might distinguish progression from latency of TB infection are scarce. Since PE/PPE proteins are known to induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses, the aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of interleukin-2 (IL-2) as biomarker after specific antigen stimulation with PE35 and PPE68 for the discrimination of active and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The production of IL-2 was measured in the antigen-stimulated whole-blood supernatants following stimulation with recombinant PE35 and PPE68. All the patients with active TB and LTBI had positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube test. The level of IL-2 following stimulation with recombinant PE35 and PPE68 were significantly higher in LTBI group than in patients with active TB infection or control group. The discrimination performance (assessed by the area under ROC curve) for IL-2 following stimulation with recombinant PE35 and PPE68 between LTBI and patients with active TB were 0.837 (95%CI: 0.72-0.97) and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.63-0.89), respectively. Applying the 12.4 pg/mL cut-off for IL-2 induced by PE35 in the present study population resulted in sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 78%, PPV of 78% and NPV of 100%. In addition, a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 70%, PPV of 67% and 87% of NPV was reported based on the 4.4 pg/mL cut-off for IL-2 induced by PPE68. In conclusion, peptides of the antigen PE35 and PPE68, absent from commonly used BCG strains, stimulated strong IL-2- positive T cell responses in patients with LTBI. This study confirms IL-2 induced by PE35 and PPE68 as a sensitive and specific biomarker and highlights IL-2 as new promising adjunct markers for discriminating of LTBI and Active TB infection.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, IL-2, PE35, PPE68

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13 From the Sharing Economy to Social Manufacturing: Analyzing Collaborative Service Networks in the Manufacturing Domain

Authors: Babak Mohajeri


In recent years, the conventional business model of ownership has been changed towards accessibility in a variety of markets. Two trends can be observed in the evolution of this rental-like business model. Firstly, the technological development that enables the emergence of new business models. These new business models increasingly become agile and flexible. For example Spotify, an online music stream company provides consumers access to over millions of music tracks, conveniently through the smartphone, tablet or computer. Similarly, Car2Go, the car sharing company accesses its members with flexible and nearby sharing cars. The second trend is the increasing communication and connections via social networks. This trend enables a shift to peer-to-peer accessibility based business models. Conventionally, companies provide access for their customers to own companies products or services. In peer-to-peer model, nonetheless, companies facilitate access and connection across their customers to use other customers owned property or skills, competencies or services .The is so-called the sharing economy business model. The aim of this study is to investigate into a new and emerging type of the sharing economy model in which role of customers and service providers may dramatically change. This new model is called Collaborative Service Networks. We propose a mechanism for Collaborative Service Networks business model. Uber and Airbnb, two successful growing companies, have been selected for our case studies and their business models are analyzed. Finally, we study the emergence of the collaborative service networks in the manufacturing domain. Our finding results to a new manufacturing paradigm called social manufacturing.

Keywords: Sharing Economy, collaborative service networks, social manufacturing, manufacturing development

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12 Assessment Client Satisfaction with Family Physician in Health Care Centers of Jiroft County and Its Relationship with Physician’ Demographic Variables

Authors: Babak Nemat Shahrbabaki, Arezo Fallahi, Masoomeh Hashemian


Introduction: Health and safety are basic components of civil right. Health care systems in different countries were influenced by political, economic and cultural circumstances. In order to health services to people, these systems are organized with different forms, methods such as: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation and in this among, public satisfaction with the services provided is important. This study aimed to determine client satisfaction with family physician and relationship with physician’ demographic variables in health care centers of Jiroft county, Iran. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study. The collective data tool was a self-made questionnaire with two parts. The first part comprised demographic characteristics, and the second part contained 11 items for the assessment of satisfaction with family physician from different aspects. In addition, questionnaire, reliability and validity were confirmed. Random simple sampling method was used to determine samples. 234 people referred to the health centers filled questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and inferential statistical analysis was performed. Findings: The majority of the study population were women, married, and aged between 18 and 62 years (mean= 30.09±10.71). Total average satisfaction score was 42.63±3.68. Overall satisfaction averages were 9.47% very high, 30.04% high, 33.09% moderate, 15.12% low, and 12.28% very low. Except lodge on of family physician none of physician’ demographic variables did not effect on satisfaction index. Discussion & Conclusion: The Results showed that mean of satisfaction indexes of family physicians was high and lodge on of family physician effected on this index. Informing people about the main goals of family-doctor program will help to promote the quality of program and increase people satisfaction.

Keywords: satisfaction, client, family physician program, health-care centers

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11 Exploring Women's Needs Referring to Health Care Centers for Doing Pap Smear Test

Authors: Arezoo Fallahi, Parvaneh Taymoori, Babak Nematshahrbabaki, Fateme Aslibigi


Background and Aims: Cancer of the cervix, one of cancer-related death, is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. It develops over time but it is one of the most preventable types of cancer and there is the available proper screening program for its preventing. Since Pap smear test is vital to prevent and control of disease but women do not accomplish it regularly. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore women's needs referring to health care centers for doing Pap smear test. Material and methods: In this study, an inductive qualitative method with content analysis approach was used. This survey was done in varamin city (is located capital of Iran) in year 2014. Through the purposive sampling 15 women's view of point referring to health care centers of for doing Pap smear test was surveyed. Inclusion criteria were: 20-50 years old married women, having experience Pap smear test and attendance to participate in the Study. Recorded semi- structured interviews were typed and analyzed through of content analysis method. To obtain trustworthiness and rigor of the data, the criteria of credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability was used. Results: During the data analysis, four main categories of “role of health care team”, “role of organizations”, “social support” and “policies and administration system” were developed. The participants emphasized on making motivational rules and coordination among organizations to do behaviors related to women health. Conclusion: The findings of study showed that doing Pap smear test are attributed to appropriate and intimate interactions with health professionals, family support, encouraging legislation and policies and coordination and notification of organizations. Therefore, designers and stockholders of policies and health system should more consider to growth and involve other organizations toward women's health.

Keywords: Women, qualitative approach, pap smear test, health care centers

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10 Factors That Influence Choice of Walking Mode in Work Trips: Case Study of Rasht, Iran

Authors: Babak Safaei, Nima Safaei, Arezoo Masoud


In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the role of urban planning in walking capability and the effects of individual and socioeconomic factors on the physical activity levels of city dwellers. Although considerable number of studies are conducted about walkability and for identifying the effective factors in walking mode choice in developed countries, to our best knowledge, literature lacks in the study of factors affecting choice of walking mode in developing countries. Due to the high importance of health aspects of human societies and in order to make insights and incentives for reducing traffic during rush hours, many researchers and policy makers in the field of transportation planning have devoted much attention to walkability studies; they have tried to improve the effective factors in the choice of walking mode in city neighborhoods. In this study, effective factors in walkability that have proven to have significant impact on the choice of walking mode, are studied at the same time in work trips. The data for the study is collected from the employees in their workplaces by well-instructed people using questionnaires; the statistical population of the study consists of 117 employed people who commute daily from work to home in Rasht city of Iran during the beginning of spring 2015. Results of the study which are found through the linear regression modeling, show that people who do not have freedom of choice for choosing their living locations and need to be present at their workplaces in certain hours have lower levels of walking. Additionally, unlike some of the previous studies which were conducted in developed countries, coincidental effects of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the income level of employees, do not have a significant effect on the walking level in work travels.

Keywords: Transportation, Walking, Linear Regression, BMI, work trips

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9 A Modified Open Posterior Approach for the Fixation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Avulsion Fractures

Authors: Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri, Babak Mirzashahi, Mahmoud Farzan


Background: The most effective treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears and the consequence of untreated PCL injuries remain controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess outcomes of fixation of tibial posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures via a modified technique. Patients and Methods: From January, 2009 to March, 2012, there were 45 cases of PCL tibial avulsion fractures that were referred to our hospital and were managed through a modified open posterior approach. Fixation of Tibial PCL avulsion fractures were fixed by means of a lag screw and washer placed through our modified open posterior approach. Range of motion was begun on the first postoperative day. Clinical stability, range of motion, gastrocnemius muscle strength, radiographic investigation, and patient’s overall quality of life was analyzed at final follow up visit. Results: The average of overall musculoskeletal functional evaluation scores was 15 (range 3–35). All patients achieved union of their fracture and had clinically stable knees at the latest follow-up. The mean preoperative Lysholm score for 15 knees was 62 ± 8 (range, 50-75); the mean postoperative Lysholm score was 92± 7 (range, 75-101). A significant difference in Lysholm scores between preoperative and final follow-up evaluations was found (P < .05). At first-year follow-up, 42 (93%) patients revealed a difference of less than 10 mm in thigh circumference between their injured and healthy knees. Conclusions: The management of displaced large PCL avulsion fractures with placement of a cancellous lag screw with washer by means of the modified open posterior approach leads to satisfactory clinical, radiographic, and functional results and reduces the operation time and less blood loss. Level of evidence: IV.

Keywords: posterior cruciate ligament, tibial fracture, lysholm knee score, patient outcome assessment

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8 Effective Factors on Self-Care in Women with Osteoporosis: A Study with Content Analysis Approach

Authors: Arezoo Fallahi, Siamak Derakhshan, Parvaneh Taymoori, Babak Nematshahrbabaki


Background: Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, is an important health care issue. Not only the cost of disease is high but also is one of the causes of disability and mortality and effect on quality of life. Although self-care is effective on disease, s control and treatment but still effective factors on self-care of patient, s viewpoint have not been survey. The aim of this study was to explore effective factors on self-care in women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: This study was done by conventional content analysis approach in year 2014. Through purposeful sampling 15 women referred to bone mass densitometry centers participated in this study. Inclusion criteria were: Women older than 50 years old with osteoporosis, final diagnosis of osteoporosis for over six –month period, T-score index below -2.5 (lower back or hip), drug use by patients with a physician’s prescription, ability in speaking and attending to participate in the study. Data was collected by face to face and group semi-structure deep interviews and analyzed via content analysis method. To support of rigor of data, criteria credibility, confirmability and transferability were used. Results: during data analysis five categories developed: “hope and disability in the face of illness”, “mutual roles of physician”, “role of family” and “administrative centers and organizations”. To perform self-care behaviors, the participations of this study emphasized on pay attention to their own healthy, regarding patients' rights by physician, pay attention to women's health by men, and the role of media especially radio and television. Conclusion: the finding of the study showed that women’s responsibility with osteoporosis for their health is not a factor but it is multifactorial. Increasing life expectancy in patients, attention to patients needs by physician, increasing health promotion programs in the media and enhancing role of family may provide conditions and infrastructure to empowerment women in doing self-care behavior.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Women, Content Analysis, Self-Care

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7 How to Prevent From Skin Complications in Diabetes Type 2 in View Point of Student of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

Authors: Zahra Abdi, Roghayeh Alipour, Babak Farahi Ghasraboonasr


Introduction: Diabetes is a serious medical condition that requires constant care. People with type 2 diabetes may also be likely to experience dry, itchy skin and poor wound healing. Some people with diabetes will have a skin problems at some time in their lives and for those not yet diagnosed with diabetes, a skin problem can be an indication of the disease. our purpose was to assess the capability and knowledge of students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences about prevent from skin complications in diabetes type 2. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, knowledge of 360 students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was evaluated about different ways to avoid skin complications in diabetes type 2. Data were analyzed by spss19.(P<0.05) was considered significant. Results: 360 students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. 45% of students agree with the effect of Moisturize skin daily, If Diabetics have sensitive skin, choose a fragrance-free, dye-free moisturizer that won’t irritate skin. 52% believe that Protect skin from sun can be so useful, Sun exposure is drying and aging. Use sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher whenever you’re outside. Wear gloves when doing yardwork to protect the skin on your hands. 62% of students strongly agree with Carefully clean any cuts and scrapes, If diabetics notice any sign of infection skin that’s red, swollen, or warm to the touch, or has a foul-smelling drainage or pus should consulting with a doctor immediately. Diabetics should be careful about any injury that takes longer than normal to heal and they should consulting with doctor about them too. 72% of students believe that diabetics should be diligent about daily foot care. Clean and moisturize feet each day and check each foot closely, top and bottom, for wounds even a tiny cut, blisters, or cracked skin. Conclusions: The risk of getting these diabetes complications can be lessened by controlling blood sugar. Skin complications can cause serious consequences. Taking care of skin is so important and using these tips are remarkable effective and help diabetics to look after their skin easier.

Keywords: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, diabetes type 2, skin complications, diabetics

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6 Case Study on Gender Equality in the United Arab Emirates through the Lens of Sport

Authors: Nioofar Margarite Rouhani


Using a case study methodology, this study explores the lived experiences of elite women footballers (soccer) team in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the challenges and enablers women in this country encountered in their journey to competing at an international level. Through a series of face-to-face interviews with members of the first all-Emirati (people with UAE passport) women’s football team, members of the team’s coaching staff and key policymakers, the study sought to explore the social and cultural conditions that enabled the emergence of this team. A key aim of the study was to analyze the cultural shifts that have seemingly facilitated changes to gender relations in the UAE and to highlight possibilities for future gender equality work. The study explores the significance of sport in UAE society and its role in disrupting traditional gender boundaries. To do this, the study identifies and analyses contemporary social (religion, class, and culture) conditions that facilitate, and/or restrict, women’s sports participation in the public sphere of sport. Drawing on a feminist poststructural framework the study sought to analyse the discursive enactment of (disruptive) gender identity positions, using lenses such as ‘discourse’ and ‘power’. With a particular focus on elite women’s sport, the study sought to build knowledge around the advance of female participation in what has long been considered as a masculine domain. Here, the study sought to explore the lived experience of social change through a series of face-to-face interviews with members of the first all-Emirati- women’s football team and key support personnel. To maintain representational integrity, the principles of narrative methodology were employed for their ability to privilege the voices of participants while integrating contextual forces that comprised the stories they told about their experiences and the key people who participated in them. This approach supported a key aim of the study, being to analyse the cultural shifts that have supported changes in gender performance in the UAE and to highlight possibilities for future gender disruption. While the results of the study convey a growing sense of opportunity for aspiring sportswomen in the UAE, they also reveal that the participant pathways were full of contestation and restriction. What we learn from the stories of the first Emirate women’s football team is that where the will is strong enough, there can be a way. While it is reasonable to assume that such pathways will become easier in the future, as the participation of women in such sporting arenas becomes less exceptional, there are factors that are likely to enable and disable such journeys. Prominent here is the presence of a ‘powerful’ guardian and mentor who can offer sustained support, and influence. In a society where males continue to have disproportionate access to social and domestic power, such support can be extremely influential. Guardians and mentors can play a crucial role in garnering the support of dominant male figures, or helping to find ways to work around it.

Keywords: Sport, Middle East, Women, Gender equality

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