Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 99

Search results for: self-esteem aggression

99 The Effect of Gender on the Three Types of Aggression among Kuwaiti Children

Authors: Hend Almaseb

Abstract:

Child aggression is a serious social problem that affects children’s lives. This study examines the relationship between three types of aggressive behaviors–physical, verbal, and indirect aggression–from sociocultural and social work perspectives. Also, it investigates the effect of gender on the three types of aggressive behaviors and the most frequently used aggressive behaviors among a sample of 329 Kuwaiti children. The results show that there is a positive correlation between the three types of aggression and gender.

Keywords: child aggression, indirect aggression, physical aggression, verbal aggression

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
98 The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung

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This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors,). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results revealed that (a) schoolchildren with reactive-proactive aggression have the highest acceptance of provoked aggression, the highest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the lowest acceptance of weakness; (b) schoolchildren with proactive aggression have higher acceptance of unprovoked aggression and lower acceptance of weakness than reactive aggressors; and (c) schoolchildren without aggression have the lowest acceptance of provoked aggression, the lowest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the highest acceptance of weakness.

Keywords: normative belief, schoolchildren, reactive, proactive, aggression

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
97 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

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Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: bullying, organizational commitment, turnover intention, workplace aggression

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
96 Types of School Aggression Amongst Bulgarian Students in the Age Group of 12–18 Years-Old

Authors: Yolanda Zografova, Ekaterina Dimitrova, Tsvetelina Panchelieva, Victoria Nedeva-Atanasova

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Aggression and violence amongst school-aged children are widely spread phenomenon, which is expanding both on a global level and in Bulgaria. The purpose of the paper is to reveal the overall range of different types and manifestations of school aggression in a specific age group (12 to 18 years old students) from the 5th to the 12th grade according to the Bulgarian education system. In addition, the research investigates the dynamics of aggressive behaviour in two parallel lines – a horizontal one (with students from the same age) and a vertical one (with students from different grade). In the current study based on the original authors’ inventory (School Aggression Questionnaire), the three main types of aggression are measured – physical, verbal and indirect. The sample consists of 300 students from schools in a big metropolitan city, a mid-sized town, and a small town. Results show that the predominant aggression type is the verbal one, but this is the predominant type for the girls in the sample, not for the boys. Another result is that the higher the school grade, the lower levels of overall aggression is shown by the students. The study of such a multi-dimensional phenomenon as the aggression will provide up-to-date scientific knowledge, important both for the development of science on these topics, and useful for public interests in relation to the balanced development of children and adolescents at school. The results provide an excellent base for the development of prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce school aggression.

Keywords: educational psychology, School aggression, interpersonal relations, school aggression questionnaire, types of aggression

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
95 A Study of Customer Aggression towards Frontline Employees in Some Hotels in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Polycarp A. Igbojekwe, Chizoba Amajuoyi, Peterson Nwokorie

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The main purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of customer’s aggression towards hotel workers and make contributions on the prevalence and rationale behind customer’s aggression. Data for the study were gathered with a four-point Likert type rating scale. Samples were drawn from frontline hotel employees, managers and customers of twelve (12) hotels selected from three zones of Imo State. Data analyses were conducted using simple percentage, descriptive statistics; and Z-test statistical technique was used to test hypotheses. Among other factors, service failure and verbal abuse by service providers and poor quality product compared to price were identified by customers as the three major factors that can lead to customer aggression. Frontline employees indentified verbal abuse as the most common mode of aggression and that customer aggression causes emotional disturbance in them. The study also revealed that customer aggression is more prevalent in the 1&2 star hotels than it is in 3-5 star hotels. Most of the hotels have not institutionalized systematic approaches needed to effectively face the challenges of customer aggression, thus, customer aggression has become a common feature in the industry. Frontline jobs demand high emotional input. Therefore, we recommend that frontline employees should be given emotional support by their managers and also trained on how to cope with emotional disturbance.

Keywords: customer aggression, emotional disturbance, employee well-being, service failure, verbal abuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
94 Comparison of Aggression Amount among Athletic Students of Different Sports

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Farshad Ghazalian, Soghra Jamshidi

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Nowadays, athletic aggression discussion is considered as an important issue in sports psychology and sports effects have been noted by researchers from a long time ago. In this research, the amount of aggression among athletic students of different sport courses will be surveyed and compared. Statistics society in this research consists of all of boy athletic students in wrestling, taekwondo, football, and basketball of Mahmoudabad City that are 200 persons and the limitation of their ages are between 12-15 years old. Among all athletic students of different sport courses, 40 persons were chosen randomly for the sample. The method of research is a descriptive-comparative type that has been done according to field study and for measurement of examinations aggression amount, we have used Ayzank exam. In analysis step of foundations, for comparison of aggression of examined group, we have used Varian’s analysis exam. Research results show that among aggression amounts of athletic students of wrestling, taekwondo, football and basketball, there is no fundamental difference (p < 0.05). Stimulation of guest team with the host team fans, referees performance, exhaustion, physical confrontations, team position in the tournament table, and so on. There is no significant difference among aggression amount of selected sport athletic students.

Keywords: aggression, athletic, student, sports

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
93 Violent Videogame Playing and Its Relations to Antisocial Behaviors

Authors: Martin Jelínek, Petr Květon

Abstract:

The presented study focuses on relations between violent videogames playing and various types of antisocial behavior, namely bullying (verbal, indirect, and physical), physical aggression and delinquency. Relevant relationships were also examined with respect to gender. Violent videogames exposure (VGV) was measured by respondents’ most favored games and self-evaluation of its level of violence and frequency of playing. Antisocial behaviors were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) primary and secondary school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). It was found that violent videogames playing is associated with physical aggression (rho=0.288, 95% CI [0.169;0.400]) and bullying (rho=0.369, 95% CI [0.254;0.476]). By means of gender, these relations were slightly weaker in males (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.104, 95% CI [-0.061;0.264], VGV – bullying: rho=.200, 95% CI [0.032;0.356]) than in females (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.257, 95% CI [0.089;0.411], VGV – bullying: rho=0.279, 95% CI [0.110;0.432]).

Keywords: aggression, bullying, gender, violent video games

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
92 The Interrelationship between Aggression and Frustration Brought about by Computer Games with Incentives among LPU Male Students

Authors: Dior Grita F. De Torres, Edielyn Gonzalvo, Jovielyn Manibo

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The experimental study aims to measure the level of aggression and frustration brought about by computer games with incentives and the interrelationship of the said variables. With 50 participants for each four groups, a total of 200 males who are avid of playing computer games participated in the study. The results and analyses presented in the study concluded that incentives differentially affect the level of aggression and frustration of the players with tobt = 7.18 and 6.521 > tcrit = 2.021 using t-test for dependent groups and Fobt = 4.527 and 8.340 > Fcrit = 3.89 using ANOVA with alpha level of 0.05, two tailed. At the same time, computer game’s level of difficulty also affects the level of aggression and frustration of the players with tobt = 7.53 and 4.783 > tcrit = 2.021 respectively and Fobt = 6.524 and 10.167 > Fcrit = 3.89. Moreover, there is also an interaction between incentive and the level of difficulty of computer game with tobt = 9.68 for aggression and tobt = 7.356 > 2.021 for frustration. Computer games and /with incentives has a large effect on the among male students of LPU.

Keywords: aggression, frustration, computer game, incentive

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
91 Physical Aggression and Language Skills among Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Maryam Razmjoee

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Physical aggression is one of the most common behavioural problems among children with intellectual disabilities. Behaviours such as hitting, kicking, and threatening with the intent to harm others are examples of physical aggression. Identified language delays are related to physically aggressive behaviours, as children with poor language skills are often frustrated by socially interactions with their peers, leaving them at risk engaging in acts of physical aggression. As a result of this concern, physical aggression and language skills of children with mild intellectual disabilities was investigated. In the current study, 102 students, from years 1-3, with mild intellectual disabilities (51 girls and 51 boys) have been recruited from five educational centres which cater for children with mild intellectual disabilities in the city of Shiraz (a major city in Iran). The Test of Language Development-Primary: 3rd Edition (TOLD-3) and Overt and Relational Aggression Questionnaire were used to assess these children. Results showed that physical aggression had a significant negative association with expressive (p = 0.008), and receptive (p = 0.019) language skills. In addition, boys demonstrated more physically aggressive behaviours than girls (p = 0.014). No difference was found in expressive and receptive language skills between girls and boys with mild intellectual disabilities. The overall findings suggest that improving the language skills of children with intellectual disabilities experiencing language delays will help them to avoid exhibiting antisocial behaviours in social interactions.

Keywords: behaviour, language skills, mild intellectual disabilities, physical aggression, primary school students

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
90 Development of the Religious Out-Group Aggression Scale

Authors: Rylle Evan Gabriel Zamora, Micah Dennise Malia, Abygail Deniese Villabona

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When examining studies on aggression, the studies about individual aggression vastly outnumbers those studies on group aggression. Given the nature of aggression to be violent and cyclical, and the amount violent events that have occurred in the near present, the study of group aggression is relevant now more than ever. This discrepancy is parallel with the number of valid and reliable psychological tests that measure group aggression. Throughout history, one of the biggest causes of group based violence and aggression is religion. This is particularly true within the context of the Philippines as there are a large number of religious groups. Thus, this study aimed to develop a standardized test that measures an individual’s tendency to be aggressive to those who are in conflict with his or her religious beliefs. This study employs a test development design that employs a qualitative phase to ensure the validity of the scale. Thus, the study was divided into three phases. First is a pilot test wherein an instrument was designed from existing literature which was then administered to 173 respondents from the four largest religious groups in the Philippines. After extensive factor analysis and reliability testing, new items were then formed from the qualitative data collected from eight participants, consisting of two individuals per religious group. The final testing integrates all statistically significant items from the first phase, and the newly formed items from the second phase, which was then administered to 200 respondents. The results were then tested further for reliability using Cronbach’s alpha and validity through factor analysis. The items that were proven to be significant were then combined to create a final instrument that may be used by future studies.

Keywords: religious aggression, group aggression, test development, psychological assessment, social psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
89 Perceived Ethnic Discrimination, Aggression, and School Connectedness among Adolescents in Finland

Authors: Isik Z. Ulubas, Kaj Bjorkqvist

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The relationships between perceived ethnic discrimination, peer aggression and school connectedness are being examined among 1,000 adolescents in Ostrobothnia, Finland with an online questionnaire. The study aims at investigating perceived ethnic discrimination in school environment by peers and teachers, and within society in general. Six types of aggressive behavior are measured: physical, verbal, indirect, and cyber aggression, in addition to both verbal and physical sexual harassment. High perceived ethnic discrimination is expected to be related with high aggression and low school connectedness. Adolescents who have special diet and clothing because of their cultural or religious background are expected to score higher on perceived ethnic discrimination and lower school connectedness. Adolescents who have lower domestic language skills (Finnish/Swedish) are expected to show lower school connectedness and higher perceived ethnic discrimination.

Keywords: adolescents, aggression, ethnic discrimination, school connectedness

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
88 The Mediation Effect of PTSD and Aggression on the Relationship of Childhood Physical Abuse and Suicidal Behavior in Homeless People

Authors: Jina Hong, Seongeun Ryu, Sungeun You

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Suicide rate among homeless people are much higher than one in the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of PTSD and aggression in the relationship between childhood physical abuse and suicidal behavior among homeless people. One hundred one homeless were recruited from street and shelters in Korea. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by master’s level graduate students or facility employees of shelters. All participants completed the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), Life History of Aggression Questionnaire (LHAQ), Primary Care PTSD (PC-PTSD), and Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ). The average age of homeless people participated in the study was 55.2 years (SD = 10.7) with the age range of 30 to 87. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms and aggression fully mediated the relationship between childhood physical abuse and suicidal behavior among the homeless. These findings suggest the need for trauma-informed care for the homeless, and warrant the need for psychological services for PTSD and aggression in order to reduce suicide risk among homeless people.

Keywords: aggression, homeless, PTSD, suicidal behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
87 A Strategic Perspective on a Qualitative Model of Type II Workplace Aggression in Healthcare Sector

Authors: Francesco Ceresia

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Workplace aggression is broadly recognized as a main work-related risk for healthcare organizations the world over. Scholars underlined that nonfatal workplace aggressions can be also produced by Type II workplace aggression, that occur when the aggressor has a legitimate relationship with the organization and commits an act of hostility while being served or cared for by members of the organization. Several reviews and meta-analysis highlighted the main antecedents and consequences of Type II verbal and physical workplace aggression in the healthcare sector, also focusing on its economic and psychosocial costs. However, some scholars emphasized the need for a systemic and multi-factorial approach to deeply understand and effectively respond to such kind of aggression. The main aim of the study is to propose a qualitative model of Type II workplace aggression in a health care organization in accordance with the system thinking and multi-factorial perspective. A case study research approach, conducted in an Italian non-hospital healthcare organization, is presented. Two main data collection methods have been adopted: individual and group interviews with a sample (N = 24) of physicians, nurses and clericals. A causal loop diagram (CLD) that describes the main causal relationships among the key-variables of the proposed model has been outlined. The main feedback loops and the causal link polarities have been also defined to fully describe the structure underlining the Type II workplace aggression phenomenon. The proposed qualitative model shows how the Type II workplace aggression is related with burnout, work performance, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, work motivation and emotional dissonance. Finally, strategies and policies to reduce the strength of workplace aggression’s drivers are suggested.

Keywords: healthcare, system thinking, work motivation, workplace aggression

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
86 Does One Size Fit All: Immigrant Youths, Bullying and Peer-Aggression

Authors: Shila Khayambashi

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For the past few decades, Western researchers studied different youth issues, such as bullying, peer-aggression, depression, self-harm, and suicide, in a formulated and standardized manner. These researchers have grounded their studies upon a series of introduced characteristics and traits, which pragmatically defined the action of the individuals involved in these activities (Olweus, 1994). The phenomena of bullying and peer-aggression have touched the lives of many immigrant youths, as well. However, in the case of these immigrant young adults, the Police investigated, and later dismissed, the victims’ involvement in drugs and gangs’ activities, instead of questioning the possibility of the peer-aggression. This paper argues that neither government officials nor school personnel has ever investigated any cyber-documentation which would clarify these youth’s untimely deaths or search for any indication of peer-aggression at school. Through my ongoing research, I will problematize the Eurocentric definition of bullying and its limitations. I question the assumed universality of these definitions’ characteristics and their lack of minority representation. This research questions explicitly the positionality of the displaced youth within the promised multiculturality of Canada. I will ask: Does one size fit all, considering the bio-psycho-socio-economic differences between the Eastern and the Western worlds? More importantly, how does the epidemy of the communicative devices, like smartphones, and communicative apps, like Twitter and Snapchats, facilitate or hinder peer-aggression for the displaced youths?

Keywords: Bullying , Immigrant youths, Peer aggression, Minority population

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
85 Aggressive Behavior Prevention: The Effect of Peace Education and Media Literacy towards Student's Understanding about Aggression

Authors: Dadang Gunawan, I. Dewa Ketut Kertawidana, Lufthi Noorfitriyani

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For the last 5 years, there is the never-ending violent act and increased cases regarding aggressive behavior among high school students in Bogor, Indonesia. Those cases caused harm to many people, even death, and lead to the continuation circle of violence. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of using peace education and media literacy in enhancing student’s understanding about aggression, as an effort to prevent aggressive behavior. In terms of methodology, this research was done by quasi-experiment with one group pretest and post-test design. A number of 38 students who were at risk of aggressive behavior from 3 vocational high school were involved to receive a 10 learning session about peace and media literacy. The aggression questionnaire was used to identify participants, supported by student’s record in school. To collect data, the questionnaire for measuring understanding about aggression has been developed and was used after the validity and reliability of this questionnaire tested. Post-test was carried out after the session ended. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding result showed that the mean score of student’s understanding of aggression was increased, therefore learning session of peace education and media literacy is significantly effective to enhance student’s understanding of aggression. It also showed a meaningful difference of understanding between male and female student’s whereas female students have a better understanding of aggression.

Keywords: aggressive behavior prevention, aggression, media literacy, peace education, peacebuilding

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
84 Comparing the Effectiveness of Social Skills Training and Stress Management on Self Esteem and Agression in First Grade Students of Iranian West High School

Authors: Hossein Nikandam Kermanshah, Babak Samavatian, Akbar Hemmati Sabet, Mohammad Ahmadpanah

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This is a quasi-experimental study that has been conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of social skills training and stress management training on self-esteem and aggression in first grade high school students. Forty-five people were selected from research community and were put randomly in there groups of social skills training, stress management training and control ones. Collecting data tools in this study was devise, self-esteem and AGQ aggression questionnaire. Self-esteem and aggression questionnaires has been conducted as the pre-test and post-test. Social skills training and stress management groups participated in eight 1.5 hour session in a week. But control group did not receive any therapy. For descriptive analysis of data, statistical indicators like mean, standard deviation were used, and in inferential statistics level multi variable covariance analysis have been used. The finding result show that group training social skills and stress management is significantly effective on the self-esteem and aggression, there is a meaningful difference between training social skills and stress management on self-esteem that the preference is with group social skills training, in the difference between group social skills training and stress management on aggression, the preference is with group stress management.

Keywords: social skill training, stress management training, self-esteem aggression, psychological sciences

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83 'You Block Yourself from the Emotion': A Qualitative Inquiry into Teacher's Use of Discordant Emotional Labor Strategies in Student Aggression

Authors: Michal Levy

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Despite the emotional impact students' misbehavior and aggression has on teacher's emotional wellbeing, teachers frequently use suppressive strategies in the classroom, which maintain a discordance between felt and expressed emotions. The current study sought to gain a deeper insight into teachers' utilization of discordant emotional labor strategies (i.e., expressive suppression, surface acting and emotional dissonance) and their motives to using these strategies in student aggression. A qualitative study was conducted on 16 special education Jewish Israeli teachers. Thematic analysis of the in-depth semi-structured interviews revealed novice teachers were inclined to use expressive suppression, while experienced teachers used emotional dissonance. The teacher's motives for using discordant emotional labor strategies included both instrumental and hedonic goals. Implications for policymakers and professionals in practice are discussed to improve teachers' emotional wellbeing.

Keywords: discordant strategies, emotional labor, student aggression, teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
82 The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module Towards Resiliency and Aggression Among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia

Authors: Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip, Aslina Ahmad, Fauziah Mohd Sa'ad, Samsiah Mohd Jais, Syed Sofian Syed Salim

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This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self-Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.

Keywords: drug prevention programme, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), multidimensional self concept model (MSCM), resiliency, aggression, at-risk youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 600
81 How Do You Blow Off Steam? : The Impact of Therapeutic Catharsis Seeking, Self-Construal, and Social Capital in Gaming Context

Authors: Hye Rim Lee, Eui Jun Jeong, Ju Woo Kim

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This study will examine how the therapeutic factors (therapeutic catharsis-seeking and game-efficacy of the game player) and self-construal factors (independent and interdependent self-construal of the game player) as well as social capital factors (bonding and bridging social capital of the game player) affect trait aggression in the game. Results show that both therapeutic catharsis-seeking and game self-efficacy are particularly important to the players since they cause the game players’ aggressive tendencies to be greatly diminished. Independent self-construal reduces the level of the players’ aggression. Interestingly enough, the bonding social capital enhances the level of the players’ aggression, while individuals with bridging social capital did not show any significant effects. The results and implications will be discussed herein.

Keywords: aggression catharsis, game self-efficacy, self-construal, social capital, therapeutic catharsis seeking

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80 Investigating the Relationship of Social Capital with Student's Aggressive Behavior: Case Study of Male Students of Middle School in Isfahan

Authors: Mohammadreza Kolaei, Vahid Ghasemi, Ebrahim Ansari

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This research was carried out with the aim of investigating the relationship between social capital and aggressive behavior of students (Case study: male students of middle school in Isfahan). In terms of methodology, this research is an applied research which is done by descriptive-analytical method and survey method. The instrument for collecting the data was a questionnaire consisting of: questionnaire for measuring aggressive behavior and social capital questionnaire, which was used after the validity and reliability of this questionnaire. On the other hand, the statistical population of the study consisted of all students in the guidance school of Isfahan in the academic year of 2016. For determining the sample size, the Kerjesy and Morgan tables were used and the sampling method of this multi-stage random sampling was used. After collecting the data, they were analyzed by SPSS software. The findings of the research showed that at 95% confidence level, the student's social capital increases, reducing his aggressiveness. Also, the amount of student aggression is estimated at 4% according to its social capital. Also, with increasing social capital of the school, the student's student aggression is reduced, with the student's student aggression's exposure to her social capital being estimated at 3%. On the other hand, increasing the amount of mother's presence in the home decreases the amount of student aggression. Also, the amount of student aggression is estimated at 1% according to the amount of mother's presence in her home. Ultimately, the amount of student aggression decreases with increasing presence of father at home. Also, the amount of student aggression is estimated at 2% according to the variable of father's presence in his home.

Keywords: investigating, social capital, aggressive behavior, students, middle school, Isfahan

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79 Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Martin Popescu D. Dana Maria

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The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB.

Keywords: aggression, CWB, emotional intelligence, labeling

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78 Male Rivalry Seen through a Biopsychosocial Lens

Authors: John G. Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj

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We investigated the effects of winning and losing on men’s testosterone and assessed whether androgen reactivity affected their empathic accuracy and their aggression. We also explored whether their power motivation would moderate the relationships between competitive, hormonal, and behavioral outcomes. In Experiment 1, 84 males competed on a task that allegedly gauged their leadership potential and future earnings, after which they interpreted people’s emotional expressions. Results showed that winners were more capable of accurately inferring others’ emotions compared to losers and this ability improved with increasing power. Second, testosterone change mediated the relationship between competitive outcomes and empathic accuracy, with post-competitive testosterone increases relating to more accuracy. In Experiment 2, 72 males again competed after which they were measured on two aggression subtypes: proactive and reactive. Results showed that neither the competitive outcome nor the testosterone change had a significant effect on either types of aggression. However, as power increased, winners aggressed more proactively than losers whereas losers aggressed more reactively than winners. Finally, in both experiments, power moderated the relationship between competitive outcomes and testosterone change. Collectively, these studies add to existing research that explores the psychophysiological effects of competition on individuals’ empathic and aggressive responses.

Keywords: competition, testosterone, power motivation, empathic accuracy, proactive aggression, reactive aggression

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77 China and the Criminalization of Aggression. The Juxtaposition of Justice and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security

Authors: Elisabetta Baldassini

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Responses to atrocities are always unique and context-dependent. They cannot be foretold nor easily prompted. However, the events of the twentieth century had set the scene for the international community to explore new and more robust systems in response to war atrocities, with the ultimate goal being the restoration and maintenance of peace and security. The outlawry of war and the attribution of individual liability for international crimes were two major landmarks that set the roots for the development of international criminal law. From the London Conference (1945) for the establishment of the first international military tribunal in Nuremberg to Rome at the inauguration of the first permanent international criminal court, the development of international criminal law has shaped in itself a fluctuating degree of tensions between justice and maintenance of international peace and security, the cardinal dichotomy of this article. The adoption of judicial measures to achieve peace indeed set justice as an essential feature at the heart of the new international system. Blackhole of this dichotomy is the crime of aggression. Aggression was at first the key component of a wide body of peace projects prosecuted under the charges of crimes against peace. However, the wide array of controversies around aggression mostly related to its definition, determination and the involvement of the Security Council silenced, partly, a degree of efforts and agreements. Notwithstanding the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC), jurisdiction over the crime of aggression was suspended until an agreement over the definition and the conditions for the Court’s exercise of jurisdiction was reached. Compromised over the crime was achieved in Kampala in 2010 and the Court’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression was eventually activated on 17 July 2018. China has steadily supported the advancement of international criminal justice together with the establishment of a permanent international judicial body to prosecute grave crimes and has proactively participated at the various stages of the codification and development of the crime of aggression. However, China has also expressed systematic reservations and setbacks. With the use of primary and secondary sources, including semi-structured interviews, this research aims at analyzing the role that China has played throughout the substantive historical development of the crime of aggression, demonstrating a sharp inclination in the maintenance of international peace and security. Such state behavior seems to reflect national and international political mechanisms that gravitate around a distinct rationale that involves a share of culture and tradition.

Keywords: maintenance of peace and security, cultural expression of justice, crime of aggression, China

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76 Nutritional Supplementation in the Management of Childhood/Youth Aggression: A Systematic Review

Authors: Sabrina M. Wang, Rameen Qamar, Fahad Manzar Qureshi, Laura La Chance, Nathan J. Kolla, Barna Konkolÿ Thege

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Elevated level of aggressive behaviour in children and youth can lead to impairments in family, social or academic functioning. The aim of the present study was to critically review the evidence on the effectiveness of nutritional supplements in reducing aggression in children and youth. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, and PubMed data bases were searched for relevant studies. Altogether, 22 studies met inclusion criteria; 13 investigated the effect of macronutrients (fatty acids and amino acids), 6 studies investigated the effect of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), while 3 studies investigated a combination of macro and micronutrients. Out of the 22 studies, 7 reported a beneficial effect of nutritional supplementation (vitamins and minerals, essential fatty acids, or a certain combination of these). Eight studies did not report a significant beneficial effect of nutritional supplementation (essential fatty acids, vitamin D, and L-tryptophan), while 7 studies reported mixed effects (vitamin B6, essential fatty acids alone and in combination with vitamins and minerals, and carnitine). The results overall suggest that there may be a role for broad-range vitamin and mineral supplements in the treatment of aggression in youth and children.

Keywords: aggression, children, youth, nutritional supplementation, micronutrient, macronutrient

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75 Cyber Aggression, Cyber Bullying and the Dark Triad: Effect on Workplace Behavior and Performance

Authors: Anishya Obhrai Madan

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In an increasingly connected world, where speed of communication attempts to match the speed of thought and thus intentions; conflict gets actioned faster using media like the internet and telecommunication technology. This has led to a new form of aggression: “cyber bullying”. The present paper attempts to integrate existing theory on bullying, and the dark triad personality traits in a work environment and extrapolate it to the cyber context.

Keywords: conflict at work, cyber bullying, dark triad of personality, toxic employee

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74 A Retrospective Study - Demographical, Clinical and Pharmacological Correlate of Seclusion, Self-Discharge, Physical Aggression and Use of PRN Psychotropics Within The First 72 Hours Of Admission in The Acute Psychiatric Unit in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Asma AlAmri, Ahmed Hassab Errasoul

Abstract:

Background & Objectives: Psychiatric disorders are common, affecting approximately one of five adults (17.6%) of the population. While most patients can be successfully treated as outpatients, admission to psychiatric wards is required during relapses or as part of crisis intervention. The first 72h of admission could be particularly critical due to increased risk of physical violence, non-medical discharge and absconding. Many patients requiring interventions such as seclusion, physical restrain, PRN psychotropic medications. This study aims to investigate the relationship between demographical, clinical and pharmacological factors in one hand and certain outcomes (physical aggression, use of PRN medications, need for seclusions and non-medical discharges) within the first 72hours of admission to acute psychiatric wards in KKUH/Riyadh Methods: All admissions to psychiatric wards over a 20 month period, between (May 2015- January 2017) were included. Data was collected on demographics, diagnosis, psychotropic medications prescription, documented physical aggression, and seclusion, self-discharge and absconding. Results: 134 males and 171 females were admitted over the study period. Mean age was 34.2 years (SD 11.96).48.9% (n=149) were single and most patients (n=198) were either unemployed or in educations. Bipolar disorder was the most frequent diagnosis recorded on admission (39.3%, n=120); followed by Schizophrenia and related disorders (34.8%; n=106). Most patients (77.4%, n= 236) received regular psychotropic medications on admission. Vis a vis, 223 patients (73%) received PRN medications. Nominal regression model revealed positive relationship between “no psychotropics prescribed on admission” and self-discharge in women but not in men. No statistically significant relationship was found between age, gender, admission diagnosis and use of regular psychotropic medications on admission and need for seclusion, time spent in seclusion, documented physical aggression and use of PRN medications. Conclusion: Contrary to what is expected, our study does not show association between gender, physical aggression and need for seclusion. This could be due to poor documentation practices by nursing staff in male ward comparing with those in the female ward. Use of PRN psychotropics in the first 72 hours of admission was quite high possibly leading to a “ceiling effect”. A limitation of this study is the retrospective data collection.

Keywords: discharge against medical advice, physical aggression, psychotropics, seclusion

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73 [Keynote Speech]: Evidence-Based Outcome Effectiveness Longitudinal Study on Three Approaches to Reduce Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Schoolchildren: Group CBT, Moral Education, Bioneurological Intervention

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung

Abstract:

While aggression had high stability throughout developmental stages and across generations, it should be the top priority of researchers and frontline helping professionals to develop prevention and intervention programme for aggressive children and children at risk of developing aggressive behaviours. Although there is a substantial amount of anti-bullying programmes, they gave disappointingly small effect sizes. The neglectful practical significance could be attributed to the overly simplistic categorisation of individuals involved as bullies or victims. In the past three decades, the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression has been well-proved. As children displaying reactively aggressive behaviours have distinct social-information processing pattern with those showing proactively aggressive behaviours, it is critical to identify the unique needs of the two subtypes accordingly when designing an intervention. The onset of reactive aggression and proactive aggression was observed at earliest in 4.4 and 6.8 years old respectively. Such findings called for a differential early intervention targeting these high-risk children. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the author was the first to establish an evidence-based intervention programme against reactive and proactive aggression. With the largest samples in the world, the author, in the past 10 years, explored three different approaches and their effectiveness against aggression quantitatively and qualitatively with longitudinal design. The three approaches presented are (a) cognitive-behavioral approach, (b) moral education, with Chinese marital arts and ethics as the medium, and (c) bioneurological measures (omega-3 supplementation). The studies adopted a multi-informant approach with repeated measures before and after the intervention, and follow-up assessment. Participants were recruited from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. In the cognitive-behavioral approach, 66 reactive aggressors and 63 proactive aggressors, aged from 11 to 17, were identified from 10,096 secondary-school children with questionnaire and subsequent structured interview. Participants underwent 10 group sessions specifically designed for each subtype of aggressor. Results revealed significant declines in aggression levels from the baseline to the follow-up assessment after 1 year. In moral education through the Chinese martial arts, 315 high-risk aggressive children, aged 6 to 12 years, were selected from 3,511 primary-school children and randomly assigned into four types of 10-session intervention group, namely martial-skills-only, martial-ethics-only, both martial-skills-and-ethics, and physical fitness (placebo). Results showed only the martial-skills-and-ethics group had a significant reduction in aggression after treatment and 6 months after treatment comparing with the placebo group. In the bioneurological approach, 218 children, aged from 8 to 17, were randomly assigned to the omega-3 supplement group and the placebo group. Results revealed that compared with the placebo group, the omega-3 supplement group had significant declines in aggression levels at the 6-month follow-up assessment. All three approaches were effective in reducing proactive and reactive aggression. Traditionally, intervention programmes against aggressive behaviour often adapted the cognitive and/or behavioural approach. However, cognitive-behavioural approach for children was recently challenged by its demanding requirement of cognitive ability. Traditional cognitive interventions may not be as beneficial to an older population as in young children. The present study offered an insightful perspective in aggression reduction measures.

Keywords: intervention, outcome effectiveness, proactive aggression, reactive aggression

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72 Aggression Related Trauma and Coping among University Students, Exploring Emotional Intelligence Applications on Coping with Aggression Related Trauma

Authors: Asanka Bulathwatta

Abstract:

This Study tries to figure out the role of emotional Intelligence for developing coping strategies among adolescents who face traumatic events. Late adolescence students who have enrolled into the University education (Bachelor students/first-year students) would be selected as the sample. University education is an important stage of students’ academic life. Therefore, all students need to develop their competencies to attain the goal of passing examinations and also to developing their wisdom related to the scientific knowledge they gathered through their academic life. Study to be conducted in a cross-cultural manner and it will be taking place in Germany and Sri Lanka. The sample will be consisting of 200 students from each country. Late adolescence is a critical period of the human being as it is foot step in their life which acquiring the emotional and social qualities in their social life. There are many adolescents who have affected by aggression related traumatic events during their lifespan but have not been identified or treated. More specifically, there are numerous burning issues within the first year of the university students namely, ragging done by seniors to juniors, bulling, invalidation and issues raise based on attitudes changes and orientation issues. Those factors can be traumatic for both their academic and day to day lifestyle. Identifying the students who are with emotional damages and their resiliency afterward the aggression related traumas and effective rehabilitation from the traumatic events is immensely needed in order to facilitate university students for their academic achievements and social life within the University education. Research findings in Germany show that students shows more interpersonal traumas, life-threatening illnesses and death of someone related are common in German sample.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, agression, trauma, coping

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71 Stress and Personality as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour among Nurses of Private Hospitals in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ngozi N. Sydney-Agbor, Chioma N. Ihegboro

Abstract:

Stress and personality as factors influencing nurses’ aggressive behaviour were investigated. The participants comprised of one hundred and fifty nurses selected through convenience sampling technique from four (4) private hospitals in Imo State, Nigeria; namely: Eastern Summit Specialist Clinics and Maternity, St. David Hospital, New Cross Hospital, and Christian Teaching Hospital. The nurses were all females with ages between 20–35 and a mean age of 25.10 years and a standard deviation of 4.15. The participants were administered with Job Related Tension Scale, Type A Behaviour Scale and Buss- Perry Aggressive Behaviour Scale. Two hypotheses were postulated and tested. Cross- sectional survey and Regression Analysis were adopted as design and statistics respectively. Results showed that as stress increased, nurses aggression also increased. Personality also predicted nurses aggressive behaviour with Type As’ exhibiting higher aggression than Type Bs’.The study recommended that hospital management board should improve the welfare of the nurses and their morale should be boosted by involving them in policy-making concerning their welfare and care of their patients, this will help minimise situations capable of increasing aggressive behaviour. There should also be sensitization on the negative impact of aggressive behaviour to patients especially amongst the personality Type A’s who are more susceptible to aggression.

Keywords: aggressive behaviour, nurses, personality, stress

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70 Safer Staff: A Survey of Staff Experiences of Violence and Aggression at Work in Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership National Health Service Trust

Authors: Rupinder Kaler, Faith Ndebele, Nadia Saleem, Hafsa Sheikh

Abstract:

Background: Workplace related violence and aggression seems to be considered an acceptable occupational hazard for staff in mental health services. There is literature evidence that healthcare workers in mental health settings are at higher risk from aggression from patients. Aggressive behaviours pose a physical and psychological threat to the psychiatric staff and can result in stress, burnout, sickness, and exhaustion. Further evidence informs that health professionals are the most exposed to psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Fear that results from working in a dangerous environment and exhaustion can have a damaging impact on patient care and healthcare relationship. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and impact of aggressive behaviour on staff working at Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership Trust. Methodology: The study methodology included carrying out a manual, anonymised, multi-disciplinary cross-sectional survey questionnaire across all clinical and non-clinical staff at CWPT from both inpatient and community settings. Findings: The unsurprising finding was that of higher prevalence of aggressive behaviours in in-patients in comparison to community staff. Conclusion: There is a high rate of verbal and physical aggression at work and this has a negative impact on the staff emotional and physical well- being. There is also a higher reliance on colleagues for support on an informal basis than formal organisational support systems. Recommendations: A workforce that is well and functioning is the biggest resource for an organisation. Staff safety during working hours is everyone's responsibility and sits with both individual staff members and the organisation. Post-incident organisational support needs to be consolidated, and hands-on, timely support offered to help maintain emotionally well staff on CWPT. The authors recommend development of preventative and practical protocols for aggression with patient and carer involvement. Post-incident organisational support needs to be consolidated, and hands-on, timely support offered to help maintain emotionally well staff on CWPT.

Keywords: safer staff, survey of staff experiences, violence and aggression, mental health

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