Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: ASEAN RES

108 ASEAN Academics’ Perspective of Collaboration among ASEAN Universities

Authors: Hazri Jamil, Munir Shuib, Farhah Muhammad

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In line with the 27th ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Summit 2015 principles in Kuala Lumpur on higher education, synergised collaboration is aimed to promote resilience and vibrancy between institutions and academia. Hence, this paper aims to discuss matters concerning collaboration among ASEAN Universities derived from the perspectives of academics from the universities in ASEAN countries. The data were collected from 234 respondents of nine universities in ASEAN using questionnaires and online survey analyzed using purposive sampling. The findings revealed that more than half of the respondents in this survey were optimistic that the ASEAN universities have a great potential in collaboration among academics in ASEAN countries. The findings also indicated that collaboration among ASEAN universities will have a positive impact on the ASEAN economy and society. Finally, to enhance collaboration among the universities in ASEAN, educational improvement and exchanges as well as environmental issues are among the noteworthy aspects which need to be taken into account.

Keywords: academics, ASEAN, collaboration, higher education, universities

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107 Convergence or Divergence of Economic Growth within the ASEAN Community: Challenges for the AEC

Authors: Philippe Gugler

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This contribution reflects some important questions regarding inter alia the economic development occurring in the light of the ASEAN’s goal of creating the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. We observe a continuing economic growth of GDP per capita over recent years despite the negative effects of the world economic crisis. IMF forecasts indicate that this trend will continue. The paper focuses on the analysis and comparison of economic growth trends of ASEAN countries.

Keywords: ASEAN, convergence, divergence, economic growth, globalization, integration

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106 Green-Y Model for Preliminary Sustainable Economical Concept of Renewable Energy Sources Deployment in ASEAN Countries

Authors: H. H. Goh, K. C. Goh, W. N. Z. S. Wan Sukri, Q. S. Chua, S. W. Lee, B. C. Kok

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Endowed of renewable energy sources (RES) are the advantages of ASEAN, but they are using a low amount of RES only to generate electricity because their primary energy sources are fossil and coal. The cost of purchasing fossil and coal is cheaper now, but it might be expensive soon, as it will be depleted sooner and after. ASEAN showed that the RES are convenient to be implemented. Some country in ASEAN has huge renewable energy sources potential and use. The primary aim of this project is to assist ASEAN countries in preparing the renewable energy and to guide the policies for RES in the more upright direction. The Green-Y model will help ASEAN government to study and forecast the economic concept, including feed-in tariff.

Keywords: ASEAN RES, Renewable Energy, RES Policies, RES Potential, RES Utilization

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105 English as a Lingua Franca Elicited in ASEAN Accents

Authors: Choedchoo Kwanhathai

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This study explores attitudes towards ASEAN plus ONE (namely ASEAN plus China) accents of English as a Lingua Franca. The study draws attention to features of ASEAN’s diversity of English and specifically examines the extent of which the English accent in ASEAN countries of three of the ten members plus one were perceived in terms of correctness, acceptability, pleasantness, and familiarity. Three accents were used for this study; Chinese, Philippine and Thai. The participants were ninety eight Thai students enrolled in a foundation course of Suan Dusit Rajabhat University, Bangkok Thailand. The students were asked in questionnaires to rank how they perceived each specifically ASEAN plus One English accent after listening to audio recordings of three stories spoken by the three different ASEAN plus ONE English speakers. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The findings of attitudes towards varieties of English accent from the 98 respondents regarding correctness, acceptability, pleasantness, and familiarity of Thai English accents found that Thai accent was overall at level 3 (X = 2.757, SD= o.33), %Then Philippines accents was at level 2 (X = 2.326, SD = 16.12), and Chinese accents w2as at level 3 (X 3.198, SD = 0.18). Finally, the present study proposes pedagogical implications for teaching regarding awareness of ‘Englishes’ of ASEAN and their respective accents and their lingua cultural background of instructors.

Keywords: English as a lingua franca, English accents, English as an international language, ASEAN plus one, ASEAN English varieties

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104 Exploring the Dynamics in the EU-Association of Southeast Asia Nations Interregional Relationship, 2012-2017

Authors: Xuechen Chen

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The EU-ASEAN relations which can be dated back to 1972 represents one of the oldest group-to-group relationship in international politics. Despite a longstanding dialogue partnership, the EU and ASEAN have long been reluctant to forge deeper and substantial cooperation in political and security domains. However, the year of 2012 witnessed a salient shift in EU-ASEAN relations, with the EU significantly elevating ASEAN's profile in its external relations. Given the limited scholarly attention that has been devoted to this change in ASEAN-EU relations, this article explores why there has been a greater level of engagement and approximation between the EU and ASEAN. In particular, it asks why the EU, which had long been reluctant to recognize ASEAN as a strategic partner, has changed its policy towards ASEAN. Drawing on social constructivism, this article argues that the EU’s and ASEAN’s evolving identity-formation processes have played a significant role in reshaping their mutual perceptions, which subsequently leads to the modification of the interregional policies of both actors. The methodology of this study is based on content analysis of a wide range of official documents and policy papers from the EU and ASEAN, as well as more than 20 in-depth elite interviews with diplomats and experts working on the EU-ASEAN relationship from both organisations. Departing from the existing works which mainly adopt a Eurocentric perspective when analysing the EU-ASEAN interregionalism, this study suggests that the approximation of the EU-ASEAN relationship between 2012 and 2017 is driven by both actors’ adjustment of international identities, together with the internal dynamics and systematic changes within both regions.

Keywords: Association of Southeast Asia Nations, European Union, EU foreign policy, interregionalism

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103 Comparative Regionalism: The Case of Financial Integration in Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Authors: Sharon Kun-Amornpong

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In this paper, ASEAN financial integration will be discussed from the perspective of the rule of law. The methodology of the paper is comparative regionalism. It will compare the role of the rule of law in ASEAN financial integration with that of the European Union with particular focuses on, for example, institutions and values. The paper argues that in the realm of financial integration, the rule of law is one of the most important factors that could help strengthen and promote financial integration in ASEAN. This is despite the fact that the ‘ASEAN Way’ emphasises non-interference and utilises a consensus-based cooperation rather than formal institutions. Nevertheless, the rule of law for ASEAN financial integration should be situated in its own historical, cultural, and political contexts. In addition, in the case of ASEAN, the rule of law cannot take root if it does not come from the demand of the people in this region. For instance, a reform or creation of legal institutions should not be imposed by international financial institutions. The paper will conclude that law has a normative force. It could shape expectation of market participants and promote deeper financial integration if norms that the law generates have become a significant norm in the society or industry.

Keywords: Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN, comparative regionalism, financial integration, the rule of law

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102 ASEAN Our Eyes: A Strategic Information Exchange Platform on Counter-Terrorism

Authors: Nila Febri Wilujeng, Helda Risman

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Enjoying stable security within its region for the last 50 years, ASEAN nowadays contends with the global context emerging dynamically, which brings about multidimensional challenges and threats such as terrorism, radicalism, armed rebellion, hijacking, and other non-traditional threats. Dealing with these circumstances, ASEAN member states tighten its capacity by enhancing regional cooperation and strategic information exchange among ASEAN member states so-called ASEAN Our Eyes. This initiative adopted for the sake of forestalling any possible threat posed by violent extremism, radicalization, and terrorism through timely strategic information exchange among ASEAN member states. By using qualitative method, this paper will utilize regional security complex and international cooperation theories in analyzing the process to examine ASEAN Our Eyes based on its terms of reference. As a result, it portrays that ASEAN Our Eyes is able to undermine the gaps in the realm of strategic information exchange in monitoring the movement of violent extremism, radicalism, foreign terrorist fighters, and crime-terror nexus. However, it remains premature as a strategic measure to encounter those threats in the years to come.

Keywords: regional cooperation, counter-terrorism, ASEAN our eyes, strategic information exchange

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101 Unification of Indonesia Time Zones Encourages People to Be on Time for Facing ASEAN Economic Community

Authors: Hasrullah Hasrullah

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Since December 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is officially declared in the 27th Summit Conference of ASEAN and Indonesia is one of country are listed in the ASEAN members. Per January 1st, 2016 the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) came into effect. However, its implementation in Indonesia is still weighing the pros and cons because Indonesia is considered too late to prepare for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). In other words, rubber time of Indonesian people has been occurring in the AEC. This paper reviews how Indonesia language influences people’s attitude to be rubber time culture and how time zones of Indonesia influence people’s attitude through media on television to be rubber time culture. The author addresses this research question empirically by collecting data from various sources of data those are relevant and compare among the unification of Indonesia time zones. The result demonstrates that unification of Indonesia time zones to be Standard Indonesia Time is a solution to encourage people to be ready on time for facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).

Keywords: unification time zones, Indonesia Language, Rubber Time, AEC

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100 ASEAN Limited Centrality in Connectivity: Managing the China-Japan Infrastructure Competition

Authors: Barbora Valockova

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Scholars recommend the establishment of a multilateral coordination mechanism by ASEAN, such as an infrastructure forum, to contain the China-Japan infrastructure financing competition in the region. However, they do not systematically investigate the reasons for its absence. This paper aims to fill the gap by addressing the following question: Why has ASEAN been unable to set up any multilateral coordination mechanism to soften the China-Japan infrastructure financing competition? This paper argues that ASEAN has not been able to set up such a mechanism due to its limited centrality in connectivity. This limited centrality decreases ASEAN’s ability to manage the China-Japan competition in a more comprehensive and coordinated way. Rather, ASEAN acts as a scope setter in connectivity, although this is not completely ineffective. This paper is divided into four sections. The first section explores the key tenets of the concept of ASEAN centrality in connectivity, which is under-examined in the current literature. The second section examines the extent to which ASEAN limited centrality in connectivity is being respected by China and Japan. The third section analyses how various stakeholders, such as ASEAN member states, their leaders and bureaucracy, and foreign private companies prevent ASEAN from attaining stronger centrality. The last section concludes and offers recommendations. Data is gathered using primary sources (official ASEAN, Chinese, and Japanese documents, interviews, etc.) and secondary material. By providing a nuanced analysis of ASEAN centrality in connectivity and developing a new operationalization of the concept, this paper aims to contribute to the international relations literature on ASEAN centrality. Initial findings suggest that while ASEAN limited centrality in connectivity has some effectiveness, it is not sufficient for setting up a multilateral coordination mechanism. While it represents a solid departure point, any potential possessed by ASEAN to evolve beyond a scope setter in connectivity is hampered by stakeholders involved in infrastructure development. While these players and their interactions can have both positive and negative effects on the scope set by ASEAN, it is unlikely that they would allow ASEAN to become the real central player. There can be no stronger ASEAN centrality in connectivity without ASEAN unity and neutrality. However, the last two factors are difficult to attain in the context of infrastructure development since ASEAN member states and stakeholders all have their styles and preferences. All other things being equal, these circumstances favor a loose, vague, and quasi-prescriptive arrangement among the relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: ASEAN centrality, China-Japan infrastructure competition, connectivity, scope setter

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99 Preparing Education Enter the ASEAN Community: The Case Study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai, Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Mathinee Khongsatid, Nattapol Pourprasert

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This paper studied the preparing education enter the ASEAN Community by the year 2015 the Ministry of Education has policy on ASEAN Charter, including the dissemination of information to create a good attitude about ASEAN, development of students' skills appropriately, development of educational standards to prepare for the liberalization of education in the region and Youth Development as a vital resource in advancing the ASEAN community. Preparing for the liberalization of education Commission on Higher Education (CHE) has prepared Thailand strategic to become ASEAN and support the free trade in higher education service; increasing graduate capability to reach international standards; strengthening higher educational institutions; and enhancing roles of educational institutions in the ASEAN community is main factor in set up long-term education frame 15 years, volume no. 2. As well as promoting Thailand as a center for education in the neighbor countries. As well as development data centers of higher education institutions in the region make the most of the short term plan is to supplement the curriculum in the ASEAN community. Moreover, provides a teaching of English and other languages used in the region, creating partnerships with the ASEAN countries to exchange academics staff and students, research, training, development of joint programs, and system tools in higher education.

Keywords: ASEAN community, education, institution, dissemination of information

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98 Dynamics of Norms and Identities Facilitate Countries to Resolve Their Conflicts: A Case Study of ASEAN

Authors: Chander Shekhar Kohli

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In the field of international relations, countries have been experiencing distinct nature of conflicts. But, in the case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for a long time, the members have witnessed conflicts, small and large. These conflicts, as a result, have given catastrophic outcomes, such as killings and destroying properties. For the resolution of such conflicts, nonetheless, efforts likewise have been made, simultaneously, in terms of establishing peace and security. In this background, the ASEAN presents a significant example as before it had faced several wars, like Vietnam War, Cambodia conflicts, and so on. This research paper, therefore, strives to examine the ASEAN as a case with the help of both primary and secondary sources. It likewise will be dealt with how changing norms and identity building facilitate the ASEAN countries to deal with their conflicts both internal and external. This paper also will discuss how internal developments within countries affect conflict resolution process as each member of ASEAN is guided by its national interest. It is then argued that conflict resolution in the ASEAN is moving from its existing power-based solution to norms and identity-based solution as member countries have become more dependent on other countries. The research, therefore, is concluded by saying that the conflicts could only be resolved through building norms and common identities, which of course are recognized crucial mechanisms among the ASEAN countries with some exceptions.

Keywords: ASEAN, conflict resolution, norms and identities, peace and security

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97 Strengthening Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in ASEAN Community: The Case of Nahdlatul Ulama

Authors: Andi Triswoyo

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The establishment of ASEAN Community 2015 was proposed to integrate concretely, in terms of regional cooperation. All of the members of the ASEAN itself compete to prepare themselves in the actual place. Regarding to the Bali Concord III, subsequently ASEAN Community was categorized by three elements, such as (1) ASEAN Political-security Community (APC), (2) ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), and (3) ASEAN Socio-cultural Community (ASC). Preparing on three components above, civil society organizations must be prioritized as the main body, which ensure grassroots society itself obtain maximum benefits or advantage of these declarations. NU, as the representative of mass-based organizations, was choose, due to the highly influences toward Moslem rural-traditionalist, which has the largest followers in Indonesia. This paper was aimed to explain the contribution of NU in developing and empowering society. Furthermore, it will use historical perspective, by looking for related data, which contain basic- knowledge and explanatory facts in literary desk. It would elaborate in NU’s urgency for promoting civil societies roles in ASEAN Community. In the ends, this paper was proposed to measure to what extend NU’s roles in promoting the Civil Society in Indonesia and its potential capability to get involved at the upcoming regional communities. Hopefully, the attempt to strengthen Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), like NU can push faster in creating good governance and democracy, toward social configurations amongst state, market and civil society.

Keywords: ASEAN community, Nahdlatul Ulama, civil society organizations(CSO), civil society

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96 Readiness Analysis of Indonesian Accountants

Authors: Lisa Listiana

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ASEAN leader agreed to accelerate ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) implementation by 2015. The AEC Blueprint has set up obligations for its members to follow which include the establishment of (a) free trade in goods, according to ASEAN Free Trade Area: AFTA, (b) free trade in services, according to ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services: AFAS, (c) free trade in investment, according to ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement: ACIA, (d) free capital flow, and (e) free flow of skilled labors. Consequently, these obligations bring both challenges and opportunities for its members. As accountant is included in the coverage of 8 skilled labors, the readiness of accounting profession to embrace AEC 2015 is pivotal. If Indonesian accountants do not accelerate their learning effort, the knowledge gap between Indonesian accountants and their international colleagues will only be worsened. This paper aims to analyze the current progress of AEC preparation and its challenges and opportunities for Indonesian accountants, and also to propose recommendation as necessary.

Keywords: AEC, ASEAN, readiness, Indonesian accountants

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95 The Urgency of ASEAN Human Rights Court Establishment to Protect Human Rights in Southeast Asia

Authors: Tareq M. Aziz Elven

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The issue of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia has become the serious problem and attract the attention of international community. Principally, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has mentioned the Human Rights as one of the focus and be a part of the ASEAN Charter in 2008. It was followed by the establishment of ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). AICHR is the commission of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia which has a duty, function, and an authority to conduct dissemination and protection of Human Rights. In the end of 2016, however, the function of protection mandated to AICHR have not achieved yet. It can be proved by several cases of Human Rights violation which still exist and have not settled yet. One of case which attracts the public attention recently is human rights violation towards Rohingya in Myanmar. Using the juridical-normative method, the research aims to examine the urgency of Human Rights court establishment in Southeast Asia region which able to issue the decision that binds the ASEAN members or the violating parties. The data shows that ASEAN needs to establish a regional court which intended to settle the Human Rights violations in ASEAN region. Furthermore, the research also highlights three strong factors should be settled by ASEAN for establishing human rights court i.e. the significant distinction of democracy and human rights development among the members, the strong implementation of non-intervention principle, and the financial matter to sustain the court.

Keywords: AICHR, ASEAN, human rights, human rights court

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94 Air Connectivity in Promoting Association of Southeast Asian Nations Integration: The Role of Low Cost-Carriers

Authors: Gabriella Fardhiyanti, Victor Wee

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Air connectivity is the crucial factors to boost a region economics growth. It will open the accessibility to support regional competitiveness and helps to achieve ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) integration in term of economic integration, business investment, promote intra-regional trade, and creates the sense of belongingness among ASEAN people in the region. An increasing number of air connectivity and transportation will be benefiting the region because air transportation is a vital hub for ASEAN. The aim of this paper is to address the importance of air connectivity in promoting ASEAN Integration, by focusing on the ASEAN vision for a more integrated region. The assessment uses based on the Netscan Air connectivity model based on the flight destination and airport connectivity index, further analysis present that air connectivity significantly influence ASEAN tourism sector. Follow by the implications of open skies policy for the liberation of the aviation industry and the growth of low cost-carriers (LCCs) in the region. This paper provides recommendation and strategy for overcoming the challenges faced by ASEAN to boost ASEAN tourism integration successfully. The findings can assist in guiding policy and industry stakeholders in the future decision relating to air liberalization and more integrated system in the region.

Keywords: air connectivity, ASEAN integration, low-cost carries, NetScan connectivity model, open skies policy

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93 Structuring the Role of Indonesia's Dilemma Position in ASEAN to Combat Human Trafficking

Authors: Febi Eka Putri, Prabowo Anggorono

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Human Trafficking has become a threat in the global phenomenon, including Indonesia as a country adopting democracy to uphold the human rights value. Indonesia is classified as a source of trafficking in persons which dominate by women and children for sexual exploitation and forced labor purposes. In this case, Indonesia has committed to combat trafficking in persons by enacted domestic law to criminalize all types of human trafficking in domestic and international level. Tracing to the efforts, we cannot just simplify it, however, in 2016 Indonesia has placed as a tier 2 country because the government does not fully achieve the minimum standard by U. S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act due to only making efforts as progress. While as a part of ASEAN member, Indonesia has signed ASEAN Human Rights Declaration but when it comes to Human Trafficking issue, there is only few ASEAN member who has ratified ASEAN Convention on Trafficking in Persons, in particular Women and Children such as Singapore, Cambodia, and Thailand. This brings the evidence to structuring the role of Indonesia to combat human trafficking.

Keywords: Indonesia, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), human trafficking, Tier 2 country

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92 Suicidal Ideation and Associated Factors among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2014

Authors: Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid

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Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States. Methods: The analysis included 30284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN that participated in the cross-sectional Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. Results: The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 12.3%, significantly higher in girls (15.1%) than boys (9.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries with the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was in the Philippines (17.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) and the lowest in Myanmar (1.1%) and Indonesia (4.2%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender, older age (14 or 15 years), living in a low income or lower middle income country, having no friends, loneliness, bullying victimization, having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, lack of parental or guardian support, tobacco use and having a history of ever got drunk were associated with suicidal ideatiion. Conclusion: Different rates of suicidal ideation were observed in ASEAN member states. Several risk factors for suicidal ideation were identified which can help guide preventive efforts.

Keywords: adolesents, ASEAN, correlates, suicidal behaviour

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91 ASEAN Economic Community 2015: Impacts and Challenges toward Tourism Labor Movement in Indonesia and Philippines

Authors: Budi Purnomo, Karen M. Fernandez

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The creation of an ASEAN Community in 2015 is definitely one thing to look forward to. Integration may have birth pains in the beginning but at the end of the day, there are many opportunities that each member-state can take advantage that will benefit the people of ASEAN. Once fully integrated in 2015, ASEAN-certified tourism professionals who pass the common competency standards may find employment in various divisions of labor that are common across various sectors of tourism in member countries. At present, there are six labor divisions where tourism professionals may find employment in ASEAN member countries: namely Front Office; Housekeeping; Food Production; Food and Beverage Services (for Hotel Services); Travel Agency; and Tour Operations (for Travel Services Division). The study attempts to assess the readiness of Indonesian and Filipino students prospective skilled and educated tourism labors to work in ASEAN member countries by 2015. The data sources are obtained from a researcher-designed questionnaire and in-depth interview to reveal the interest of Indonesian and Filipino students to work in other ASEAN member states. The questionnaires were distributed to 240 third and fourth year students who are currently enrolled at the leading tourism institutes/universities in Indonesia and Philippines. The findings of the study will reveal the fulfillment of the requirements to work in ASEAN member-states, the comparison of existing tourism management curricula of Indonesia and Philippines to the Common ASEAN Curriculum (CATC) and Regional Qualifications Framework and Skills Recognition System (RQFSRS) which supports the policies of the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy of the Republic of Indonesia and the Department of Tourism and Department of Labor and Employment of the Republic of the Philippines.

Keywords: ASEAN economic community, prospective skilled and educated tourism labors, tourism labor movement, ASEAN certified-tourism professionals

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90 Customers’ Satisfaction of ASEAN Camp: A Camp to Provide Training and Knowledge to Faculty and Staff Members

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee, Atcharapun Daiporn

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This research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty and staff members who participated in the ASEAN camp. The population of this study included all the faculty and staff members who participated in the activities of the ASEAN camp during January 2014. Based on 106 faculty and staff members who answered the questionnaire, the data were complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.16, and standard deviation was 0.6634. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: useful knowledge, technique of explaining knowledge, understanding materials, appropriateness of knowledge, document available, time of activities, service from staff, and public relation.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, customer, satisfaction, faculty and staff members

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89 Satisfaction of the Training at ASEAN Camp: E-Learning Knowledge and Application at Chantanaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Sinchai Poolklai

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The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty members who participated in the ASEAN camp, Chantaburi, Thailand. The population of this study included all the faculty members of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who participated in the training and activities of the ASEAN camp during March, 2014. Among a total of 200 faculty members who answered the questionnaire, the data was complied by using SPSS program. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.37, and standard deviation was 0.7810. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: lower cost, less time consuming, faster delivery, more effective learning, and lower environment impact.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, e-learning, satisfaction, application

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88 Productive Efficiency in Asean Banking

Authors: Suhartono Suhartono

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Issue of cost efficiency is then becoming pivotal point because public expect cost of banking operation reducing and benefited of consumers. This study examines the determinants of cost efficiency of banks operating in 8 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This study uses economics theory approach to examine the existence of economies of scale in the ASEAN Banking market especially on its impact on cost efficiency. We apply concept of average cost (AC) as a proxy for the cost efficiency. We find that economies of scale is existing in the banking market indicating scale and scope economies should be considered in the industrial policy. The stronger capital position is also positive to efficiency means stronger capitalized banks are more efficient. Bank that remunerates better tend to be more efficient as result economic capital effect.

Keywords: cost efficiency, ASEAN, economies of scale, issue of cost

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87 Factor Affecting Decision Making for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists

Authors: Sakul Jariyachansit

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The purposes of this research were to investigate and to compare the factors affecting the decision for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists and among ASEAN community tourists. Samples in this research were 400 ASEAN Community Tourists who travel in Thailand at Suvarnabhumi Airport during November 2016 - February 2016. The researchers determined the sample size by using the formula Taro Yamane at 95% confidence level tolerances 0.05. The English questionnaire, research instrument, was distributed by convenience sampling, for gathering data. Descriptive statistics was applied to analyze percentages, mean and standard deviation and used for hypothesis testing. The statistical analysis by multiple regression analysis (Multiple Regression) was employed to prove the relationship hypotheses at the significant level of 0.01. The results showed that majority of the respondents indicated the factors affecting the decision for Tourism in Thailand by ASEAN Tourists, in general there were a moderate effects and the mean of each side is moderate. Transportation was the most influential factor for tourism in Thailand. Therefore, the mode of transport, information, infrastructure and personnel are very important to factor affecting decision making for tourism in Thailand by ASEAN tourists. From the hypothesis testing, it can be predicted that the decision for choosing Tourism in Thailand is at R2 = 0.449. The predictive equation is decision for choosing Tourism in Thailand = 1.195 (constant value) + 0.425 (tourist attraction) +0.217 (information received) and transportation factors, tourist attraction, information, human resource and infrastructure at the significant level of 0.01.

Keywords: factor, decision making, ASEAN tourists, tourism in Thailand

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86 The Level of Satisfaction of the Training Program from the ASEAN Camp II: A Camp to Prepare Human Resources for AEC 2015

Authors: Tanakom Potjanapitak, Kevin Wongleedee

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The purpose of this research study was to study the level of satisfaction of the faculty members who participated in the ASEAN camp which aimed to prepare them for the readiness of AEC 2015. The population of this study included all the faculty members who participated in the activities of the ASEAN camp during April, 2014. Based on the survey of 120 faculty members who answered the questionnaire, the data was complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.41, and standard deviation was 0.7188. Moreover, the average mean can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: helpful knowledge, understandable knowledge, proper materials, suitable knowledge, schedule of activities, staff, and advertising.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, training, satisfaction, human resources

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85 Intra and International Collaborations as Important Factors of Organisational Innovation of Government Agencies in STI Ecosystem in ASEAN

Authors: Salinthip Thipayang, Achara Chandrachai, Rath Pichyangkura, Sukree Sinthupinyo

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Most of the well-known frameworks and tools to measure and compare organisational innovation of the public or government agencies have been designed and used in the developed economies such as the EU, Nordic Region, Australia, and South Korea. This project is one of the very first attempts to develop a measurement tool to adequately measure the organisational (administrative) innovation of the government agencies in the developing economies in ASEAN. New measurement framework with the components including the intra and international collaborations of these government agencies to other private, public and academic sectors were added to the proposed measurement framework. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews with the experts and the middle to top executives of the participating public agencies in the ASEAN member states were conducted to determine the suitability and develop the indicators that should be included in the measurement model. The results showed that intra and international collaborations of these government organisations to other agencies in the public, private and academic sectors can lead to new changes and greatly impact the ways in which these government agencies in the ASEAN STI ecosystem are operated and administered. Government organisations in less developing countries in ASEAN are ready and willing to learn from their counterparts in other more advanced countries and adjust their internal management to be more innovative and to better handle international collaborative projects and commitments.

Keywords: organisational innovation, administrative innovation, government agencies, public agencies, ASEAN science technology and innovation ecosystem, international collaborations

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84 The Readiness of English Communication Skills for Travel Agents to Enter the ASEAN Economic Community

Authors: Bavornluck Kuosuwan

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The purpose of this research was to study the level of readiness of English communication skills for travel agents in the Silom road area of Bangkok in order to enter the ASEAN economic community in the year 2015. The multi-stage sampling method was utilized with 474 respondents from 79 travel agencies. An English Questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics included percentage, average, standard deviation and Pearson’s r coefficient. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents were not well prepared in terms of ASEAN knowledge including laws and regulations. The majority of respondents had not been well informed about the changes that will come with the coming of ASEAN economic community. Moreover, the level of English communication for most travel agents was between the poor and intermediate level and therefore improvement is needed, especially the speaking and listening skill. In other words, the majority of respondents needed more training in terms of communications skills. The correlation between the working environment and attitude of the staff was very positive. Moreover, the correlation between the background of staff and attitude of staff was also very positive and most of demographic factors had a positive correlation with attitude of staff, except gender.

Keywords: ASEAN, communication skills, travel agents, media engineering

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83 Association of Southeast Asian Nations Caught in between International and Regional Human Rights Frameworks: The Myanmar Rohingya Crisis

Authors: Lynamata Chhun

Abstract:

Human Rights enforcement in the newly independent countries like Asian and African has always been penetrating issues. In spite, the existing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), regions like Africa and Asia where values and cultural norms far differ from the concept had formed their own Human Rights instruments to tackle Human Rights issues in their regions instead of embracing the concept of UDHR completely. ASEAN Human Rights Declaration is one of the examples. This paper aims to examine the enforcement of Human Rights in South East Asia in the context of ASEAN regional integration. Precisely, the author attempts to analyse the effectiveness in undertaking Human Rights issues in the region by applying both the existing international and regional frameworks using the Myanmar Rohingya Crisis as the case study. The methodology of the paper is qualitative analysis where cross-impact analysis is employed to examine the case study. It is anticipated that the main findings of this paper will illuminate how applicable the international instruments are in comparison to the regional instruments in apprehending the human rights issues and will shed light on how ASEAN and dialogue partners should cooperate in the future regarding with the challenging issues of Human Rights in the region.

Keywords: ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, ASEAN integration, ASEAN way, international and regional instruments, Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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82 The Development of Learning Outcomes and Learning Management Process of Basic Education along Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia Common Border for the ASEAN Community Preparation

Authors: Ladda Silanoi

Abstract:

One of the main purposes in establishment of ASEAN Community is educational development. All countries in ASEAN shall then prepare for plans and strategies for country development. Therefore, Thailand set up the policy concerning educational management for all educational institutions to understand about ASEAN Community. However, some educational institutions lack of precision in determining the curriculums of ASEAN Community, especially schools in rural areas, for example, schools along the common border with Laos, and Cambodia. One of the effective methods to promote the precision in ASEAN Community is to design additional learning courses. The important process of additional learning courses design is to provide learning outcomes of ASEAN Community for course syllabus determination. Therefore, the researcher is interested in developing teachers in the schools of common border with Laos, and Cambodia to provide learning outcomes and learning process. This research has the objective of developing the learning outcomes and learning process management of basic education along Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia Common Border for the ASEAN Community Preparation. Research methodology consists of 2 steps. Step 1: Delphi Technique was used to provide guidelines in development of learning outcomes and learning process. Step 2: Action Research procedures was employed to study the result of additional learning courses design. Result of the study: By using Delphi technique, consensus is expected to be achieved, from 50 experts in the study within 3 times of the survey. The last survey found that experts’ opinions were compatible on every item (inter-quartile range = 0) leading to the arrangement of training courses in step of Action Research. The result from the workshop found that teachers in schools of Srisaket and Bueng Kan provinces could be able to provide learning outcomes of all courses.

Keywords: learning outcome and learning process, basic education, ASEAN Community preparation, Thailand Laos and Cambodia common border

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81 US-ASEAN Counter Terrorism Cooperation: Maintaining International Security and Avoiding Muslim Stereotypes

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

Abstract:

The US Global War on Terror has had effect on Southeast Asia as Second Front of Global War on Terror. Since 2001, ASEAN had adopted legal framework to counter the terrorist threat through numerous approach which accommodate various counterterrorism policy of the ten member states. ASEAN have also enhanced multilateral cooperation with US and its allies in Asia Pacific region in addressing terrorist threat, terrorist funding, cyber terrorism and other forms of terrorism. This cooperation is essential to maintain international security and stability and also assure economic development. This work focuses on the US-ASEAN counterterrorism cooperation due to they identified terrorism as a mutual enemy that posed to human security, infrastructure security, and national security. Having in mind that international terrorism usually connected with Muslim community, this paper will also elaborate the concept of Jihad and Islam revivalism in politics to avoid negative image of Islam and Muslim. This paper argues that as region with large Muslim community, Southeast Asia still need to tighten counter terrorism cooperation and also lessening Muslim stereotypes with terrorism through educating public understanding and inter-faith and intra-faith dialogue to create a better world.

Keywords: ASEAN, U.S., counter terrorism, Muslim stereotypes

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80 The Way of the English Use of Businessmen for the ASEAN Economic Community in Chonburi Province

Authors: Kittivate Boonyopakorn

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to investigate the method of the English use of the businessmen and to study their behavior of the utilization for the ASEAN economic community. The participants were divided into the three types of the merchants including the construction contractors, the construction material traders, and SME entrepreneurs. Survey questionnaires and interviews were used in this study. The findings showed that in the type of traders, 23 of the participants are construction contractors, 121 are construction material traders, and 206 are SME entrepreneurs. The study of English in language institute is highly 51.4%. The use of Google in translating English into Thai is 41.7%. Learning English themselves is 41.1% respectively. The businessmen study English for readiness for their trade.

Keywords: way of rnglish use, businessmen, ASEAN economic community, Chonburi province

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79 The Comparative Study of Attitudes toward Entrepreneurial Intention between ASEAN and Europe: An Analysis Using GEM Data

Authors: Suchart Tripopsakul

Abstract:

This paper uses data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) to investigate the difference of attitudes towards entrepreneurial intention (EI). EI is generally assumed to be the single most relevant predictor of entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of this paper is to examine a range of attitudes effect on individual’s intent to start a new venture. A cross-cultural comparison between Asia and Europe is used to further investigate the possible differences between potential entrepreneurs from these distinct national contexts. The empirical analysis includes a GEM data set of 10 countries (n = 10,306) which was collected in 2013. Logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of individual’s attitudes on EI. Independent variables include individual’s perceived capabilities, the ability to recognize business opportunities, entrepreneurial network, risk perceptions as well as a range of socio-cultural attitudes. Moreover, a cross-cultural comparison of the model is conducted including six ASEAN (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam and Thailand) and four European nations (Spain, Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom). The findings support the relationship between individual’s attitudes and their entrepreneurial intention. Individual’s capability, opportunity recognition, networks and a range of socio-cultural perceptions all influence EI significantly. The impact of media attention on entrepreneurship and was found to influence EI in ASEAN, but not in Europe. On the one hand, Fear of failure was found to influence EI in Europe, but not in ASEAN. The paper develops and empirically tests attitudes toward Entrepreneurial Intention between ASEAN and Europe. Interestingly, fear of failure was found to have no significant effect in ASEAN, and the impact of media attention on entrepreneurship and was found to influence EI in ASEAN. Moreover, the resistance of ASEAN entrepreneurs to the otherwise high rates of fear of failure and high impact of media attention are proposed as independent variables to explain the relatively high rates of entrepreneurial activity in ASEAN as reported by GEM. The paper utilizes a representative sample of 10,306 individuals in 10 countries. A range of attitudes was found to significantly influence entrepreneurial intention. Many of these perceptions, such as the impact of media attention on entrepreneurship can be manipulated by government policy. The paper also suggests strategies by which Asian economy in particular can benefit from their apparent high impact of media attention on entrepreneurship.

Keywords: an entrepreneurial intention, attitude, GEM, ASEAN and Europe

Procedia PDF Downloads 185