Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1833

Search results for: optical band gap

1833 Many-Body Effect on Optical Gain of n+ Doping Tensile-Strained Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Wells

Authors: W. J. Fan, B. S. Ma

Abstract:

The many-body effect on band structure and optical gain of n+ doping tensile-strained Ge/GeSiSn quantum wells are investigated by using an 8-band k•p method. Phase diagram of Ge/GeSiSn quantum well is obtained. The E-k dispersion curves, band gap renormalization and optical gain spectra including many-body effect will be calculated and discussed. We find that the k.p method without many-body effect will overestimate the optical gain and transition energy.

Keywords: Si photonics, many-body effect, optical gain, Ge-on-Si, Quantum well

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1832 Effect of Manganese Doping Percentage on Optical Band Gap and Conductivity of Copper Sulphide Nano-Films Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

Authors: P. C. Okafor, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract:

Mn doped copper sulphide (CuS:Mn) nano-films were deposited on indiums coated tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using electrodeposition method. Electrodeposition was carried out using bath of PH = 3 at room temperature. Other depositions parameters such as deposition time (DT) are kept constant while Mn doping was varied from 3% to 23%. Absorption spectra of CuS:Mn films was obtained by using JENWAY 6405 UV-VIS -spectrophotometer. Optical band gap (E_g ), optical conductivity (σo) and electrical conductivity (σe) of CuS:Mn films were determined using absorption spectra and appropriate formula. The effect of Mn doping % on these properties were investigated. Results show that film thickness (t) for the 13.27 nm to 18.49 nm; absorption coefficient (α) from 0.90 x 1011 to 1.50 x 1011 optical band gap from 2.29eV to 2.35 eV; optical conductivity from 1.70 x 1013 and electrical conductivity from 160 millions to 154 millions. Possible applications of such films for solar cells fabrication and optoelectronic devices applications were also discussed.

Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, electrodeposition, copper sulphide (CuS), Manganese (Mn) doping, optical band gap, optical conductivity

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1831 Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb

Authors: Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Yufu Yin, Zihang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Xuan Li, Qiurong Zheng

Abstract:

A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.

Keywords: Microwave Photonics, Conversion Efficiency, multi-band frequency conversion, multi-phase shift

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1830 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, optical parameters, dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1829 Electronic and Optical Properties of Orthorhombic NdMnO3 with the Modified Becke-Johnson Potential

Authors: B. Bouadjemi, S. Bentata, T. Lantri, A. Abbad, W. Benstaali, A. Zitouni, S. Cherid

Abstract:

We investigate the electronic structure, magnetic and optical properties of the orthorhombic NdMnO3 through density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations using both generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U approaches, the exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by an orbital independent modified Becke Johnson (MBJ). The predicted band gaps using the MBJ exchange approximation show a significant improvement over previous theoretical work with the common GGA and GGA+U very closer to the experimental results. Band gap dependent optical parameters like dielectric constant, index of refraction, absorption coefficient, reflectivity and conductivity are calculated and analyzed. We find that when using MBJ we have obtained better results for band gap of NdMnO3 than in the case of GGA and GGA+U. The values of band gap founded in this work by MBJ are in a very good agreement with corresponding experimental values compared to other calculations. This comprehensive theoretical study of the optoelectronic properties predicts that this material can be effectively used in optical devices.

Keywords: Optoelectronic, dft, Optical Properties, absorption coefficient, strong correlation, MBJ, orthorhombic NdMnO3

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1828 Physicochemical and Optical Characterization of Rutile TiO2 Thin Films Grown by APCVD Technique

Authors: Dalila Hocine, Mohammed Said Belkaid, Abderahmane Moussi

Abstract:

In this study, pure rutile TiO2 thin films were directly synthesized on silicon substrates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique (APCVD) using TiCl4 as precursor. We studied the physicochemical properties and the optical properties of the produced coatings by means of standard characterization techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry. The absorption peaks at 423 cm-1 and 610 cm-1 were observed for the rutile TiO2 thin films, by FTIR measurements. The absorption peak at 739 cm-1 due to the vibration of the Ti-O bonds, was also detected. UV-Vis Reflectance Spectrophotometry is employed for measuring the optical band gap from the measurements of the TiO2 films reflectance. The optical band gap was then extracted from the reflectance data for the TiO2 sample. It was estimated to be 3.05 eV which agrees with the band gap of commercial rutile TiO2 sample.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, titanium dioxide, FTIR, band gap, APCVD

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1827 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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1826 Comparative Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of Ammonium and Potassium Dinitramide Salts through Ab-Initio Calculations

Authors: J. Prathap Kumar, G. Vaitheeswaran

Abstract:

The present study investigates the role of ammonium and potassium ion in the electronic, bonding and optical properties of dinitramide salts due to their stability and non-toxic nature. A detailed analysis of bonding between NH₄ and K with dinitramide, optical transitions from the valence band to the conduction band, absorption spectra, refractive indices, reflectivity, loss function are reported. These materials are well known as oxidizers in solid rocket propellants. In the present work, we use full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method which is implemented in the Wien2k package within the framework of density functional theory. The standard DFT functional local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) always underestimate the band gap by 30-40% due to the lack of derivative discontinuities of the exchange-correlation potential with respect to an occupation number. In order to get reliable results, one must use hybrid functional (HSE-PBE), GW calculations and Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. It is very well known that hybrid functionals GW calculations are very expensive, the later methods are computationally cheap. The new developed TB-mBJ functionals use information kinetic energy density along with the charge density employed in DFT. The TB-mBJ functionals cannot be used for total energy calculations but instead yield very much improved band gap. The obtained electronic band gap at gamma point for both the ammonium dinitramide and potassium dinitramide are found to be 2.78 eV and 3.014 eV with GGA functional, respectively. After the inclusion of TB-mBJ, the band gap improved by 4.162 eV for potassium dinitramide and 4.378 eV for ammonium dinitramide. The nature of the band gap is direct in ADN and indirect in KDN. The optical constants such as dielectric constant, absorption, and refractive indices, birefringence values are presented. Overall as there are no experimental studies we present the improved band gap with TB-mBJ functional following with optical properties.

Keywords: propellants, dft, ammonium dinitramide, potassium dinitramide

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1825 55 dB High Gain L-Band EDFA Utilizing Single Pump Source

Authors: M. H. Al-Mansoori, W. S. Al-Ghaithi, F. N. Hasoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of an efficient high gain triple-pass L-band Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) amplifier structure with a single pump source. The amplifier gain and noise figure variation with EDF pump power, input signal power and wavelengths have been investigated. The generated backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise of the first amplifier stage is suppressed by using a tunable band-pass filter. The amplifier achieves a signal gain of 55 dB with low noise figure of 3.8 dB at -50 dBm input signal power. The amplifier gain shows significant improvement of 12.8 dB compared to amplifier structure without ASE suppression.

Keywords: Optical Networks, Optical amplifiers, EDFA, L-band

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1824 Modeling Thermo-Photo-Voltaic Selective Emitter Based on a Semi-Transparent Emitter with Integrated Narrow Band-Pass Pre-Filter

Authors: F. Stake

Abstract:

This work is a parametric study combining simple and well known optical theories. These simple theories are arranged to form part of one answer to the question: “Can a semi-transparent Thermo-Photo-Voltaic (TPV) emitter have an optical extinction spectrum so much greater than its optical absorption spectrum that it becomes its own band-pass pre-filter, and if so, how well might it be expected to suppress light of undesired wavelengths?” In the report, hypothetical materials and operating temperatures will be used for comparative analyses only. Thermal emission properties of these hypothetical materials were created using two openly available FORTRAN programs. Results indicate that if using highly transparent materials it may be possible to create a thermal emitter that is its own band-pass pre-filter.

Keywords: Scattering, Christensen effect, DISORT, index of refraction

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1823 First Principle Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of YNi₄Si-Type HoNi₄Si Compound

Authors: D. K. Maurya, S. M. Saini

Abstract:

We investigate theoretically the electronic and optical properties of YNi₄Si-type HoNi₄Si compound from first principle calculations. Calculations are performed using full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the frame work of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Analysis of the calculated band structure of HoNi₄Si compound demonstrates their metallic character. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to density of states from -5.0 eV to the Fermi level while the Ho-f states peak stands tall in comparison to the small contributions made by the Ni-d and Ho-d states above Fermi level, which is consistent with experiment, in HoNi4Si compound. Our calculated optical conductivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.

Keywords: Optical Properties, Electronic Properties, density of states, LSDA+U approximation, YNi₄Si-type HoNi4Si compound

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1822 Nonlinear Absorption and Scattering in Wide Band Gap Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Colloid and Their Effects on the Optical Limiting

Authors: Hoda Aleali, Nastran Mansour, Maryam Mirzaie

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the optical nonlinearities of Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanostructures dispersed in the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under exposure to 532 nm, 15 nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser irradiation. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the obtained nanocrystal samples. The band gap energy of colloid is determined by analyzing the UV–Vis absorption spectra of the Ag2S NPs using the band theory of semiconductors. Z-scan technique is used to characterize the optical nonlinear properties of the Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs). Large enhancement of two photon absorption effect is observed with increase in concentration of the Ag2S nanoparticles using open Z-scan measurements in the ns laser regime. The values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients are determined based on the local nonlinear responses including two photon absorption. The observed aperture dependence of the Ag2S NP limiting performance indicates that the nonlinear scattering plays an important role in the limiting action of the sample.The concentration dependence of the optical liming is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that the optical limiting threshold decreases with increasing the silver sulfide NPs in DMSO.

Keywords: Nanoscale Materials, silver sulfide nanoparticles, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear scattering, optical limiting

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1821 Electronic and Optical Properties of Li₂S Antifluorite Material

Authors: Brahim Bahloul, Khatir Babesse, Azzedine Dkhira, Yacine Bahloul, Dalila Hammoutene

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate with ab initio calculations some structural and optoelectronic properties of Li₂S compound. The structural and electronic properties of the Li₂S antifluorite structure have been studied by first-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT), whereas the optical properties have been obtained using empirical relationships such as the modified Moss relation. Our calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The electronic band structures and density of states were obtained. The anti-fluorite Li₂S present an indirect band gap of 3.388 eV at equilibrium. The top of the valence bands reflects the p electronic character for both structures. The calculated energy gaps and optical constants are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

Keywords: Ab Initio Calculations, Optical Properties, Electronic Properties, antifluorite

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1820 Electronic and Optical Properties of YNi4Si-Type DyNi4Si Compound: A Full Potential Study

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Maurya, Sapan Mohan Saini

Abstract:

A theoretical formalism to calculate the structural, electronic and optical properties of orthorhombic crystals from first principle calculations is described. This is applied first time to new YNi4Si-type DyNi4Si compound. Calculations are performed using full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Our optimized results of lattice parameters show good agreement to the previously reported experimental study. Analysis of the calculated band structure of DyNi4Si compound demonstrates their metallic character. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to density of states from -5.0 eV to the Fermi level while the Dy-f states peak stands tall in comparison to the small contributions made by the Ni-d and R-d states above Fermi level, which is consistent with experiment, in DNi4Si compound. Our calculated optical conductivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band-to-band transitions. We also report the frequency-dependent refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω) of the compound.

Keywords: Optical Properties, density of states, band structure, LSDA+U approximation, YNi4Si- type DyNi4Si compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1819 Structural and Optical Properties of RF-Sputtered ZnS and Zn(S,O) Thin Films

Authors: Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mounir Chaik, Hind El Aakib, Mohamed Aggour, Abdelkader Outzourhit

Abstract:

Zinc sulfide [ZnS] and oxygenated zinc sulfide Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, by reactive cathodic radio-frequency (RF) sputtering. The substrates power and percentage of oxygen were varied in the range of 100W to 250W and from 5% to 20% respectively. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The optical properties (mainly the refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical band gap) were examined by optical transmission measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near Infrared wavelength range. XRD analysis indicated that all sputtered ZnS films were a single phase with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of zinc blend (ZB). The crystallite size was in the range of 19.5 nm to 48.5 nm, the crystallite size varied with RF power reaching a maximum at 200 W. The Zn(O,S) films, on the other hand, were amorphous. UV-Visible, measurements showed that the ZnS film had more than 80% transmittance in the visible wavelength region while that of Zn(O,S is 85%. Moreover, it was observed that the band gap energy of the ZnS films increases slightly from 3.4 to 3.52 eV as the RF power was increased. The optical band gap of Zn(O,S), on the other hand, decreased from 4.2 to 3.89 eV as the oxygen partial pressure is increased in the sputtering atmosphere at a fixed RF-power. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed smooth surfaces for both type of films. The X-ray reflectometry measurements on the ZnS films showed that the density of the films (3.9 g/cm3) is close that of bulk ZnS.

Keywords: thin films Zn(O, S) properties, Zn(O, S) by Rf-sputtering, ZnS for solar cells, thin films for renewable energy

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1818 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: transmittance, absorbance, phase change magnetic materials, extinction coefficients

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1817 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal

Abstract:

We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Thin Films, Sol-Gel Method, ferromagnetic, Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2

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1816 An Optimal Matching Design Method of Space-Based Optical Payload for Typical Aerial Target Detection

Authors: Yin Zhang, Kai Qiao, Xiyang Zhi, Jinnan Gong, Jianming Hu

Abstract:

In order to effectively detect aerial targets over long distances, an optimal matching design method of space-based optical payload is proposed. Firstly, main factors affecting optical detectability of small targets under complex environment are analyzed based on the full link of a detection system, including band center, band width and spatial resolution. Then a performance characterization model representing the relationship between image signal-to-noise ratio (SCR) and the above influencing factors is established to describe a detection system. Finally, an optimal matching design example is demonstrated for a typical aerial target by simulating and analyzing its SCR under different scene clutter coupling with multi-scale characteristics, and the optimized detection band and spatial resolution are presented. The method can provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for space-based detection system design, payload specification demonstration and information processing algorithm optimization.

Keywords: space-based detection, aerial targets, optical system design, detectability characterization

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1815 Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Cation Doping PbS Thin Films

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline Li-doped PbS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The goal of this work is to study the modification of the optoelectronic and structural properties of Lithium incorporation. The increase of Li doping in PbS thin films leads to an increase of band gap in the range of 1.4-2.3, consequently, quantum size effect becomes pronounced in the Li-doped PbS films, which lead to a significant enhancement in the optical band gap. Doping shows influence in the film growth and results in a reduction of crystallite size from 30 to 14 nm. The refractive index was calculated and a relationship with dielectric constant was investigated. The dc conductivities of Li-doped and undoped samples were measured in the temperature range 290-340K, the conductivity increase with increase of Lithium content in the PbS films.

Keywords: Doping, Quantum Confinement, Pbs, optical band gap

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1814 A Spectroscopic Study by Photoluminescence of Erbium in Gallium Nitride

Authors: A. Melouah, M. Diaf

Abstract:

The III-N nitride semiconductors appear to be excellent host materials, in particular, GaN epilayers doped with Erbium ions have shown a highly reduced thermal quenching of the Er luminescence intensity from cryogenic to elevated temperatures. The remarkable stability may be due to the large energy band gap of the material. Two methods are used for doping the Gallium nitride films with Erbium ions; ion implantation in the wafers obtained by (CVDOM) and in-situ incorporation during epitaxial growth of the layers by (MBE). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been the main optical technique used to characterize the emission of Er-doped III-N semiconductor materials. This technique involves optical excitation of Er3+ ions and measurement of the spectrum of the light emission as a function of energy (wavelength). Excitation at above band gap energy leads to the creation of Electron-Hole pairs. Some of this pairs may transfer their energy to the Er3+ ions, exciting the 4f-electrons and resulting in optical emission. This corresponds to an indirect excitation of the Er3+ ions by electron-hole pairs. The direct excitation by the optical pumping of the radiation can be obtained.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, gan, erbium, semiconductor materials

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1813 Designing a Dispersion Flattened Single Mode PCF for E-Band to U-Band with Less Effective Area

Authors: Shabbir Chowdhury

Abstract:

A signal is broadened when it is gone through a channel, this phenomenon is known as dispersion. And dispersion is different for different wavelength. So bandwidth become limited. Research have tried to design an optical fiber with flattened dispersion to use more bandwidth and also for wavelength division multiplexing. In this paper, a single mode photonic crystal fiber with a flattened dispersion and less effective area has been proposed where silica is used as fiber materials. The effective dispersion varies from -1.996 to 0.1783 [ps/(nm-km)] for enter E-band to U-band. This fiber will take only 3.048 [micrometer^2] (for 1.75 micrometer wavelength). Silica is being used as the fiber material.

Keywords: Dispersion, bandwidth, photonic crystal fiber, chromatic dispersion, dispersion compensation, effective dispersion, effective area, effective refractive index

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1812 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama

Abstract:

We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: modulation, Semiconductor Laser, optical feedback, harmonic distortion

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1811 Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Grown by Modified Chemical Surface Deposition Method

Authors: A. Elsayed, M. H. Dewaidar, M. Ghali

Abstract:

We report on deposition of smooth, pinhole-free, low-surface roughness ( < 4nm) and high optical quality cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on glass substrates using our new method based on chemical surface deposition principle. In this method, cadmium acetate and thiourea are used as reactants under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-vis transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. Interestingly, we found that XRD pattern of the deposited films has dramatically changed when the growth temperature was raised during the reaction. Namely, the XRD measurements reveal a structural change of CdS film from Cubic to Hexagonal phase upon increase in the growth temperature from 75 °C to 200 °C. Furthermore, the deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed from observation of both sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Also, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap and crystal structure of the deposited CdS films; can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands alignments between CdS and other light harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of all-solution processed solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.

Keywords: Optical Properties, thin film, new method, CDS

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1810 Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal, Optical and Dielectric Studies of Some Organic Arylidene Derivatives

Authors: S. Sathiyamoorthi, P. Srinivasan, K. Suganya Devi

Abstract:

Arylidene derivatives are the subclass of chalcone derivatives. Chalcone derivatives are studied widely for the past decade because of its nonlinearity. To seek new organic group of crystals which suit for fabrication of optical devices, three-member organic arylidene crystals were synthesized by using Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction. Good quality crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. Functional groups were identified by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum. Optical transparency and optical band gap were determined by UV-Vis-IR studies. Thermal stability and melting point were calculated using TGA and DSC. Variation of dielectric loss and dielectric constant with frequency were calculated by dielectric measurement.

Keywords: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, DSC and TGA studies, nonlinear optic studies, UV-vis-NIR spectra

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1809 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour

Abstract:

TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: Nanofibers, Photoluminescence, TiO2, irradiation

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1808 New Method for Determining the Distribution of Birefringence and Linear Dichroism in Polymer Materials Based on Polarization-Holographic Grating

Authors: Barbara Kilosanidze, George Kakauridze, Levan Nadareishvili, Yuri Mshvenieradze

Abstract:

A new method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in optical polymer materials is presented. The method is based on the use of polarization-holographic diffraction grating that forms an orthogonal circular basis in the process of diffraction of probing laser beam on the grating. The intensities ratio of the orders of diffraction on this grating enables the value of birefringence and linear dichroism in the sample to be determined. The distribution of birefringence in the sample is determined by scanning with a circularly polarized beam with a wavelength far from the absorption band of the material. If the scanning is carried out by probing beam with the wavelength near to a maximum of the absorption band of the chromophore then the distribution of linear dichroism can be determined. An appropriate theoretical model of this method is presented. A laboratory setup was created for the proposed method. An optical scheme of the laboratory setup is presented. The results of measurement in polymer films with two-dimensional gradient distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism are discussed.

Keywords: Optical Polymers, birefringence, linear dichroism, graded oriented polymers, optical anisotropy, polarization-holographic grating

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1807 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by CBD at Different Bath pH

Authors: Lynda Beddek, Nadhir Attaf, Mohamed Salah Aida

Abstract:

PbS thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The precursor aqueous bath contained 1 mole of lead nitrate, 1 mole of Thiourea and complexing agents (triethanolamine (TEA) and NaOH). Bath temperature and deposition time were fixed at 60°C and 3 hours, respectively. However, the PH of bath was varied from 10.5 to 12.5. Structural properties of the deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The preferred direction was revealed to be along (111) and the PbS crystal structure was confirmed. Strains and grains sizes were also calculated. Optical studies showed that films thicknesses do not exceed 600nm. Energy band gap values of films decreases with increase in pH and reached a value ~ 0.4eV at pH equal 12.5. The small value of the energy band gap makes PbS one of the most interesting candidate for solar energy conversion near the infrared ray.

Keywords: Thin Films, X-Ray Diffraction, Pbs, CBD

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1806 Compositional Influence in the Photovoltaic Properties of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Films

Authors: Brajendra S. Sengar, Vivek Garg, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Amitesh Kumar, Shaibal Mukherjee

Abstract:

The optimal band gap (~ 1 to 1.5 eV) and high absorption coefficient ~104 cm⁻¹ has made Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ (CZTSSe) films as one of the most promising absorber materials in thin-film photovoltaics. Additionally, CZTSSe consists of elements that are abundant and non-toxic, makes it even more favourable. The CZTSSe thin films are grown at 100 to 500ᵒC substrate temperature (Tsub) on Soda lime glass (SLG) substrate by Elettrorava dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) system by utilizing a target at 2.43x10⁻⁴ mbar working pressure with RF power of 45 W in argon ambient. The chemical composition, depth profiling, structural properties and optical properties of these CZTSSe thin films prepared on SLG were examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Oxford Instruments), Hiden secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) workstation with oxygen ion gun of energy up to 5 keV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) (Rigaku Cu Kα radiation, λ=.154nm) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE, M-2000D from J. A. Woollam Co., Inc). It is observed that from that, the thin films deposited at Tsub=200 and 300°C show Cu-poor and Zn-rich states (i.e., Cu/(Zn + Sn) < 1 and Zn/Sn > 1), which is not the case for films grown at other Tsub. It has been reported that the CZTSSe thin films with the highest efficiency are typically at Cu-poor and Zn-rich states. The values of band gap in the fundamental absorption region of CZTSSe are found to be in the range of 1.23-1.70 eV depending upon the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. It is also observed that there is a decline in optical band gap with the increase in Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio (evaluated from EDX measurement). Cu-poor films are found to have higher optical band gap than Cu-rich films. The decrease in the band gap with the increase in Cu content in case of CZTSSe films may be attributed to changes in the extent of p-d hybridization between Cu d-levels and (S, Se) p-levels. CZTSSe thin films with Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio in the range 0.86–1.5 have been successfully deposited using DIBS. Optical band gap of the films is found to vary from 1.23 to 1.70 eV based on Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. CZTSe films with Cu/ (Zn+Sn) ratio of .86 are found to have optical band gap close to the ideal band gap (1.49 eV) for highest theoretical conversion efficiency. Thus by tailoring the value of Cu/(Zn+Sn), CZTSSe thin films with the desired band gap could be obtained. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B. S. S and A. K. acknowledge CSIR, and V. G. acknowledges UGC, India for their fellowships. B. S. S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: Solar Cell, EDX, DIBS, CZTSSe

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1805 Effect of Transmission Distance on the Performance of Hybrid Configuration Using Non Return to Zero (NRZ) Pulse Format

Authors: Mais Wa'ad

Abstract:

The effect of transmission distance on the performance of hybrid configuration H 10-40 Gb/s with Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) pulse format, 100 GHz channel spacing, and Multiplexer/De-Multiplexer Band width (MUX/DEMUX BW) of 60 GHz has been investigated in this study. The laser Continuous Wave (CW) power launched into the modulator is set to 4 dBm. Eight neighboring DWDM channels are selected around 1550.12 nm carrying different data rates in hybrid optical communication systems travel through the same optical fiber and use the same passive and active optical modules. The simulation has been done using Optiwave Inc Optisys software. Usually, increasing distance will lead to decrease in performance; however this is not always the case, as the simulation conducted in this work, shows different system performance for each channel. This is due to differences in interaction between dispersion and non-linearity, and the differences in residual dispersion for each channel.

Keywords: dispersion and non-linearity interaction, optical hybrid configuration, multiplexer/de multiplexer bandwidth, non-return to zero, optical transmission distance, optisys

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1804 Effect of Cr and Fe Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Prakash Chand, Anurag Gaur, Ashavani Kumar

Abstract:

In the present study, we have synthesized Cr and Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures (Zn1-δCraFebO; where δ= a + b=20%, a = 5, 6, 8 & 10% and b=15, 14, 12 & 10%) via sol-gel method at different doping concentrations. The synthesized samples were characterized for structural properties by X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscope and the optical properties were carried out through photoluminescence and UV-visible spectroscopy. The particle size calculated through field emission scanning electron microscope varies from 41 to 96 nm for the samples synthesized at different doping concentrations. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 3.27 to 3.02 eV as the doping concentration of Cr increases and Fe decreases.

Keywords: nano-structures, Optical Properties, Sol-Gel Method, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 164