Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: carbamate insecticide

88 Isolation of a Bacterial Community with High Removal Efficiencies of the Insecticide Bendiocarb

Authors: Eusebio A. Jiménez-Arévalo, Deifilia Ahuatzi-Chacón, Juvencio Galíndez-Mayer, Cleotilde Juárez-Ramírez, Nora Ruiz-Ordaz

Abstract:

Bendiocarb is a known toxic xenobiotic that presents acute and chronic risks for freshwater invertebrates and estuarine and marine biota; thus, the treatment of water contaminated with the insecticide is of concern. In this paper, a bacterial community with the capacity to grow in bendiocarb as its sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated by enrichment techniques in batch culture, from samples of a composting plant located in the northeast of Mexico City. Eight cultivable bacteria were isolated from the microbial community, by PCR amplification of 16 rDNA; Pseudoxanthomonas spadix (NC_016147.2, 98%), Ochrobacterium anthropi (NC_009668.1, 97%), Staphylococcus capitis (NZ_CP007601.1, 99%), Bosea thiooxidans. (NZ_LMAR01000067.1, 99%), Pseudomonas denitrificans. (NC_020829.1, 99%), Agromyces sp. (NZ_LMKQ01000001.1, 98%), Bacillus thuringiensis. (NC_022873.1, 97%), Pseudomonas alkylphenolia (NZ_CP009048.1, 98%). NCBI accession numbers and percentage of similarity are indicated in parentheses. These bacteria were regarded as the isolated species for having the best similarity matches. The ability to degrade bendiocarb by the immobilized bacterial community in a packed bed biofilm reactor, using as support volcanic stone fragments (tezontle), was evaluated. The reactor system was operated in batch using mineral salts medium and 30 mg/L of bendiocarb as carbon and nitrogen source. With this system, an overall removal efficiency (ηbend) rounding 90%, was reached.

Keywords: biodegradation, biofilm reactor, bendiocarb, carbamate insecticide

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
87 Benzpyrimoxan: An Insecticide for the Control of Rice Plant Hoppers

Authors: E. Satoh, R. Kasahara, T. Aoki, K. Fukatsu, D. Venkata Ramanarao, H. Harayama, T. Murata, A. Suwa

Abstract:

Rice plant hoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) have been causing extensive economic damage in rice and are considered as serious threat in rice producing countries of Asia. They have developed resistance to major groups of chemical insecticide, and severe outbreaks occur commonly throughout Asia. To control these nuisance pests, Nihon Nohyaku Co., Ltd., recently discovered an insecticide, benzpyrimoxan (proposed ISO name), which is under development as NNI-1501 (development code). Benzpyrimoxan has a unique chemical structure which contains benzyloxy and cyclic acetal groups on pyrimidine moiety (5-(1,3-dioxan-2-yl)-4-[4- (trifluoromethyl)benzyloxy]pyrimidine). In order to clarify the biological properties of benzpyrimoxan, we conducted several experiments and found the following results. Benzpyrimoxan has high activity against nymphal stages of rice plant hoppers without any adulticidal activity. It provides excellent and long lasting control against rice plant hoppers, including populations that have developed resistance to several other chemical groups of insecticide. The study on its mode of action is undergoing. These features highlight the versatility of this insecticide as an effective and valuable tool from the viewpoints of insecticide resistance management and integrated pest management program. With the use of benzpyrimoxan, farmers shall be able to lead the best yield potential by keeping the population density of rice plant hoppers and associated virus diseases under control.

Keywords: insecticide, pyrimidine, acetal, benzpyrimoxan, NNI-1501, rice plant hoppers

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
86 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: Optimization, Coagulation, response surface methodology, carbofuran

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
85 Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity of Carvacrol Derivatives

Authors: Fatih Sonmez

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common form of dementia that affects aged people. Acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolase involved in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter ACh in the central and peripheral nervous system. Carvacrol (5-iso-propyl-2-methyl-phenol) is a main bioactive monoterpene isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctate and Origanum vulgare spp. It is known that carvacrol has been widely used as an active anti-inflammatory ingredient, which can inhibit the isoproterenol induced inflammation in myocardial infarcted rats. In this paper, a series of 12 carvacrol substituted carbamate derivatives (2a-l) was synthesized and their inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE were evaluated. Among them, 2d exhibited the strongest inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 2.22 µM, which was 130-fold more than that of carvacrol (IC50 = 288.26 µM).

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, carvacrol, Carbamate

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
84 Ethyl Carbamate in Korean Total Diet Study: Level, Dietary Intake, and Risk Assessment

Authors: Eunmi Koh, Bogyoung Choi, Dayeon Ryu, Jee-Yeon Lee, Sungok Kwon, Cho-Il Kim

Abstract:

Ethyl carbamate(EC) is a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) found in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods. A total of 351 samples including fermented foods and alcoholic beverages were chosen from 734 foods appeared in the pooled intake data of 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Sampling was carried out from September 2013 to July 2016 in 18 supermarkets of 9 metropolitan cities in Korea. The samples were pooled, prepared according to various cooking methods, and analyzed. A total of 1245 samples were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. EC was detected in 13 items (1.0%), which ranged from not-detected to 151 g/kg. Alcoholic beverages (maesilju, whisky, and bokbunjaju) and fermented soy products (soy sauce and soybean paste) were the food items with relatively higher EC levels. Dietary intake of EC in the Korean population was estimated to be 2.11 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day for average population and 8.42 ng/kg bw per day for high consumers (the 97.5th percentile). When the estimated average dietary exposure to EC was compared with the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit 10% (BMDL10) of 0.3 mg/kg bw per day, margin of exposure (MOE) values of 1420000 to 28000000 were observed. This indicates that there is no health concern for the Korean population.

Keywords: dietary exposure, ethyl carbamate, total diet study, margin of exposure

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83 Insecticide Resistance Detection on Dengue Vector, Aedes albopictus Obtained from Kapit, Kuching and Sibu Districts in Sarawak State, Malaysia

Authors: Koon Weng Lau, Chee Dhang Chen, Abdul Aziz Azidah, Mohd Sofian-Azirun

Abstract:

Recently, Sarawak state of Malaysia encounter an outbreak of dengue fever. Aedes albopictus has incriminated as one of the important vectors of dengue transmission. Without an effective vaccine, approaches to control or prevent dengue will be a focus on the vectors. The control of Aedes mosquitoes is still dependent on the use of chemical insecticides and insecticide resistance represents a threat to the effectiveness of vector control. This study was conducted to determine the resistance status of 11 active ingredients representing four major insecticide classes: DDT, dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, propoxur, etofenprox, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, and permethrin. Standard WHO test procedures were conducted to determine the insecticide susceptibility. Aedes albopictus collected from Kapit (resistance ratio, RR = 1.04–3.02), Kuching (RR = 1.17–4.61), and Sibu (RR = 1.06–3.59) exhibited low resistance toward all insecticides except dieldrin. This study reveled that dieldrin is still effective against Ae. albopictus, followed by fenitrothion, cyfluthrin, and deltamethrin. In conclusion, Ae. albopictus in Sarawak exhibited different resistance levels toward various insecticides and alternative solutions should be implemented to prevent further deterioration of the condition.

Keywords: Dengue, Malaysia, aedes albopictus, insecticide resistance

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82 Evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase Activities in the Land Snail Helix aspersa Exposed to Thiamethoxam

Authors: Ait Hamlet Smina, Bensoltane Samira, Djekoun Mohamed, Berrebbah Houria

Abstract:

In Algeria, the use of insecticides and other phytosanitary products are considerably spreading with the development of agriculture. But, the analyses of the residues of pesticides are not systematically made. In this context, we estimated through an experimental study, the effect of a neonicotinoid insecticide, the thiamethoxam which is used as a commercial preparation on the land snail Helix aspersa. This snail is one of the most abundant gastropod in North-East Algeria. Little information is available in the literature concerning the study of the biochemical markers of mollusks which are exposed to insecticides and especially, thiamethoxam.In this work, adult snails Helix aspersa were used to estimate the effect of a neonicotinoid insecticide (thiamethoxam) on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in this gastropod after a treatment of 6 weeks. During this period, snails were exposed by ingestion and contact to fresh lettuce leaves which were soaked with an insecticide solution. The thiamethoxam test solutions were 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L, which are lower or equal to the concentrations that are applied in field. The results showed that the enzymatic activities of AChE and GST and CAT increased significantly with a dose-dependent manner. These results confirmed the toxic effect of thiamethoxam on snails exposed to the lettuce contaminated with this neonicotinoid insecticide, likely to be used as biomarker of exposure, at first to thiamethoxam then to other insecticides belonging to the same chemical family, currently present in the environment.

Keywords: Cat, insecticide, helix aspersa, thiamethoxam, AChE, GST

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81 Bioefficacy of Novel Insecticide Flupyradifurone Sl 200 against Leaf Hoppers, Aphids and Whitefly in Cotton

Authors: N. V. V. S. D. Prasad

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India for two seasons during 2011-13 to evaluate the efficacy of flupyradifurone SL 200 a new class of insecticide in butenolide group against leaf hoppers, aphids and whitefly in Cotton. The test insecticide flupyradifurone 200 was evaluated at three doses @ 150, 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha along with imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha, acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha, thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 25g ai/ha and monocrotophos 36 SL @ 360 g ai/ha as standards. Flupyradifurone SL 200 even at lower dose of 150g ai/ha exhibited superior efficacy against cotton leafhopper, Amrasca devastans than the neonicotinoids which are widely used for control of sucking pests in cotton. Against cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii. Flupyradifurone SL 200 @ 200 and 250 g ai/ha ha was proved to be effective and the lower dose @ 150g ai/ha performed better than some of the neonicotinoids. The effect of flupyradifurone SL 200 on cotton against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was evident at higher doses of 200 and 250 g ai/ha and superior to all standard treatments, however, the lower dose is at par with neonicotinoids. The seed cotton yield of flupyradifurone 200 SL at all the doses tested was superior than imidacloprid 200 SL @ 20g ai/ha and acetamiprid 20 SP @ 20g ai/ha. There is no significant difference among the insecticidal treatments with regards to natural enemies. The results clearly suggest that flupyradifurone is a new tool to combat sucking pest problems in cotton and can well fit in IRM strategies in light of wide spread insecticide resistance in cotton sucking pests.

Keywords: Cotton, flupyradifurone, neonicotinoids, sucking pests

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80 Creating Risk Maps on the Spatiotemporal Occurrence of Agricultural Insecticides in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Chantal Hendriks, Harry Gibson, Anna Trett, Penny Hancock, Catherine Moyes

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The use of modern inputs for crop protection, such as insecticides, is strongly underestimated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies measured toxic concentrations of insecticides in fruits, vegetables and fish that were cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. The use of agricultural insecticides has impact on human and environmental health, but it also has the potential to impact on insecticide resistance in malaria transmitting mosquitos. To analyse associations between historic use of agricultural insecticides and the distribution of insecticide resistance through space and time, the use and environmental fate of agricultural insecticides needs to be mapped through the same time period. However, data on the use and environmental fate of agricultural insecticides in Africa are limited and therefore risk maps on the spatiotemporal occurrence of agricultural insecticides are created using environmental data. Environmental data on crop density and crop type were used to select the areas that most likely receive insecticides. These areas were verified by a literature review and expert knowledge. Pesticide fate models were compared to select most dominant processes that are involved in the environmental fate of insecticides and that can be mapped at a continental scale. The selected processes include: surface runoff, erosion, infiltration, volatilization and the storing and filtering capacity of soils. The processes indicate the risk for insecticide accumulation in soil, water, sediment and air. A compilation of all available data for traces of insecticides in the environment was used to validate the maps. The risk maps can result in space and time specific measures that reduce the risk of insecticide exposure to non-target organisms.

Keywords: crop protection, Tropics, insecticide resistance, pesticide fate

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79 Insecticide Efficacy against Jassids in Egg Plants

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Farhan Ali, Muhammad Saeed-Ur-Rehman

Abstract:

Jassids are considered as serious sucking pests in eggplants. Jassids can be controlled using imidacloprid, but it can also result in non-target ecological impacts on eco-system. It can also result in reduced population of predators of jassids in the field. An experiment was conducted on jassids, Amrasca sp. reared on eggplant leaves were treated with insecticide imidacloprid at lower, recommended and higher doses including 1L, 2L, 3L respectively. 3rd instar larvae and adults of jassids were exposed to lower, recommended, higher doses. Mortality tests were repeated three times for each dose and insect growth stage. Imidacloprid was sprayed on the leaves followed by drying. Data was recorded for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours after spraying insecticide on the leaves. Results showed that higher mortality was observed in higher and recommended doses, while slow mortality was observed in the case of lower dose. It can be asserted that higher and recommended doses causing immediate mortality of insects are better to control Amrasca sp. in the field, it will not cause immediate resistance development in insects against imidacloprid.

Keywords: Efficacy, imidacloprid, Amrasca sp, egg plant

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78 The Effect of Aromatherapy Candle as Insecticide from Citrus Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) to Increase Ae. aegypti Mortality

Authors: Nurul Hidayah, Farida Rahmatika, Fathimah Azzahra, Nesty Herennadia

Abstract:

Aromatherapy candles are one of the insecticide media that have not been much researched. The active ingredient that is proven to have the effect of insecticide is a citrus extract from lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon). Aromatherapy candles are added by citrus compounds to be insecticidal for Ae. aegypti mosquito that was related to the infectious disease such as dengue fever. This research aims to find out if aromatherapy candles of citrus compounds have an insecticidal effect on Ae. aegypti mosquito. We used true experimental design including posttest only with control group design. The samples are 20 male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitos with aged 1-7 days belong to the inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into 6 groups, consisting of 1 negative control group and 5 treatment groups with variation concentration are 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5%. Each group will be treated for 2 hours and observed death after 24 hours. Replication in each group is done 4 times. The results were then tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and probit test. Mean of death in negative control group, and treatment group 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5% respectively 0; 1; 0.25; 0; 1 and 1 mosquito. The Kruskal-Wallis test in the study group found no significant difference (p = 0.178). The probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 were 20.069% and 31.557%. The aromatherapy candle of a citrus compound has an insecticidal effect on the Ae aegypti mosquito.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti insecticide, aromatherapy candle, citrus compound, lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon)

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77 Development of a New Characterization Method to Analyse Cypermethrin Penetration in Wood Material by Immunolabelling

Authors: Sandra Tapin-Lingua, Katia Ruel, Jean-Paul Joseleau, Daouia Messaoudi, Olivier Fahy, Michel Petit-Conil

Abstract:

The preservative efficacy of organic biocides is strongly related to their capacity of penetration and retention within wood tissues. The specific detection of the pyrethroid insecticide is currently obtained after extraction followed by chemical analysis by chromatography techniques. However visualizing the insecticide molecule within the wood structure requires specific probes together with microscopy techniques. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to apply a new methodology based on antibody-antigen recognition and electronic microscopy to visualize directly pyrethroids in the wood material. A polyclonal antibody directed against cypermethrin was developed and implement it on Pinus sylvestris wood samples coated with technical cypermethrin. The antibody was tested on impregnated wood and the specific recognition of the insecticide was visualized in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunogold-TEM assay evidenced the capacity of the synthetic biocide to penetrate in the wood. The depth of penetration was measured on sections taken at increasing distances from the coated surface of the wood. Such results correlated with chemical analyzes carried out by GC-ECD after extraction. In addition, the immuno-TEM investigation allowed visualizing, for the first time at the ultrastructure scale of resolution, that cypermethrin was able to diffuse within the secondary wood cell walls.

Keywords: cypermethrin, insecticide, wood penetration, wood retention, immuno-transmission electron microscopy, polyclonal antibody

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76 Insecticide Resistance Detection on Filarial Vector, Simulium (Simulium) nobile (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Malaysia

Authors: Chee Dhang Chen, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Koon Weng Lau, Poh Ruey Tan, Ai Chdon Chin, Van Lun Low, Abdul Aziz Azidah, Mohd Sofian-Azirun

Abstract:

Susceptibility status of Simulium (Simulium) nobile (Diptera: Simuliidae) adults obtained from Pahang, Malaysia was evaluated against 11 adulticides representing four major insecticide classes: organochlorines (DDT, dieldrin), organophosphates (malathion, fenitrothion), carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur) and pyrethroids (etofenprox, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin). The adult bioassay was conducted according to WHO standard protocol to determine the insecticide susceptibility. Mortality at 24 h post treatment was used as indicator for susceptibility status. The results revealed that S. nobile obtained was susceptible to propoxur, cyfluthrin and bendiocarb with 100% mortality. S. nobile was resistant or exhibited some tolerant against lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin with mortality ranged ≥ 90% but < 98%. S. nobile populations in Pahang exhibited different level of resistant against 11 adulticides with mortality ranged from 60.00 ± 10.00 to 100.00 ± 0.00. In conclusion, S. nobile populations in Pahang were susceptible to propoxur, cyfluthrin and bendiocarb. The susceptibility status of S. nobile in descending order was propoxur, cyfluthrin > bendicarb > deltamethrin > lambdacyhalothrin > permethrin > etofenprox > DDT > malathion > fenitrothion > dieldrin. Regular surveys should be conducted to monitor the susceptibility status of this insect vector in order to prevent further development of resistance.

Keywords: Malaysia, insecticide resistance, black fly, adult bioassay

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
75 Effects of Five Local Spices on the Mortality and Development of Larvae of Dermestes Maculatusdegeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Reared on Dried Smoked Fish

Authors: A. Jatau, Q. Majeed, H. M. Bandiya

Abstract:

The efficacy of five local spices, namely; Hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.), Black pepper (Piper guinese Schum and Thonn), Sweet basil (Occimum canum Sim), African nut-meg (Monodora myristica Dunal), and Ginger (Zingiber officianale Ross) with conventional insecticide against the D. maculatus was studied under ambient laboratory conditions. The plants were pulverized into powders and applied at the rate of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0g per 25g of disinfected dried fish. The same amount of fish (25g) was treated with 5ml of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 percent solution of conventional insecticide (dichlorvos) and air dried for 2hrs. Ten newly hatched 1st instar larvae (24hrs old) were introduced into each powdered smoked fish in separate beakers. Untreated control was also set up. Observation on the mortality and development were recorded daily until the larvae pupated. Each of the treated smoked fish showed significant (p<0.05) effect on the larval mortality and development when compared with the control. The Piper guinense was as efficacious as dichlorvos in killing all the larvae (100%) at all concentrations before pupation. Ocimum Canunm gave the second best results (50.00, 63.33 and 100%), while the other three spices resulted in less than 50% mortalities at all rate of application. The spice powders were also observed to have extended the larval developmental period. Thus, the spices tested can be recommended for the control of D. maculatus.

Keywords: Development, Mortality, dermestes maculatus, insecticide, local spices

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74 Sublethal Effect of Tebufenozide, an Ecdysteroid Agonist, on the Reproduction of German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

Authors: Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Amina Badi, Nadia Aribi

Abstract:

German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is known to be an important pest due to its high reproductive potential and its ability to build up large infectious populations. The infestations were generally controlled by neurotoxic insecticides including organophosphates (OP), carbamate and pyrethroids. An alternative cockroach’s control approach is the use insect growth regulators (IGRs). The relative fewer effects of these chemicals on non-target insects and animals, and their favourable environmental fate, make them attractive insecticides for inclusion in integrated pest management programmes. The juvenoids and chitin synthesis inhibitors are two classes of IGRs that have received the most attention for useful chemicals to manage German cockroaches while ecdysone agonists were mostly used to control Lepidopteran species. In the present study, the sublethal effects of the non-sreroidal ecdysone agonist tebufenozide were evaluated topically on adults of the B. germanica. The effects on reproduction were observed in adults females of cockroaches that survived exposure to LD25 (146 µg/g of insect) of tebufenozide. Dissection of treated females showed a clear reduction in both the number of oocytes per paired ovaries and the size of basal oocytes, as compared to controls. In addition, tebufenozide significantly reduced the mating success of pairs and altered the fertility as shown through the reduction of ootheca development and total absence of viable nymph. Tebufenozide disrupted the German cockroach reproduction by interfering with homeostasis of the insect hormones. In conclusion, the overall results suggested that tebufenozide can be used as a biorational insecticide for controlling cockroaches.

Keywords: Reproduction, B. germanica, ecdysteroid agonist, tebufenozide

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73 Multiple Insecticide Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say, from Siliguri, West Bengal, India

Authors: Minu Bharati, Priyanka Rai, Satarupa Dutta, Dhiraj Saha

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Culex quinquefasciatus Say, is a mosquito of immense public health concern due to its role in transmission of filariasis, which is an endemic disease in 20 states and union territories of India, putting about 600 million people at the risk of infection. The main strategies to control filaria in India include anti-larval measures in urban areas, Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) in rural areas and mass diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) administration. Larval destruction measures and IRS are done with the use of insecticides. In this study, Susceptibility/ Resistance to insecticides were assessed in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected from eight densely populated areas of Siliguri subdivision, which has a high rate of filarial infection. To unveil the insecticide susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, bioassays were performed on field-caught mosquitoes against two major groups of insecticides, i.e. Synthetic Pyrethroids (SPs): 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin and Organophosphates (OPs): 5% malathion and temephos using World Health Organisation (WHO) discriminating doses. The knockdown rates and knockdown times (KDT50) were also noted against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion. Also, activities of major detoxifying enzymes, i.e. α-carboxylesterases, β-carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) monooxygenases were determined to find the involvement of biochemical mechanisms in resistance phenomenon (if any). The results obtained showed that, majority of the mosquito populations were moderately to severely resistant against both the SPs and one OP, i.e. temephos. Whereas, most of the populations showed 100% susceptibility to malathion. The knockdown rates and KDT50 in response to above-mentioned insecticides showed significant variation among different populations. Variability in activities of carboxylesterases and CYP450 monooxygenases were also observed with hints of their involvement in contribution towards insecticide resistance in some of the tested populations. It may be concluded that, Culex quinquefasciatus has started developing resistance against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and temephos in Siliguri subdivision. Malathion seems to hold the greatest potentiality for control of these mosquitoes in this area as revealed through this study. Adoption of Integrated mosquito management (IMM) strategy should be the prime objective of the concerned authorities to delimit the insecticide resistance phenomenon and filariasis infections.

Keywords: culex quinquefasciatus, insecticide resistance, detoxifying enzymes, knockdown rate

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72 Insecticidal Activity of Piper aduncum Fruit and Tephrosia vogelii Leaf Mixed Formulations against Cabbage Pest Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Eka Candra Lina, Indah Widhianingrum, Mita Eka Putri, Nur Afni Evalia, Muhammad Makky

Abstract:

The emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) of Piper aduncum and Tephrosia vogelii mixed formulations were tested for their activities in the laboratory and their effectiveness in the field against cabbage pest Plutella xyostella. Cabbage leaves soaked in six different mixed formulation concentrations were tested to 2ⁿᵈ instar larvae of P. xylostella with six replications. The observation was conducted everyday until larvae reached 4ᵗʰ instar stage. Correlation between concentration and larvae mortality was analyzed using probit (POLO-PC). The survived larvae was observed by looking at the growth and development, as well as the antifeedant effects. Field efficacy test was based on LC₉₅ value from laboratory test result. The experiment used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications to test the populations of P. xylostella larvae and insecticide effectivity. The results showed that the EC and WP mixed formulations showed insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae, with LC₉₅ value of 0.35% and 0.37%, respectively. The highest antifeedant effect on EC mixed formulation was 85.01% and WP mixed formulation was 86.23%. Both mixed formulations also slowed the development of larvae when compared with control. Field effication result showed that applications of EC mixed formulation were able to restrain the population of P. xylostella, with effectivity value of 71.06%. Insecticide effectivity value of EC mixed formulation was higher than WP mixed formulation and Bacillus thuringiensis formulation.

Keywords: Efficacy, plutella xylostella, botanical insecticide, emulsifiable concentrate (EC), wettable powder (WP)

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71 NeuroBactrus, a Novel, Highly Effective, and Environmentally Friendly Recombinant Baculovirus Insecticide

Authors: Yeon Ho Je

Abstract:

A novel recombinant baculovirus, NeuroBactrus, was constructed to develop an improved baculovirus insecticide with additional beneficial properties, such as a higher insecticidal activity and improved recovery, compared to wild-type baculovirus. For the construction of NeuroBactrus, the Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein gene (here termed cry1-5) was introduced into the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome by fusion of the polyhedrin–cry1-5–polyhedrin genes under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. In the opposite direction, an insect-specific neurotoxin gene, AaIT, from Androctonus australis was introduced under the control of an early promoter from Cotesia plutellae bracovirus by fusion of a partial fragment of orf603. The polyhedrin–Cry1-5–polyhedrin fusion protein expressed by the NeuroBactrus was not only occluded into the polyhedra, but it was also activated by treatment with trypsin, resulting in an_65-kDa active toxin. In addition, quantitative PCR revealed that the neurotoxin was expressed from the early phase of infection. NeuroBactrus showed a high level of insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella larvae and a significant reduction in the median lethal time against Spodoptera exigua larvae compared to those of wild-type AcMNPV. Rerecombinant mutants derived from NeuroBactrus in which AaIT and/or cry1-5 were deleted were generated by serial passages in vitro. Expression of the foreign proteins (B. thuringiensis toxin and AaIT) was continuously reduced during the serial passage of the NeuroBactrus. Moreover, polyhedra collected from S. exigua larvae infected with the serially passaged NeuroBactrus showed insecticidal activity similar to that of wild-type AcMNPV. These results suggested that NeuroBactrus could be recovered to wild-type AcMNPV through serial passaging.

Keywords: neurotoxin, insecticide, baculovirus, neurobactrus

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70 Baseline Data for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Cole Crops

Authors: Prabhjot Kaur, B.K. Kang, Balwinder Singh

Abstract:

The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an agricultural important pest species. S. litura has a wide host range of approximately recorded 150 plant species worldwide. In Punjab, this pest attains sporadic status primarily on cauliflower, Brassica oleracea (L.). This pest destroys vegetable crop and particularly prefers the cruciferae family. However, it is also observed feeding on other crops such as arbi, Colocasia esculenta (L.), mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.), sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), castor, Ricinus communis (L.), etc. Larvae of this pest completely devour the leaves of infested plant resulting in huge crop losses which ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Indiscriminate and continuous use of insecticides has contributed in development of insecticide resistance in insects and caused the environmental degradation as well. Moreover, a base line data regarding the toxicity of the newer insecticides would help in understanding the level of resistance developed in this pest and any possible cross-resistance there in, which could be assessed in advance. Therefore, present studies on development of resistance in S. litura against four new chemistry insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) were carried out in the Toxicology laboratory, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India during the year 2011-12. Various stages of S. litura (eggs, larvae) were collected from four different locations (Malerkotla, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar and Samrala) of Punjab. Resistance is developed in third instars of lepidopterous pests. Therefore, larval bioassays were conducted to estimate the response of field populations of thirty third-instar larvae of S. litura under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 65±5 per cent relative humidity. Leaf dip bioassay technique with diluted insecticide formulations recommended by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was performed in the laboratory with seven to ten treatments depending on the insecticide class, respectively. LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis after correction to record control mortality data which was used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR). The LC50 values worked out for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, spinosad are 0.081, 0.088, 0.380, 4.00 parts per million (ppm) against pest populations collected from Malerkotla; 0.051, 0.060, 0.250, 3.00 (ppm) of Amritsar; 0.002, 0.001, 0.0076, 0.10 ppm for Samrala and 0.000014, 0.00001, 0.00056, 0.003 ppm against pest population of Hoshiarpur, respectively. The LC50 values for populations collected from these four locations were in the order Malerkotla>Amritsar>Samrala>Hoshiarpur for the insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) tested. Based on LC50 values obtained, emamectin benzoate (0.000014 ppm) was found to be the most toxic among all the tested populations, followed by chlorantraniliprole (0.00001 ppm), indoxacarb (0.00056 ppm) and spinosad (0.003 ppm), respectively. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that there was lack of cross resistance for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb in populations of S. litura from Punjab. These insecticides may prove to be promising substitutes for the effective control of insecticide resistant populations of S. litura in Punjab state, India.

Keywords: Toxicity, Resistance, Insecticides, Spodoptera litura

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69 Lethal and Sublethal Effect of Azadirachtin on the Development of an Insect Model: Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera)

Authors: Bendjazia Radia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi

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Azadirachtin is a biorational insecticide commonly reported as selective to a range of beneficial insects. It is one of the most biologically active natural inhibitors of insect growth and development and it is known to be an antagonist of the juvenile hormone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, its mechanism of action remains still unknown. In the present study, the toxicity of a commercial formulation of Azadirachtin (Neem Azal, 1% azadirachtine) was evaluated by topical application at various doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 µg/insect) on the third instars larvae of D. melanogaster. Lethal doses (LD25: 0.28µg and LD50: 0.67µg), were evaluated by cumulated mortality at the immature stages. The effects of azadirachtin (LD25 and LD50) were then evaluated on the development (duration of the larval and pupal instars, the weight of larvae, pupa and adults) of Drosophila melanogaster. Results showed that the insecticide increased significantly the larval and pupal instar duration. A reduction of larval and pupal weight is noted under azadirachtin treatment as compared to controls. In addition, the weight of surviving adults at the two tested dose was also reduced. In conclusion, azadirachtin seemed to interfere with the functions of the endocrine system resulting in development defects.

Keywords: Development, Toxicity, azadirachtin, d.melanogaster

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68 Solomon 300 OD (Betacyfluthrin+Imidacloprid): A Combi-Product for the Management of Insect-Pests of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

Authors: R. S. Giraddi, B. Thirupam Reddy, D. N. Kambrekar

Abstract:

Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) an important commercial vegetable crop is ravaged by a number of insect-pests during both vegetative and reproductive phase resulting into significant crop loss.Thrips, Scirtothripsdorsalis, mite, Polyphagotarsonemuslatus and whitefly, Bemisiatabaci are the key sap feeding insects, their infestation leads to leaf curl, stunted growth and yield loss.During flowering and fruit formation stage, gall midge fly, Asphondyliacapparis (Rubsaaman) infesting flower buds and young fruits andHelicoverpaarmigera (Hubner) feeding on matured green fruits are the important insect pests causing significant crop loss.The pest is known to infest both flower buds and young fruits resulting into malformation of flower buds and twisting of fruits.In order to manage these insect-pests a combi product consisting of imidacloprid and betacyfluthrin (Soloman 300 OD) was evaluated for its bio-efficacy, phytotoxicity and effect on predator activity.Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide belonging to neo-nicotinoid group, is effective against insect pests such as aphids, whiteflies (sap feeders) and other insectsviz., termites and soil insects.Beta-Cyfluthrin is an insecticide of synthetic pyrethroid group which acts by contact action and ingestion. It acts on the insects' nervous system as sodium channel blocker consequently a disorder of the nervous system occurs leading finally to the death. The field experiments were taken up during 2015 and 2016 at the Main Agricultural Research Station of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.The trials were laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications using popular land race of Byadagi crop variety.Results indicated that the product at 21.6 + 50.4% gai/ha (240 ml/ha) and 27.9 + 65% gai/ha (310 ml/ha) was found quite effective in controlling thrips (0.00 to 0.66 thrips per six leaves) as against the standard check insecticide recommended for thrips by the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad wherein the density of thrips recorded was significantly higher (1.00 to 2.00 Nos./6 leaves). Similarly, the test insecticide was quite effective against other target insects, whiteflies, fruit borer and gall midge fly as indicated by lower insect population observed in the treatments as compared to standard insecticidal control. The predatory beetle activity was found to be normal in all experimental plots. Highest green fruit yield of 5100-5500 kg/ha was recorded in Soloman 300 OD applied crop at 310 ml/ha rate as compared to 4750 to 5050 kg/ha recorded in check. At present 6-8 sprays of insecticides are recommended for management of these insect-pests on the crop. If combi-products are used in pest management programmes, it is possible to reduce insecticide usages in crop ecosystem.

Keywords: chilli, imidacloprid, Betacyfluthrin, gallmidge fly, thrips

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67 Cytotoxic Effect of Neem Seed Extract (Azadirachta indica) in Comparison with Artificial Insecticide Novastar on Haemocytes (THC and DHC) of Musca domestica

Authors: Muhammad Zaheer Awan, Adnan Qadir, Zeeshan Anjum

Abstract:

Housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus is ubiquitous and hazardous for Homo sapiens and livestock in sundry venerations. Musca domestica cart 100 different pathogens, such as typhoid, salmonella, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax and parasitic worms. The flies in rural areas usually carry more pathogens. Houseflies feed on liquid or semi-liquid substances besides solid materials which are softened by saliva. Neem botanically known as Azadirachta indica belongs to the family Meliaceae and is an indigenous tree to Pakistan. The neem tree is also one such tree which has been revered by the Pakistanis and Kashmiris for its medicinal properties. Present study showed neem seed extract has potentially toxic ability that affect Total Haemocyte Count (THC) and Differential Haemocytes Count (DHC) in insect’s blood cells, of the housefly. A significant variation in haemolymph density was observed just after application, 30 minutes and 60 minutes post treatment in term of THC and DHC in comparison with novastar. The study strappingly acclaim use of neem seed extract as insecticide as compare to artificial insecticides.

Keywords: Musca domestica, azadirachta indica, neem, differential haemocyte count (DHC), total haemocytes count (DHC), novastar

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66 Integrated Plant Protection Activities against (Tuta absoluta Meyrik) Moth in Tomato Plantings in Azerbaijan

Authors: Nazakat Ismailzada, Carol Jones

Abstract:

Tomato drilling moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato plants in many countries. The larvae of tomato leaves, the stems inside, in the end buds, they opened the gallery in green and ripe fruit. In this way the harmful products can be fed with all parts of the tomato plant can cause damage to 80-100%. Pest harms all above ground parts of the tomato plant. After the seedlings are planted in areas and during blossoming holder traps with tomato moth’s rubber capsule inside should be placed in the area by using five-tomato moth’s feremon per ha. Then there should be carried out observations in the fields in every three days regularly. During the researches, it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms. Therefore it was showed that in field condition Carogen 20 SC besides high-level biological efficiency also has low ecological load for environment, and should be used against tomato moth in farms with insecticide expenditure norm 320 qr\ha. In farms should be used plant rotation, plant fields should be plowed on the 25-30 sm depth, before sowing seeds should be proceeded by insecticides. As element of integrated plant protection activities, should be used pheromones trap. In tomato plant fields as an insecticide should be used AGROSAN 240 SC and Carogen 20 SP.

Keywords: Integrated Pest Management, Tuta Absoluta, Chemical Control, Lepidoptera

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65 The Residual Efficacy of Etofenprox WP on Different Surfaces for Malaria Control in the Brazilian Legal Amazon

Authors: Ana Paula S. A. Correa, Allan K. R. Galardo, Luana A. Lima, Talita F. Sobral, Josiane N. Muller, Jessica F. S. Barroso, Nercy V. R. Furtado, Ednaldo C. Rêgo., Jose B. P. Lima

Abstract:

Malaria is a public health problem in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Among the integrated approaches for anopheline control, the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) remains one of the main tools in the basic strategy applied in the Amazonian States, where the National Malaria Control Program currently uses one of the insecticides from the pyrethroid class, the Etofenprox WP. Understanding the residual efficacy of insecticides on different surfaces is essential to determine the spray cycles, in order to maintain a rational use and to avoid product waste. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual efficacy of Etofenprox - VECTRON ® 20 WP on surfaces of Unplastered Cement (UC) and Unpainted Wood (UW) on panels, in field, and in semi-field evaluation of Brazil’s Amapa State. The evaluation criteria used was the cone bioassay test, following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended method, using plastic cones and female mosquitos of Anopheles sp. The tests were carried out in laboratory panels, semi-field evaluation in a “test house” built in the Macapa municipality, and in the field in 20 houses, being ten houses per surface type (UC and UW), in an endemic malaria area in Mazagão’s municipality. The residual efficacy was measured from March to September 2017, starting one day after the spraying, repeated monthly for a period of six months. The UW surface presented higher residual efficacy than the UC. In fact, the UW presented a residual efficacy of the insecticide throughout the period of this study with a mortality rate above 80% in the panels (= 95%), in the "test house" (= 86%) and in field houses ( = 87%). On the UC surface it was observed a mortality decreased in all the tests performed, with a mortality rate of 45, 47 and 29% on panels, semi-field and in field, respectively; however, the residual efficacy ≥ 80% only occurred in the first evaluation after the 24-hour spraying bioassay in the "test house". Thus, only the UW surface meets the specifications of the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) regarding the duration of effective action (three to six months). To sum up, the insecticide residual efficacy presented variability on the different surfaces where it was sprayed. Although the IRS with Etofenprox WP was efficient on UW surfaces, and it can be used in spraying cycles at 4-month intervals, it is important to consider the diversity of houses in the Brazilian Legal Amazon, in order to implement alternatives for vector control, including the evaluation of new products or different formulations types for insecticides.

Keywords: vector control, insecticide, Anopheles, bioassay

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64 Larvicidal Activity of Azadirachtin and Essential Oils from Thymus capitatus against Prays oleae Bern (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae)

Authors: Imen Blibech, Mohiedine Ksantini, Mohamed Bouaziz

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Prays oleae is a major insect of olive in the Mediterranean Region. In an effort to find effective and affordable ways of controlling this pest, larvicidal activity of essential oils from Tunisian Thymus capitatus were analyzed in comparison to Azadirachtin, a biologically active compound insecticide. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical composition was determined by gas liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. The main components of chemical components were oxygenated monoterpenes (60.24%). The most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes were carvacrol (54.11%). Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were much more abundant and dominated by the o-cymene (16.68%). Both active compounds of Azadirachtin and Thymus capitatus oil extracts exhibited significant larvicidal activity against P. oleae with LC50 values 81.30 ppm and 52.49 ppm respectively. Dose-response relationships were established with almost 100% mortality when using the highest dose 100 ppm of T. capitatus oil extracts and 80 ppm of Azadirachtin. At the lowest dose (10 ppm), T. capitatus oil extracts and Azadirachtin caused 60% and 76% larval mortality in 48 hours respectively. The larval mortality rate greatly decreased with increases of the dilution of both oil extract compounds. Larval development duration appeared to be prolonged to about 12 days for larvae feeding on control diet. The maximum antifeedant activity was shown by both T. capitatus oil extract and Azadirachtin at LC90 values (47.5 and 50.1 ppm respectively). Tunisian T. capitatus oil extract used at low concentrations could be considered as eco-friendly promising insecticide similar to Azadirachtin that has significant potential for the biological control of P. oleae.

Keywords: Chemical Composition, azadirachtin, antifeedant activity, Thymus capitatus, larvicidal effects, Prays oleae

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63 Highly Selective Phosgene Free Synthesis of Methylphenylcarbamate from Aniline and Dimethyl Carbonate over Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Nayana T. Nivangune, Vivek V. Ranade, Ashutosh A. Kelkar

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Organic carbamates are versatile compounds widely employed as pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and in the synthesis of polyurethanes. Carbamates can be easily transformed into isocyanates by thermal cracking. Isocyantes are used as precursors for manufacturing agrochemicals, adhesives and polyurethane elastomers. Manufacture of polyurethane foams is a major application of aromatic ioscyanates and in 2007 the global consumption of polyurethane was about 12 million metric tons/year and the average annual growth rate was about 5%. Presently Isocyanates/carbamates are manufactured by phosgene based process. However, because of high toxicity of phoegene and formation of waste products in large quantity; there is a need to develop alternative and safer process for the synthesis of isocyanates/carbamates. Recently many alternative processes have been investigated and carbamate synthesis by methoxycarbonylation of aromatic amines using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as a green reagent has emerged as promising alternative route. In this reaction methanol is formed as a by-product, which can be converted to DMC either by oxidative carbonylation of methanol or by reacting with urea. Thus, the route based on DMC has a potential to provide atom efficient and safer route for the synthesis of carbamates from DMC and amines. Lot of work is being carried out on the development of catalysts for this reaction and homogeneous zinc salts were found to be good catalysts for the reaction. However, catalyst/product separation is challenging with these catalysts. There are few reports on the use of supported Zn catalysts; however, deactivation of the catalyst is the major problem with these catalysts. We wish to report here methoxycarbonylation of aniline to methylphenylcarbamate (MPC) using amino acid complexes of Zn as highly active and selective catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, IR, solid state NMR and XPS analysis. Methoxycarbonylation of aniline was carried out at 170 °C using 2.5 wt% of the catalyst to achieve >98% conversion of aniline with 97-99% selectivity to MPC as the product. Formation of N-methylated products in small quantity (1-2%) was also observed. Optimization of the reaction conditions was carried out using zinc-proline complex as the catalyst. Selectivity was strongly dependent on the temperature and aniline:DMC ratio used. At lower aniline:DMC ratio and at higher temperature, selectivity to MPC decreased (85-89% respectively) with the formation of N-methylaniline (NMA), N-methyl methylphenylcarbamate (MMPC) and N,N-dimethyl aniline (NNDMA) as by-products. Best results (98% aniline conversion with 99% selectivity to MPC in 4 h) were observed at 170oC and aniline:DMC ratio of 1:20. Catalyst stability was verified by carrying out recycle experiment. Methoxycarbonylation preceded smoothly with various amine derivatives indicating versatility of the catalyst. The catalyst is inexpensive and can be easily prepared from zinc salt and naturally occurring amino acids. The results are important and provide environmentally benign route for MPC synthesis with high activity and selectivity.

Keywords: Heterogeneous catalyst, aniline, methoxycarbonylation, methylphenyl carbamate

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62 Evaluation of a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron in the Shrimp Palaemon Adspersus: Impact on Ecdysteroids and Chitin Contents

Authors: Hinda Berghiche, Hamida Benradia, Noureddine Soltani

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Pesticides are widely used in crop production and are known to induce a major contamination of ecosystems especially in aquatic environments. The leaching of a large amount of pollutants derived from agricultural activities (fertilizers, pesticides) might contaminate rivers which diverse into the likes and estuarine and coastal environments affecting several organisms such as crustacean species. In this context, there is searched for new selective insecticides with minimal toxic effects on the environment and human health such as growth insect regulators (GIRs). The current study aimed to examine the impact of novaluron (CE 20%), a potent benzoylphenylurea derivative insecticide on mosquito larvae, against non-target shrimp, Palaemon adspersus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae). The compound was tested at two concentrations (0.91 mg/L and 4.30 mg/L) corresponding respectively to the LC50 and LC90 determined against fourth-instar larvae of Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera, Culicidae). The molting hormone titer was determined in the haemolymph by an enzyme-immunoassay, while chitin was measured in peripheral integument at different stages during the molting cycle. Under normal conditions, the haemolymphatic ecdysteroid concentrations increased during the molting cycle to reach peak at stage D. In the treated series, we note absence of the peak at stage D and an increase at stages B, C and D as compared to the controls. Concerning the chitin amounts, we observe an increase from stage A to stage C followed by a decrease at stage D. Exposition of shrimps to novaluron resulted in a significant decrease of values at all molting stages with a dose-response effect. Thus, the insecticide can present secondary effects on this non-target arthropod species.

Keywords: toxicology, chitin, cuticle, novaluron, crustacean, palaemon adspersus, ecdysteroids

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61 Monitoring of Pesticide Content in Biscuits Available on the Vojvodina Market, Serbia

Authors: Ivana Loncarevic, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Vasiljevic, Milana Lazovic, Danica Mrkajic, Aleksandar Fises, Strahinja Kovacevic

Abstract:

Biscuits belong to a group of flour-confectionery products that are considerably consumed worldwide. The basic raw material for their production is wheat flour or integral flour as a nutritionally highly valuable component. However, this raw material is also a potential source of contamination since it may contain the residues of biochemical compounds originating from plant and soil protection agents. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the health safety of both raw materials and final products. The aim of this research was to examine the content of undesirable residues of pesticides (mostly organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, triazine pesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides) in 30 different biscuit samples of domestic origin present on the Vojvodina market using Gas Chromatograph Thermo ISQ/Trace 1300. The results showed that all tested samples had the limit of detection of pesticide content below 0.01 mg/kg, indicating that this type of confectionary products is not contaminated with pesticides.

Keywords: Pesticides, Quality, Contamination, biscuits

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60 Variation in Carboxylesterase Activity in Spodoptera litura Fabricious (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Populations from India

Authors: V. Karuppaiah, J. C. Padaria, C. Srivastava

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The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest various field and horticulture crops in India. Pest had virtually developed resistance to all commonly used insecticides. Enhanced detoxification is the prime mechanism that is dictated by detoxification different enzymes and carboxylesterase is one of the major enzyme responsible development of resistance. In India, insecticide resistance studies on S. litura are mainly deployed on detoxification enzymes activity and investigation at gene level alteration i.e. at nucleotide level is very merger. In the present study, we collected the S. litura larvae from three different cauliflower growing belt viz., IARI, New Delhi (Delhi), Palari, Sonepat (Haryana) and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) to study the role of carboxylesterase activity and its gene level variation The CarE activity was measured using UV-VIS spectrophotometer with 3rd instar larvae of S. litura. The elevated activity of CarE was observed in Sonepat strain (28.09 ± 0.09 µmol/min/mg of protein) followed by Delhi (26.72 ± 0.04 µmol/min/mg of protein) and Varanasi strain (10.00 ± 0.44 µmol/min/mg of protein) of S. litura. The genomic DNA was isolated from 3rd instar larvae and CarE gene was amplified using a primer sequence, F:5’tccagagttccttgtcaggcac3’; R:5’ctgcatcaagcatgtctc3. CarE gene, about 500bp was partially amplified, sequenced and submitted to NCBI (Accession No. KF835886, KF835887 and KF835888). The sequence data revealed polymorphism at nucleotide level in all the three strains and gene found to have 88 to 97% similarity with previous available nucleotide sequences of S. litura, S. littoralis and S. exiqua. The polymorphism at the nucleotide level could be a reason for differential activity of carboxylesterase enzymes among the strains. However, investigation at gene expression level would be useful to analyze the overproduction of carboxylesterase enzyme.

Keywords: Spodoptera litura, carboxylesterase, CarE gene, nucleotide polymorphism, insecticide resistance

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59 Cytotoxicity thiamethoxam Study on the Hepatopancreas and Its Reversibility under the Effect of Ginger in Helix aspersa

Authors: Samira Bensoltane, Smina Ait Hamlet, Samti Meriem, Semmasel Asma

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Living organisms in the soil are subject to regular fluctuations of abiotic parameters, as well as a chemical contamination of the environment due to human activities. They are subject to multiple stressors they face. The aim of our work was to study the effects of insecticide: thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid), and the potential reversibility of the effects by an antioxidant: ginger on a bioindicator species in ecotoxicology, the land snail Helix aspersa. The effects were studied by a targeted cell approach of evaluating the effect of these molecules on tissue and cellular aspect of hepatopancreas through histological study. Treatment with thiamethoxam concentrations 10, 20, and 40 mg/l shows signs of inflammation even at low concentrations and from the 5th day of treatment. Histological examination of the hepatopancreas of snails treated with thiamethoxam showed significant changes from the lowest concentrations tested , note intertubular connective tissue enlargement, necrosis deferent types of cells (cells with calcium , digestive, excretory) , also damage acini, alteration of the apical membrane and lysis of the basement membrane in a dose- dependent manner. After 10 days of treatment and with 40 mg/l, the same changes were observed with a very advanced degeneration of the wall of the member that could be confused with the cell debris. For cons, the histological study of the hepatopancreas in Helix aspersa treated with ginger for a period of 15 days after stopping treatment with thiamethoxam has shown a partial regeneration of hepatopancreatic tissue snails treated with all concentrations of thiamethoxam and especially in the intertubular connective tissue of the wall and hepatopancreatic digestive tubules. Finally, we can conclude that monitoring the effect of the insecticide thiamethoxam showed significant alterations, however, treatment with ginger shows regeneration of damaged cells themselves much sharper at low concentration (10 mg/L).

Keywords: Insecticides, helix aspersa, thiamethoxam, ginger, hepatopancreas

Procedia PDF Downloads 112