Abstracts | Psychological and Behavioral Sciences
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2172

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Psychological and Behavioral Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2172 Mapping Network Connection of Personality Traits and Psychiatric Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents

Authors: Yichao Lv, Minmin Cai, Yanqiang Tao, Xinyuan Zou, Chao Zhang, Xiangping Liu

Abstract:

Objective: This study aims to explore the network structure of personality traits and mental health and identify key factors for effective intervention strategies. Methods: All participants (N = 6,067; 3,368 females) underwent the Eysenck Personality Scale (EPQ) to measure personality traits and the Symptom Self-rating Scale (SCL-90) to measure psychiatric symptoms. Using the mean value of the SCL-90 total score plus one standard deviation as the cutoff, 854 participants (14.08%; 528 females) were categorized as individuals exhibiting potential psychological symptoms and were included in the follow-up network analysis. The structure and bridge centrality of the network for dimensions of EPQ and SCL-90 were estimated. Results: Between the EPQ and SCL-90, psychoticism (P), extraversion (E), and neuroticism (N) showed the strongest positive correlations with somatization (Som), interpersonal sensitivity (IS), and hostility (Hos), respectively. Extraversion (E), somatization (Som), and anxiety (Anx) were identified as the most important bridge factors influencing the overall network. Conclusions: This study explored the network structure and complex connections between mental health and personality traits from a network perspective, providing potential targets for intervening in adolescent personality traits and mental health.

Keywords: EPQ, SCL-90, Chinese adolescents, network analysis

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2171 Allostatic Load as a Predictor of Adolescents’ Executive Function: A Longitudinal Network Analysis

Authors: Sipu Guo, Silin Huang

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Background: Most studies investigate the link between executive function and allostatic load (AL) among adults aged 18 years and older. Studies differed regarding the specific biological indicators studied and executive functions accounted for. Specific executive functions may be differentially related to allostatic load. We investigated the comorbidities of executive functions and allostatic load via network analysis. Methods: We included 603 adolescents (49.84% girls; Mean age = 12.38, SD age = 1.79) from junior high school in rural China. Eight biological markers at T1 and four executive function tasks at T2 were used to evaluate networks. Network analysis was used to determine the network structure, core symptoms, and bridge symptoms in the AL-executive function network among rural adolescents. Results: The executive functions were related to 6 AL biological markers, not to cortisol and epinephrine. The most influential symptoms were inhibition control, cognitive flexibility, processing speed, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). SBP, dehydroepiandrosterone, and processing speed were the bridges through which AL was related to executive functions. dehydroepiandrosterone strongly predicted processing speed. The SBP was the biggest influencer in the entire network. Conclusions: We found evidence for differential relations between markers and executive functions. SBP was a driver in the network; dehydroepiandrosterone showed strong relations with executive function.

Keywords: allostatic load, executive function, network analysis, rural adolescent

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2170 Exploring the Influence of Maternal Self-Discrepancy on Psychological Well-Being: A Study on Middle-Aged Mothers

Authors: Chooi Fong Lee

Abstract:

Background: Maternal psychological well-being has been investigated from various aspects, such as social support, employment status. However, a perspective from self-discrepancy theory has not been employed. Moreover, most were focused on young mothers. Less is understanding the middle-aged mother’s psychological well-being. Objective: To examine the influence of maternal self-discrepancy between actual and ideal self on maternal role achievement, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and subjective well-being among Japanese middle-aged mothers across their employment status. Method: A pilot study was conducted with 20 mother participants (aged 40-55, 9 regular-employed, 8 non-regular-employed, and 3 homemaker mothers) to assess the viability of survey questionnaires (Maternal Role Achievement Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale, and a self-report). Participants were randomly selected voluntarily from the college students’ mothers. Participants accessed the survey via a designated URL. The self-report questionnaire prompted participants to list up to 3 ideal selves they aspired to be and rate the extent to which their actual selves deviated from their ideal selves on a 7-point scale (1= not at all; 4 = medium; 7 = extremely). The findings confirmed the validity of the survey questionnaires, indicating their appropriateness for use in subsequent research. Self-discrepancy scores were calculated by subtracting participants’ degree ratings from a 7-point scale, summing them up, and then dividing the total by 3. Setting: We ensured participants were randomly selected from the research firm to mitigate bias. The self-report questionnaire was adapted from a validated instrument and underwent rigorous modification and testing in the pilot study. The final sample consisted of 241 participants, 97 regular-employed, 87 non-regular employed, and 57 homemaker mothers. Result: The reliability coefficient for the discrepancy score is α=.75. The findings indicate that regular-employed mothers tend to exhibit lower self-discrepancy scores compared to non-regular employed and homemaker mothers. This discrepancy negatively impacts maternal role, state anxiety, and subjective well-being while positively affecting trait anxiety. Trait anxiety arises when one feels they did not meet their ideal self, as evidenced by higher levels in homemaker mothers, who experience lower state anxiety. Conversely, regular-employed mothers exhibit higher state anxiety but lower trait anxiety, suggesting satisfaction in their professional pursuits despite balancing work and family responsibilities. Full-time maternal roles contribute to lower state anxiety but higher trait anxiety among homemaker mothers due to a lack of personal identity achievement. Non-regular employed mothers show similarities to homemaker mothers. In self-reports, regular-employed mothers highlight support and devotion to their children’s development, while non-regular-employed mothers seek life fulfillment through part-time work alongside child-rearing duties. Homemaker mothers emphasize qualities like sociability, and communication skills, potentially influencing their self-discrepancy scores. Furthermore, the hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the discrepancy scores significantly predict subjective well-being. Conclusion: There may be the need for broader generalizability beyond our sample of Japanese mothers; however, the findings offer valuable insights into the impact of maternal self-discrepancy on psychological well-being among middle-aged mothers across different employment statuses. Understanding these dynamics becomes crucial as contemporary women increasingly pursue higher education and depart from traditional motherhood norms.

Keywords: maternal employment, maternal role, self-discrepancy, state-trait anxiety, subjective well-being

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2169 Effect of Resistance Training on BDNF and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy Older Adults

Authors: Obinna Afamefuna Echi

Abstract:

Background: The global increase in the elderly population is anticipated to reach significant levels by 2050, presenting extensive economic, social, and healthcare challenges. Age-related cognitive decline, alterations in brain anatomy, and systemic inflammation are profound concerns that diminish the quality of life and increase susceptibility to diseases like Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. Resistance training is presently studied for its potential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory benefits in older adults. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the effects of different resistance training modalities on neurotrophic factors, inflammatory markers, and cognitive functions in the elderly. Methods: A controlled trial was conducted with 60 male participants aged 60-75, assigned to either 12 weeks of high-intensity blood flow restriction training (BFRT), muscle damaging resistance training (MDRT), or a non-exercising control group. Cognitive function, neurotrophic factors such as BDNF, and inflammatory markers including IL-6 and TNF were measured before and after the intervention period. Setting: Participants were recruited from Kaunas, Lithuania, with sessions facilitated at the Lithuanian Sports University and health assessments conducted at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Results: Preliminary data suggested did not show significant improvements in BDNF levels and cognitive functions in the BFRT and MDRT groups compared to controls. However, there was a notable reduction in inflammatory markers, indicating potential health benefits beyond cognitive enhancement. Conclusion: The incorporation of resistance training can be a strategic intervention to mitigate age-associated cognitive decline and systemic inflammation, thereby enhancing overall health and quality of life in older adults. The results advocate for wider adoption and further study of resistance training as a preventive measure in ageing populations. Funding: The Lithuanian Sports University, the Research Council of Lithuania and the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences.

Keywords: ageing, resistance training, BDNF, cognitive function

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2168 Clarifying the Possible Symptomatic Pathway of Comorbid Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Among Adolescents Exposed to Childhood Trauma: Insight from the Network Approach

Authors: Xinyuan Zou, Qihui Tang, Shujian Wang, Yulin Huang, Jie Gui, Xiangping Liu, Gang Liu, Yanqiang Tao

Abstract:

Childhood trauma can have a long-lasting influence on individuals and contribute to mental disorders, including depression and anxiety. The current study aimed to explore the symptomatic and developmental patterns of depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescents who have suffered from childhood trauma. A total of 3,598 college students (female = 1,617 (44.94%), Mean Age = 19.68, SD Age = 1.35) in China completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21), and 2,337 participants met the selection standard based on the cut-off scores of the CTQ. The symptomatic network and directed acyclic graph (DAG) network approaches were used. The results revealed that males reported experiencing significantly more physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse compared to females. However, females scored significantly higher than males on all items of DASS-21, except for “Worthless”. No significant difference between the two genders was observed in the network structure and global strength. Meanwhile, among all participants, “Down-hearted” and “Agitated” appeared to be the most interconnected symptoms, the bridge symptoms in the symptom network, as well as the most vital symptoms in the DAG network. Apart from that, “No-relax” also served as the most prominent symptom in the DAG network. The results suggested that intervention targeted at assisting adolescents in developing more adaptive coping strategies with stress and regulating emotion could benefit the alleviation of comorbid depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: symptom network, childhood trauma, depression, anxiety, stress

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2167 Refining Sexual Assault Treatment: Recovered Survivors and Expert Therapists Concur on Effective Therapy Components

Authors: Avigail Moor, Michal Otmazgin, Hagar Tsiddon, , Avivit Mahazri

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The goal of the present study was to refine sexual assault therapy through the examination of the level of agreement between survivor and therapist assessments of key recovery-promoting therapeutic interventions. This is the first study to explore the level of agreement between those who partake in the treatment process from either position. Semi structured interviews were conducted in this qualitative study with 10 survivors and 10 experienced therapists. The results document considerable concurrence between them regarding relational and trauma processing treatment components alike. Together, these reports outline key effective interventions, both common and specific in nature, concomitantly supported by both groups.

Keywords: sexual assault, rape treatment, therapist training, psychotherapy

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2166 Influence of Vocational Guidance Services in Determining the Career Choice of Secondary School Students in Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Egbo Anthonia Chinonyelum

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This study was designed to identify the extent of the influence of vocational guidance services on career choice of secondary school students in Enugu State. The study was guided by two research questions and two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. A sample of 1,054 respondents made of teachers, students and counsellors drawn from the 34 secondary schools from the six educational zones of Enugu State Nigeria was used for the study. The researcher administered the research instruments generated from the randomly selected senior secondary schools from the six educational zones in Enugu State. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using mean statistics drawn from the responses of senior secondary school students, counsellor and teacher to the questionnaire item. Four point scale was used to measure the opinion of the respondents, such that after the statistical analysis, those items in the questionnaire that have the mean rate of 2.5 and is of great level of influence on the career choice of students. While questionnaire item with the mean below 2.5 were taken as having little extent of influence on career choice of students. The findings in this work showed that there was little extent on the influence of vocational guidance on career choice, choice of subjects and positive attitude of students towards vocational guidance. Based on the findings the researcher recommended that government and other relevant authorities should help by creating the awareness of vocational guidance programme in Schools.

Keywords: vocation, guidance, counselling, services, career, choice

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2165 Psychological Capital as Pathways to Social Well-Being Among International Faculty in UAE: A Mediated-Moderated Study

Authors: Ejoke U. P., Smitha Dev., Madwuke Ann, DuPlessis E. D.

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The study examines the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and social well-being among international faculty members in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The UAE has become a significant destination for global academic talent, yet challenges related to social integration, acceptance, and overall well-being persist among its international faculty. The study focuses on the predictive role of PsyCap, encompassing hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, in determining various dimensions of social well-being, including social integration, acceptance, contribution, actualization, and coherence. Additionally, the research investigates the potential moderating or mediating effects of institutional support and Faculty Job-Status position on the relationship between PsyCap and social well-being. Through structural equation modeling, we found that institutional support mediated the positive relationship between PsyCap and SWB and the permanent Faculty job-status position type strengthens the relationship between PsyCap and SWB. Our findings uncover the pathways through which PsyCap influences the social well-being outcomes of international faculty in the UAE. The findings will contribute to the development of tailored interventions and support systems aimed at enhancing the integration experiences and overall well-being of international faculty within the UAE academic community. Thus, fostering a more inclusive and thriving academic environment in the UAE.

Keywords: faculty job-status, institutional-faculty, psychological capital, social well-being, UAE

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2164 Posterior Cortical Atrophy Phenotype of Alzheimer’s Dementia: A Case Report

Authors: Joana Beyer

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Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the predominant cause of dementia, characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a less common variant of AD, primarily affecting younger individuals and presenting with visual, visuospatial, and visuoperceptual deficits, often leading to delayed diagnosis due to its atypical presentation. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 58-year-old woman referred to psychiatric services with a two-year history of progressive visuospatial decline, mild memory difficulties, and language impairments, notably anomia. Despite undergoing cataract and squint surgeries, her visual symptoms persisted, impacting her professional life as a music educator. The neuropsychological evaluation revealed profound visuoperceptual and visuospatial disturbances, with neuroimaging supporting a diagnosis of PCA. Treatment with Donepezil showed symptom improvement, highlighting the challenges and importance of early intervention and managing this atypical form of AD. Methods: The diagnostic process involved comprehensive physical, neuropsychological assessments, and neuroimaging, including MRI and F18 FDG PET CT, which demonstrated severe bilateral posterior cortical involvement. The case underscores the utility of these modalities in diagnosing PCA. Results: The initiation of Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, resulted in symptom improvement, emphasizing the potential for AD treatments to benefit PCA patients. However, challenges in management, including treatment side effects and the necessity of multidisciplinary care, are discussed. Conclusion: This case highlights PCA's diagnostic challenges due to its atypical presentation and the broader implications for managing younger patients with early-onset dementia. It underscores the necessity for early recognition, comprehensive assessment, and tailored management strategies, including both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, to improve patients' quality of life. Additionally, the case illustrates the need for expanding community memory services to accommodate younger patients with atypical forms of dementia, advocating for a more inclusive approach to dementia care.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, posterior cortical atrophy, dementia, diagnosis, management, donepezil, early-onset dementia

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2163 The Experience of Gay Men Using Dating Applications in Their Emerging Adulthood

Authors: Chuang Bing-Kai, Shih Hsiang-Ju

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Previous studies showed that emergent adults used dating applications the most since it would satisfy their needs for intimacy. It's also found that those emergent adults were mostly non-heterosexual. What’s more, in this digital era, more and more bisexuals and homosexuals choose to establish connections with others through Internet to seek a sense of belonging. However, studies rarely focused on gay men in their emergent adulthood to explore their experiences of dating applications. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of gay men using dating applications in their emerging adulthood and to understand their self-presentations and the process of it among different relationships while interacting with others upon using dating applications. The semi-structured interview was conducted with those gay men who aged from 18 to 29, felt attracted to people with same gender physically and mentally, considered themselves homosexual from their subjective understanding and had been using dating applications for more than half a year. Research invitations were distributed with the assistance of social media platforms and LGBTQ+ friends in the community. This study adopted a qualitative research approach and applied hermeneutic phenomenology as the method to analyze the transcripts transcribed from the recorded audio, and to explore their using experiences and self-presentations while interacting with others while using dating apps. It’s expected to find out that there are four stages in the self-presentation process including establishing personal identity, self-exploration and experimentation, exploring shared interest and values, developing and maintaining connections. Plus, gay men’s motives to use dating apps play an important role in this process and thus influence how they position the apps in their life. Through this study, professional workers can better understand gay men’s considerations and strategies in their self-presentation process as well as the impact of using motives.

Keywords: dating applications, emerging adulthood, gay men, hermeneutic phenomenology

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2162 (Re)Assessing Clinical Spaces: How Do We Critically Provide Mental Health and Disability Support and Effective Care for Young People Who Are Impacted by Structural Violence and Structural Racism?

Authors: Sireen Irsheid, Stephanie Keeney Parks, Michael A. Lindsey

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The medical and mental health field have been organized as reactive systems to respond to symptoms of mental health problems and disability. This becomes problematic particularly for those harmed by structural violence and racism, typically pushing us in the direction of alleviating symptoms and personalizing structural problems. The current paper examines how we assess, diagnose, and treat mental health and disability challenges in clinical spaces. We provide the readers with some context to think about the problem of racism and mental health/disability, ways to deconstruct the problem through the lens of structural violence, and recommendations to critically engage in clinical assessments, diagnosis, and treatment for young people impacted by structural violence and racism.

Keywords: mental health, disability, race and ethnicity, structural violence, structural racism, young people

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2161 When Women Take the Lead: Exploring the Intersection Between Gender Equality and Women’s Environmental Political Engagement from a Comparative Perspective

Authors: Summer Isaacson

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Research on gender differences in environmental behavior has long claimed that women engage less than men in environmental political participation (EPP) (protests, petitions), despite their higher levels of environmental concern and vulnerability. Using recent data from the ISSP’s 2020 Environment module including 28 countries, we revisit the gender gap in EPP. Arguing that increasing gender equality and socio-economic development can allow women to voice their environmental grievances, we use multi-level models to examine the effects of macro-level gender equality on gender differences in environmental protests, petitions, and boycotts. By distinguishing individual from collective and non-confrontational from confrontational engagement forms, this study offers an encompassing understanding of gendered patterns of participation. Women do participate more than men, but mainly in individual and non-confrontational EPP forms (petitions, boycotts) and with substantial variation across countries. Moreover, considering how women have historically been restrained from participating in politics, we argue that structural gender inequality remains an important limitation to women’s engagement. Cross-level interactions indicate that in more egalitarian countries, women are more likely to engage in several types of EPP than men. The study offers new perspectives and findings on gender differences in EPP, highlighting the impact of gender inequality on women’s participation.

Keywords: environmental activism, political participation, gender equality, pro-environmental behavior

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2160 Evaluate Existing Mental Health Intervention Programs Tailored for International Students in China

Authors: Nargiza Nuralieva

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This meta-analysis investigates the effectiveness of mental health interventions tailored for international students in China, with a specific focus on Uzbek students and Silk Road scholarship recipients. The comprehensive literature review synthesizes existing studies, papers, and reports, evaluating the outcomes, limitations, and cultural considerations of these programs. Data selection targets mental health programs for international students, honing in on a subset analysis related to Uzbek students and Silk Road scholarship recipients. The analysis encompasses diverse outcome measures, such as reported stress levels, utilization rates of mental health services, academic performance, and more. Results reveal a consistent and statistically significant reduction in reported stress levels, emphasizing the positive impact of these interventions. Utilization rates of mental health services witness a significant increase, highlighting the accessibility and effectiveness of support. Retention rates show marked improvement, though academic performance yields mixed findings, prompting nuanced exploration. Psychological well-being, quality of life, and overall well-being exhibit substantial enhancements, aligning with the overarching goal of holistic student development. Positive outcomes are observed in increased help-seeking behavior, positive correlations with social support, and significant reductions in anxiety levels. Cultural adaptation and satisfaction with interventions both indicate positive outcomes, underscoring the effectiveness of culturally sensitive mental health support. The findings emphasize the importance of tailored mental health interventions for international students, providing novel insights into the specific needs of Uzbek students and Silk Road scholarship recipients. This research contributes to a nuanced understanding of the multifaceted impact of mental health programs on diverse student populations, offering valuable implications for the design and refinement of future interventions. As educational institutions continue to globalize, addressing the mental health needs of international students remains pivotal for fostering inclusive and supportive learning environments.

Keywords: international students, mental health interventions, cross-cultural support, silk road scholarship, meta-analysis

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2159 Mindfulness and Mental Resilience Training for Pilots: Enhancing Cognitive Performance and Stress Management

Authors: Nargiza Nuralieva

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The study delves into assessing the influence of mindfulness and mental resilience training on the cognitive performance and stress management of pilots. Employing a meticulous literature search across databases such as Medline and Google Scholar, the study used specific keywords to target a wide array of studies. Inclusion criteria were stringent, focusing on peer-reviewed studies in English that utilized designs like randomized controlled trials, with a specific interest in interventions related to mindfulness or mental resilience training for pilots and measured outcomes pertaining to cognitive performance and stress management. The initial literature search identified a pool of 123 articles, with subsequent screening resulting in the exclusion of 77 based on title and abstract. The remaining 54 articles underwent a more rigorous full-text screening, leading to the exclusion of 41. Additionally, five studies were selected from the World Health Organization's clinical trials database. A total of 11 articles from meta-analyses were retained for examination, underscoring the study's dedication to a meticulous and robust inclusion process. The interventions varied widely, incorporating mixed approaches, Cognitive behavioral Therapy (CBT)-based, and mindfulness-based techniques. The analysis uncovered positive effects across these interventions. Specifically, mixed interventions demonstrated a Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) of 0.54, CBT-based interventions showed an SMD of 0.29, and mindfulness-based interventions exhibited an SMD of 0.43. Long-term effects at a 6-month follow-up suggested sustained impacts for both mindfulness-based (SMD: 0.63) and CBT-based interventions (SMD: 0.73), albeit with notable heterogeneity.

Keywords: mindfulness, mental resilience, pilots, cognitive performance, stress management

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2158 Exploring the Interplay Between Emotions, Employee’s Social Cognition and Decision Making Among Employees

Authors: Khushi, Simrat

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The study aims to investigate the relationship between emotions and employee's social cognition and decision-making among employees. The sample of the study was the total number of participants, which included employees from various industries and job positions. Research papers in the same area were reviewed, providing a comprehensive review of existing literature and theoretical frameworks and shedding light on the interpersonal effects of emotions in the workplace. It emphasizes how one worker's emotions can significantly impact the overall work environment and productivity as well as the work of a common phenomenon known as Emotional contagion at the workplace, affecting social interactions and group dynamics. Therefore, this study concludes that Emotional contagion can lead to a ripple effect within the workplace, influencing the overall atmosphere and productivity. Emotions can shape how employees process information and make choices, ultimately impacting organizational outcomes.

Keywords: employee decision making, social cognition, emotions, industry, emotional contagion, workplace dynamics

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2157 Mental Health Conditions and Their Risk Factors Among Women in Garissa County, Kenya

Authors: Njoroge Margaret W., Johnson Deborah

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Gender-specific risk factors for common mental disorders that disproportionately affect women include but are not limited to gender-based violence, socioeconomic disadvantage, sociocultural factors and unrelenting responsibility for the care of others. The overall objective of this study was to assess mental health conditions and their risk factors among women in Garissa County, Kenya. The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative research designs. The study participants were 100 adult women and 20 key informants from different sectors in the region. Data was collected using DSM-5 (PCL-5) and Kessler Psychological Distress, interviews schedule and focus group discussions. Analysis of quantitative data was done using univariate analysis, while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The results revealed that about 60% of women presented with moderate to severe psychological distress (PD), while 53% presented with PTSD. Additionally, women who have undergone female genital mutilation had higher PTSD and PD scores. They also presented with low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, sex anxiety, avoidance of reminders and intrusive memories of the event, especially those who developed fistula. The risk factors for poor mental health outcomes include lack of awareness/knowledge of mental health, retrogressive cultural practices (child marriage and female genital mutilation), as well as beliefs about the causes of mental disorders. The study also established that people with mental illness are neglected, abused and stigmatized. Preferred treatment approaches include prayers and the use of witch doctors and traditional healers. The study recommends gendered and culturally responsive interventions geared towards increasing community awareness and knowledge on mental health, reducing stigma and improving mental-health-seeking behaviors for women and girls in the region. Supported by the Ministry of Health, the approach should be spearheaded by trained community lay counselors.

Keywords: women, mental health conditions, cultural beliefs/practices, stigma, poverty, psychological distress, PTSD

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2156 Impact of Religious Struggles on Life Satisfaction among Young Muslims: The Mediating Role of Psychological Wellbeing

Authors: Sarwat Sultan, Frasat Kanwal, Motasem Mirza

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The impact of religiosity on people’s lives has always been found complex because some of them turn to religion to get comfort and relief from their fear, guilt, and illness, whereas some become away due to the perception that God is revengeful and distant for their conduct. The overarching aim of this study was to know whether the relationship between religious struggles (comfort/strain) and life satisfaction is mediated by psychological well-being. The participants of this study were 529 Muslim students who provided their responses on the measures of religious comfort/strain, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction. Results revealed that religious comfort predicted well-being and life satisfaction positively, while religious strain predicted negatively. Findings showed that psychological well-being mediated the prediction of religious comfort and strain for life satisfaction. These findings have implications for students’ mental health because their teachers and professionals can enhance their well-being by teaching them positive aspects of religion and God.

Keywords: attitude towards god, religious comfort, religious strain, life satisfaction, psychological wellbeing

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2155 Predicting the Relationship Between the Corona Virus Anxiety and Psychological Hardiness in Staff Working at Hospital in Shiraz Iran

Authors: Gholam Reza Mirzaei, Mehran Roost

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This research was conducted with the aim of predicting the relationship between coronavirus anxiety and psychological hardiness in employees working at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Shiraz. The current research design was descriptive and correlational. The statistical population of the research consisted of all the employees of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Shiraz in 2021. From among the statistical population, 220 individuals were selected and studied based on available sampling. To collect data, Kobasa's psychological hardiness questionnaire and coronavirus anxiety questionnaire were used. After collecting the data, the scores of the participants were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient multiple regression analysis and SPSS-24 statistical software. The results of Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant negative correlation between psychological hardiness and its components (challenge, commitment, and control) with coronavirus anxiety; also, psychological hardiness with a beta coefficient of 0.20 could predict coronavirus anxiety in hospital employees. Based on the results, plans can be made to enhance psychological hardiness through educational workshops to relieve the anxiety of the healthcare staff.

Keywords: the corona virus, commitment, hospital employees, psychological hardiness

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2154 Integrating Life Skills Education for Mental Health and Academic Benefits of Adolescents in Schools in Schools

Authors: Sarwat Sultan, Muhammad Saleem, Frasat Kanwal

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Adolescence is a transition period of life that brings physical and psychological changes and always results in several challenges for an adolescent. An adolescent must learn life skills for a healthy transition from adolescence period to adulthood. Therefore this study was planned to examine the effects of life skill education on adolescents' mental health and academic benefits. A random sample of 720 school students aged between 13-17 years was categorized into two groups; experimental (n=360) and control (n=360). Life skill education was given to the students of the intervention group with repeated assessments of mental health and academic benefits at pre-intervention (T1) and post-intervention (T2) for both groups. Both groups were compared on scores of mental health and academic benefits across two times T1 and T2 by employing a mixed between-within-subjects analysis of variance. Findings showed the main effect of time suggesting the largest changes in mental health and academic benefits over time. Interaction effects between time and both groups were also found significant indicating the largest changes across time between both groups. Results of between-group comparisons showed significant values for Wilks’ Lambda and partial eta squared for students of the intervention group who scored higher on mental health and academic benefits after receiving life skills training than the students of the control group. Results of the present study determined the efficacy of life skill education and have implications for both teachers and psychotherapists to improve the students’ mental health and academic performance.

Keywords: academic benefits, life skills, mental health, adolescents

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2153 Examining Actors’ Self-Concept Clarity, Sociotrophy and Self-Monitoring Levels in Comparison with Their Peers

Authors: Ezgi Cetinkaya

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In the psychological literature, there are a few studies that focus on actors' self-perceptions and their social adjustment skills. Therefore the aim of the study was to shed light on the self-concept clarity, sociotrophy, and self-monitoring levels of professional actors. For this purpose, actors and non-actors are compared to their peers. The study was conducted with the participation of 106 actors and 131 non-actors. A descriptive method of research was employed and data was collected through the concept Clarity scale by Campbell et al. (1996), the Pleasing Others and Concern For Disapproval subscales of Sociotrophy and Autonomy scale by Beck et al. (1983), and the Self-Monitoring Scale by Snyder ( 1983). ANOVA and correlation analysis was done by using SPSS. Results showed that there is no significant difference between actors and non-actors at any age in terms of Self Concept Clarity. 25-25 years non-actors were found to have the highest self-concept clarity while the young actors had the lowest. The study didn’t reveal significant differences between the groups in terms of Sociotropy scores. The actor’s sociothropic tendencies weren’t enhanced by the experience. The study demonstrated that 25-35-year-old actors are higher self-monitors than 25-35-year-old non-actors.

Keywords: self-concept, self-monitoring, autonomy, sociotropy, theatre, acting, creativity, identity

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2152 Intensive Multidisciplinary Feeding Intervention for a Toddler with In-Utero Drug Exposure

Authors: Leandra Prempeh, Emily Malugen

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Prenatal drug exposure can have a molecular impact on the hypothalamic and reward genes that regulate feeding behavior. This can impact feeding regulation, resulting in feeding difficulties and growth failure. This was potentially seen in “McKayla,” a 19- month old girl with a history of in-utero drug exposure, patent ductus arteriosus, and gastroesophageal reflux disease who presented for intensive day treatment feeding therapy. She was diagnosed with Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder, described as total food refusal and meeting 100% of her caloric needs from a gastrostomy tube. The primary goals during intensive feeding therapy were to increase her oral intake and decrease her reliance on supplementation with formula. Several behavioral antecedent manipulations were implemented to establish consistent responding and make progress towards treatment goals. This included multiple modified bolus placements (using underloaded and Nuk brush), reinforcement contingencies, and variety fading before stability was finally achieved. Following, increasing retention of bites then increasing volume and variety were goals targeted. From treatment onset to the last 3 days of treatment, McKayla's rate of rapid acceptance of bite presentations increased significantly from 33.33% to 93.13%, rapid swallowing went from 0.00% to 92.32%, and her percentage of inappropriate mealtime behavior and expels decreased from 58.33% and 100% to 2.31% and 7.68%, respectively. Overall, the treatment team successfully introduced and increased the bite size of 7 pureed foods, generalize the treatment to caregivers with high integrity, and began facilitating tube weaning. She was receiving about 33.42% of her needs by mouth at the time of discharge. Other nutritional concerns addressed during treatment included drinking a nutritionally complete drink out of an open cup and age appropriate growth. McKayla continued to have emesis almost daily, as was her baseline before starting treatment; however, the frequency during mealtime decreased. Overall, McKayla responded well to treatment. She had a very slow response to treatment and required a lot of antecedent manipulations to establish consistent responding. As the literature suggests, [drug]-exposed neonates, like McKayla, may be at increased risk for nutritional and growth challenges that may persist throughout development. This supports the need for longterm follow-up of infant growth.

Keywords: behavioral intervention, feeding problems, in-utero drug exposure, intensive multidisciplinary intervention

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2151 Perceptions of Community Members in Lephalale Area, Limpopo Province, Towards Water Conservation: Development of a Psychological Model

Authors: M. L. Seretlo-Rangata, T. Sodi, S. Govender

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Despite interventions by various governments to regulate water demand and address water scarcity, literature shows that billions of people across the world continue to struggle with access because not everyone contributes equally to conservation efforts. Behavioral factors such as individual and collective aspects of cognition and commitment have been found to play an important role in water conservation. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of community members in the Lephalale area, Limpopo province, towards water conservation with a view to developing an explanatory psychological model on water conservation. Twenty (20) participants who relied on communal taps to access water in Lephalale Local Municipality, Limpopo province, were selected through purposeful sampling. In-depth, semi-structured, individual face-to-face interviews were used to gather data and were analyzed utilizing thematic content analysis (TCA). The research findings revealed that there are various psychological effects of water scarcity on communities, such as emotional distress, interpersonal conflicts and disruptions of daily activities of living. Additionally, the study results showed that the coping strategies developed by participants to deal with water scarcity included adopting alternative water use behaviors as well as adjusting current behaviors and lifestyles. Derived from the study findings, a psychological model of water conservation was developed. The model incorporates some ideas from the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory and the Afrocentric theory. The model suggests that people’s worldviews, including their values, beliefs and culture, are significant determinants of their pro-environmental behaviors. The study concludes by recommending that authorities and policymakers should consider psychological factors when developing water management programs, strategies and interventions with the consultation of psychology experts.

Keywords: water conservation, psychological model, pro-environmental behaviour, conservation psychology, water-use behaviour

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2150 Patterns of Change in Specific Behaviors of Autism Symptoms for Boys and for Girls Across Childhood

Authors: Einat Waizbard, Emilio Ferrer, Meghan Miller, Brianna Heath, Derek S. Andrews, Sally J. Rogers, Christine Wu Nordahl, Marjorie Solomon, David G. Amaral

Abstract:

Background: Autism symptoms are comprised of social-communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors (RRB). The severity of these symptoms can change during childhood, with differences between boys and girls. From the literature, it was found that young autistic girls show a stronger tendency to decrease and a weaker tendency to increase their overall autism symptom severity levels compared to young autistic boys. It is not clear, however, which symptoms are driving these sex differences across childhood. In the current study, we evaluated the trajectories of independent autism symptoms across childhood and compared the patterns of change in such symptoms between boys and girls. Method: The study included 183 children diagnosed with autism (55 girls) evaluated three times across childhood, at ages 3, 6 and 11. We analyzed 22 independent items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scheudule-2 (ADOS-2), the gold-standard assessment tool for autism symptoms, each item representing a specific autism symptom. First, we used latent growth curve models to estimate the trajectories for the 22 ADOS-2 items for each child in the study. Second, we extracted the factor scores representing the individual slopes for each ADOS-2 item (i.e., slope representing that child’s change in that specific item). Third, we used factor analysis to identify common patterns of change among the ADOS-2 items, separately for boys and girls, i.e., which autism symptoms tend to change together and which change independently across childhood. Results: The best-emerging patterns for both boys and girls identified four common factors: three factors representative of changes in social-communication symptoms and one factor describing changes in RRB. Boys and girls showed the same pattern of change in RRB, with four items (e.g., speech abnormalities) changing together across childhood and three items (e.g., mannerisms) changing independently of other items. For social-communication deficits in boys, three factors were identified: the first factor included six items representing initiating and engaging in social-communication (e.g., quality of social overtures, conversation), the second factor included five items describing responsive social-communication (e.g., response to name) and the third factor included three items related to different aspects of social-communication (e.g., level of language). Girls’ social-communications deficits also loaded onto three factors: the first factor included five items (e.g., unusual eye contact), the second factor included six items (e.g., quality of social response), and the third factor included four items (e.g., showing). Some items showed similar patterns of change for both sexes (e.g., responsive joint attention), while other items showed differences (e.g., shared enjoyment). Conclusions: Girls and boys had different patterns of change in autism symptom severity across childhood. For RRB, both sexes showed similar patterns. For social-communication symptoms, however, there were both similarities and differences between boys and girls in the way symptoms changed over time. The strongest patterns of change were identified for initiating and engaging in social communication for boys and responsive social communication for girls.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, autism symptom severity, symptom trajectories, sex differences

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2149 Psychological Assessment of Living Kidney Donors: A Systematic Review

Authors: Valentina Colonnello, Paolo Maria Russo

Abstract:

Living kidney donation requires psychological evaluation and ongoing follow-up. A crucial aspect of this evaluation is assessing the social functioning of donors after donation. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a review of quantitative and qualitative studies on the psychological assessment of living kidney donors' social functioning. The majority of quantitative studies examining the long-term social health post-donation have primarily utilized the Short Form Health Survey (SF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaires. These studies have indicated that donors' social functioning and relationships either remained stable post-donation or returned to pre-donation levels. In some instances, donors' social functioning even surpassed that of the general population. Qualitative studies, conducted through interviews and focus groups, have revealed donors' experiences and emotional concerns that are often overlooked in quantitative analyses. Specifically, qualitative analysis has identified two main themes: "connecting to others" and "acknowledgment and social support." Our review highlights that the majority of published quantitative studies on donors have employed measures of social functioning that may not fully capture donors' experiences and needs. It underscores the importance of further investigation in quantitative studies to assess donors' actual social health and psychological needs accurately. Overall, this review provides valuable insights into specific constructs that warrant deeper exploration in quantitative studies concerning the assessment of donors' social health and psychological well-being.

Keywords: reported outcomes, personalized medicine, individual differences, emotions, psychological assessment

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2148 Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between Affective Disposition and Depression

Authors: Valentina Colonnello, Paolo Maria Russo

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Studies indicate a link between individual differences in affective disposition and depression, as well as between emotion dysregulation and depression. However, the specific role of emotion dysregulation domains in mediating the relationship between affective disposition and depression remains largely unexplored. In three cross-sectional quantitative studies (total n = 1350), we explored the extent to which specific emotion regulation difficulties mediate the relationship between personal distress disposition (Study 1), separation distress as a primary emotional trait (Study 2), and an insecure, anxious attachment style (Study 3) and depression. Across all studies, we found that the relationship between affective disposition and depression was mediated by difficulties in accessing adaptive emotion regulation strategies. These findings underscore the potential for modifiable abilities that could be targeted through preventive interventions.

Keywords: emotions, mental health, individual traits, personality

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2147 Importance of Assessing Racial Trauma after George Floyd in Children of Color in Schools

Authors: Gabriela Macera DiFilippo

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The world watched in disbelief as George Floyd was killed by a policeman. The images from the scene were made more memorable by Mr. Floyd’s pleas and cries for his mother. In the aftermath of this tragedy, the Black Lives Matter movement gained momentum. Weeks and months after the protests, global interest in learning about tackling systemic racism erupted. One must wonder how school children of color viewed and processed this trauma. This study will examine the kinds of trauma experienced by children of color and the opportunity for school mental health providers to support these children. This study used literature searches that were previously conducted for proven and practical assessment methods that can help deal with racial trauma for children. As part of the assessment, trauma symptoms experienced by children of color were summarized and characterized in a non-imperial manner. The research was also will be done in practical ways to make adequate and effective mental health services available in schools and lessen the stigma. This research study found that there is a need to provide an analysis of the ongoing racial trauma of children of color after the death of George Floyd. Impactful and appropriate assessment methods, such as surveys, were presented to all school professionals. Lastly, this paper attempted to provide mental health professionals with the tools to screen and provide guidance based on unequivocal, unbiased methods for helping these children. There is a need for both schools and community leaders to ensure that every child has access to mental health care and is being assessed for their overall well-being. There is a need to educate the communities about racial trauma and its impact on individuals, especially children. School mental health professionals are encouraged to offer and educate schools and communities about racial trauma awareness, its importance, and ways to cope with it in different settings. The delivery of these informed services should focus on behavioral health and must be sensitive to children of color and different ways of self-care.

Keywords: trauma, children, black psychology, students

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2146 Exploring White-Matter Hyperintensities in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and Their Clinical Relevance

Authors: Ubaid Ullah Kamgar, Ajaz Ahmed Suhaff, Mohammad Maqbool Dar

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Objective: The aim is to study the association of MRI findings of T₂/FLAIR white matter hyperintensities among patients with psychiatric disorders. Background and Rationale: MRI findings in psychiatric disorders can vary widely depending on specific disorders and individual differences. However, some general patterns have been observed, such as, in Depression - reduced volume in areas such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus; in Schizophrenia - enlarged ventricles, abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, as well as hippocampus and thalamus; in Bipolar Disorder – reduced volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and abnormalities in the amygdala; in OCD – abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and striatum. However, many patients show findings of white-matter hyper-intensities, which are usually considered non-specific in psychiatry. These hyperintensities are low attenuation in the deep and white matter. The pathogenic mechanisms of white matter hyperintensities are not well-understood and have been attributed to cerebral small vessel disease. The aim of the study is to study the association of the above MRI findings in patients with psychiatric disorders after ruling out neurological disorders (if any are found). Methodology: Patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals or presenting to OPDs with underlying psychiatric disorders, having undergone MRI Brain as part of investigations, and having T₂/FLAIR white-matter hyperintensities on MRI were taken to study the association of the above MRI findings with different psychiatric disorders. Results: Out of the 22 patients having MRI findings of T₂/FLAIR white-matter hyper-intensities, the underlying psychiatric comorbidities were: Major Depressive Disorder in 7 pts; Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in 5 pts; Bipolar Disorder in 5 pts; Dementia (vascular type) in 5pts. Discussion and conclusion: In our study, the white matter hyper-intensities were found mostly in MDD (32%), OCD (22.7%), Bipolar Disorder (22.7%) and Dementia in 22.7% of patients. In conclusion, the presence of white-matter hyperintensities in psychiatric disorders underscores the complex interplay between vascular, neurobiological and psychosocial factors. Further research with a large sample size is needed to fully elucidate their clinical significance.

Keywords: white-matter hyperintensities, OCD, MDD, dementia, bipolar disorder.

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2145 The Effectiveness of Psychosocial Intervention in Reducing Career Anxiety among Nigerian University Students

Authors: Mkpoikanke Sunday Otu

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Introduction: Career anxiety is a common issue among university students, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria. This anxiety can significantly impact students' academic performance, overall well-being, and future career prospects. Therefore, it is crucial to explore effective interventions that can alleviate career anxiety among university students. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention in reducing career anxiety among Nigerian university students. The study employed a group randomized trial research design to further analyze the impact on career anxiety. Methodology: A total of 306 university students from various universities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, were recruited for this study. The participants were purposively selected to ensure diversity and represent a range of academic disciplines. A group randomized trial research design was employed, with participants randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control group. The treatment group received a comprehensive psychosocial intervention, while the control group served as a comparison group. The Career Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) was used to assess career anxiety levels among the participants. The CAQ is a validated and reliable tool that assesses various aspects of career-related anxiety, including uncertainty, fear, and self-doubt. It was administered to the participants at baseline (before the intervention), immediately after the intervention, and at follow-up (after the intervention). Results: Data analysis was conducted using statistical techniques, including analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results demonstrated that the treatment group showed a significantly lower mean score of career anxiety compared to the control group (p-value<0.05). This finding suggests that the psychosocial intervention was effective in reducing the career anxiety levels of the participants at post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide compelling evidence that psychosocial interventions have a significant impact on the reduction of career anxiety among Nigerian university students. The treatment group demonstrated a significant reduction in career anxiety scores, indicating the effectiveness of this intervention. Additionally, this study highlights the importance of addressing the career anxiety challenges faced by university students. By implementing targeted interventions, educational institutions can play a vital role in supporting the overall well-being and success of their students, both academically and professionally.

Keywords: psychosocial intervention, career anxiety, psychoeducation, university students

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2144 Personality Traits of Pre-Service Teachers in Rizal Technological University, Boni Campus

Authors: Earl Joy H. Ausa, Lianna Rozl Brosas, Niema T. Floro, Jycyl Joice R. Medina, Nejie A. Millarada

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This study examines the demographic and personality profiles of pre-service teachers at Rizal Technological University, Boni Campus. The participants consisted of 212 pre-service teachers from the College of Education with majors in various subjects. The majority of respondents were female (74.88%), and the average age of participants was 22. Using the NEO PI-R framework, the study assessed the personality traits of pre-service teachers. The results showed that pre-service teachers displayed average levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. This suggests that they possess a balanced combination of traits that are conducive to effective teaching, such as moderate emotional stability, a balanced preference for social interactions, curiosity, good interpersonal skills, and a strong work ethic. The personality enhancement program could also benefit the pre-service teachers. In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights into the demographic and personality characteristics of pre-service teachers.

Keywords: personality traits, neo PI- R, pre-service teachers, five-factor theory

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2143 Exploring Gender-Based Violence in Indigenous Communities in Argentina and Costa Rica: A Review of the Current Literature

Authors: Jocelyn Jones

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The objective of this literature review is to provide an assessment of the current literature concerning gender-based violence (GBV) within indigenous communities in Argentina and Costa Rica, and various public intervention strategies that have been implemented to counter the increasing rates of violence within these populations. The review will address some of the unique challenges and contextual factors influencing the prevalence and response to such violence, including the enduring impact of colonialism on familial structures, community dynamics, and the perpetuation of violence. Drawing on indigenous feminist perspectives, the paper critically assesses the intersectionality of gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status in shaping the experiences of indigenous women, men, and gender-diverse individuals. In comparing the two nations, the literature review identifies commonalities and divergences in policy frameworks, legal responses, and grassroots initiatives aimed at addressing GBV. Regarding the assessment of the efficacy of existing interventions, the paper will consider the role of cultural revitalization, community engagement, and collaborative efforts between indigenous communities and external agencies in the development of future policies. Moreover, the review will highlight the importance of decolonizing methodologies in research and intervention strategies, and the need to emphasise culturally sensitive approaches that respect and integrate indigenous worldviews and traditional knowledge systems. Additionally, the paper will explore the potential impact of colonial legacies, resource extraction, and land dispossession on exacerbating vulnerabilities to GBV within indigenous communities. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more in-depth understanding of GBV in indigenous contexts in order to promote cross-cultural learning and inform future research. Ultimately, this review will demonstrate the necessity of adopting a holistic and context-specific approach to address gender-based violence in indigenous communities.

Keywords: gender based violence, indigenous, colonialism, literature review

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