Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1806

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Psychological and Behavioral Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1806 Rewritten Oedipus Complex: Huo Datong’s Complex of Generation

Authors: Xinyu Chen


This article reviews Chinese psychoanalytic theorist Dr. Huo Datong’s notion, the complex of generation, around which Huo conceptualizes a localized set to recapitulate the unconscious structure of Chinese people. Psychoanalysis underwent constant localization influenced by the socio-cultural milieu and endeavored by scholars receiving training backgrounds from different psychoanalytic schools. Dr. Huo Datong is one of the representatives with a Sino-French background in psychoanalytic training, whose enterprise has demonstrated the cultural and ideological accommodability of psychoanalysis. Insufficient academic attention has been paid to this concept as the core of Huo’s re-framework. This notion is put forward by sharing a western psychoanalytic reading of Chinese mythologies to contour Chinese unconsciousness. Regarding Huo’s interpretation of the Chinese kinship network as the basis to propose an omnipotent symbolic mother rather than an Oedipal father, this article intends to review this notion in terms of its mythological root to evaluate the theoretical practicality.

Keywords: psychoanalysis, China, Huo Datong, mythology

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1805 Improving Decision Support for Organ Transplant

Authors: Ian McCulloh, Andrew Placona, Darren Stewart, Daniel Gause, Kevin Kiernan, Morgan Stuart, Christopher Zinner, Laura Cartwright


An estimated 22-25% of viable deceased donor kidneys are discarded every year in the US, while waitlisted candidates are dying every day. As many as 85% of transplanted organs are refused at least once for a patient that scored higher on the match list. There are hundreds of clinical variables involved in making a clinical transplant decision and there is rarely an ideal match. Decision makers exhibit an optimism bias where they may refuse an organ offer assuming a better match is imminent. We propose a semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard model, augmented by an accelerated failure time model based on patient specific suitable organ supply and demand to estimate a time-to-next-offer. Performance is assessed with Cox-Snell residuals and decision curve analysis, demonstrating improved decision support for up to a 5-year outlook. Providing clinical decision makers with quantitative evidence of likely patient outcomes (e.g., time to next offer and the mortality associated with waiting) may improve decisions and reduce optimism bias, thus reducing discarded organs and matching more patients on the waitlist.

Keywords: decision science, KDPI, optimism bias, organ transplant

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1804 Effects of the Social Work Field Practicum on the Wellbeing of Non-Traditional and Underserved Students: A Mixed-Methods Study

Authors: Dana S. Smith, Angela Goins, Shahnaz Savani


Using a mixed-methods approach, this study explored costs to student wellbeing generated by the social work field practicum requirement. The project was conducted by faculty at a medium-sized university in the United States. Social work educators and field practicum instructors participated in interviews. Students and former students completed surveys on the topic. The data analysis revealed emotional burdens as well as threats to student wellbeing in association with the fieldwork required for those in pursuit of a social work degree. The study includes recommendations for anti-oppressive approaches for academic programs and implications for further research.

Keywords: emotional wellbeing, field practicum, mixed-methods, social justice

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1803 Effect of Color on Anagram Solving Ability

Authors: Khushi Chhajed


Context: Color has been found to have an impact on cognitive performance. Due to the negative connotation associated with red, it has been found to impair performance on intellectual tasks. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of color on individuals' anagram solving ability. Methodology: An experimental study was conducted on 66 participants in the age group of 18–24 years. A self-made anagram assessment tool was administered. Participants were expected to solve the tool in three colors- red, blue and grey. Results: A lower score was found when presented with the color blue as compared to red. The study also found that participants took relatively greater time to solve the red colored sheet. However these results are inconsistent with pre-existing literature. Conclusion: Hence, an association between color and performance on cognitive tasks can be seen. Future directions and potential limitations are discussed.

Keywords: color psychology, experiment, anagram, performance

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1802 The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Stress, Illness Anxiety and Obsessions-Compulsion Caused by the Coronavirus Crisis in Adolescent (14-18 Year olds) in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Maryam Mousavi Nik, Sara Pasandian


The aim of the current research was to determine the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (G-CBT) on stress, illness anxiety and obsessions-compulsion caused by the coronavirus crisis in adolescents (14-18-Year-olds) in Tehran, Iran. This research was carried out in the form of a semi-experimental study with a control group and in the framework of a pre-test and post-test design for both experimental and control groups. The statistical population of this research consisted of all high schools in Tehran in 2022. The sample size includes 32 Adolescents (14-18-Year-olds) who were selected using a cluster sampling method, and then they were randomly replaced in two experimental (n=16) and control (n=16) groups. In this research, an adolescent stress questionnaire (ASQ-N) with an emphasis on the impact of Coronavirus, Coronavirus disease anxiety (CDAS) and The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptom Scale (CY-BOCS) emphasis on the Coronavirus were used, and group therapy intervention with The cognitive-behavioral approach was conducted for 8 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group. The research data were analyzed by Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and covariance (ANCVA) tests. The results of multivariate covariance analysis showed that group therapy intervention with a cognitive-behavioral approach had a significant effect on at least one of the variables of stress, illness anxiety and obsession-compulsion at the level (P<0.01, F=94.772) in the post-test stage. Also, the results of covariance analysis of one variable showed that group therapy intervention with a cognitive-behavioral approach in the level of (P<0.01, F=106.377) stress, in the level of (P<0.01, F=48.147) disease anxiety and in the level (P>0.01, F=17.033) of obsession-compulsion had a significant effect in the post-test stage. The results showed that The treatment with GCBT can be effective in decreasing stress, illness anxiety and obsessions and compulsion caused by the coronavirus crisis in Adolescents (15-20-Year-olds) and may be considered as an alternative to either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy or medication.

Keywords: stress, disease anxiety, obsession-compulsion, coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis, and cognitive-behavioral therapy

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1801 The Relationship between the Use of Social Networks with Executive Functions and Academic Performance in High School Students in Tehran

Authors: Esmail Sadipour


The use of social networks is increasing day by day in all societies. The purpose of this research was to know the relationship between the use of social networks (Instagram, WhatsApp, and Telegram) with executive functions and academic performance in first-year female high school students. This research was applied in terms of purpose, quantitative in terms of data type, and correlational in terms of technique. The population of this research consisted of all female high school students in the first year of district 2 of Tehran. Using Green's formula, the sample size of 150 people was determined and selected by cluster random method. In this way, from all 17 high schools in district 2 of Tehran, 5 high schools were selected by a simple random method and then one class was selected from each high school, and a total of 155 students were selected. To measure the use of social networks, a researcher-made questionnaire was used, the Barclay test (2012) was used for executive functions, and last semester's GPA was used for academic performance. Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate regression were used to analyze the data. The results showed that there is a negative relationship between the amount of use of social networks and self-control, self-motivation and time self-management. In other words, the more the use of social networks, the fewer executive functions of students, self-control, self-motivation, and self-management of their time. Also, with the increase in the use of social networks, the academic performance of students has decreased.

Keywords: social networks, executive function, academic performance, working memory

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1800 Comparative Study of Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm Against Evolutionary Algorithms for Finding the Optimal Values in a Simulated Environment Space

Authors: Akshay Paranjape, Nils Plettenberg, Robert Schmitt


Traditional optimization methods like evolutionary algorithms are widely used in production processes to find an optimal or near-optimal solution of control parameters based on the simulated environment space of a process. These algorithms are computationally intensive and therefore do not provide the opportunity for real-time optimization. This paper utilizes the Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) framework to find an optimal or near-optimal solution for control parameters. A model based on maximum a posteriori policy optimization (Hybrid-MPO) that can handle both numerical and categorical parameters is used as a benchmark for comparison. A comparative study shows that DRL can find optimal solutions of similar quality as compared to evolutionary algorithms while requiring significantly less time making them preferable for real-time optimization. The results are confirmed in a large-scale validation study on datasets from production and other fields. A trained XGBoost model is used as a surrogate for process simulation. Finally, multiple ways to improve the model are discussed.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, evolutionary algorithms, production process optimization, real-time optimization, hybrid-MPO

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1799 Love and Lust Evoke Different Psychological Distances: A Cross-Cultural Research

Authors: Ameer Maadal, Rakan Al-Harahsha


Previous research has reached contradictory results as to whether a high (low) construal level would evoke more (less) psychological distance and whether a more (less) psychological distance would evoke a high (low) construal level. Thus, in two quasi-experimental studies performed in two relatively different cultures, we tested both directions. In Study 1, we found that love priming (high construal) versus lust priming (low construal) would trigger a higher and lower psychological distance, respectively. However, in Study 2, we found that both higher and lower psychological distances evoke love more than lust. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research have been finally discussed as well.

Keywords: lust, business, construal level, psychological distance, love

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1798 School Discipline Starts Early: Mindfulness as a Self-discipline Tool in the Preschool

Authors: Ioanna Koumi


The aim of the intervention presented is to show the positive effects a mindfulness programme can have on the behaviour of preschoolers (years 4-6). The programme was implemented as part of the psychologist's work in 5 preschool units on the Greek island of Chios. Classroom-based activities of mindfulness were shown and practiced in 5 sessions, in collaboration with teachers, in order to make preschoolers aware of how their brain affects their behaviour, as well as of how they can have more positive behaviours, especially in instances of negative feelings. The outcomes of the intervention were assessed via questionnaire completion before and after the sessions by the teachers, as well as focus groups procedures with students, teachers, and parents. Implications of how mindfulness programmes can also be implemented at home are further discussed. School year in which the programme is being implemented: 2022-23 Intervention method: based on basic mindfulness theory and practice, the 220 students (age 4-6) in 11 classes of the 5 preschools that participated were given lessons of how to become aware of their states of focusing, regulation, attention, emotional situation, as well as body and social situations. Furthermore, the preschoolers were encouraged to make more mindful choices when it came to negative situations and emotions. Assessment method: The school as a caring community Profile II – Questionnaire completed by 20 preschool teachers prior to and after the intervention, Focus group sessions with teachers, students, parents at the end of the intervention Results: the assessment will be completed in May 2023.

Keywords: preschool, mindfulness training, self-awareness, social-emotional development

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1797 Personalty Traits as Predictors of Emotional Distress among Awaiting-trials Inmates in Some Selected Correctional Centers in Nigeria

Authors: Fasanmi Samuel Sunday


This study investigated the influence of gender and personality traits on emotional distress among awaiting trial inmates in Nigeria. Participants were three hundred and twenty (320) awaiting trial inmates, drawn from three main correctional centres in Northeast Nigeria, namely: Gashua Correctional Centre, Postiskum Correctional Centre, and Bauchi Correctional Centre. Expo facto research design was adopted. Questionnaires such as the Big Five Inventory and the Perceived Emotional Distress Inventory (PEDI) were used to measure the variables of the study. Three hypotheses were tested. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results of the analysis indicated that conscientiousness significantly predicted emotional distress among awaiting trial inmates. However, most of the identified personality traits did not significantly predict emotional distress among awaiting trial inmates. There was no significant gender difference in emotional distress among awaiting-trial inmates. The implications of the study were discussed.

Keywords: personality traits, emotional distress, awaiting-trial inmates, gender

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1796 Possibilities of Psychodiagnostics in the Context of Highly Challenging Situations in Military Leadership

Authors: Markéta Chmelíková, David Ullrich, Iva Burešová


The paper maps the possibilities and limits of diagnosing selected personality and performance characteristics of military leadership and psychology students in the context of coping with challenging situations. Individuals vary greatly inter-individually in their ability to effectively manage extreme situations, yet existing diagnostic tools are often criticized mainly for their low predictive power. Nowadays, every modern army focuses primarily on the systematic minimization of potential risks, including the prediction of desirable forms of behavior and the performance of military commanders. The context of military leadership is well known for its life-threatening nature. Therefore, it is crucial to research stress load in the specific context of military leadership for the purpose of possible anticipation of human failure in managing extreme situations of military leadership. The aim of the submitted pilot study, using an experiment of 24 hours duration, is to verify the possibilities of a specific combination of psychodiagnostic to predict people who possess suitable equipment for coping with increased stress load. In our pilot study, we conducted an experiment of 24 hours duration with an experimental group (N=13) in the bomb shelter and a control group (N=11) in a classroom. Both groups were represented by military leadership students (N=11) and psychology students (N=13). Both groups were equalized in terms of study type and gender. Participants were administered the following test battery of personality characteristics: Big Five Inventory 2 (BFI-2), Short Dark Triad (SD-3), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P). This test battery was administered only once at the beginning of the experiment. Along with this, they were administered a test battery consisting of the Test of Attention (d2) and the Bourdon test four times overall with 6 hours ranges. To better simulate an extreme situation – we tried to induce sleep deprivation - participants were required to try not to fall asleep throughout the experiment. Despite the assumption that a stay in an underground bomb shelter will manifest in impaired cognitive performance, this expectation has been significantly confirmed in only one measurement, which can be interpreted as marginal in the context of multiple testing. This finding is a fundamental insight into the issue of stress management in extreme situations, which is crucial for effective military leadership. The results suggest that a 24-hour stay in a shelter, together with sleep deprivation, does not seem to simulate sufficient stress for an individual, which would be reflected in the level of cognitive performance. In the context of these findings, it would be interesting in future to extend the diagnostic battery with physiological indicators of stress, such as: heart rate, stress score, physical stress, mental stress ect.

Keywords: bomb shelter, extreme situation, military leadership, psychodiagnostic

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1795 Effectiveness of Conflict Resolution Board Game: An Experimental Research

Authors: Safa Abdussalam


Adolescence is a period of storm and stress. It is a transitional period. Adolescents undergo a lot of changes physically, emotionally and mentally during adolescence. Physical changes include puberty, sexual maturation, changes in height, weight, hormonal changes, changes in body image, changes in brain and in sexuality. Changes also occur in their cognition. According to Piaget’s theory, adolescent enter formal operational stage and engage in hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Main characteristic of adolescent cognition is adolescent egocentrism: imaginary audience and personal fable. One of the most common struggle majority of adolescents face is the conflict between parent and adolescent. They often complain that parents do not understand them/their situation. Common topics of conflict include identity crisis, issues with personal freedom and issues over personal preferences. Conflict resolution refers to solving conflicts in a healthy way. There is a lack of resources in dealing with such conflicts creatively. To deal with parent-adolescent conflict, a conflict resolution board game is designed. The board game consists of tokens, dice, 10 conflict situation cards and two conflict resolution sheets. Purpose of using a board game is to help adolescents understand the conflict situations and resolutions in a fun, creative and interactive way. It can be used for self-help or even therapists can use it in their clinical practice. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of the board game in dealing with the conflict. Experimental design will be used. Samples include 15 adolescents belonging to age group 10-19. Samples will be divided into two groups: Experimental group and control group. A pre-test and post-test will be conducted. The board game will be demonstrated to the experimental group. Results will be obtained after statistical analysis. Board games are a great way to be used with children and adolescents.

Keywords: adolescent, adolescence, parent-child conflict, conflict resolution

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1794 Relationship between Meaning in Life and Academic Performance in Japanese College Students

Authors: Jihyun Park


In the present study, we examine that meaning in life or Ikigai can be associated with high academic performance in Japanese college students. To measure meaning in life in Japanese college students, the Ikigai test and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) were both used, and the data was collected by Microsoft Teams Forms for a total of 80 college students. The data revealed that students who have more than 3.0 grade point averages (GPA) show the highest score in both the Ikigai and MLQ. Additionally, the score of the Search subscale (Search for Meaning) is higher than the Presence subscale (Presence of Meaning) among students having more than a 3.0 GPA. A group of students who have less than a 1.0 GPA has the lowest score on the Ikigai and MLQ. This result can indicate that implementing meaning in life or Ikigai to early college students can bring about better academic performance and further their better college life as well.

Keywords: meaning in life, purpose of life, Ikigai, college students’ performance

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1793 Therapy Finding and Perspectives on Limbic Resonance in Gifted Adults

Authors: Andreas Aceranti, Riccardo Dossena, Marco Colorato, Simonetta Vernocchi


By the term “limbic resonance,” we usually refer to a state of deep connection, both emotional and physiological, between people who, when in resonance, find their limbic systems in tune with one another. Limbic resonance is not only about sharing emotions but also physiological states. In fact, people in such resonance can influence each other’s heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing. Limbic resonance is fundamental for human beings to connect and create deep bonds among a certain group. It is fundamental for our social skills. A relationship between gifted and resonant subjects is perceived as feeling safe, living the relation like an isle of serenity where it is possible to recharge, to communicate without words, to understand each others without giving explanations, to strengthen the balance of each member of the group. Within the circle, self-esteem is consolidated and makes it stronger to face what is outside, others, and reality. The idea that gifted people who are together may be unfit for the world does not correspond to the truth. The circle made up of people with high cognitive potential characterized by a limbic resonance is, in general, experienced as a solid platform from which you can safely move away and where you can return to recover strength. We studied 8 adults (between 21 and 47 years old). All of them with IQ higher than 130. We monitored their brain waves frequency (alpha, beta, theta, gamma, delta) by means of biosensing tracker along with their physiological states (heart beat frequency, blood pressure, breathing frequency, pO2, pCO2) and some blood works only (5-HT, dopamine, catecholamines, cortisol). The subjects of the study were asked to adhere to a protocol involving bonding activities (such as team building activities), role plays, meditation sessions, and group therapy. All these activities were carried out together. We observed that after about 4 months of activities, their brain waves frequencies tended to tune quicker and quicker. After 9 months, the bond among them was so important that they could “sense” each other inner states and sometimes also guess each others’ thoughts. According to our findings, it may be hypothesized that large synchronized outbursts of cortex neurons produces not only brain waves but also electromagnetic fields that may be able to influence the cortical neurons’ activity of other people’s brain by inducing action potentials in large groups of neurons and this is reasonably conceivable to be able to transmit information such as different emotions and cognition cues to the other’s brain. We also believe that upcoming research should focus on clarifying the role of brain magnetic particles in brain-to-brain communication. We also believe that further investigations should be carried out on the presence and role of cryptochromes to evaluate their potential roles in direct brain-to-brain communication.

Keywords: limbic resonance, psychotherapy, brain waves, emotion regulation, giftedness

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1792 Screening Psychological Wellness in a South African Banking Industry: Psychometric Properties of the Sense of Coherence-29 Questionnaire (SCS) and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)

Authors: Nisha Harry


Orientation: The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLF) and the sense of coherence-29 (SCS) is an effective tools to assess the prevalence and underlying structures of empirically based taxonomies related to leadership and well-being. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the SCS and MLQ to screen for psychological wellness indices within the banking industry in South Africa. Motivation for the study: there is limited empirical research in the screening of the psychometric properties of the Sense of Coherence-29 scale as well as the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) within the banking industry. Research design, approach, or method: The sample consisted of (N = 150) financial staff employed in a South African banking organisation. The age of the sample was: 37% (30-40 yrs), 31% (20-30 yrs), 26% (40- 50 yrs), 6% (50+yrs), of which 52% were males and 48% were females. The white race group was the majority at 29%, African at 26%, Coloured at 23% and Indian were 22%. Main findings: Results from the exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure as the most satisfactory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed the two-factor model displayed better good of-fit indices. Practical implications: The study of the psychometric properties of the Sense of Coherence-29 scale (SCS), the self-reported form and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) questionnaire are both self -reporting forms to be useful for screening psychological wellness in banking staff. Contribution/value add: understanding the psychometric properties of the SCS, the self-reported form and the MLQ questionnaire contributes to screening psychological wellness indices such as coping within the banking industry in a developing country like South Africa. Leaders are important part of the implementation process of organisational employee wellness practices .

Keywords: factorial structure, leadership, sense of coherence, psychological wellness

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1791 The Qualitative Methodology Exposure and Experiences of Journal Reviewers: A Qualitative Exploration

Authors: Salomé Elizabeth Scholtz


Reviewers are the gatekeepers of knowledge dissemination and promote the scientific validity of the research. However, the literature indicates that authors often receive questionable feedback on qualitative manuscripts. Thus, this qualitative descriptive study sought to explore the qualitative knowledge and experiences of reviewers of psychology journals. A purposive and snowball sample (n=27) of psychology journal reviewers completed an online questionnaire, and data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Reviewers felt their postgraduate education, reading, and the process of reviewing qualitative articles equipped them to review qualitative manuscripts. Less than half of the reviewer’s published articles were qualitative and male reviewers published more than females. Despite not expecting authors to have the same level of research skills, reviewers still experienced authors as unskilled and biased, creating difficulty in accepting and reviewing qualitative articles. The applicability of the qualitative method and recommendations in preparing qualitative manuscripts for reviewing are reported.

Keywords: journal reviewers, psychology, qualitative research, research method, research skills

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1790 Mental Health Monitoring System as an Effort for Prevention and Handling of Psychological Problems in Students

Authors: Arif Tri Setyanto, Aditya Nanda Priyatama, Nugraha Arif Karyanta, Fadjri Kirana A., Afia Fitriani, Rini Setyowati, Moh.Abdul Hakim


The Basic Health Research Report by the Ministry of Health (2018) shows an increase in the prevalence of mental health disorders in the adolescent and early adult age ranges. Supporting this finding, data on the psychological examination of the student health service unit at one State University recorded 115 cases of moderate and severe health problems in the period 2016 - 2019. More specifically, the highest number of cases was experienced by clients in the age range of 21-23 years or equivalent, with the mid-semester stage towards the end. Based on the distribution of cases experienced and the disorder becomes a psychological problem experienced by students. A total of 29% or the equivalent of 33 students experienced anxiety disorders, 25% or 29 students experienced problems ranging from mild to severe, as well as other classifications of disorders experienced, including adjustment disorders, family problems, academics, mood disorders, self-concept disorders, personality disorders, cognitive disorders, and others such as trauma and sexual disorders. Various mental health disorders have a significant impact on the academic life of students, such as low GPA, exceeding the limit in college, dropping out, disruption of social life on campus, to suicide. Based on literature reviews and best practices from universities in various countries, one of the effective ways to prevent and treat student mental health disorders is to implement a mental health monitoring system in universities. This study uses a participatory action research approach, with a sample of 423 from a total population of 32,112 students. The scale used in this study is the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure depression and the Taylor Minnesota Anxiety Scale (TMAS) to measure anxiety levels. This study aims to (1) develop a digital-based health monitoring system for students' mental health situations in the mental health category. , dangers, or those who have mental disorders, especially indications of symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders, and (2) implementing a mental health monitoring system in universities at the beginning and end of each semester. The results of the analysis show that from 423 respondents, the main problems faced by all coursework, such as thesis and academic assignments. Based on the scoring and categorization of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 191 students experienced symptoms of depression. A total of 24.35%, or 103 students experienced mild depression, 14.42% (61 students) had moderate depression, and 6.38% (27 students) experienced severe or extreme depression. Furthermore, as many as 80.38% (340 students) experienced anxiety in the high category. This article will review this review of the student mental health service system on campus.

Keywords: monitoring system, mental health, psychological problems, students

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1789 Into Composer’s Mind: Understanding the Process of Translating Emotions into Music

Authors: Sanam Preet Singh


Music in comparison to any other art form is more reactive and alive. It has the capacity to directly interact with the listener's mind and generate an emotional response. All the major research conducted in the area majorly relied on the listener’s perspective to draw an understanding of music and its effects. There is a very small number of studies which focused on the source from which music originates, the music composers. This study aims to understand the process of how music composers understand and perceive emotions and how they translate them into music, in simpler terms how music composers encode their compositions to express determining emotions. One-to-one in-depth semi structured interviews were conducted, with 8 individuals both male and female, who were professional to intermediate-level music composers and Thematic analysis was conducted to derive the themes. The analysis showed that there is no single process on which music composers rely, rather there are combinations of multiple micro processes, which constitute the understanding and translation of emotions into music. In terms of perception of emotions, the role of processes such as Rumination, mood influence and escapism was discovered in the analysis. Unique themes about the understanding of their top down and bottom up perceptions were also discovered. Further analysis also revealed the role of imagination and emotional trigger explaining how music composers make sense of emotions. The translation process of emotions revealed the role of articulation and instrumentalization, in encoding or translating emotions to a composition. Further, applications of the trial and error method, nature influences and flow in the translation process are also discussed. In the end themes such as parallels between musical patterns and emotions, comfort zones and relatability also emerged during the analysis.

Keywords: comfort zones, escapism, flow, rumination

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1788 The Effects of Parents’ Personality Traits and Family Variables on Aggressive Behavior in Children from the State of Kuwait

Authors: Eisa Al-Balhan


This study explores the effects of parents’ personality and family variables on aggressive behavior in children from the State of Kuwait. The sample of 117children aged between 6 and 10 years (M=7.79 years, SD =1.4 years),117 fathers, and 117mothers from Kuwait. The following tools were used: a) the Aggressive Behavior Scale for Children (ABSC), b) the Personality Scales Inventory (PSI), and c) the Family Climate Scale (FCS). The results show that there were significant differences between children with highly aggressive behavior and those with low aggressive behavior for most of the personality traits of the father and mother, as well as most of the family climate and its different dimensions according to the father’s knowledge and the mother’s knowledge. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between males and females in the total score of aggressive behavior, verbal aggression, physical aggression, self-aggression, and aggression toward others, with higher scores occurring among males. Most of the correlations of the children’s aggressive behavior were with the personality traits of the father. The personality traits of the mother, family climate, and most of its different dimensions according to the father's and mother's knowledge had significant negative correlations with the child's aggression. There was no effect of the mother's and father's education levels on their child’s aggressive behavior. There was a significant difference between normal families and separated families in the total score of aggressive behavior, verbal aggression, and self-aggression, with a higher score occurring among separated families, and there was no significant difference between the two groups in physical aggression and aggression towards others.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, personality traits of parents, family variables, parents

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1787 Delayed Death Determination Due to Prolonged Present Pupillary Light Reflex after Cardiopulmonary Arrest Accompanied by Respiratory-Like Movements: Experience in One Patient

Authors: Takahiro Uji, Koji Oda, Munehisa Imaizumi


Introduction: Prolonged pupillary light reflex and/or de novo spinal motor reflexes may lead to diagnostic confusion in death determination. We report a curious case of delayed declaring death after cardiopulmonary arrest. Case summary: An 83-year-old Japanese woman was admitted due to severe hypoxia. She had a past history of chronic lung disease and was diagnosed with acute exacerbation. She had been declared delayed dead after above 39 minutes of present pupillary light reflex after cardiopulmonary arrest accompanied by respiratory-like movements. Conclusion: At present, we recommend to spend for the physicians above 10 minutes or necessary times in exceptional cases for the time from circulatory cessation to the declaration of death to rule out autoresuscitation. In the future, disclosure of unreported near-death phenomena is needed to accumulate evidence.

Keywords: death determination, chronic pulmonary disease, pupillary light reflex, spinal reflex

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1786 Humanising the Employment Environment for Emergency Medical Personnel: A Case Study of Capricorn District in Limpopo Province: South Africa

Authors: Manganyi Patricia Siphiwe


Work environments are characterised by performance pressure and mechanisation, which lead to job stress and the dehumanisation of work spaces. The personnel’s competence to accomplish job responsibilities and high job demands lead to a substantial load of health. Therefore, providing employees with conducive working environments is essential. In order to attain it, the employer should ensure that responsive and institutional safe systems are in place. The employer’s responses to employees’ needs are of significance to a healthy and developmental work environment. Denying employees a developmental and flourishing workplace is to deprive a workplace of being humane. Stressors coming from various aspects in the workplace can yield undue pressure and undesired responses for the workforces. Against the profiled background, this paper examines the causes and consequences of workplace stress within the Emergency Medical sector. The paper utilised a qualitative methodology and in-depth interviews for data collection with the purposively sampled emergency medical personnel. The findings showed that workplace stress has been associated with high demands and lack of support which has an adverse effect on biopsychosocial wellbeing of employees. This paper, therefore, recommends an engaged involvement of social workers through work organisational initiatives, such as Employee Assistance Programmes (EAP) and related labour relations policy activities to promote positive and developmental working environments.

Keywords: stress, employee, workplace, wellbeing

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1785 The Search For The Self In Psychotherapy: New Findings From Relational Theory and Neuroanatomy

Authors: Harry G. Segal, Ph.D.


Having a "self" is something we all experience, but that does not that mean we all have a self. To be more precise, our consciousness involves subjectivity, but there is no location of the "self" in the brain. Instead, subjective experience is generated by a complex interplay of perception, memory, mood, and thoughts, but the experience of being "our selves" varies greatly by interpersonal and social context. To allude to Descartes, it’s not ‘I think therefore I am,” it’s “I associate therefore I am.” This paper will explore new conceptions of self experience and how it may illuminate our understanding of the psychotherapy process.

Keywords: psychotherapy process, self experience, transference, counter-transference

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1784 Effectiveness of Sensorimotor Interventions in Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Nina Kaufmans, Lisa Compton


Traditional therapies utilizing spoken narratives as a primary source of intervention have been proven to be limited in effectively treating post traumatic stress disorder. Emerging neuroscientific research provides abundant evidence that implicit traumatic memories and physical body trauma processing are located in the brain's right hemisphere. As a result, these experiences are mainly inaccessible through verbal expression and remain untreated if the psychotherapy modalities used do not offer body-focused interventions. As a result, clients report only partial improvement or partial remission in their symptomatology due to unresolved somatically-based symptoms of PTSD, such as hyper-vigilance, hypertension, hyper-arousal, GI distress, and interrupted sleep cycle. Additionally, clients from multicultural backgrounds and those unable to express their experiences verbally due to suppression, inability to recall all of the events, or dissociation symptoms cannot benefit from psychotherapy interventions unless body-oriented approaches are integrated into psychotherapy treatment. This paper aims to explore neurobiological mechanisms involved in traumatic experiences, discuss the premises for "bottom-up" or somatically-oriented psychotherapy approaches, and offer necessary skills and interventions for immediate implementation for clinicians working with clients who experience post traumatic stress disorder.

Keywords: trauma, PTSD, somatically-based interventions, trauma-informed psychotherapy

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1783 Psychosocial Work Factors and Wellbeing in Higher Education in Singapore

Authors: Charissa Tan, Juliet Hassard, Angeli Santos


Extant theoretical models framed to understand the influence of psychosocial factors on work-related wellbeing have mainly been developed and tested with permanent, full-time employees. However, little is known about psychosocial factors influencing wellbeing among the contract workforce, an important and growing segment of the global workforce. Using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, the present study investigated relationships among demands (job insecurity, quantitative and emotional demands) and resources (meaning of work, social support, sense of community and job control) with positive and negative wellbeing outcomes such as work engagement, job satisfaction, commitment to work, burnout, stress and anxiety. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Higher Education institution in Singapore between May to October 2022 among academic faculty with fixed-term contracts. Established scales such as the WHO-5 Wellbeing Index were used in the survey. For the wellbeing measure, a reliability estimate of Cronbach’s alpha=0.92 was obtained and factor loadings provided further evidence of the robustness of the measure. Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations between wellbeing and engagement, and negative associations between wellbeing with burnout and anxiety. Job insecurity was found to be positively associated with cognitive stress, but interestingly, was not significantly related to wellbeing, engagement and burnout. Among the predictors, only meaning of work and job control positively correlated with wellbeing, and demands correlated with other outcome variables like job satisfaction and engagement. Mechanisms explaining the buffering role of resources on job demands such as job insecurity were examined in multivariate analyses. Findings were discussed in context of the future growth of contract workers in academic work settings and the wider context of Singapore’s gradual annual decline in wellbeing among working adults since the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: wellbeing, engagement, burnout, job demands-resources, contract workers

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1782 Exploratory Study of Individual User Characteristics That Predict Attraction to Computer-Mediated Social Support Platforms and Mental Health Apps

Authors: Rachel Cherner


Introduction: The current study investigates several user characteristics that may predict the adoption of digital mental health supports. The extent to which individual characteristics predict preferences for functional elements of computer-mediated social support (CMSS) platforms and mental health (MH) apps is relatively unstudied. Aims: The present study seeks to illuminate the relationship between broad user characteristics and perceived attraction to CMSS platforms and MH apps. Methods: Participants (n=353) were recruited using convenience sampling methods (i.e., digital flyers, email distribution, and online survey forums). The sample was 68% male, and 32% female, with a mean age of 29. Participant racial and ethnic breakdown was 75% White, 7%, 5% Asian, and 5% Black or African American. Participants were asked to complete a 25-minute self-report questionnaire that included empirically validated measures assessing a battery of characteristics (i.e., subjective levels of anxiety/depression via PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item) and GAD-7 (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item); attachment style via MAQ (Measure of Attachment Qualities); personality types via TIPI (The 10-Item Personality Inventory); growth mindset and mental health-seeking attitudes via GM (Growth Mindset Scale) and MHSAS (Mental Help Seeking Attitudes Scale)) and subsequent attitudes toward CMSS platforms and MH apps. Results: A stepwise linear regression was used to test if user characteristics significantly predicted attitudes towards key features of CMSS platforms and MH apps. The overall regression was statistically significant (R² =.20, F(1,344)=14.49, p<.000). Conclusion: This original study examines the clinical and sociocultural factors influencing decisions to use CMSS platforms and MH apps. Findings provide valuable insight for increasing adoption and engagement with digital mental health support. Fostering a growth mindset may be a method of increasing participant/patient engagement. In addition, CMSS platforms and MH apps may empower under-resourced and minority groups to gain basic access to mental health support. We do not assume this final model contains the best predictors of use; this is merely a preliminary step toward understanding the psychology and attitudes of CMSS platform/MH app users.

Keywords: computer-mediated social support platforms, digital mental health, growth mindset, health-seeking attitudes, mental health apps, user characteristics

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1781 The Dark Triad’s Moral Labyrinth: Differentiating Cognitive Processes Involved in Machiavellianism and Psychopathy

Authors: Megan E. Davies


With the intention of identifying cognitive processes uniquely involved in the dark triad personality traits of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism, this study aimed to determine further potential differences and parameters of individual traits by explaining a statistically significant amount of variance between the constructs of manipulativeness, impulsiveness, grit, and need for cognition within the dark triad. Applying a cross-sectional design, N = 96 participants self-reported using the MACH-IV, SRP-III, NFC-S, and Grit Scale for Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only manipulativeness predicted Machiavellianism, whereas manipulativeness and impulsiveness were found to have predictive qualities for psychopathy. Overall, these results found areas of discrepancy and overlap between manipulation and impulsivity regarding psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Additionally, this study serves to preliminarily eliminate the Need for Cognition and grit as predictive variables for Machiavellianism and psychopathy.

Keywords: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, manipulation, impulsiveness, need for cognition, grit, dark triad

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1780 A Study to Understand the Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intentions of Individuals Towards Using Metaverse

Authors: Suktisuddha Goswami, Surekha Chukkali


Metaverse is a real time rendered 3D world which is an extension of the virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, and holographic reality. While using the metaverse can enhance various aspects of our lives, it might also create certain challenges. However, since the concept of the metaverse is very new, there is a lack of research on factors influencing the individual’s behavioural intentions to use it. To address this gap, this quantitative research study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the behavioural intention of individuals towards metaverse usage. This research was conducted through a large-scale questionnaire survey of 325 Indian students at three major engineering colleges. The questionnaire was adequately customized for the present study. It was found that behavioral intention towards metaverse usage differs among individuals. There were few individuals who had no intention of using metaverse in near future, while some of them were already using it and a few were significantly inclined towards using it. The findings of this study have suggested that behavioural intention was significantly and positively related to performance expectancy and effort expectancy of individuals.

Keywords: behavioral intention, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, technology, metaverse

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1779 Shame and Pride in Moral Self-Improvement

Authors: Matt Stichter


Moral development requires learning from one’s failures, but that turnsout to be especially challenging when dealing with moral failures. The distress prompted by moral failure can cause responses ofdefensiveness or disengagement rather than attempts to make amends and work on self-change. The most potentially distressing response to moral failure is a shame. However, there appears to be two different senses of “shame” that are conflated in the literature, depending on whether the failure is appraised as the result of a global and unalterable self-defect, or a local and alterable self-defect. One of these forms of shame does prompt self-improvement in response to moral failure. This occurs if one views the failure as indicating only a specific (local) defect in one’s identity, where that’s something repairable, rather than asanoverall(orglobal)defectinyouridentity that can’t be fixed. So, if the whole of one’s identity as a morally good person isn’t being called into question, but only a part, then that is something one could work on to improve. Shame, in this sense, provides motivation for self-improvement to fix this part oftheselfinthe long run, and this would be important for moral development. One factor that looks to affect these different self-attributions in the wake of moral failure can be found in mindset theory, as reactions to moral failure in these two forms of shame are similar to how those with a fixed or growth mindset of their own abilities, such as intelligence, react to failure. People fall along a continuum with respect to how they view abilities – it is more of a fixed entity that you cannot do much to change, or it is malleable such that you can train to improve it. These two mindsets, ‘fixed’ versus ‘growth’, have different consequences for how we react to failure – a fixed mindset leads to maladaptive responses because of feelings of helplessness to do better; whereas a growth mindset leads to adaptive responses where a person puts forth effort to learn how to act better the next time. Here we can see the parallels between a fixed mindset of one’s own (im)morality, as the way people respond to shame when viewed as indicating a global and unalterable self-defect parallels the reactions people have to failure when they have a fixed mindset. In addition, it looks like there may be a similar structure to pride. Pride is, like shame, a self-conscious emotion that arises from internal attributions about the self as being the cause of some event. There are also paradoxical results from research on pride, where pride was found to motivate pro-social behavior in some cases but aggression in other cases. Research suggests that there may be two forms of pride, authentic and hubristic, that are also connected to different self-attributions, depending on whether one is feeling proud about a particular (local) aspect of the self versus feeling proud about the whole of oneself (global).

Keywords: emotion, mindset, moral development, moral psychology, pride, shame, self-regulation

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1778 The Influence of Culture on Manifestations of Animus

Authors: Anahit Khananyan


The results of the long-term Jungian analysis with female clients from Eastern and Asian countries, which belong to collectivist cultures, are summarised in the article. The goal of the paper is to describe the cultural complex, which was found by the author in the analysis of women of collectivistic culture. It was named “the repression of Animus”. Generally, C.G.Jung himself and the Post-Jungians studied conditions caused by the possession by Animus. The conditions and cases of the repressed Animus, depending on the type of culture and cultural complexes, as we know, were not widely disseminated. C.G. Jung discovered and recognized the Animus as the second component of a pair of opposites of the psyche of women – femininity and Animus. In the way of individuation, an awareness of manifestations of Animus plays an important role: understanding the differences between negative and positive Animus as well as the Animus and the Shadow, then standing the tension of the presence of a pair of opposites - femininity and Animus, acceptance of the tension of them, finding the balance between them and reconciliation of this opposites. All of the above are steps towards the realization of the Animus, its release Animua, and the healing of the psyche. In the paper, the author will share her experience of analyzing the women of different collectivist cultures and her experience of recognizing the repressed Animus during the analysis. Also, she will describe some peculiarities of upbringing and cultural traditions, which reflected the cultural complex of repression of Animus. This complex is manifested in the traditions of girls' upbringing in accordance with which an image of a woman with overly developed femininity and an absence or underdeveloped Animus is idealized and encouraged as well as an evaluating attitude towards females who have to correspond to this image and fulfill the role prescribed in this way in the family and society.

Keywords: analysis, cultural complex, animus, manifestation, culture

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1777 Effects of an Online Positive Psychology Program on Stress, Depression, and Anxiety Symptoms of Emerging Adults

Authors: Gabriela R. Silveira, Claudia S. Rocha, Lais S. Vitti, Jeane L. Borges, Helen B. Durgante


Emerging adulthood occurs after adolescence in a period that maybe be marked by experimentation, identity reconfigurations, labor life demands, and insertion in the work environment, which tends to generate stress and emotional instability. Health promotion programs for the development of strengths and virtues, based on Positive Psychology, for emerging adults are sparse in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of an online multi-component Positive Psychology program for the health promotion of emerging adults based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Positive Psychology. The program included six online (synchronous) weekly group sessions of approximately two hours each and homework (asynchronous) activities. The themes worked were Values and self-care/Prudence, Optimism, Empathy, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Meaning of life and work. This study presents data from a longitudinal, pre-experimental design with pre (T1) and post-test (T2) evaluation in the intervention group. 47 individuals aged between 19-30 years old participated, mean age of 24.53 years (SD=3.13), 37 females (78.7%). 42 (89.4%) self-defined as heterosexual, four (8.5%) as homosexual, and one (2.5%) as bisexual. 33 (70.2%) had incomplete higher education, four (8.5%) completed higher education, and seven (14.9%) had a graduate level of education. 27 participants worked (57.4%), out of which 25 were health workers (53.2%). 14 (29.8%) were caregivers, 27 (57.4%) had a spiritual belief, 36 (76.6%) had access to leisure, and 38 (80.9%) had perceived social support. The instruments used were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The program was advertised on social networks and interested participants filled out the Consent Form and the evaluation protocol at T1 and T2 via Google Docs form. The main research was approved (CEP n.1,899,368; 4,143,219; CAAE: 61997516.5.0000.5334) and complied with sanitary and Ethics criteria in research with human beings. Wilcoxon statistics revealed significant improvements in indicators of perceived stress between T1 (X=22.21, SD=6.79) and T2 (X=15.10, SD=5.82); (Z=-4.353; p=0.001) as well as depression and anxiety symptoms (T1:X=26.72, SD=8.84; T2: X=19.23, SD=4.68); (Z=-3.945, p=0.001) of the emerging adults after their participation in the programme. The programme has an innovative character not only for presenting an online Positive Psychology approach but also for being based on an intervention developed, evaluated, and manualized in Brazil. By focusing on emerging adults, this study contributes to advancing research on a relatively new field in developmental studies. As a limitation, this is a pre-experimental and pilot study, requiring an increase in sample size for greater statistical robustness, also qualitative data analysis is crucial for methodological complementarity. The importance of investing efforts to accompany this age group and provide advances in longitudinal research in the area of health promotion and disease prevention is highlighted.

Keywords: emerging adults, disease prevention, health promotion, online program

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