Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1333

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Psychological and Behavioral Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1333 Customers Emotions during Online Shopping: Analysing Facial Expressions with Facereader

Authors: Semra Ersoez, Constantin Fellermann

Abstract:

Background: Emotions can explain why it comes to certain actions in the shopping process. In most online shopping environments, shoppers are only confronted with visual stimuli. As a result, there are major differences in shopping in physical shops. Apart from the lack of haptic and olfactoric stimuli, no sales staff can help with purchasing and understand non-verbal signals of customers. In many studies, emotions were measured with a questionnaire afterward the shopping experience. The problem of this measurement method is the time lag after the perception of stimuli and that this method requires relying on the memory of the test persons. Furthermore, emotions occur very quickly and often have a subconscious influence on decisions. Therefore, in many cases, the cognitive processing relied upon in surveys does not reveal a direct relationship between the event or stimulus and the emotion. To identify stimuli that trigger emotions in an online shopping context and to find possible reasons for this connection, emotions should be measured immediately when they occur. Our study aims to examine events and website stimuli during online shopping that evoke emotions. Method: In our study, 170 respondents were asked to purchase pharmaceuticals in online pharmacies. The sample consisted of volunteers who had no medical or pharmaceutical education. 47.6% of the respondents were male, and 52.4% female. The age distribution was between 18 and 67 years. Four online pharmacies were selected to represent the variety of stimuli that can trigger emotions. Each respondent was asked to buy two over the counter (OTC) drugs in one of the four pharmacies. During the product search, the screen and the face of the test person were filmed. Facial expressions as indicators for emotions were analyzed with the emotion recognition software FaceReaderTM 8.0. This software recognizes seven basic expressions (happy, sad, disgusted, angry, scared, contempt, and surprised) based on Paul Ekman's theory automatically. Additionally, FaceReaderTM can recognise a neutral state. Results: FaceReaderTM was able to analyze an average of 73.3% of every video; the rest could not be analyzed because the test person's faces were not automatically recognized. Emotions occurred in the following situations: viewing the search results and appearing pop-ups caused happy, sad, angry, disgust, and surprised. While using the search bar and viewing the product page, happy, sad, angry, and disgust were measured. Page loading errors and errors in the basket caused sad, angry, and disgust. Using the page navigation led to sad and angry. Adding products to the basket evoked happy. Conclusion: A total of eight events were identified, which triggered emotions. Happy, sad, angry, disgust, and surprised were identified by FaceReaderTM during online shopping. The interaction context with the stimuli allows conclusions to be drawn about website elements that can be further developed or eliminated.

Keywords: Consumer behavior, Emotion recognition, Online shopping, facial expressions

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1332 Living with a Partner with Depression: The Role of Dispositional Empathy in Psychological Resilience

Authors: Elizabeth O'Brien, Raegan Murphy

Abstract:

Research suggests that high levels of empathy in individuals with partners with mental health difficulties can lead to improved outcomes for their partner while compromising their own mental health. Specifically, it is proposed that the affective dimension of empathy diminishes resilience to the distress of a partner, whereas cognitive empathy (CE) enhances it. The relationship between different empathy dimensions and psychological resilience measures has not been investigated in partners of people with depression. Psychological inflexibility (PI) is a construct that can be understood as distress intolerance and is suggested to be an important feature of psychological resilience. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate the differential role of dispositional empathy dimensions in PI for people living with a partner with depression. A cross-sectional design was employed in which 148 participants living with a partner with depression and 45 participants for a comparison sample were recruited using online platforms. Participants completed online surveys with measures relating to demographics, empathy, and PI. Scores were compared between the study and comparison samples. The study sample scored significantly lower for CE and affective empathy (AE) and significantly higher for PI than the comparison sample. Exploratory and regression analyses were run to examine associations between variables within the study sample. Analyses revealed that CE predicted the resilience outcome whilst AE did not. These results suggest that interventions for partners of people with depression that bolster the CE dimension alone may improve mental health outcomes for both members of the couple relationship.

Keywords: Depression, Cognitive Empathy, affective empathy, partners, psychological inflexibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1331 The Mediating Role of Positive Psychological Capital in the Relationship between Self-Leadership and Career Maturity among Korean University Students

Authors: Lihyo Sung

Abstract:

Background: Children and teens in Korea experience extreme levels of academic stress. To perform better on the college entrance exam and gain admission to Korea’s most prestigious universities, they devote a significant portion of their early lives to studying. Because of their excessive preparation for entrance exams, students have become accustomed to passive and involuntary engagement. Any student starting university, however, faces new challenges that require more active involvement and self-regulated practice. As a way to tackle this issue, the study focuses on investigating the mediating effects of positive psychological capital on the relationship between self-leadership and career maturity among Korean university students. Objectives and Hypotheses: The long term goal of this study is to offer insights that promote the use of positive psychological interventions in the development and adaptation of career maturity. The current objective is to assess the role of positive psychological capital as a mediator between self-leadership and career maturity among Korean university students. Based on previous research, the hypotheses are: (a) self-leadership will be positively associated with indices of career maturity, and (b) positive psychological capital will partially or fully mediate the relationship between self-leadership and career maturity. Sample Characteristics and Sample Size: Participants in the current study consisted of undergraduate students enrolled in various courses at 5 large universities in Korea. A total of 181 students participated in the study. Methodology: A quantitative research design was adopted to test the hypotheses proposed in the current study. By using a cross-sectional approach to research, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on indices of positive psychological capital, self-leadership, and career maturity. The data were analyzed by means of Cronbach's alpha, Pierson correlation test, multiple regression, path analysis, and SPSS for Windows version 22.0 using descriptive statistics. Results: Findings showed that positive psychological capital fully mediated the relationship between self-leadership and career maturity. Self-leadership significantly impacted positive psychological capital and career maturity, respectively. Scientific Contribution: The results of the current study provided useful insights into the role of psychological strengths such as positive psychological capital in improving self-leadership and career maturity. Institutions can assist in increasing positive psychological capital through the creation of positive experiences for undergraduate students, such as opportunities for coaching and mentoring.

Keywords: self-leadership, career maturity, mediating role, positive psychological capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1330 Root Causes of Child Labour in Hargeisa, Somaliland

Authors: Abdikarim Yusuf

Abstract:

This study uses data from Somalia to analyse child labour using a descriptive and qualitative method. The study set out to identify root causes of child labour in Hargeisa and its implications for children. The study shows that poverty, droughts, family separation, and loss of properties are primary drivers of child labour in Hargeisa. The study found that children work in very difficult jobs such as car wash, casual work, and shoe shining for boys while girls work as housemaids, selling tea, Khat and sometimes are at risk of exploitation such as sexual abuse, rape and harassment. The majority of the parents responded that they don’t know any policy, act or law that protects children. Men showed greater awareness than the women respondents in recognizing child labour as a child rights violation.

Keywords: Violence, Protection, Child, abuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1329 Educate Multidisciplinary Teams Working with Child Maltreatment Victims: The Contribution of an Integrated Information System

Authors: Annick St-Amand, Sabrina Servot

Abstract:

The assessment and care of sexually or physically abused children and their families requires the multidisciplinary collaboration of the medical, psychosocial, police, and justice sectors. On the initiative of child protection services and a university hospital in Quebec City, Canada, a new program named Services intégrés en abus et maltraitance (SIAM) is being launched on summer 2018. Based on the Child Advocacy Centers model, SIAM will provide children, adolescents, and their families with on-site integrated clinical assessment, investigation, treatment, support, and advocacy services. The success of child maltreatment interventions requires evaluation and research activities, but especially the integration of available data and expertise, which the existing databases systems scarcely enable. Therefore, a team of multi-agency representatives involved in the SIAM and maltreatment experts developed, within the SIAM, an innovative information system. This system meets operation, evaluation, and research needs with integrated, compatible, and continuous clinical-administrative data. Multiple SIAM partners' work sessions were held in order to trace the state of current theoretical, empirical, and practical knowledge concerning the creation, organization, and operation of databases involving multi-disciplinary and cross-sectoral information sharing. Besides relying on the relevant literature, a brief survey was addressed to several Child Advocacy Centers all over the world. Information concerning the variables they document and exploit and the procedures to do so was collected. This communication aims at understanding the contribution of an integrated information system to the practice of multidisciplinary teams working with child maltreatment victims. It will 1) present the main features of the SIAM service model, 2) raise the important limits of the existing databases, 3) present the development process, as well as the content of this innovative and integrative information system, 4) discuss the challenges associated with its creation and exploitation, and share potential advances of such a project in terms of knowledge and practices.

Keywords: multidisciplinary team, case tracking system, gathering data for administrative and research purposes, inter-agency responses to child maltreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1328 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Management at the Montfort Hospital

Authors: Kay-Anne Haykal, Issack Biyong

Abstract:

The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rises from exposure to a traumatic event and appears by a persistent experience of this event. Several psychiatric co-morbidities are associated with PTSD and include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. The main objective was to compare the criteria for PTSD according to the literature to those used to diagnose a patient in a francophone hospital and to check the correspondence of these two criteria. Seven hundred medical charts of admitted patients on the medicine or psychiatric unit at the Montfort Hospital were identified with the following diagnoses: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, substance abuse, and PTSD for the period of time between April 2005 and March 2006. Multiple demographic criteria were assembled. Also, for every chart analyzed, the PTSD criteria, according to the Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)IV were found, identified, and grouped according to pre-established codes. An analysis using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method was elaborated for the study of data. A sample of 57 women and 50 men was studied. Age was varying between 18 and 88 years with a median age of 48. According to the PTSD criteria in the DSM IV, 12 patients should have the diagnosis of PTSD in opposition to only 2 identified in the medical charts. The ROC method establishes that with the combination of data from PTSD and depression, the sensitivity varies between 0,127 and 0,282, and the specificity varies between 0,889 and 0,917. Otherwise, if we examine the PTSD data alone, the sensibility jumps to 0.50, and the specificity varies between 0,781 and 0,895. This study confirms the presence of an underdiagnosed and treated PTSD that causes severe perturbations for the affected individual.

Keywords: Diagnosis, co-morbidities, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, mental health disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1327 Histological Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Roles of Trans Cinnamaldehyde against High Fat Diet and Streptozotozin Induced Neurodegeneration in Wistar Rats

Authors: Samson Ehindero, Oluwole Akinola

Abstract:

Substantial evidence has shown an association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cognitive decline, Trans Cinnamaldehyde (TCA) has been shown to have many potent pharmacological properties. In this present study, we are currently investigating the effects of TCA on type II diabetes-induced neurodegeneration. Neurodegeneration was induced in forty (40) adult wistar rats using high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months followed by low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. TCA was administered orally for 30 days at the doses of 40mg/kg and 60mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized and divided into following groups; A- control group, B- diabetic group, C- TCA (high dose), D- diabetic + TCA (high dose), E- diabetic + TCA (high dose) with high fat diet, F- TCA Low dose, G- diabetic + TCA (low dose) and H- diabetic + TCA (low dose) with high fat diet. Animals were subjected to behavioral tests followed by histological studies of the hippocampus. Demented rats showed impaired behavior in Y- Maze test compared to treated and control groups. Trans Cinnamaldehyde restores the histo architecture of the hippocampus of demented rats. This present study demonstrates that treatment with trans- cinnamaldehyde improves behavioral deficits, restores cellular histo architecture in rat models of neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Neurodegeneration, streptozotocin, high fat diet, trans cinnamaldehyde

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1326 An Investigation into the Role of School Social Workers and Psychologists with Children Experiencing Special Educational Needs in Libya

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour

Abstract:

This study explores the function of schools’ psychosocial services within Libyan mainstream schools in relation to children’s special educational needs (SEN). This is with the aim to examine the role of school social workers and psychologists in the assessment procedure of children with special educational needs. A semi-structured interview was used in this study, with 21 professionals working in the schools’ psychosocial services, of whom thirteen were school social workers (SSWs) and eight were school psychologists (SPs). The results of the interviews with SSWs and SPs provided insights into how SEN children are identified, assessed, and dealt with by school professionals. It appears from the results that what constitutes a problem has not changed significantly, and the link between learning difficulties and behavioral difficulties is also evident from this study. Children with behavior difficulties are more likely to be referred to school psychosocial services than children with learning difficulties. Yet, it is not clear from the interviews with SSWs and SPs whether children are excluded merely because of their behavior problems. Instead, they would surely be expelled from the school if they failed academically. Furthermore, the interviews with SSWs and SPs yield a rather unusual source accountable for children’s SEN; school-related difficulties were a major factor in which almost all participants attributed children’s learning and behavior problems to teachers’ deficiencies, followed by school lack of resources.

Keywords: Special Education, School, Social Workers, psychologist

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1325 An Investigation into Libyan Teachers’ Views of Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour

Abstract:

A great number of children in mainstream schools across Libya are currently living with emotional, behavioral difficulties. This study aims to explore teachers’ perceptions of children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) and their attributions of the causes of EBD. The relevance of this area of study to current educational practice is illustrated in the fact that primary school teachers in Libya find classroom behavior problems one of the major difficulties they face. The information presented in this study was gathered from 182 teachers that responded back to the survey, of whom 27 teachers were later interviewed. In general, teachers’ perceptions of EBD reflect personal experience, training, and attitudes. Teachers appear from this study to use words such as indifferent, frightened, withdrawn, aggressive, disobedient, hyperactive, less ambitious, lacking concentration, and academically weak to describe pupils with emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD). The implications of this study are envisaged as being extremely important to support teachers addressing children’s EBD and shed light on the contributing factors to EBD for a successful teaching-learning process in Libyan primary schools.

Keywords: Learning, Children, emotional and behavior difficulties, teachers'

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1324 A Qualitative Look at Mental Health Stressors in Response to COVID-19

Authors: Gabriel G. Gaft, Xayvinay Xiong, Amanda Sunday

Abstract:

The emergent pandemic from COVID-19 virus has forced people to adjust to major changes. These changes include all elements of family and work life and required people to engage in novel behaviors. For many people, the social norms to which they have been accustomed no longer prevail. Not surprisingly, such enormous changes in daily life have been associated with greater problems in mental health; and research regarding ways in which mental health professionals can support people is more necessary than ever before. It is often useful to assess people’s reactions through surveys and utilize quantitative data to answer questions about coping strategies etc. It is also likely, however, that a host of individual factors are going to contribute to what might be considered 'good' or 'bad' coping mechanisms to a worldwide pandemic. To this end, qualitative studies—where the individual’s subjective experience is highlighted—are likely to provide more vital information for mental health professionals interested in supporting the particular person in front of them. This study reports on qualitative data, where X participants were asked questions about social distancing, coping strategies, and general attitudes towards social changes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Informal interviews were conducted during the months of June-July 2020. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analyses. Themes were identified first for each participant and then compared across different individual participants. Several findings emerged. First, all participants understood major health messages being imparted by governing bodies such as the CDC and WHO. The researchers feel this finding is important as it suggests health messages are at least being effectively communicated. Second, there was a clear trend for themes which highlighted the conflicting emotions participants felt about the changes they were expected to endure: positive and negative elements were identified, although a participant who had pre-existing conditions placed greater emphasis on the negative elements. One participant who was particularly interested in impression management also exclusively emphasized negative emotions. Third, participants who were able to reevaluate priorities—what Lazarus might call secondary appraisals—experienced social distancing as a positive rather than negative phenomenon. Finally, participants who were able to develop specific strategies—such as boundaries for work and self-care—reported themes of adjustment and contentment. Taken together, these findings suggest mental health practitioners can assist people to adjust more positively through specific techniques focusing on re-evaluation of life priorities and strategic coping skills.

Keywords: phenomenology, Virus, pandemic, COVID-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1323 Locomotion, Object Exploration, Social Communicative Skills, and Improve in Language Abilities

Authors: Wanqing He

Abstract:

The current study explores aspects of exploratory behaviors and social capacities in urban Chinese infants to examine whether these factors mediate the link between infant walking and receptive and productive vocabularies. The linkage between the onset of walking and language attainment proves solid, but little is known about the factors that drive such link. This study examined whether joint attention, gesture use, and object activities mediate the association between locomotion and language development. Results showed that both the frequency (p = .05) and duration (p = .03) of carrying an object are strong mediators that afford opportunities for word comprehension. Also, accessing distal objects may be beneficial to infants’ language expression. Further studies on why object carrying may account for word comprehension and why infants with autism could not benefit from walking onset in terms of language development may yield valuable clinical implications.

Keywords: Language Acquisition, infancy, Motor Development, exploratory behaviors, social communicative skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1322 Estimating Big Five Personality Expressions with a Tiered Information Framework

Authors: Laura Kahn, Paul Rodrigues, Onur Savas, Shannon Hahn

Abstract:

An empirical understanding of an individual's personality expression can have a profound impact on organizations seeking to strengthen team performance and improve employee retention. A team's personality composition can impact overall performance. Creating a tiered information framework that leverages proxies for a user's social context and lexical and linguistic content provides insight into location-specific personality expression. We leverage the layered framework to examine domain-specific, psychological, and lexical cues within social media posts. We apply DistilBERT natural language transfer learning models with real world data to examine the relationship between Big Five personality expressions of people in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields.

Keywords: Social media analysis, Workforce development, Big Five, personality expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1321 As Evolved Mechanisms and Cultural Modeling Affect Child Gender Attribution

Authors: Stefano Federici, Alessandro Lepri, Antonella Carrera

Abstract:

Kessler and McKenna in the seventies, and recently Federici and Lepri investigated how an individual attributes gender to a person. By administering nudes of human figures, the scholars have found that the penis more than the vagina and the male sexual characteristics more than the female ones are significantly more salient in the gender attribution process. Federici and Lepri suggested that the asymmetrical salience of sexual characteristics is attributable to evolved decision-making processes for the solution of gender attribution problems to avoid the greatest danger of an (angry) adult male. The present study has observed the behaviour of 60 children, aged between 3 and 6 years, and their parents verifying whether the child gender attribution mechanisms are permeable to cultural stereotypes. The participating children were asked to make a male or a female on a tablet by combining 12 human physical characteristics (long hair, short hair, wide hips, narrow hips, breasts, flat chest, body hair, hairless body, penis, vagina, male face, and female face) and four cloths (male t-shirt, female t-shirt, pants, and skirt) by superimposing one or more of them on a sexually neutral manikin. On the tablet was installed an App, created by authors, to replicate the Kessler and McKenna and Federici and Lepri previous studies. One of the parents of each of the participating children was asked to make a male or a female using the same apparatus used by children. In addition, the participating parents were asked to complete a test, as proposed by Federici and Lepri in their previous study, to compare adult and child processes of gender attribution. The results suggested that children are affected both by evolved mechanisms as adults were (e.g., taking less time to make a male than a female, using the penis more often than the vagina), and by cultural modeling of parental and environmental gender stereotypes (e.g., the genitals were often covered with pants in case the delivery was to make a male and a skirt in the case was to make a female).

Keywords: Cognitive Biases, biological sex, cultural modeling, gender attribution, evolved decision-making processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1320 Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschoolers: Distinct Associations with Empathy Subcomponents

Authors: E. Stylianopoulou, A. K. Fanti

Abstract:

Object: Children scoring high on Callous-Unemotional traits (CU traits) exhibit lack of empathy. More specifically, children scoring high on CU traits appear to exhibit deficits on affective empathy or deficits in other constructs. However, little is known about cognitive empathy, and it's relation with CU traits in preschoolers. Despite the fact that empathy is measurable at a very young age, relatively less study has focused on empathy in preschoolers than older children with CU traits. The present study examines the cognitive and affective empathy in preschoolers with CU traits. The aim was to examine the differences between cognitive and affective empathy in those individuals. Based on previous research in children with CU traits, it was hypothesized that preschoolers scoring high in CU traits will show deficits in both cognitive and affective empathy; however, more deficits will be detected in affective empathy rather than cognitive empathy. Method: The sample size was 209 children, of which 109 were male, and 100 were female between the ages of 3 and 7 (M=4.73, SD=0.71). From those participants, only 175 completed all the items. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits was used to measure CU traits. Moreover, the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Affective Scale and the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Cognitive Scale was used to measure Affective and Cognitive empathy, respectively. Results: Linear Regression was applied to examine the preceding hypotheses. The results showed that generally, there was a moderate negative association between CU traits and empathy, which was significant. More specifically, it has been found that there was a significant and negative moderate relation between CU traits and cognitive empathy. Surprisingly, results indicated that there was no significant relation between CU traits and affective empathy. Conclusion: The current findings support that preschoolers show deficits in understanding others emotions, indicating a significant association between CU traits and cognitive empathy. However, such a relation was not found between CU traits and affective empathy. The current results raised the importance that there is a need for focusing more on cognitive empathy in preschoolers with CU traits, a component that seems to be underestimated till now.

Keywords: Cognitive Empathy, preschoolers, callous-unemotional traits, affective empathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1319 Half-Human: Examining Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation Effects on Dehumanization Tendencies

Authors: Brianna Ross, John Sollers, Christopher Edwards

Abstract:

In the age of heightened social and political discourse, there is a tendency for individuals and media sources to use dehumanization as a tool to influence group thoughts and attitudes. When considering individual interactions, there is a need to determine what characteristics increase or predict dehumanization. The present study investigated dehumanization tendencies related to social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) while factoring in political affiliation. Two-hundred and seven individuals participated in an anonymous study to reveal that there was a significant relationship between high SDO and high RWA scores. There was also a significant correlation between the dehumanization of Black Lives Matter and SDO. These findings suggest that those who are “double high” (scoring highly on both SDO and RWA are more likely to dehumanize others, particularly social groups they disagree with. Acknowledging that there are significant changes occurring in the sociopolitical atmosphere, it is essential that researchers understand dehumanization tendencies in modern society to better define the concept of othering and its consequences on social interaction.

Keywords: right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, dehumanization, political affiliation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1318 Perceiving Interpersonal Conflict and the Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Emily Rivera, Toni DiDona

Abstract:

The Big Five personality traits is a hierarchical classification of personality traits that applies factor analysis to a personality survey data in order to describe human personality using five broad dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness (Fetvadjiev & Van de Vijer, 2015). Research shows that personality constructs underline individual differences in processing conflict and interpersonal relations. (Graziano et al., 1996). This research explores the understudied correlation between the Big Five personality traits and perceived interpersonal conflict in the workplace. It revises social psychological literature on Big Five personality traits within a social context and discusses organizational development journal articles on the perceived efficacy of conflict tactics and approach to interpersonal relationships. The study also presents research undertaken on a survey group of 867 subjects over the age of 18 that were recruited by means of convenience sampling through social media, email, and text messaging. The central finding of this study is that only two of the Big Five personality traits had a significant correlation with perceiving interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Individuals who score higher on agreeableness and neuroticism, perceive more interpersonal conflict in the workplace compared to those that score lower on each dimension. The relationship between both constructs is worthy of research due to its everyday frequency and unique individual psycho-social consequences. This multimethod research associated the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict. Its findings that can be utilized to further understand social cognition, person perception, complex social behavior and social relationships in the work environment.

Keywords: Personality, Interpersonal conflict, five-factor model, The Big Five personality traits

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1317 Systematic Review of Functional Analysis in Brazil

Authors: Felipe Magalhaes Lemos

Abstract:

Functional behavior analysis is a procedure that has been studied for several decades by behavior analysts. In Brazil, we still have few studies in the area, so it was decided to carry out a systematic review of the articles published in the area by Brazilians. A search was done on the following scientific article registration sites: PsycINFO, ERIC, ISI Web of Science, Virtual Health Library. The research includes (a) peer-reviewed studies that (b) have been carried out in Brazil containing (c) functional assessment as a pre-treatment through (d) experimental procedures, direct or indirect observation and measurement of behavior problems (e) demonstrating a relationship between environmental events and behavior. During the review, 234 papers were found; however, only 9 were included in the final analysis. Of the 9 articles extracted, only 2 presented functional analysis procedures with manipulation of environmental variables, while the other 7 presented different procedures for a descriptive behavior assessment. Only the two studies using "functional analysis" used graphs to demonstrate the prevalent function of the behavior. Other studies described procedures and did not make clear the causal relationship between environment and behavior. There is still confusion in Brazil regarding the terms "functional analysis", "descriptive assessment" and "contingency analysis," which are generally treated in the same way. This study shows that few articles are published with a focus on functional analysis in Brazil.

Keywords: Behavior, Functional Analysis, Contingency, descriptive assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1316 Relationships among Parentification, Self-Differentiation, and Ambivalence over Emotional Expression for Children of Migratory Families

Authors: Wan-Chun Chang, Yi-Jung Lee

Abstract:

Due to cultural factors, expressing emotions may not be encouraged in collectivist cultures, which emphasize the needs of the group over the needs of the individual. This phenomenon is more prominent for children of migratory families. Due to the absence of one parent, children were often parentified by adults, which then impacted on their self-differentiation process. It made them more difficult to express their needs and emotions freely and openly. This study aimed to investigate the meditation effect of self-differentiation between parentification, and ambivalence over emotional expression for children of migratory families in Taiwan. Participants included 460 (326 females, 134 males) Taiwanese adults (age 18-25 years). The data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The questionnaire included informed consent form, 'Filial Responsibility Scale-Adult', 'Chinese version of the Differentiation of Self Inventory', 'Ambivalence over Emotion Expressiveness Questionnaire', and the demographic sheet. Results indicated that self-differentiation mediated the relationship between parentified experience and ambivalence over emotional expression. In other words, parentified experience itself does not have the power to affect ambivalence over emotional expression. Only by affecting self-differentiation can it make an actual difference. The results were as expected and confirmed the hypothesis. Implications for clinical practice, research, and training were discussed.

Keywords: parentification, self-differentiation, ambivalence over emotional expression, children of migratory families

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1315 Group Attachment Based Intervention® Reduces Toddlers' Fearfulness

Authors: Kristin Lewis, Howard Steele, Anne Murphy, Miriam Steele, Karen Bonuck, Paul Meissner

Abstract:

The present study examines data collected during the randomized control trial (RCT) of the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©), a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention aimed at promoting healthy parent-child relationships that support child development. Families received treatment at Treatment Center and were randomly assigned to either the GABI condition or the treatment as usual condition, a parenting class called Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP). Significant improvements in the parent-child relationship have been reported for families participating in GABI, but not in the STEP control group relying on Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) as applied to 5-minute video-films of mothers and their toddlers in a free play context. This report considers five additional attachment-relevant 'clinical codes' that were also applied to the 5-minute free play sessions. Seventy-two parent-child dyads (38 in GABI and 34 in STEP) were compared to one another at intake and end-of-treatment, on these five-point dimensions: two-parent codes—the dissociation and ignoring; two child codes—simultaneous display of contradictory behavior and fear; and one parent-child code, i.e., role reversal. Overall, scores were low for these clinical codes; thus, a binary measure was computed contrasting no evidence with some evidence of each clinical code. Crosstab analyses indicate that child fear at end-of-treatment was significantly lower among children who participated in GABI (7% or 3 children) as compared to those whose mothers participated in STEP (29% or 10 children) Chi Sq= 6.57 (1), p < .01. Discussion focuses on the potential for GABI to reduce childhood fearfulness and so enhance the child's health.

Keywords: attachment, fear, coding interactive behavior, clinical codes, group attachment based intervention, GABI

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1314 An Observation of Patient-Professional Communication in the Cambodian Dental Setting

Authors: Christina Tran, Lu Khoo, Andrea Waylen

Abstract:

Introduction: The evolution of the dental consultation from paternalism to partnership has been well documented in developed Western countries. Great emphasis is now placed on the importance of empowering patients to make decisions regarding their care, obtaining informed consent, and maintaining patient privacy and confidentiality. With the majority of communication occurring non-verbally, clinicians often adopt behaviours which suggest an approachable and positive attitude. However, evidence indicates that in Asia, a paternalistic model may be favored in medicine. The power imbalance occurring in doctor-patient relationships worldwide may be exacerbated by various factors in Southeast Asia: the strong hierarchical culture, and the large education gap between doctor and patient. Further insight into this matter can be gained by observing patient-dentist communication in Cambodia. The dentist:population ratio in Cambodia is approximately 1:33,000, with rural areas remaining extremely underserviced. We have carried out an observational study of communication in a voluntary dental clinic in Cambodia with the aim of describing whether the patient-dentist relationship follows a paternalistic or patient-centred model. Method: Over a period of two weeks, two clinicians provided dental care as part of a voluntary program in two Cambodian settings: a temporary, rural clinic and a permanent clinic in Phnom Penh. The clinicians independently recorded their experiences in diaries, making observations on the verbal and non-verbal communication between patients and staff. General observations such as the clinic environment were also made. The diaries were then compared and analyzed using a thematic approach. Results: The overall themes that emerged were regarding the clinic environment, verbal communication, and non-verbal communication. Regarding the clinic environment, the rural clinic was arranged in order to easily direct patients from one dentist to another, with little emphasis on continuous patient care. There was also little consideration for patient privacy: patients were often treated in the presence of many observers, including other waiting patients. However, the permanent clinic was structured to allow greater patient privacy, with continuous patient care occurring throughout the appointment. Regarding verbal communication, there was a strongly paternalistic approach to gaining consent and giving instruction. Patients rarely asked questions regarding their treatment, with dentists doing little to encourage patient involvement. Non-verbal communication between patients and dentists was generally paternalistic, with the dentist often addressing the supine patient from above. Patients often avoided making eye-contact, which may have indicated discomfort or lack of engagement. Both adult and paediatric patients rarely raised verbal concerns regarding pain during treatment, despite displaying non-verbal signs of experiencing pain. Anxious paediatric patients were sometimes managed with physical restraint by their mothers to facilitate treatment. Conclusion: Patient-professional communication in the Cambodian dental setting was observed to be generally paternalistic in nature, although more patient-centred aspects were observed in the established, urban setting. However, it should be noted that these observations are subjective in nature, and that the patients’ actual perceptions of their communication experience were unexplored. Further observations in variety of dental settings in Cambodia are needed before any definitive conclusions can be made.

Keywords: Non-Verbal Communication, patient-centered, paternalism, patient-dentist communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1313 The Relationship between Body Esteem and Self-Esteem with Sport-Confidence Students

Authors: Saeid Motevalli, Siti Fatimah Azzahrah Binti Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sahandri Ghani Hamzah, Hazalizah Hamzah

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem with sport-confidence among university students. This study was conducted by using the descriptive and correlational study design. Meanwhile, the method involved in this study was the online survey method. The population of the sample are mainly Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) students only which 120 participants were selected by cluster sampling method from two faculties named Fakulti Pembangunan Manusia (FPM) and Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Kejurulatihan (FSSKJ). The instrument used in this study was The Body-Esteem Scale (BES) by Franzoi and Shields (1984), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) by Rosenberg (1965) and the Vealey’s Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI) by (Vealey, 1986). The results of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed that there was a positive and moderate correlation between students’ body-esteem and sport-confidence and a negative and low correlation between students’ self-esteem and sport-confidence. Likewise, based on the entry method used all two predictor variables were significant in explaining sport confidence among UPSI students. In conclusion, it can be said that students’ sport-confidence affected by students’ self-esteem and body-esteem.

Keywords: students, self-esteem, body esteem, sport-confidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1312 The Role of Psychological Resilience in Predicting Psychological Distress in Kuwaiti Adults during Corona Varies Pandemic

Authors: Al-Tammar M. Shahah

Abstract:

Background and Objective: A novel pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is spreading domestically and internationally, has been identified by the Chinese city of Wuhan since the end of December 2019. Limited studies examined the psychological experience such as anxiety, depression, and stress during Corona pandemic. Moreover, to the best of author's knowledge, there is no study to date has examined the psychological resilience and mental health during Corona pandemic in Kuwait. Therefore, the present research investigates the role of psychological resilience in predicting psychological distress among Kuwaiti adults during Corona pandemic. Method: Kuwaiti citizens (N = 735) completed an online survey, which includes four scales the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS (anxiety and depression), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-25), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Results: A high level of stress was observed, with 59% reported moderate to severe stress. In contrast, low levels of anxiety and depression were observed; with 70% reporting no anxiety symptoms and 74% report no depression symptoms. Psychological resilience was negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, and stress, consistent with previous studies. As expected, resilience was found to account for significant variance in anxiety and stress after controlling for quarantine variables and demographic variables. Conclusion: The findings suggest that increasing psychological resilience might help reduce psychological distress after confronting with stressful live events in Kuwaiti citizen.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, stress, corona, psychological resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1311 Matching Coping Strategies to Athletic Retirement Stressors among Japanese Female Athletes

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake

Abstract:

Retirement from sport can be stressful to athletes for many reasons. Accordingly, it is necessary to match coping strategies depending on the stressors. One of the athlete career assistance programs for Japanese top athletes in Japan, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA), has focused on the service contents regarding occupational supports which can be said to cope with financial and occupational stress; however, other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in the JCA. Tailoring the program, it is important to match the needs of the athletes at athletic retirement with the service contents. Japanese Olympic athletes have been found to retire for different reasons. Especially female athletes who competed in the Summer Olympic Games were found to retire with psychological reasons. The purpose of this research was to investigate the types of stressors Japanese female athletes experience as a result of athletic retirement. As part of the study, 44 female retired athletes from 13 competitive sports completed an open-ended questionnaire. The KJ method was used to analyze stress experienced as a result of retirement. As a result, nine conceptualized stressors were aggregated such as “Conflict with athletic identity”, “Desire to live as an athlete”, and “Career plan after retirement”. In order to match the coping strategies according to the stressors, each stressor was classified with the four types of adjustments; psychological, social, financial, and occupational changes. As a result, the stressor relating to psychological adjustment accounted for 69.0% of coping-related needs, the financial and occupational adjustment was 21.8%, and social adjustment was 9.2%. In conclusion, coping strategies according to the stressors are suggested.

Keywords: stress, Coping, athletic retirement, female athlete

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1310 Impact of Transparency of Manipulatives Used in an Explicit Intervention on the Place Value Learning in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

Authors: Anne Lafay, Helena P. Osana

Abstract:

Introduction: Manipulatives are concrete tools (such as counters and chips) that are intended to illustrate mathematical concepts to children. Growing evidence suggests that the physical features of manipulatives play a role in children’s mathematics learning. As part of a larger study previously reported by the authors, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of two physical affordances of manipulatives (denominations- and ones-transparency) on numeral representation and place value understanding in typically-developing children (TD) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) after an instructional intervention. Method: The larger study used a 2 (pre, post) x 2 (TD, MLD) x 3 (condition: manipulative type) mixed design. A group of 94 TD children and 29 children with MLD in the second grade participated. Within each mathematics group, the children were randomly assigned to one of the three manipulatives conditions: (a) attachable beads that did not make the base ten denominations or ones in the denominations transparent, (b) pipe cleaners that made only the denominations transparent, and (c) string beads that made both the denominations and the ones in the denominations transparent. All were given explicit instruction demonstrating how to represent 2- and 3-digit numerals with their condition-specific manipulatives, with accompanying conceptual explanations of the link between the digits and the representations. Children were tested on a numeral representation task before and after the intervention with the manipulatives they used during intervention (immediate learning task) and the same task with different manipulatives after the intervention (transfer task). Results: First, an analysis of variance showed lower performance by children with MLD than TD children at both time points, but no group by time interaction. A significant condition by time interaction revealed gains when children in both mathematics groups used attachable beads, but not the other objects. Second, a descriptive analysis of response type after the intervention showed that relative to the other two manipulative types, the attachable beads resulted in a greater proportion of optimal responses and a smaller proportion of responses that contained place value misunderstandings. On the transfer task, children with MLD who used pipe cleaners during the intervention produced the largest proportion of representations with place value misunderstandings, regardless of the type of object they used on the task. Discussion: The explicit intervention was less effective for children with MLD when it incorporated manipulatives that hid the ones in the denominations (i.e., pipe cleaners) than when other manipulatives were used. We speculate that the pipe cleaners made it difficult for them to verify the relative sizes of the denominations. In contrast, the intervention was more effective for both TD children and those with MLD when they used attachable beads, which made neither the denominations nor the ones transparent. We interpret this to mean that experiencing the construction of a ten from ten ones and a hundred from ten tens is a meaningful activity for students who struggle with place value.

Keywords: Affordance, manipulatives, mathematics learning disabilities, place value

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1309 The Virtues and Vices of Leader Empathy: A Review of a Misunderstood Construct

Authors: John G. Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a surge in research on empathy across disciplines ranging from management and psychology to philosophy and neuroscience. In organizational behavior, in particular, scholars have become interested in leader empathy given the rise of workplace diversity and the growing perception of leaders as managers of group emotions. It would appear that the current zeitgeist in behavioral and philosophical science is that empathy is a cornerstone of morality and that our world would be better off if only more people – and by extension, more leaders – were empathic. In spite of these claims, however, researchers have used different terminologies to explore empathy, confusing it at times with other related constructs such as emotional intelligence and compassion. Second, extant research that specifies what empathic leaders do and how their behavior affects organizational stakeholders, including themselves, does not devolve from a unifying theoretical framework. These problems plague knowledge development in this important research domain. Therefore, to the authors' best knowledge, this paper provides the first comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on leader empathy by drawing on disparate yet complementary fields of inquiry. It clarifies empathy from other constructs and presents a theoretical model that elucidates the mechanisms by which a leader’s empathy translates into behaviors that could be either beneficial or harmful to the leaders themselves, as well as to their followers and groups. And third, it specifies the boundary conditions under which a leader’s empathy will become manifest. Finally, it suggests ways in which training could be implemented to improve empathy in practice while also remaining skeptical of its conceptualization as a moral or even effective guide in human affairs.

Keywords: Leadership, Empathy, compassion, group outcomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1308 The Effectiveness of a Six-Week Yoga Intervention on Body Awareness, Warnings of Relapse, and Emotion Regulation among Incarcerated Females

Authors: James Beauchemin

Abstract:

Introduction: The incarceration of people with mental illness and substance use disorders is a major public health issue, with social, clinical, and economic implications. Yoga participation has been associated with numerous psychological benefits; however, there is a paucity of research examining impacts of yoga with incarcerated populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of a six-week yoga intervention on several mental health-related variables, including emotion regulation, body awareness, and warnings of substance relapse among incarcerated females. Methods: This study utilized a pre-post, three-arm design, with participants assigned to intervention, therapeutic community, or general population groups. A between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted across groups to assess intervention effectiveness using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Scale of Body Connection (SBC), and Warnings of Relapse (AWARE) Questionnaire. Results: ANCOVA results for warnings of relapse (AWARE) revealed significant between-group differences F(2, 80) = 7.15, p = .001; np2 = .152), with significant pairwise comparisons between the intervention group and both the therapeutic community (p = .001) and the general population (p = .005) groups. Similarly, significant differences were found for emotional regulation (DERS) F(2, 83) = 10.521, p = .000; np2 = .278). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the intervention and general population (p = .01). Finally, significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found for body awareness (SBC) F(2, 84) = 3.69, p = .029; np2 = .081). Between-group differences were clarified via pairwise comparisons, indicating significant differences between the intervention group and both the therapeutic community (p = .028) and general population groups (p = .020). Implications: Study results suggest that yoga may be an effective addition to integrative mental health and substance use treatment for incarcerated women, and contributes to increasing evidence that holistic interventions may be an important component for treatment with this population. Specifically, given the prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders, findings revealed that changes in body awareness and emotion regulation may be particularly beneficial for incarcerated populations with substance use challenges as a result of yoga participation. From a systemic perspective, this proactive approach may have long-term implications for both physical and psychological well-being for the incarcerated population as a whole, thereby decreasing the need for traditional treatment. By integrating a more holistic, salutogenic model that emphasizes prevention, interventions like yoga may work to improve the wellness of this population, while providing an alternative or complementary treatment option for those with current symptoms.

Keywords: Wellness, Mental Health, Yoga, Incarceration

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1307 Psychosocial Predictors of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: Literature Review

Authors: K. Grigoryan, T. Jurcik

Abstract:

Interpersonal and school-related factors, along with individual characteristics, can predict non-suicidal self-injures (NSSI). The objective of this review is to describe psychosocial variables associated with NSSI among adolescents. A better understanding of this phenomenon may facilitate the identification of potentially effective interventions for adolescents. Relevant empirical studies and reviews from clinical, cross-cultural, and social psychology, as well as cognitive psychology literature, were synthesized into two broad topics: social/interpersonal and individual factors. Variables related to the occurrence of NSSI are discussed, including social support, peer modeling, abuse, personality traits, sense of belongingness, self-compassion, and others. Based on these findings, specific clinical recommendations were identified that need to be further evaluated empirically. The systemic interventions recommended in this review may further promote research in circumventing this social and clinical problem.

Keywords: adolescence, Mental Health, Psychosocial Factors, non-suicidal self-injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1306 Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety: An International Student's Perspective on Indonesian Language Learning

Authors: Ukhtie Nantika Mena, Ahmad Juntika Nurihsan, Ilfiandra

Abstract:

This study aims to explore perspective on Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) of an international student. Descriptive narrative is used to discover written and spoken responses from the student. An online survey was employed as a secondary data to identify the level of FLCA among six UPI international students. A student with the highest score volunteered to be interviewed. Several symptoms were found; lack of concentration, excessive worry, fear, unwanted thoughts, and sweating. The results showed that difficulties to understand lecturers' correction, presentation, and fear of getting left behind are three major causes of his anxiety.

Keywords: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Language Anxiety, international students, FLCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1305 From Pink to Ink: Understanding the Decision-Making Process of Post-mastectomy Women Who Have Covered Their Scars with Decorative Tattoos

Authors: Fernanda Rodriguez

Abstract:

Breast cancer is pervasive among women, and an increasing number of women are opting for a mastectomy: a medical operation in which one or both breasts are removed with the intention of treating or averting breast cancer. However, there is an emerging population of cancer survivors in European nations that, rather than attempting to reconstruct their breasts to resemble as much as possible ‘normal’ breasts, have turned to dress their scars with decorative tattoos. At a practical level, this study hopes to improve the support systems of these women by possibly providing professionals in the medical field, tattoo artists, and family members of cancer survivors with a deeper understanding of their motivations and decision-making processes for choosing an alternative restorative route - such as decorative tattoos - after their mastectomy. At an intellectual level, however, this study aims to narrow a gap in the academic field concerning the relationship between mastectomies and alternative methods of healing, such as decorative tattoos, as well as to broaden the understanding regarding meaning-making and the ‘normal’ feminine body. Thus, by means of semi-structured interviews and a phenomenological standpoint, this research set itself the goal to understand why do women who have undergone a mastectomy choose to dress their scars with decorative tattoos instead of attempting to regain ‘normalcy’ through breast reconstruction or 3D areola tattoos? The results obtained from the interviews with fifteen women showed that the disillusionment with one part of the other of breast restoration techniques had led these women to find an alternative form of healing that allows them not only to close a painful chapter of their life but also to regain control over their bodies after a period of time in which agency was taking away from them. Decorative post-mastectomy tattoos allow these women to grant their bodies with new meanings and produce their own interpretation of their feminine body and identity.

Keywords: alternative femininity, decorative mastectomy tattoos, gender embodiment, social stigmatization

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1304 A Mixed Methods Study: Evaluation of Experiential Learning Techniques throughout a Nursing Curriculum to Promote Empathy

Authors: Joan Esper Kuhnly, Jess Holden, Lynn Shelley, Nicole Kuhnly

Abstract:

Empathy serves as a foundational nursing principle inherent in the nurse’s ability to form those relationships from which to care for patients. Evidence supports, including empathy in nursing and healthcare education, but there is limited data on what methods are effective to do so. Building evidence supports experiential and interactive learning methods to be effective for students to gain insight and perspective from a personalized experience. The purpose of this project is to evaluate learning activities designed to promote the attainment of empathic behaviors across 5 levels of the nursing curriculum. Quantitative analysis will be conducted on data from pre and post-learning activities using the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. The main hypothesis, that simulation learning activities will increase empathy, will be examined using a repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on Pre and Post Toronto Empathy Questionnaire scores for three simulation activities (Stroke, Poverty, Dementia). Pearson product-moment correlations will be conducted to examine the relationships between continuous demographic variables, such as age, credits earned, and years practicing, with the dependent variable of interest, Post Test Toronto Empathy Scores. Krippendorff’s method of content analysis will be conducted to identify the quantitative incidence of empathic responses. The researchers will use Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method to describe the students’ simulation experience and understand its impact on caring and empathy behaviors employing bracketing to maintain objectivity. The results will be presented, answering multiple research questions. The discussion will be relevant to results and educational pedagogy in the nursing curriculum as they relate to the attainment of empathic behaviors.

Keywords: Simulation, Nursing, Curriculum, Empathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1