Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1203

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Psychological and Behavioral Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1203 Psychosocial Strategies Used by Individuals with Schizophrenia: An Analysis of Internet Forum Posts

Authors: Charisse H. Tay

Abstract:

Background: Schizophrenia is a severe chronic mental disorder that can result in hallucinations, delusions, reduced social engagement, and lack of motivation. While antipsychotic medications often provide the basis for treatment, psychosocial strategies complement the benefit of medications and can result in meaningful improvements in symptoms and functioning. The aim of the study was to investigate psychosocial strategies used by internet self-help forum participants to effectively manage symptoms caused by schizophrenia. Internet self-help forums are a resource for medical and psychological problems and are commonly used to share information about experiences with symptom management. Method: Three international self-help internet forums on schizophrenia were identified using a search engine. 1,181 threads regarding non-pharmacological, psychosocial self-management of schizophrenia symptoms underwent screening, resulting in the final identification and coding of 91 threads and 191 posts from 134 unique forum users that contained details on psychosocial strategies endorsed personally by users that allowed them to effectively manage symptoms of schizophrenia, including positive symptoms (e.g., auditory/visual/tactile hallucinations, delusions, paranoia), negative symptoms (e.g.., avolition, apathy, anhedonia), symptoms of distress, and cognitive symptoms (e.g., memory loss). Results: Effective symptom management strategies personally endorsed by online forum users were psychological skills (e.g., re-focusing, mindfulness/meditation, reality checking; n = 94), engaging in activities (e.g., exercise, working/volunteering, hobbies; n = 84), social/familial support (n = 48), psychotherapy (n = 33), diet (n = 18), and religion/spirituality (n = 14). 44.4% of users reported using more than one strategy to manage their symptoms. The most common symptoms targeted and effectively managed, as specified by users, were positive symptoms (n = 113), negative symptoms (n = 17), distress (n = 8), and memory loss (n = 6). 10.5% of users reported more than one symptom effectively targeted. 70.2% of users with positive symptoms reported that psychological skills were effective for symptom relief. 88% of users with negative symptoms and 75% with distress symptoms reported that engaging in activities was effective. Discussion: Individuals with schizophrenia rely on a variety of different psychosocial methods to manage their symptoms. Different symptomology appears to be more effectively targeted by different types of psychosocial strategies. This may help to inform treatment strategy and tailored for individuals with schizophrenia.

Keywords: psychosocial treatment, qualitative methods, schizophrenia, symptom management

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1202 Mental Health Literacy in Ghana: Consequences of Religiosity, Education, and Stigmatization

Authors: Peter Adu

Abstract:

Although research on the concept of Mental Health Literacy (MHL) is growing internationally, to the authors’ best of knowledge, the beliefs and knowledge of Ghanaians on specific mental disorders have not yet been explored. This vignette study was conducted to explore the relationships between religiosity, education, stigmatization, and MHL among Ghanaians using a sample of laypeople (N = 409). The adapted questionnaire presented two vignettes (depression and schizophrenia) about a hypothetical person. The results revealed that more participants were able to recognize depression (47.4%) than schizophrenia (15.9%). Religiosity was not significantly associated with recognition of mental disorders (MHL) but was positively related with both social and personal stigma for depression and negatively associated with personal and perceived stigma for schizophrenia. Moreover, education was found to relate positively with MHL and negatively with perceived stigma. Finally, perceived stigma was positively associated with MHL, whereas personal stigma for schizophrenia related negatively to MHL. In conclusion, education but not religiosity predicted identification accuracy, but both predictors were associated with various forms of stigma. Findings from this study have implications for MHL and anti-stigma campaigns in Ghana and other developing countries in the region.

Keywords: depression, education, mental health literacy, religiosity, schizophrenia

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1201 Students with Hearing Impairment and Their Access to Inclusive Education in Nagpur City, India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Avanika Gupta

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Education plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of a country. Inclusive education is considered as the most appropriate mode of teaching students with hearing impairment (SwHI) by various national and international legislations. But inclusive education is still an evolving concept among the disability studies scholars and policy makers in India. The study aimed to examine accessibility of SwHI in mainstream schools if there are special provisions for SwHI. The study also intended to identify if the provisions are same for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Using stratified random sampling technique, a school was selected from each of the six administrative zones of Nagpur city. All the selected schools had primary and secondary level education and were co-educational in nature. Interview with principals of these schools and focused-group- observation method showcased lack of accessibility for SwHI in attending schools. Not even a single school had a hearing impaired student, either deaf or hard-of-hearing depicting the double marginalization of SwHI. This is despite the fact that the right to education is a fundamental right in India, and national legislation on disability has special provisions for ensuring educational opportunities to SwHI. None of the schools even had an Indian Sign Language (ISL) instructor. Both observations seemed cause and effect of one another. One of the principals informed that they have seats for all students with disabilities but they usually lie vacant due to lack of awareness among the parents. One school had 2 students with locomotive impairment while another had a student with visual impairment. Principals of two special schools were also interviewed to understand the reason behind the low enrollment rate of SwHI in mainstream schools. Guardian preference, homogeneity, relatable faculty, familiar environment were some of the chief reasons mentioned. Few suggestions for the policymakers, teachers, guardians and the students are also recommended so that Indian education system could become inclusive in true sense.

Keywords: deaf, hard-of-hearing, inclusive education, India, Nagpur, students with hearing impairment

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1200 Spanish Language Violence Corpus: An Analysis of Offensive Language in Twitter

Authors: Beatriz Botella-Gil, Patricio Martínez-Barco, Lea Canales

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The Internet and ICT are an integral element of and omnipresent in our daily lives. Technologies have changed the way we see the world and relate to it. The number of companies in the ICT sector is increasing every year, and there has also been an increase in the work that occurs online, from sending e-mails to the way companies promote themselves. In social life, ICT’s have gained momentum. Social networks are useful for keeping in contact with family or friends that live far away. This change in how we manage our relationships using electronic devices and social media has been experienced differently depending on the age of the person. According to currently available data, people are increasingly connected to social media and other forms of online communication. Therefore, it is no surprise that violent content has also made its way to digital media. One of the important reasons for this is the anonymity provided by social media, which causes a sense of impunity in the victim. Moreover, it is not uncommon to find derogatory comments, attacking a person’s physical appearance, hobbies, or beliefs. This is why it is necessary to develop artificial intelligence tools that allow us to keep track of violent comments that relate to violent events so that this type of violent online behavior can be deterred. The objective of our research is to create a guide for detecting and recording violent messages. Our annotation guide begins with a study on the problem of violent messages. First, we consider the characteristics that a message should contain for it to be categorized as violent. Second, the possibility of establishing different levels of aggressiveness. To download the corpus, we chose the social network Twitter for its ease of obtaining free messages. We chose two recent, highly visible violent cases that occurred in Spain. Both of them experienced a high degree of social media coverage and user comments. Our corpus has a total of 633 messages, manually tagged, according to the characteristics we considered important, such as, for example, the verbs used, the presence of exclamations or insults, and the presence of negations. We consider it necessary to create wordlists that are present in violent messages as indicators of violence, such as lists of negative verbs, insults, negative phrases. As a final step, we will use automatic learning systems to check the data obtained and the effectiveness of our guide.

Keywords: human language technologies, language modelling, offensive language detection, violent online content

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1199 Food Security and Mental Health: A Qualitative Exploration of Mediating Factors in Rural and Urban Ghana

Authors: Emma Mathias

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The aim of this study was to explore the role of food insecurity as a mediator of mental health in sub-Saharan Africa, taking Ghana as a case study. Although a quantitative correlation has recently been established between food insecurity and mental illness in Ghana, the nature and validity of this correlation remains unclear. A qualitative exploration was employed to investigate this correlation further. During the data collection period, twelve semi-structured interviews and five focus groups were conducted with a total of 124 individuals who were diagnosed with mental illnesses and their primary carers throughout rural and urban areas in Ghana. Interviews and focus groups were transcribed, translated, and analysed using thematic analysis. Preliminary results suggest that food insecurity may plays a role in mental illness in rural areas of Ghana where communities are reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods, but may play a lesser role in urban areas where communities are more reliant on petty trade as a source of livelihood. These results support psychosocial theories which suggest that the social and cultural factors involved in food production and consumption may be the key mediators between food insecurity and mental health.

Keywords: Food insecurity, Ghana, Mental health, Phenomenology

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1198 The Effects of Self- and Partner Reported Attachment Orientations and Mate Retention Behaviors: Actor and Partner Effects in Romantic Couples

Authors: Jasna Hudek-Knezevic, Igor Kardum, Nada Krapic, Martina Jurcic

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of self- and partner reported attachment orientations on self-reported mate retention behaviors in romantic couples using the actor-partner interdependence model. The study was carried out on 187 heterosexual couples aged from 18 to 35 years, with an average relationship length of 4.5 years. Participants were asked to complete the revised scale of adult attachment and short form of mate retention inventory. Actor and partner effects of self- and partner reported anxious and avoidant attachment orientations on mate retention categories (direct guarding, intersexual negative inducements, positive inducements, public signals of possession and intrasexual negative inducements) and domains (cost-inflicting and benefit-provisioning), as well on overall mate retention were examined. Actor effects for women estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their own mate retention behaviors, whereas men’s actor effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their own mate retention behaviors. Women’s partner effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their partner’s mate retention behaviors, whereas men’s partner effects estimate whether their attachment orientations predict their partner’s mate retention behaviors. The use of two data sources, self- and partner reports, allow the control of the effects of common method variance when exploring actor and partner effects. Positive actor and partner effects of anxious attachment, as well as negative actor and partner effects of avoidant attachment on mate retention, were expected. In other words, it was expected that more anxiously attached individuals themselves, as well as their partners, will use mate retention behaviors more frequently. On the other hand, more avoidantly attached individuals themselves, as well as their partners, will use mate retention behaviors less frequently. These hypotheses were partially confirmed. The results showed that the strongest and most consistent effects across both data sources were men’s actor effects on the cost-inflicting mate retention domain, and especially on two mate retention categories, direct guarding, and intersexual negative inducements. Additionally, a consistent positive partner effect of men’s anxious attachment orientations on direct guarding was also obtained. Avoidant attachment orientation exerted few and inconsistent actor and partner effects on mate retention domains and categories. The results are explained by theoretical propositions addressing the effects of attachment orientations on an interpersonal romantic relationship in early adulthood.

Keywords: actor and partner effects, attachment orientations, dyadic analysis, mate retention behavior

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1197 From Preoccupied Attachment Pattern to Depression: Serial Mediation Model on the Female Sample

Authors: Tatjana Stefanovic Stanojevic, Milica Tosic Radev, Aleksandra Bogdanovic

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Depression is considered to be a leading cause of death and disability in the female population, and that is the reason why understanding the dynamics of the onset of depressive symptomatology is important. A review of the literature indicates the relationship between depressive symptoms and insecure attachment patterns, but very few studies have examined the mechanism underlying this relation. The aim of the study was to examine the pathway from the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptomatology, as well as to test the mediation effect of mentalization, social anxiety and rumination in this relationship using a serial mediation model. The research was carried out on a geographical cluster sample from the general population of Serbia included within the project ‘Indicators and models of family and work roles harmonization’ funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. This research was carried out on a subsample of 791 working-age female adults from 37 urban and rural locations distributed through 20 administrative districts of Serbia. The respondents filled in a battery of instruments, including Relationship Questionnaire - Clinical Version (RQ - CV), The Mentalization Scale (MentS), Scale of Social Anxiety (SA), Patient Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ), Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The results confirm our assumption that the total indirect effect of the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptoms is significant across all mediators separately. More importantly, this effect is still present in a model with a sequential mediator relationship, where social anxiety, rumination, and mentalization were perceived as serial mediators of a relationship between preoccupied attachment and depressive symptoms (estimated indirect effect=0.004, boot-strapped 95% CI=0.002 to 0.007). Our findings suggest that there is a significant specific indirect effect of the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptoms, occurring through mentalization, social anxiety and rumination, indicating that preoccupied attachment cause decrease of a self related mentalization, which in turn causes increasing of social anxiety and rumination, concluding in depressive symptoms as a final consequence. The finding that the path from the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptoms is typical in women is understandable from the perspective of both evolutionary and culturally conditioned gender differences. The practical implications of the study are reflected in the recommendations for the prevention and forehand psychotherapy response among preoccupied women with depressive symptomatology. Treatment of this specific group of depressed patients should be focused on strengthening mentalization, learning to accept and to understand herself better, reducing anxiety in situations where mistakes are visible to others, and replacing the rumination strategy with more constructive coping strategies.

Keywords: preoccupied attachment, depression, serial mediation model, mentalization, rumination

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1196 Disassociating Preferences from Evaluations Towards Pseudo Drink Brands

Authors: Micah Amd

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Preferences towards unfamiliar drink brands can be predictably influenced following correlations of subliminally-presented brands (CS) with positively valenced attributes (US). Alternatively, evaluations towards subliminally-presented CS may be more variable, suggesting that CS-evoked evaluations may disassociate from CS-associated preferences following subliminal CS-US conditioning. We assessed this hypothesis over three experiments (Ex1, Ex2, Ex3). Across each experiment, participants first provided preferences and evaluations towards meaningless trigrams (CS) as a baseline, followed by conditioning and a final round of preference and evaluation measurements. During conditioning, four pairs of subliminal and supraliminal/visible CS were respectively correlated with four US categories varying along aggregate valence (e.g., 100% positive, 80% positive, 40% positive, 0% positive – for Ex1 and Ex2). Across Ex1 and Ex2, presentation durations for subliminal CS were 34 and 17 milliseconds, respectively. Across Ex3, aggregate valences of the four US categories were altered (75% positive, 55% positive, 45% positive, 25% positive). Valence across US categories was manipulated to address a supplemental query of whether US-to-CS valence transfer was summative or integrative. During analysis, we computed two sets of difference scores reflecting pre-post preference and evaluation performances, respectively. These were subjected to Bayes tests. Across all experiments, results illustrated US-to-CS valence transfer was most likely to shift evaluations for visible CS, but least likely to shift evaluations for subliminal CS. Alternatively, preferences were likely to shift following correlations with single-valence categories (e.g., 100% positive, 100% negative) across both visible and subliminal CS. Our results suggest that CS preferences can be influenced through subliminal conditioning even as CS evaluations remain unchanged, supporting our central hypothesis. As for whether transfer effects are summative/integrative, our results were more mixed; a comparison of relative likelihoods revealed that preferences are more likely to reflect summative effects whereas evaluations reflect integration, independent of visibility condition.

Keywords: subliminal conditioning, evaluations, preferences, valence transfer

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1195 Micro-Rest: Extremely Short Breaks in Post-Learning Interference Support Memory Retention over the Long Term

Authors: R. Marhenke, M. Martini

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The distraction of attentional resources after learning hinders long-term memory consolidation compared to several minutes of post-encoding inactivity in form of wakeful resting. We tested whether an 8-minute period of wakeful resting, compared to performing an adapted version of the d2 test of attention after learning, supports memory retention. Participants encoded and immediately recalled a word list followed by either an 8 minute period of wakeful resting (eyes closed, relaxed) or by performing an adapted version of the d2 test of attention (scanning and selecting specific characters while ignoring others). At the end of the experimental session (after 12-24 min) and again after 7 days, participants were required to complete a surprise free recall test of both word lists. Our results showed no significant difference in memory retention between the experimental conditions. However, we found that participants who completed the first lines of the d2 test in less than the given time limit of 20 seconds and thus had short unfilled intervals before switching to the next test line, remembered more words over the 12-24 minute and over the 7 days retention interval than participants who did not complete the first lines. This interaction occurred only for the first test lines, with the highest temporal proximity to the encoding task and not for later test lines. Differences in retention scores between groups (completed first line vs. did not complete) seem to be widely independent of the general performance in the d2 test. Implications and limitations of these exploratory findings are discussed.

Keywords: long-term memory, retroactive interference, attention, forgetting

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1194 Perfectionism, Self-Compassion, and Emotion Dysregulation: An Exploratory Analysis of Mediation Models in an Eating Disorder Sample

Authors: Sarah Potter, Michele Laliberte

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As eating disorders are associated with high levels of chronicity, impairment, and distress, it is paramount to evaluate factors that may improve treatment outcomes in this group. Individuals with eating disorders exhibit elevated levels of perfectionism and emotion dysregulation, as well as reduced self-compassion. These variables are related to eating disorder outcomes, including shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment. Thus, these factors may be tenable targets for treatment within eating disorder populations. However, the relative contributions of perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and self-compassion to the severity of shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment remain largely unexplored. In the current study, mediation analyses were conducted to clarify how perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and self-compassion are linked to shape/weight concerns and psychosocial impairment. The sample was comprised of 85 patients from an outpatient eating disorder clinic. The patients completed self-report measures of perfectionism, self-compassion, emotion dysregulation, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment. Specifically, emotion dysregulation was assessed as a mediator in the relationships between (1) perfectionism and shape/weight concerns, (2) self-compassion and shape/weight concerns, (3) perfectionism and psychosocial impairment, and (4) self-compassion and psychosocial impairment. It was postulated that emotion dysregulation would significantly mediate relationships in the former two models. An a priori hypothesis was not constructed in reference to the latter models, as these analyses were preliminary and exploratory in nature. The PROCESS macro for SPSS was utilized to perform these analyses. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between perfectionism and eating disorder outcomes. In the link between self-compassion and psychosocial impairment, emotion dysregulation partially mediated this relationship. Finally, emotion dysregulation did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-compassion and shape/weight concerns. The results suggest that emotion dysregulation and self-compassion may be suitable targets to decrease the severity of psychosocial impairment and shape/weight concerns in individuals with eating disorders. Further research is required to determine the stability of these models over time, between diagnostic groups, and in nonclinical samples.

Keywords: eating disorders, emotion dysregulation, perfectionism, self-compassion

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1193 System Contextual Integrated Model for Behavioral Health

Authors: Raymond C. Hawkins, Catherine A. Hawkins

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The system contextual integrated model (SCIM), developed as a trans-theoretical framework for selecting measures for the psychotherapy process and outcome, is reformulated for behavioral health applications. The SCIM ‘healing cycle’ is an allostatic hedonic affective-cognitive right-hemisphere – left hemisphere coordinated process involving positive alliesthesia that mitigates traumatic pain and generates psychological flexibility. The SCIM ‘trauma cycle’ is an allostatic overload alliesthesia opponent process with long-lasting pathology sequelae. The social ecological context moderates the ‘healing cycle’ and the ‘trauma cycle.’ Repeated evocation of the ‘healing cycle’ in a therapeutic relationship can gradually relieve trauma sequelae. The SCIM is applied to pain, obese binge eating, and substance use disorders.

Keywords: allostasis, alliesthesia, opponent process, behavioral health

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1192 Investigating Role of Traumatic Events in a Pakistani Sample

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque

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The claim that traumatic events influence the recalled memories and mental health has received mixed empirical support. This study examines the memories of a sample drawn from Pakistan, a country that has witnessed many life-changing socio-political events, wars, and natural disasters in 72 years of its history. A sample of 210 senior citizens (Mage = 64.35, SD = 6.33) was recruited from Pakistan. The aim was to investigate if participants retrieved more memories related to past traumatic events using a word-cueing technique. Each participant reported ten memories to ten neutral cue words. The results revealed that past traumatic events were not adversely affecting the memories and mental health of participants. When memories were plotted with respect to the ages at which the events happened, a pronounced bump at 11-20 years of age was seen. Memories within as well as outside of the bump were mostly positive. The multilevel logistic regression modelling showed that the memories recalled were personally important and played a role in enhancing resilience. The findings revealed that despite facing an array of ethnic, religious, political, economic, and social conflicts, the participants were resilient, recalled predominantly positive memories, and had intact mental health. The findings have clinical implications in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The patients can be made aware of their negative emotions, troublesome/traumatic memories, and the distorted thinking patterns and their memories can be restructured. The findings can also be used to teach Memory Specificity Training (MEST) by psycho-educating the patients around changes in memory functioning and enhancing the recall of memories, which are more specific, vivid, and filled with sensory details.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, memories, mental health, resilience, trauma

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1191 Sexual Consent: Exploring the Perceptions of Heterosexual, Gay, and Bisexual Men

Authors: Shulamit Sternin, Raymond M. McKie, Carter Winberg, Robb N. Travers, Terry P. Humphreys, Elke D. Reissing

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Issues surrounding sexual consent negotiation have become a major topic of societal concern. The majority of current research focuses on the complexities of sexual consent negotiations and the multitude of nuanced issues that surround the consent obtainment of heterosexual adults in post-secondary educational institutions. To date, the only study that has addressed sexual consent negotiation behaviour in same-sex relationships focused on the extent to which individuals used a variety of different verbal and nonverbal sexual consent behaviours to initiate or respond to sexual activity. The results were consistent with trends found within heterosexual individuals; thus, suggesting that the current understanding of sexual consent negotiation, which is grounded in heterosexual research, can serve as a strong foundation for further exploration of sexual consent negotiation within same-sex relationships populations. The current study quantitatively investigated the differences between heterosexual men and gay and bisexual men (GBM) in their understanding of sexual consent negotiation. Exploring how the perceptions of GBM differ from heterosexual males provides insight into some of the unique challenges faced by GBM. Data were collected from a sample of 252 heterosexual men and 314 GBM from Canada, the United States, and Western Europe. Participants responded to the question, 'do you think sexual consent and sex negotiation is different for heterosexual men compared to gay men? If so, how?' by completed an online survey. Responses were analysed following Braun & Clarke’s (2006) six phase thematic analysis guidelines. Inter-rater coding was validated using Cohen’s Kappa value and was calculated at (ϰ = 0.84), indicating a very strong level of agreement between raters. The final thematic structure yielded four major themes: understanding of sexual interaction, unique challenges, scripted role, and universal consent. Respondents spoke to their understanding of sexual interaction, believing GBM sexual consent negotiation to be faster and more immediate. This was linked to perceptions of emotional attachment and the idea that sexual interaction and emotional involvement were distinct and separate processes in GBM sexual consent negotiation, not believed to be the case in heterosexual interactions. Unique challenges such as different protection concerns, role declaration, and sexualization of spaces were understood to hold differing levels of consideration for heterosexual men and GBM. The perception of a clearly defined sexual script for GBM was suggested as a factor that may create ambiguity surrounding sexual consent negotiation, which in turn holds significant implications on unwanted sexual experiences for GBM. Broadening the scope of the current understanding of sexual consent negotiation by focusing on heterosexual and GBM population, the current study has revealed variations in perception of sexual consent negotiation between these two populations. These differences may be understood within the context of sexual scripting theory and masculinity gender role theory. We suggest that sexual consent negotiation is a health risk factor for GBM that has not yet been adequately understood and addressed. Awareness of the perceptions that surround the sexual consent negotiation of both GBM and heterosexual men holds implications on public knowledge, which in turn can better inform policy making, education, future research, and clinical treatment.

Keywords: sexual consent, negotiation, heterosexual men, GBM, sexual script

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1190 The Contribution of Buddhist-Based Mindfulness Practices on Ethical Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Organizational Leaders in Thailand

Authors: Kunkanit Sutamchai, Kate E. Rowlands

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Recent public ethical scandals in many organizations around the world have raised concern about organizational ethics, which have, in turn, made ethical behaviors and conducts on the part of leaders become more critical topics in organizational studies. However, current research on the benefits of mindfulness within the workplace contexts has predominantly focused on stress reduction and work performance enhancement, while the aspects of ethical behavior development have been far less investigated in mindfulness research in the organizational and management fields. Only recently has there been an emerging call for organizational researchers and practitioners to study mindfulness concepts and practices from the original Buddhist perspectives given that ethics is regarded as a foundation for Buddhist mindfulness. Yet little, if any, empirical research on the contributions of mindfulness practices to ethical leadership has been done in Eastern Buddhist contexts. Therefore, this study aims to explore the extent to which and how Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can influence organizational leaders’ ethical values and practices. On this basis, Thailand was selected as a context of study due to a predominantly Buddhist society and culture. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews with twenty executive leaders from various private organizations in Thailand, who practice Buddhist-based mindfulness meditation regularly. The findings from this study shed light on the role Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can play in promoting ethical behavior among executive leaders in Thailand. The results also suggest that ethical values and practices influenced by Buddhist-based mindfulness practices are well aligned with the elements appeared in the inter-disciplinary and cross-cultural ethical leadership framework, namely: humane, justice, sustainability and responsibility, and moderation. This study concludes that the integration of ethical dimensions to mindfulness practices may provide promising opportunities for ethical leadership development, particularly in the context of Thailand. This could contribute significantly to the future development of both organizations and society at large. The study also suggests that mindfulness interventions in organizational contexts should place more explicit emphasis on ethics. This may be done by relating the ethical principles underlying Buddhist-based mindfulness to other ethical systems in different contexts and cultures where they can be aligned.

Keywords: Buddhism, ethical leadership, leadership development, mindfulness, Thailand, training

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1189 Human Intelligence: A Corollary of Genotype and Habitat

Authors: Tripureshwari Paul

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We are born with nature molded by nurture. Studies have confirmed the productive role of genes and environment on an individual. This study examines the relationship of parental genotype values on the intellectual ability of their children. Keeping in mind that academic achievement-learning capacity of student through normative education, a function of exposure to family environment and pathology with intellectual quotient of the individual. Purposive sampling was used and children between ages 11 and 12 years and their respective parents were involved. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM), Family Pathology Scale (FPS) and Family Environment Scale (FES) were administered. The results found significant relationship of Offspring IQ to Parental IQ, maternal IQ demonstrating higher values of correlation. Female IQ was significant to maternal IQ and male IQ was significant to paternal IQ. With Academic Achievement not significantly correlated to IQ, it was determined that Competitive framework, freedom to expression and Recreational Orientation in family affect a child’s intellectual performance.

Keywords: academic achievement, environment, family environment, family pathology, genotype, intelligence quotient, maternal IQ, paternal IQ

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1188 Predictors of Rumination and Co-Rumination: The Role of Attachment Dimensions, Self-Compassion and Self-Esteem

Authors: Asli Bugay Sökmez, Elif Manuoglu, Muhammet Coskun, Nebi̇ Sümer

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Decades of research have searched out the relationships between self-esteem, self-compassion, attachment, and rumination. Yet, unique mediated and moderated predictor power of these correlates of rumination has not been discovered yet. Moreover, no study examined whether these critical correlates of rumination specifically predict sub-dimensions of rumination that are reflection and brooding. Despite the broad range of study regarding predictors of rumination, a huge gap exists for the possible predictors of co-rumination. To address these issues, the present study mainly investigates the predictor roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and attachment on dimensions of rumination (brooding and reflection) and co-rumination, especially the mediating and moderating roles of these predictor variables. 510 undergraduate and graduate students from different departments of a major state university in Turkey participated in the current study. The mean age of the participants was 21.8 (SD = 2.29) and 57.3% of them were female. Overall analyses revealed that self-compassion and attachment anxiety was negatively correlated with both co-rumination and brooding. Surprisingly, while attachment anxiety significantly and positively predicted reflection, attachment avoidance predicted reflection negatively. Moreover, anxiety, avoidance and self-compassion all were found to be significant predictor variables of co-rumination. Finally, as expected, a moderating effect of self-compassion revealed in predicting reflection and showed as a mediator in predicting brooding and co-rumination. All findings were discussed in light of the related literature.

Keywords: rumination, co-rumination, attachment, self-compassion, self-esteem

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1187 How the Current Opioid Crisis Differs from the Heroin Epidemic of the 1960s-1970s: An Analysis of Drugs and Demographics

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

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Heroin has appeared on the drug scene before. Yet the current opioid crisis differs in significant ways. In order to address the grave challenges, this epidemic poses, the unique precipitating and sustaining conditions must be thoroughly examined. This research explored the various aspects of the political, economic, and social conditions that created a 'perfect storm' for the evolution and maintenance of the current opioid crisis. Specifically, the epidemiology, demographics, and progression of addiction inherent in the current crisis were compared to the patterns of past opioid use. Additionally, the role of pharmaceutical companies and prescribing physicians, the nature and pharmaceutical properties of the available substances and the changing socioeconomic climate were considered. Results indicated that the current crisis differs significantly with respect to its evolution, magnitude, prevalence, and widespread societal effects. Precipitated by a proliferation of prescription medication and sustained by the availability of cheaper, more potent street drugs, including new versions of synthetic opioids, the current crisis presents unprecedented challenges affecting a wider and more diverse segment of society. The unique aspects of this epidemic demand unique approaches to addressing the problem. Understanding these differences is a key step in working toward a practical and enduring solution.

Keywords: addiction, drug abuse, opioids, opioid crisis

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1186 An Engineered Epidemic: Big Pharma's Role in the Opioid Crisis

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

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2019 marked 23 years since Purdue Pharma launched its flagship drug, OxyContin, that unleashed an unprecedented epidemic touching both celebrities and common citizens, metropolitan, suburbia and rural areas and all levels of socioeconomic status. From rural Appalachia to East LA individuals, families and communities have been devastated by a trajectory of addiction that often began with the legitimate prescription of a pain killer for anything from a tooth extraction to a sports injury to recovery from surgery or chronic arthritis. Far from being a serendipitous progression of events, the proliferation of this new breed of 'miracle drug' was instead a carefully crafted marketing program aimed at both the medical community and common citizens. This research represents and in-depth investigation of the evolution of the marketing, distribution and promotion of prescription opioids by pharmaceutical companies and its relationship to the propagation of the opioid crisis. Specifically, key components of Purdue Pharma’s aggressive marketing campaign, including its bonus system and sales incentives, were analyzed in the context of the sociopolitical environment that essential created the proverbial 'perfect storm' for the changing manner in which pain is treated in the U.S. The analyses of these series of events clearly indicate their role in first, the increase in prescription of opioids for non-terminal pain relief and subsequently, the incidence of related addiction, overdose, and death. Through this examination of the conditions that facilitated and maintained this drug crisis, perhaps we can begin to chart a course toward its resolution.

Keywords: addiction, opioid, opioid crisis, Purdue Pharma

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1185 Neuropsychological Testing in a Multi-Lingual Society: Normative Data for South African Adults in More Than Eight Languages

Authors: Sharon Truter, Ann B. Shuttleworth-Edwards

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South Africa is a developing country with significant diversity in languages spoken and quality of education available, creating challenges for fair and accurate neuropsychological assessments when most available neuropsychological tests are obtained from English-speaking developed countries. The aim of this research was to compare normative data on a spectrum of commonly used neuropsychological tests for English- and Afrikaans-speaking South Africans with relatively high quality of education and South Africans with relatively low quality of education who speak Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa or Zulu. The participants were all healthy adults aged 18-60 years, with 8-12 years of education. All the participants were tested in their first language on the following tests: two non-verbal tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and Bell Cancellation Test), four verbal fluency tests (category, phonemic, verb and 'any words'), one verbal learning test (Rey Auditory Verbal Leaning Test) and three tests that have a verbal component (Trail Making Test A & B; Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Digit Span). Descriptive comparisons of mean scores and standard deviations across the language groups and between the groups with relatively high versus low quality of education highlight the importance of using normative data that takes into account language and quality of education.

Keywords: cross-cultural, language, multi-lingual, neuropsychological testing, quality of education

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1184 Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being: An Experimental Study Using a Mobile App as Intervention

Authors: Beeto W. C. Leung, Nicole C. Y. Lee

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It was well known that college students experienced a high level of stress and anxiety. College athletes, a special group of college students, may even encounter a higher level of pressure and distress due to their dual endeavors in academic and athletic settings. Due to the high demands and costs of mental health services, easily accessible, web-based self-help interventions are getting more popular. The aim of the present experimental study was to examine the potential intervention effect of a mindfulness-based self-help mobile App, called 'Smiling Mind', on mindfulness and psychological well-being. Forty-six college athletes, recruited from athletic teams of two local universities in Hong Kong, were randomly assigned to the Mindfulness App Group (MAG) and the Control Group (CG). All participants were administered the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 before the study (Time 1, T1) and after the 4-week intervention (Time 2, T2). MAG was requested to use the app and follow the instructions every day for at least 5 days per week. Participants were also asked to record their daily app usage time. Results showed that, for MAG, from T1 to T2, mindfulness has been increased from 3.25 to 3.92; depressive symptoms and stress has been significantly decreased from 8.6 to 5.1 and 24.8 to 13.5 respectively while for the CG, mindfulness has been decreased slightly from 3.29 to 3.13; depressive symptoms and stress has been slightly increased from 7.1 to 7.3 and 24.1 to 27.1 respectively. Three mixed-design ANOVAs with time (T1, T2) as the within-subjects factor and intervention group (MAG, CG) as the between-subjects factor revealed a main effect of time on mindfulness, F(1, 41) = 10.28, p < 0.01, depressive symptoms, F(1, 41) = 6.55, p < 0.02 and stress, F(1, 41) = 16.96, p < 0.001 respectively. Both predicted interaction between time and intervention group on mindfulness, F(1, 41) = 26.6, p < 0.001, ηp 2 =0.39, depressive symptoms, F(1, 41) = 8.00, p < 0.01, ηp 2 =0.16 and Stress F(1, 41) = 49.3, p < 0.001, ηp 2 =0.55 were significant meaning that participants using the Mindfulness Mobile App in the intervention did experienced a significant increase in mindfulness and significant decrease in depressive symptoms and perceived level of stress after the 4-week intervention when compared with the control group. The present study provided encouraging empirical support for using Smiling Mind, a self-help mobile app, to promote mindfulness and mental health in a cost-effective way. Further studies should examine the potential use of Smiling Mind in different samples, including children and adolescence, as well as, investigate the lasting effects of using the app on other psychosocial outcomes such as emotional regulations.

Keywords: college athletes, experimental study, mindfulness mobile apps, psychological well-being

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1183 Numerical and Experimental Comparison of Surface Pressures around a Scaled Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion System

Authors: Lior Oren, Abira Reizer

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Purpose: This field study examines the joint effects of group cohesion and group efficacy on attachment dimensions in predicting organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) using a multilevel perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Data was collected from 180 workers who took part in a nine-week training course. Upon start of training, participants completed questionnaires assessing their attachment dimensions and OCBs. Upon conclusion participants completed questionnaires assessing group cohesion, group efficacy, and OCBs. Findings: Using hierarchical linear modeling, both, group cohesion and group efficacy were found to increase OCBs. In addition, attachment anxiety was found to moderate the associations between both, group efficacy and group cohesion and OCBs. Originality/value:The results emphasize the joint effects of group and individual level variables in predicting OCBs. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: attachment, group cohesion, group efficacy, organizational citizenship behaviors

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1182 The Lasting Impact of Parental Conflict on Self-Differentiation of Young Adult OffspringThe Lasting Impact of Parental Conflict on Self-Differentiation of Young Adult Offspring

Authors: A. Benedetto, P. Wong, N. Papouchis, L. W. Samstag

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Bowen’s concept of self-differentiation describes a healthy balance of autonomy and intimacy in close relationships, and it has been widely researched in the context of family dynamics. The current study aimed to clarify the impact of family dysfunction on self-differentiation by specifically examining conflict between parents, and by including young adults, an underexamined age group in this domain (N = 300; ages 18 to 30). It also identified a protective factor for offspring from conflictual homes. The 300 young adults (recruited online through Mechanical Turk) completed the Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI), the Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC), the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Analyses revealed that interparental conflict significantly impairs self-differentiation among young adult offspring. Specifically, exposure to parental conflict showed a negative impact on young adults’ sense of self, emotional reactivity, and interpersonal cutoff in the context of close relationships. Parental conflict was also related to increased psychological distress among offspring. Surprisingly, the study found that parental divorce does not impair self-differentiation in offspring, demonstrating the distinctly harmful impact of conflict. These results clarify a unique type of family dysfunction that impairs self-differentiation, specifically in distinguishing it from parental divorce; it examines young adults, a critical age group not previously examined in this domain; and it identifies a moderating protective factor (a strong parent-child bond) for offspring exposed to conflict. Overall, results suggest the need for modifications in parental behavior in order to protect offspring at risk of lasting emotional and interpersonal damage.

Keywords: divorce, family dysfunction, parental conflict, parent-child bond, relationships, self-differentiation, young adults

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1181 The Effects of Goal-Setting and Feedback on Inhibitory Performance

Authors: Mami Miyasaka, Kaichi Yanaoka

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most important neurodevelopmental disorders. It is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; one or more of these symptoms often manifest during childhood. The development of inhibitory processes in children with ADHD is impaired compared to those without ADHD. Inhibitory control allows people to avoid processing unnecessary stimuli and to behave appropriately in various situations. The improvement of inhibitory control has been widely researched. Both the studies attempting to elucidate the mechanisms of ADHD symptoms and those focusing on interventions have found that positive or negative reinforcements help improve the performance of children with such difficulties. However, in order to optimize their impact, reward and punishment must be presented immediately following the relevant behavior. Realistically, such individual support is difficult to implement in regular elementary school classrooms. Hence, an alternative intervention method that does not rely on reward and punishment is required in practice. Additionally, independent goal-setting is related to subsequent academic achievement. Consequently, goal-setting may also be effective in improving inhibitory performance in children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. Japanese elementary school children and their parents comprised the sample for this study. Each child participated in this experiment separately. Children performed two kinds of go/no-go tasks while, in a different room, parents completed a checklist about their children’s ADHD symptoms: The ADHD Rating Scale-IV and the Conners 3rd edition. The go/no-go task is a cognitive activity to measure inhibitory performance. Children, sitting in front of a computer, were asked to press a key on the keyboard when a particular symbol appeared on the screen (go stimulus) and to refrain from doing so when another symbol was displayed (no-go stimulus). Errors obtained in response to a no-go stimulus indicated inhibitory impairment. To examine the effect of goal-setting on inhibitory control, half the children were required to set a performance goal and the remainder were not. No children were informed of their scores for one go/no-go task; however, scores were revealed for another of these tasks. This is because children with ADHD have difficulty monitoring their own performance, perceiving their errors, and correcting their behavior. Specifically, it is possible that children with severe ADHD-related symptoms have difficulty monitoring their current performance and setting reasonable goals accordingly. In this study, we examined whether goal-setting improved inhibitory performance and necessity for feedback. In this case, goal-setting was effective only for children with mild ADHD-related symptoms, and when it was based on feedback in children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. This study is likely to contribute both to the development of theory regarding the cognitive processes of children with ADHD and related intervention methods.

Keywords: inhibitory control, goal-setting, feedback, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, go/no-go task

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1180 Archetypes in the Rorschach Inkblots: Imparting Universal Meaning in the Face of Ambiguity

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

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The theory of archetypes contends that themes based on universal foundational images reside in and are transmitted generationally through the collective unconscious, which is referenced throughout an individual’s experience in order to make sense of that experience. There is then, a profoundly visceral and instinctive agreement on the gestalt of these universal themes and how they apply to the human condition throughout space and time. The inherent nature of projective tests, such as the Rorschach Inkblot, necessitates that the stimulus is ambiguous and thus elicits responses that reflect the unconscious inner psyche of the respondent. As the development of the Rorschach inkblots was relatively random and serendipitous - i.e., the inkblots were not engineered to elicit a specifically defined response - it would stand to reason that without a collective unconscious, every individual would interpret the inkblots in an individualized and unique way. Yet this is not the case. Instead, common themes appear in the images of the inkblots and their interpretation that reflect this deeper iconic understanding. This study analyzed the ten Rorschach inkblots in terms of Jungian archetypes, both with respect to the form of images on each plate and the commonly observed themes in responses. Examples of the archetypes were compared to each of the inkblots, with subsequent descriptions matched to the standard responses. The findings yielded clear and distinct instances of the universal symbolism intrinsic in the inkblot images as well as ubiquitous throughout the responses. This project illustrates the influence of the theories of psychologist Carl Gustav Jung on the interpretation of the ambiguous stimuli. It further serves to demonstrate the merit of Jungian psychology as a valuable tool with which to understand the nature of projective tests in general, Rorschach’s work specifically, and ultimately the broader implications for our collective unconscious and common humanity.

Keywords: archetypes, inkblots, projective tests, Rorschach

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1179 The Role of Brooding and Reflective as Subtypes of Rumination toward Psychological Distress in University of Indonesia First-Year Undergraduate Students

Authors: Hepinda Fajari Nuharini, Sugiarti A. Musabiq

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Background: Various and continuous pressures that exceed individual resources can cause first-year undergraduate college students to experience psychological distress. Psychological distress can occur when individuals use rumination as cognitive coping strategies. Rumination is one of the cognitive coping strategies that can be used by individuals to respond to psychological distress that causes individuals to think about the causes and consequences of events that have occurred. Rumination had two subtypes, such as brooding and reflective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was determining the role of brooding and reflective as subtypes of rumination toward psychological distress in University of Indonesia first-year undergraduate students. Methods: Participants of this study were 403 University of Indonesia first-year undergraduate students aged between 18 and 21 years old. Psychological distress measured using self reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) and brooding and reflective as subtypes of rumination measured using Ruminative Response Scale - Short Version (RRS - Short Version). Results: Binary logistic regression analyses showed that 22.8% of the variation in psychological distress could be explained by the brooding and reflective as subtypes of rumination, while 77.2% of the variation in psychological distress could be explained by other factors (Nagelkerke R² = 0,228). The results of the binary logistic regression analysis also showed rumination subtype brooding is a significant predictor of psychological distress (b = 0,306; p < 0.05), whereas rumination subtype reflective is not a significant predictor of psychological distress (b = 0,073; p > 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed a positive relationship between brooding and psychological distress indicates that a higher level of brooding will predict higher psychological distress. Meanwhile, a negative relationship between reflective and psychological distress indicates a higher level of reflective will predict lower psychological distress in University of Indonesia first-year undergraduate students. Added Values: The psychological distress among first-year undergraduate students would then have an impact on student academic performance. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as a reference for making preventive action to reduce the percentage and impact of psychological distress among first-year undergraduate students.

Keywords: brooding as subtypes of rumination, first-year undergraduate students, psychological distress, reflective as subtypes of rumination

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1178 Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Prefrontal Cognitive Functions in Adolescents

Authors: Nurcihan Kiris

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Restricted sleep is common in young adults and adolescents. The results of a few objective studies of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance were not clarified. In particular, the effect of sleep deprivation on the cognitive functions associated with frontal lobe such as attention, executive functions, working memory is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of partial sleep deprivation experimentally in adolescents on the cognitive tasks of frontal lobe including working memory, strategic thinking, simple attention, continuous attention, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. Subjects of the study were recruited from voluntary students of Cukurova University. Eighteen adolescents underwent four consecutive nights of monitored sleep restriction (6–6.5 hr/night) and four nights of sleep extension (10–10.5 hr/night), in counterbalanced order, and separated by a washout period. Following each sleep period, cognitive performance was assessed, at a fixed morning time, using a computerized neuropsychological battery based on frontal lobe functions task, a timed test providing both accuracy and reaction time outcome measures. Only the spatial working memory performance of cognitive tasks was found to be statistically lower in a restricted sleep condition than the extended sleep condition. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the performance of cognitive tasks evaluating simple attention, constant attention, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. It is thought that especially the spatial working memory and strategic thinking skills of adolescents may be susceptible to sleep deprivation. On the other hand, adolescents are predicted to be optimally successful in ideal sleep conditions, especially in the circumstances requiring for the short term storage of visual information, processing of stored information, and strategic thinking. The findings of this study may also be associated with possible negative functional effects on the processing of academic social and emotional inputs in adolescents for partial sleep deprivation. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Cukurova University Scientific Research Projects Unit.

Keywords: attention, cognitive functions, sleep deprivation, working memory

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1177 The Use of Social Stories and Digital Technology as Interventions for Autistic Children; A State-Of-The-Art Review and Qualitative Data Analysis

Authors: S. Hussain, C. Grieco, M. Brosnan

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Background and Aims: Autism is a complex neurobehavioural disorder, characterised by impairments in the development of language and communication skills. The study involved a state-of-art systematic review, in addition to qualitative data analysis, to establish the evidence for social stories as an intervention strategy for autistic children. An up-to-date review of the use of digital technologies in the delivery of interventions to autistic children was also carried out; to propose the efficacy of digital technologies and the use of social stories to improve intervention outcomes for autistic children. Methods: Two student researchers reviewed a range of randomised control trials and observational studies. The aim of the review was to establish if there was adequate evidence to justify recommending social stories to autistic patients. Students devised their own search strategies to be used across a range of search engines, including Ovid-Medline, Google Scholar and PubMed. Students then critically appraised the generated literature. Additionally, qualitative data obtained from a comprehensive online questionnaire on social stories was also thematically analysed. The thematic analysis was carried out independently by each researcher, using a ‘bottom-up’ approach, meaning contributors read and analysed responses to questions and devised semantic themes from reading the responses to a given question. The researchers then placed each response into a semantic theme or sub-theme. The students then joined to discuss the merging of their theme headings. The Inter-rater reliability (IRR) was calculated before and after theme headings were merged, giving IRR for pre- and post-discussion. Lastly, the thematic analysis was assessed by a third researcher, who is a professor of psychology and the director for the ‘Centre for Applied Autism Research’ at the University of Bath. Results: A review of the literature, as well as thematic analysis of qualitative data found supporting evidence for social story use. The thematic analysis uncovered some interesting themes from the questionnaire responses, relating to the reasons why social stories were used and the factors influencing their effectiveness in each case. However, overall, the evidence for digital technologies interventions was limited, and the literature could not prove a causal link between better intervention outcomes for autistic children and the use of technologies. However, they did offer valid proposed theories for the suitability of digital technologies for autistic children. Conclusions: Overall, the review concluded that there was adequate evidence to justify advising the use of social stories with autistic children. The role of digital technologies is clearly a fast-emerging field and appears to be a promising method of intervention for autistic children; however, it should not yet be considered an evidence-based approach. The students, using this research, developed ideas on social story interventions which aim to help autistic children.

Keywords: autistic children, digital technologies, intervention, social stories

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1176 Identification of Training Topics for the Improvement of the Relevant Cognitive Skills of Technical Operators in the Railway Domain

Authors: Giulio Nisoli, Jonas Brüngger, Karin Hostettler, Nicole Stoller, Katrin Fischer

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Introduction: Technical operators in the railway domain are experts responsible for the supervisory control of the railway power grid as well as of the railway tunnels. The technical systems used to master these demanding tasks are constantly increasing in their complexity. In order to ensure the ability of the technical operators to manage this complexity, it is therefore of growing importance that the relevant skills are maintained and further developed beyond the basic knowledge required to do the job. In particular, the operators must have the necessary experience and knowledge in dealing with a malfunction situation or unexpected event. It is therefore of central importance that these experts are trained beyond the basic training they receive, where they are educated in respect of technical knowledge and the work with guidelines. Training methods aimed at improving the cognitive skills needed by technical operators are still missing and must be developed. Question: Which topics should be addressed by the training of cognitive skills of technical operators in the railway domain? Methodologies: Observational interviews were conducted in order to identify the main tasks and the organization of the work of technical operators as well as the technologies used for the execution of their job. Thanks to this analysis, the most demanding tasks of technical operators could be identified and described. The cognitive skills involved in the execution of these tasks are those, which need to be trained. In order to identify and analyze these cognitive skills, a cognitive task analysis (CTA) was developed. CTAs specifically aims at identifying the cognitive skills that employees implement when performing their own tasks. The CTA in this study was developed based on the well-established CTAs 'applied cognitive task analysis' and 'critical decision method' and based on the situation awareness model. Results: The result of this study is a list of six training topics, ordered after their relevance for technical operators in the railway domain, each with specific goals to be achieved within the training topics. The application of the developed CTA has allowed identifying eight-core types of cognitive skills of technical operators: (1) perception, (2) comprehension and anticipation, (3) decision-making and performance of action, (4) development and implementation of tricks, (5) self-monitoring, (6) improvisation, (7) knowledge of equipment’s limits and (8) usage of other tools. The identified cognitive skills of technical operators were summarized and grouped in training topics. The resulting six training topics are: (1) establishing mental models, (2) communication, (3) teamwork, (4) practical rehearsal, (5) interaction with technology and (6) stress management. For every training topic, specific goals were defined. The goals regard three main categories: knowledge, skills and attitude to be trained in every training topic. The training topics were then prioritized based on the relevance for technical operators. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it is possible to develop specific training methods able to achieve the defined goals of the training topics and, through this, to train the relevant cognitive skills of the technical operators specifically to their needs.

Keywords: cognitive skills, cognitive task analysis, technical operators in the railway domain, training topics

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1175 Adaptation of Research Methodology in a Culture: A Reflection from Bangladesh

Authors: Umme Habiba Jasmine, Mzikazi Nduna

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Due to the dearth of exploratory research in Bangladesh on parenting practices and transmission thereof, there is a lack of information on culture-sensitive methodology in studying this topic. This paper aims to share some methodological reflections from the research field, which will address this knowledge gap. Eleven dyads of biological mothers and maternal grandmothers of school-going children constituted the sample, and a female fieldworker conducted one-to-one, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with them. The participants were recruited through purposive sampling through a representative of a cooperative society in Mirpur area in Bangladesh. Four dyads of the sample outside that eleven dyads were discarded because of the unavailability of the other participant of the dyads or unsuitability for an in-depth interview. The sample recruitment strategy of approaching mothers without their known reference body had to be discarded because of existing social insecurity in Dhaka city. To meet the cultural demand of the research field the researcher had to change in the research plan and comply with the cultural tradition of mutual entertainment with food while conducting interviews which helped in engaging in positive interaction. Also, the researcher had to compromise the strict confidentiality to a collectivistic sense of confidentiality of the in-depth interview sessions. This study suggests future researchers to investigate Bangladeshi traditional practices and accommodate the applicable ones in their research plan for qualitative studies, especially the Bengali tradition of hospitality and shared confidentiality for building rapport and for proper access to the targeted information and research participants. Sample recruitment should always accompany a well-accepted reference person in the targeted research field.

Keywords: confidentiality, culture-sensitive, ethics, parenting practices, sampling

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1174 Prominence of Biopsychosocial Formulation in Health Care Delivery for Aging Population: Empowering Caregiving through Natural Socio-Environmental Approaches

Authors: Kristine Demilou D. Santiago

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An access to a high-quality health care system is what sets apart industrialized nations, such as the United States from other developing countries, which in this case is specifically pertaining to their older population. But what was the underrated factor in the sphere of quality healthcare rendered to elderly people in the Western context? Will this salient factor could push conviction to prorogue the existing gaps between self-denial patient-client and cheek by jowl medications? Are the natural socio-environmental approaches of caregiving the protracted remedy to healthcare disparities for aging population considering their day to day living? The conceptual framework of this model is primarily associated with addressing health and illness of human beings considering the biological, psychological and socio-environmental factors around them. The relevance of biopsychosocial formulation advancing each of the characteristics in the Biopsychosocial (BPS) model in a balance contemplation is the tumult of this study in an attempt to respond to prevailing disparities in caregiving services for old-aged patients on a day to day living. Caregiving services have been the medium path connecting between the patient and its prescribed medications. Moreover, caregivers serve as positive reinforcers in a patient’s environment. Therefore, caregivers play an important role in healthcare delivery to patients. They are considered significant people whom their acts will give an impact to a patient’s view in life. This research study intends to present the supreme importance of biopsychosocial assessment to old-aged patients with mental health illness and conditions. Biopsychosocial assessment will secure the quality of full medication to an old-aged adult suffering from a mental illness. This is because it offers a recognizably wholesome approach to medical healing of old-aged adult patients. The principle of biopsychosocial supersedes the biomedicine being offered to old-aged adults having mental illness, but it does not take away the high relevance of scientific biomedicine in healing patients. The framework presented an overlapping participation of each of its factors in its BPS model that affects in general a person’s health. The correlation between the biological (physiological), psychological (mental) and social (environment) in a person’s health condition requires equal attention according to BPS, and it always coexist with each other. Indisputably said, bio-medicine has been and is being in its unceasing endeavor to provide scientifically proven health care medications for every individual seeking medical treatments. As we grow older and eventually reach the other side of the median population, not only our physiological aspects change, our psychological and socio-environmental changes happen too. Caregiving is a salient responsibility taking place on these inevitable changes.

Keywords: biopsychosocial formulation, caregiving through natural approaches, US health care, BPS in caregiving, caregiving for aging population

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