Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1534

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Psychological and Behavioral Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1534 Depression in Immigrants and Refugees

Authors: Fatou Cisse


Depression is one of the most serious health problems experienced by immigrants and refugees, who are likely to undergo heightened political, economic, social, and environmental stressors as they transition to a new culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and compare risks associated with depression among young adult immigrants and refugees aged 18 to 25. Ten articles focused on risks associated with depression symptoms among this population were reviewed, revealing several common themes: Stress, identity, culture, language barriers, discrimination, social support, self-esteem, length of time in the receiving country, origins, or background. Existing research has failed to account adequately for sample size, language barriers, how the concept of "depression" differs across cultures, and stressors immigrants and refugees experience prior to the transition to the new culture. The study revealed that immigrants and refugees are at risk for depression and that the risk is greater in the refugee population due to their history of trauma. The Roy Adaptation Model was employed to understand the coping mechanisms that refugees and immigrants could use to reduce rates of depression. The psychiatric nurse practitioner must be prepared to intervene and educate this population on these coping mechanisms to help them overcome the feelings that lead to depression and facilitate a smooth integration into the new culture.

Keywords: immigration, refugees, depression, young adults

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1533 Supporting a Moral Growth Mindset Among College Students

Authors: Kate Allman, Heather Maranges, Elise Dykhuis


Moral Growth Mindset (MGM) is the belief that one has the capacity to become a more moral person, as opposed to a fixed conception of one’s moral ability and capacity (Han et al., 2018). Building from Dweck’s work in incremental implicit theories of intelligence (2008), Moral Growth Mindset (Han et al., 2020) extends growth mindsets into the moral dimension. The concept of MGM has the potential to help researchers understand how both mindsets and interventions can impact character development, and it has even been shown to have connections to voluntary service engagement (Han et al., 2018). Understanding the contexts in which MGM might be cultivated could help to promote the further cultivation of character, in addition to prosocial behaviors like service engagement, which may, in turn, promote larger scale engagement in social justice-oriented thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In particular, college may be a place to intentionally cultivate a growth mindset toward moral capacities, given the unique developmental and maturational components of the college experience, including contextual opportunity (Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006) and independence requiring the constant consideration, revision, and internalization of personal values (Lapsley & Woodbury, 2016). In a semester-long, quasi-experimental study, we examined the impact of a pedagogical approach designed to cultivate college student character development on participants’ MGM. With an intervention (n=69) and a control group (n=97; Pre-course: 27% Men; 66% Women; 68% White; 18% Asian; 2% Black; <1% Hispanic/Latino), we investigated whether college courses that intentionally incorporate character education pedagogy (Lamb, Brant, Brooks, 2021) affect a variety of psychosocial variables associated with moral thoughts, feelings, identity, and behavior (e.g. moral growth mindset, honesty, compassion, etc.). The intervention group consisted of 69 undergraduate students (Pre-course: 40% Men; 52% Women; 68% White; 10.5% Black; 7.4% Asian; 4.2% Hispanic/Latino) that voluntarily enrolled in five undergraduate courses that encouraged students to engage with key concepts and methods of character development through the application of research-based strategies and personal reflection on goals and experiences. Moral Growth Mindset was measured using the four-item Moral Growth Mindset scale (Han et al., 2020), with items such as You can improve your basic morals and character considerably on a six-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). Higher scores of MGM indicate a stronger belief that one can become a more moral person with personal effort. Reliability at Time 1 was Cronbach’s ɑ= .833, and at Time 2 Cronbach’s ɑ= .772. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to explore whether post-course MGM scores were different between the intervention and control when controlling for pre-course MGM scores. The ANCOVA indicated significant differences in MGM between groups post-course, F(1,163) = 8.073, p = .005, R² = .11, where descriptive statistics indicate that intervention scores were higher than the control group at post-course. Results indicate that intentional character development pedagogy can be leveraged to support the development of Moral Growth Mindset and related capacities in undergraduate settings.

Keywords: moral personality, character education, incremental theories of personality, growth mindset

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1532 Lying in a Sender-Receiver Deception Game: Effects of Gender and Motivation to Deceive

Authors: Eitan Elaad, Yeela Gal-Gonen


Two studies examined gender differences in lying when the truth-telling bias prevailed and when inspiring lying and distrust. The first study used 156 participants from the community (78 pairs). First, participants completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Lie- and Truth Ability Assessment Scale (LTAAS), and the Rational-Experiential Inventory. Then, they participated in a deception game where they performed as senders and receivers of true and false communications. Their goal was to retain as many points as possible according to a payoff matrix that specified the reward they would gain for any possible outcome. Results indicated that males in the sender position lied more and were more successful tellers of lies and truths than females. On the other hand, males, as receivers, trusted less than females but were not better at detecting lies and truths. We explained the results by a. Male's high perceived lie-telling ability. We observed that confidence in telling lies guided participants to increase their use of lies. Male's lie-telling confidence corresponded to earlier accounts that showed a consistent association between high self-assessed lying ability, reports of frequent lying, and predictions of actual lying in experimental settings; b. Male's narcissistic features. Earlier accounts described positive relations between narcissism and reported lying or unethical behavior in everyday life situations. Predictions about the association between narcissism and frequent lying received support in the present study. Furthermore, males scored higher than females on the narcissism scale; and c. Male's experiential thinking style. We observed that males scored higher than females on the experiential thinking style scale. We further hypothesized that the experiential thinking style predicts frequent lying in the deception game. Results confirmed the hypothesis. The second study used one hundred volunteers (40 females) who underwent the same procedure. However, the payoff matrix encouraged lying and distrust. Results showed that male participants lied more than females. We found no gender differences in trust. Males and females did not differ in their success of telling and detecting lies and truths. Participants also completed the LTAAS questionnaire. Males assessed their lie-telling ability higher than females, but the ability assessment did not predict lying frequency. A final note. The present design is limited to low stakes. Participants knew that they were participating in a game, and they would not experience any consequences from their deception in the game. Therefore, we advise caution when applying the present results to lying under high stakes.

Keywords: gender, lying, detection of deception, information processing style, self-assessed lying ability

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1531 Measuring How Brightness Mediates Auditory Salience

Authors: Baptiste Bouvier


While we are constantly flooded with stimuli in daily life, attention allows us to select the ones we specifically process and ignore the others. Some salient stimuli may sometimes pass this filter independently of our will, in a "bottom-up" way. The role of the acoustic properties of the timbre of a sound on its salience, i.e., its ability to capture the attention of a listener, is still not well understood. We implemented a paradigm called the "additional singleton paradigm", in which participants have to discriminate targets according to their duration. This task is perturbed (higher error rates and longer response times) by the presence of an irrelevant additional sound, of which we can manipulate a feature of our choice at equal loudness. This allows us to highlight the influence of the timbre features of a sound stimulus on its salience at equal loudness. We have shown that a stimulus that is brighter than the others but not louder leads to an attentional capture phenomenon in this framework. This work opens the door to the study of the influence of any timbre feature on salience.

Keywords: attention, audition, bottom-up attention, psychoacoustics, salience, timbre

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1530 Stress and Dysfunctional Eating Behavior in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Vanshika Chutani, Priya Bhatnagar


The pandemic has brought us to a standpoint where stress as a physical, cognitive, and behavioral construct is inevitable. The current research provides an overview of the relationship between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior during the challenging time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present paper also aims to highlight the gender-specific differences in perception of stress and its correlation with dysfunctional eating behavior in the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) and Adult Eating Behavior questionnaire (AEBQ) were used on a heterogeneous sample between 20-40 years. The research was conducted on 50 participants, 25 male, and 25 female. Quantitative analysis was done with SPSS 22.0. The results of the investigation revealed a significant difference in stress level, t(48)=2.01, p<0.01, with women (M=22.24. SD=5.23) having a higher stress level than men (M=19.04, SD=4.89). There was no significant difference in dysfunctional eating behavior between males and females. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior in females, whereas, in males, there was no significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The research extrapolates that the pandemic led to elevated stress levels in both genders and gender differences existed, and males & females responded differently on dysfunctional eating behavior. The research has also outlined intervention to help individuals cope with stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The findings of the research propose the execution of different intervention programs and psychological first aid to help individuals who are predisposed to develop eating disorders.

Keywords: stress, dysfunctional eating behavior, gender-specific differences, COVID-19

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1529 Impacts of Nomophobia on Daily Performance: Validity, Reliability and Prevalence Estimates among Undergraduate Dental Students in Bhubaneswar, India

Authors: Ramesh Nagarajappa, Upasana Mohapatra


Considered a modern phobia, Nomophobia (NO MObile PHOne PhoBIA) is a term that describes the irrational fear or anxiety of being unable to access one’s own mobile phone. Objectives: To develop and validate the nomophobia questionnaire, administering it to a sample of adolescents representing undergraduate dental students. To assess the prevalence of Nomophobia, determine the usage pattern of mobile phones, and evaluate the impact due to lack of access to mobile phones among undergraduate dental students. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 302 undergraduate students at Bhubaneswar through a self-administered questionnaire via Google Forms consisting of 19 items evaluating the pattern and anxiety related to usage of mobile phones. Responses were recorded on a 5-point Likert scale. Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Test-Retest reliability showed kappa of k=0.86 and Internal consistency Chronbach’s-Alpha to be α=0.82. Prevalence of nomophobia (score ≥ 58) was 32.1%, and students at risk of being nomophobic (score 39-57) was 61.9%. It was highest in males (32.6%) and amongst the interns (41.9%) and lowest (25.5%) amongst the second-year students. Participants felt nervous/insecure if their phones were away from them because of the fear that somebody might have accessed their data (3.07±1.93) and or tried to contact them (3.09±1.13), which were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: Effect of mobile phone on dental students and the fear of not having their phones with them is increasing elaborately, that needs to be controlled, which if not achieved, would negatively hamper their academic performance and their being in the society.

Keywords: addiction, dental students, mobile phone, nomophobia

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1528 Cicadas: A Clinician-assisted, Closed-loop Technology, Mobile App for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Bruno Biagianti, Angela Tseng, Kathy Wannaviroj, Allison Corlett, Megan DuBois, Kyu Lee, Suma Jacob


Background: ASD is characterized by pervasive Sensory Processing Abnormalities (SPA) and social cognitive deficits that persist throughout the course of the illness and have been linked to functional abnormalities in specific neural systems that underlie the perception, processing, and representation of sensory information. SPA and social cognitive deficits are associated with difficulties in interpersonal relationships, poor development of social skills, reduced social interactions and lower academic performance. Importantly, they can hamper the effects of established evidence-based psychological treatments—including PEERS (Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relationship Skills), a parent/caregiver-assisted, 16-weeks social skills intervention—which nonetheless requires a functional brain capable of assimilating and retaining information and skills. As a matter of fact, some adolescents benefit from PEERS more than others, calling for strategies to increase treatment response rates. Objective: We will present interim data on CICADAS (Care Improving Cognition for ADolescents on the Autism Spectrum)—a clinician-assisted, closed-loop technology mobile application for adolescents with ASD. Via ten mobile assessments, CICADAS captures data on sensory processing abnormalities and associated cognitive deficits. These data populate a machine learning algorithm that tailors the delivery of ten neuroplasticity-based social cognitive training (NB-SCT) exercises targeting sensory processing abnormalities. Methods: In collaboration with the Autism Spectrum and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Clinic at the University of Minnesota, we conducted a fully remote, three-arm, randomized crossover trial with adolescents with ASD to document the acceptability of CICADAS and evaluate its potential as a stand-alone treatment or as a treatment enhancer of PEERS. Twenty-four adolescents with ASD (ages 11-18) have been initially randomized to 16 weeks of PEERS + CICADAS (Arm A) vs. 16 weeks of PEERS + computer games vs. 16 weeks of CICADAS alone (Arm C). After 16 weeks, the full battery of assessments has been remotely administered. Results: We have evaluated the acceptability of CICADAS by examining adherence rates, engagement patterns, and exit survey data. We found that: 1) CICADAS is able to serve as a treatment enhancer for PEERS, inducing greater improvements in sensory processing, cognition, symptom reduction, social skills and behaviors, as well as the quality of life compared to computer games; 2) the concurrent delivery of PEERS and CICADAS induces greater improvements in study outcomes compared to CICADAS only. Conclusion: While preliminary, our results indicate that the individualized assessment and treatment approach designed in CICADAS seems effective in inducing adaptive long-term learning about social-emotional events. CICADAS-induced enhancement of processing and cognition facilitates the application of PEERS skills in the environment of adolescents with ASD, thus improving their real-world functioning.

Keywords: ASD, social skills, cognitive training, mobile app

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1527 Anxiety and Change in Eating Habits and Health Behaviors among Adult Women during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Heba Ahmed Abdelaziz, Doaa Tawfik Mohamed Ibrahim


Background: COVID-19 pandemic is the major health problem facing the world recently, causing variable effects on mental health and eating behavior. Aim of the study: Identifying changes in eating patterns and other health behaviors in relation to the anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in adult females in Alexandria, Egypt. Method: 344 adult females (20+ years old), were included in online self-administered questionnaire. Results: Severe anxiety symptoms was among 34.6% of the studied females especially; those aged 25-40 years, married, non-working or student females, females who had change in their work routine (half or full time from home). Homemade pastries and bakery product then beverages followed by fresh fruits and vegetables were frequently consumed by the studied females than before lockdown while fast foods were decreased during lockdown. Overweight and obesity were high among most of the participants with different grades of anxiety symptoms. Females with moderate and severe anxiety symptoms reported increase in appetite and body weight with irregular sleeping during lockdown. Conclusion: the current study concluded that stressful situations like lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic is associated with anxiety (severe, moderate, mild then minimal, respectively) along with changes in eating habits, physical activity, sleeping pattern and smoking.

Keywords: COVID-19, lockdown, females, anxiety, eating, stress, lifestyle

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1526 Effects of Mindfulness Practice on Clinician Burnout: A Scoping Review

Authors: Hani Malik


Background: Clinician burnout is a growing phenomenon in current health systems worldwide. Increasing emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment threaten the effective delivery of healthcare. This can potentially be mitigated by mindfulness practice, which has shown promising results in reducing burnout, restoring compassion, and preventing moral injury in clinicians. Objectives: To conduct a scoping review and identify high-quality studies on mindfulness practice in clinician burnout, synthesize themes that emerge from these studies, and discuss the implications of the results to healthcare leadership and innovation. Methodology: A focused scoping review was carried out to investigate the effects of mindfulness practice on clinician burnout. High-ranking journals were targeted to analyse high-quality studies and synthesize common themes in the literature. Studies conducted on current, practicing physicians were included. Mindfulness practice of varying forms was the main intervention studied. Grey literature and studies conducted only on allied health personnel were excluded from this review. Analysis:31 studies were included in this scoping review. Mindfulness practice was found to decrease emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation while improving mood, responses to stress, and vigour. Self-awareness, compassion, and empathy were also increased in study participants. From this review, four themes emerged which include: innovations in mindfulness practice, mindfulness and positive psychology, the impact of mindfulness on work and patient care, and barriers and facilitators to clinician mindfulness practice. Conclusion: Mindfulness had widely been reported to benefit mental health and well-being, but the studies reviewed seemed to adopt a mono focus and omitted key considerations to healthcare leadership, systems-level culture, and practices. Mindfulness practice is a quintessential component of positive psychology and is inherently linked to effective leadership. A mindful and compassionate clinician leader will play a crucial role in addressing gaps in current practice, prioritise staff mental health, and provide a supportive platform for innovation.

Keywords: mindfulness practice, clinician burnout, healthcare leadership, COVID-19

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1525 An Analysis of Iranian Social Media Users’ Perceptions of Published Images of Coronavirus Deaths

Authors: Ali Gheshmi


The highest rate of death, after World War II, is due to the Coronavirus epidemic and more than 2 million people have died since the epidemic outbreak in December 2019, so the word “death” is one of the highest frequency words in social media; moreover, the use of social media has grown due to quarantine and successive restrictions and lockdowns. The most important aspects of the approach used by this study include the analysis of Iranian social media users’ reactions to the images of those who died due to Coronavirus, investigating if seeing such images via social media is effective on the users’ perception of the closeness of death, and evaluating the extent to which the fear of Coronavirus death is instrumental in persuading users to observe health protocols or causing mental problems in social media users. Since the goal of this study is to discover how social media users perceive and react to the images of people who died of Coronavirus, the cultural studies approach is used Receipt analysis method and in-depth interviews will be used for collecting data from Iranian users; also, snowball sampling is used in this study. The probable results would show that cyberspace users experience the closeness of “death” more than any time else and to cope with these annoying images, avoid viewing them or if they view, it will lead them to suffer from mental problems.

Keywords: death, receipt analysis method, mental health, social media, Covid-19

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1524 Indigenous Healers and Indigenous Trauma: Healing at the Intersections of Colonial, Intergenerational, and Individual Trauma for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Mikaela D. Gabriel


Background: Indigenous People face multiple barriers to successful life transitions, including housing, employment, education, and health. Current statistical trends paint devastating life transitions for Indigenous Peoples, but colonization and its intergenerational impacts are typically lacking as the crucial context in which these trends occur. This presentation will illustrate the massive impact of colonization on Indigenous Peoples; its intergenerational transmission, and how it impacts Indigenous clients seeking mental health treatment today. Methods: A qualitative, narrative inquiry methodology was used to honour Indigenous storytelling and knowledge transmission. Indigenous Elders, outreach workers, and homeless clients were interviewed and narratively analyzed for in-depth trends and themes. Impact: This research provides a wealth of in-depth information as to the life transition needs of Indigenous clients, identify the systemic impacts of colonization to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous People, and strategies for mental health treatment.

Keywords: indigenous trauma, indigenous peoples of canada, intergenerational trauma, colonial trauma and treatment

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1523 Domains of Socialization Interview: Development and Psychometric Properties

Authors: Dilek Saritas Atalar, Cansu Alsancak Akbulut, İrem Metin Orta, Feyza Yön, Zeynep Yenen, Joan Grusec


Objective: The aim of this study was to develop semi-structured Domains of Socialization Interview and its coding manual and to test their psychometric properties. Domains of Socialization Interview was designed to assess maternal awareness regarding effective parenting in five socialization domains (protection, mutual reciprocity, control, guided learning, and group participation) within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach. Method: A series of two studies were conducted to develop and validate the interview and its coding manual. The pilot study, sampled 13 mothers of preschool-aged children, was conducted to develop the assessment tools and to test their function and clarity. Participants of the main study were 82 Turkish mothers (Xage = 34.25, SD = 3.53) who have children aged between 35-76 months (Xage = 50.75, SD = 11.24). Mothers filled in a questionnaire package including Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionnaire, Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation-30, Child Rearing Questionnaire, and Two Dimensional Social Desirability Questionnaire. Afterward, interviews were conducted online by a single interviewer. Interviews were rated independently by two graduate students based on the coding manual. Results: The relationships of the awareness of effective parenting scores to the other measures demonstrate convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the coding manual. Intra-class correlation coefficient estimates were ranged between 0.82 and 0.90, showing high interrater reliability of the coding manual. Conclusion: Taken as a whole, the results of these studies demonstrate the validity and reliability of a new and useful interview to measure maternal awareness regarding effective parenting within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach.

Keywords: domains of socialization, parenting, interview, assessment

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1522 Resilience Grit and Intrinsic Motivation Are Predictors of Better Studying Results among First-year Cadets in the Cadet Basic Training Course

Authors: Rosita Kanapeckaite


Every year, some candidates who enroll in Generolas Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania do not complete a basic seven weeks cadet course and leave the Academy. Experience in other countries shows that psychological resilience grit and intrinsic motivation can lead to better course completion results. We examined the psychological resilience grit and intrinsic motivation as predictors of better results among newcomers who participate in the Cadet Basic Training (CBT) course. Based on past research and theory of other countries' military academies, we expected that resilience grit, and intrinsic motivation would predict performance in the Cadet Basic Training course. Results of regression analyses revealed that resilience and grit can predict better course results, but intrinsic motivation can not predict retention. These findings suggest that resilience and grit assessment and training may prove valuable in enhancing performance and retention within military training environments.

Keywords: military, intrinsic motivation, grit, resilience

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1521 Differences in Guilt, Shame, Self-Anger, and Suicide Cognitions Based on Recent Suicide Ideation and Lifetime Suicide Attempt History

Authors: E. H. Szeto, E. Ammendola, J. V. Tabares, A. Starkey, J. Hay, J. G. McClung, C. J. Bryan


Introduction: Suicide is a leading cause of death globally, which accounts for more deaths annually than war, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, homicides, and car accidents, while an estimated 140 million individuals have significant suicide ideation (SI) each year in the United States. Typical risk factors such as hopelessness, depression, and psychiatric disorders can predict suicide ideation but cannot distinguish between those who ideate from those who attempt suicide (SA). The Fluid Vulnerability Theory of suicide posits that a person’s activation of the suicidal mode is predicated on one’s predisposition, triggers, baseline/acute risk, and protective factors. The current study compares self-conscious cognitive-affective states (including guilt, shame, anger towards the self, and suicidal beliefs) among patients based on the endorsement of recent SI (i.e., past two weeks; acute risk) and lifetime SA (i.e., baseline risk). Method: A total of 2,722 individuals in an outpatient primary care setting were included in this cross-sectional, observational study; data for 2,584 were valid and retained for analysis. The Differential Emotions Scale measuring guilt, shame, and self-anger and the Suicide Cognitions Scale measuring suicide cognitions were administered. Results: A total of 2,222 individuals reported no recent SI or lifetime SA (Group 1), 161 reported recent SI only (Group 2), 145 reported lifetime SA only (Group 3), 56 reported both recent SI and lifetime SA (Group 4). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that guilt, shame, self-anger, and suicide cognitions were the highest for Group 4 (both recent SI and lifetime SA), followed by Group 2 (recent SI-only), then Group 3 (lifetime SA-only), and lastly, Group 1 (no recent SI or lifetime SA). Conclusion: The results on recent SI-only versus lifetime SA-only contribute to the literature on the Fluid Vulnerability Theory of suicide by capturing SI and SA in two different time periods, which signify the acute risks and chronic baseline risks of the suicidal mode, respectively. It is also shown that: (a) people with a lifetime SA reported more severe symptoms than those without, (b) people with recent SI reported more severe symptoms than those without, and (c) people with both recent SI and lifetime SA were the most severely distressed. Future studies may replicate the findings here with other pertinent risk factors such as thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability, the last of which is consistently linked to attempting among ideators.

Keywords: suicide, guilt, shame, self-anger, suicide cognitions, suicide ideation, suicide attempt

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1520 The Effect of Family SES (Income) On Children’s Socio-Emotional Development

Authors: Xiao Hu


Children’s social and emotional development is critical for developing their future relationships and behaviors, and poor social skills may result in serious emotional externalizations such as anxiety, distress and aggression. Recent research has emphasized the role of family socio-economic status on children’s emotional development, and this study contributes to this academic discussion by reviewing how socio-economic status affects children at three critical development stages: infancy (0-3months), pre-school (4 months-5 years) and school aged (6-10 years). Results show a consensus in the research literature on a positive relationship between family socio-economic status and children’s emotional development. Socialization, a crucial development milestone, is highly affected by a family’s socio-economic status, as families with higher incomes have access to improved social environments, healthier parenting styles and greater access to social capital and peer support. In contrast, families with lower income and SES (socio-economic status) have lower access to these benefits and are frequently ignored within social environments. This review concludes with a critical discussion on how family income affects children’s social environment, highlighting the important role that “permanent” income plays in children’s development. Consequently, the review suggests that future governments should provide temporary economic support for lower-income families, allowing children to be raised in a healthy social environment with limited economic fluctuation.

Keywords: family socio-economic status, parenting style, children’s emotional development, family permanent income

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1519 COVID-19’s Impact on the Use of Media, Educational Performance, and Learning in Children and Adolescents with ADHD Who Engaged in Virtual Learning

Authors: Christina Largent, Tazley Hobbs


Objective: A literature review was performed to examine the existing research on COVID-19 lockdown as it relates to ADHD child/adolescent individuals, media use, and impact on educational performance/learning. It was surmised that with the COVID-19 shut-down and transition to remote learning, a less structured learning environment, increased screen time, in addition to potential difficulty accessing school resources would impair ADHD individuals’ performance and learning. A resulting increase in the number of youths diagnosed and treated for ADHD would be expected. As of yet, there has been little to no published data on the incidence of ADHD as it relates to COVID-19 outside of reports from several nonprofit agencies such as CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ), who reported an increased number of calls to their helpline, The New York based Child Mind Institute, who reported an increased number of appointments to discuss medications, and research released from Athenahealth showing an increase in the number of patients receiving new diagnosis of ADHD and new prescriptions for ADHD medications. Methods: A literature search for articles published between 2020 and 2021 from Pubmed, Google Scholar, PsychInfo, was performed. Search phrases and keywords included “covid, adhd, child, impact, remote learning, media, screen”. Results: Studies primarily utilized parental reports, with very few from the perspective of the ADHD individuals themselves. Most findings thus far show that with the COVID-19 quarantine and transition to online learning, ADHD individuals’ experienced decreased ability to keep focused or adhere to the daily routine, as well as increased inattention-related problems, such as careless mistakes or lack of completion in homework, which in turn translated into overall more difficulty with remote learning. To add further injury, one study showed (just on evaluation of two different sites within the US) that school based services for these individuals decreased with the shift to online-learning. Increased screen time, television, social media, and gaming were noted amongst ADHD individuals. One study further differentiated the degree of digital media, identifying individuals with “problematic “ or “non-problematic” use. ADHD children with problematic digital media use suffered from more severe core symptoms of ADHD, negative emotions, executive function deficits, damage to family environment, pressure from life events, and a lower motivation to learn. Conclusions and Future Considerations: Studies found not only was online learning difficult for ADHD individuals but it, in addition to greater use of digital media, was associated with worsening ADHD symptoms impairing schoolwork, in addition to secondary findings of worsening mood and behavior. Currently, data on the number of new ADHD cases, in addition to data on the prescription and usage of stimulants during COVID-19, has not been well documented or studied; this would be well-warranted out of concern for over diagnosing or over-prescribing our youth. It would also be well-worth studying how reversible or long-lasting these negative impacts may be.

Keywords: COVID-19, remote learning, media use, ADHD, child, adolescent

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1518 An Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of Direct Injections of Histamine into the Amygdala Nucleus on Seizure Activities

Authors: Tannaz Haghgouie, Yousef Panahi, Emad Khalilzadeh, Soodeh Tavakoli


Background and Aim: CNS (central nervous system) histaminergic system plays an important role in seizure control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to an experimental evaluation of the effects of direct injections of histamine into the amygdala nucleus on PTZ-induced-seizure activities in male rats. Methods: In this study, 24 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g in the control and treatment groups (histamine2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) were used. First, they were anesthetized using ketamine-xylazine (70+7 mg/kg) and after shaving the scalp, an incision 1-1.5 cm long was made along the scalp. Injection site details (amygdala nucleus) were determined using Paxinos atlas and direct injection of histamine was performed and then, using the electrophysiological technique, convulsive activities due to pentylenetetrazol injection (80 mg/kg) were recorded. In the control group, normal saline in the same volume of histamine was used. Results: Analysis of data from the number of spikes this study shows that histamine at a dose of 2 mg/kg significantly increased the number of seizure activities and a dose of 8 mg/kg had an increasing effect on the number of activities. The dose of 4 mg/kg had no significant effect. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the effect of histamine on the number of seizure activities caused by PTZ is biphasic, i.e., in low doses, it has stimulatory effects and in high doses, it has inhibitory effects.

Keywords: seizure, pentylenetetrazol, histaminergic system, electrophysiological

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1517 Qualitative Study of Organizational Variables Affecting Nurses’ Resilience in Pandemic Condition

Authors: Zahra Soltani Shal


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic marks an extraordinary global public health crisis unseen in the last century, with its rapid spread worldwide and associated mortality burden. Healthcare resilience during a pandemic is crucial not only for continuous and safe patients care but also for control of any outbreak. Aim: The present study was conducted to discover the organizational variables effective in increasing resilience and continuing the work of nurses in critical and stressful pandemic conditions. Method: The study population is nurses working in hospitals for patients with coronavirus. Sampling was done purposefully and information was collected from 15 nurses through In-depth semi-structured interviews. The interview was conducted to analyze the data using the framework analysis method consisting of five steps and is classified in the table. Results: According to the findings through semi-structural interviews, among organizational variables, organizational commitment (Affective commitment, continuous commitment, normative commitment) has played a prominent role in nurses' resilience. Discussion: despite the non-withdrawal of nurses and their resilience, due to the negative quality of their working life, the mentioned variable has affected their level of performance and ability and leads to fatigue and physical and mental exhaustion. Implications for practice: By equipping hospitals and improving the facilities of nurses, their organizational commitment can be increased and lead to their resilience in critical situations. Supervisors and senior officials at the hospitals should be responsible for nurses' health and safety. A clear and codified program in critical situations and comprehensive management is effective in improving the quality of the work-life of nurses. Creating an empathetic and interactive environment can help promote nurses' mental health.

Keywords: organizational commitment, quality of work life, nurses resilience, pandemic, coronavirus

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1516 How to Reach Adolescents Vulnerable for Suicidal Behaviour: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Birgit Reime, Sonja Gscheidle, Toni Hübener, Lara Hübener


Suicide in individuals under 30 years is a global public health concern. The objective of this study was to identify strategies for the prevention of suicide and suicidal behavior preferred by adolescents and young adults who are vulnerable to suicidal behavior and by relevant experts. Using semi-structured interviews with n= 17 adolescents and young adults (18-25 years of age) and with n= 11 experts from relevant fields, we have applied an inductive approach and applied thematic content analysis. Six strategies for suicide prevention in young individuals were reported. These were digital solutions with appealing designs, anonymous support, trained peer support, spiritual support, improving existing structures, and raising suicide literacy. Accessibility of anonymous digital support may contribute to suicide prevention in young people.

Keywords: suicide prevention, adolescents, E-health, Germany

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1515 White Individuals' Perception On Whiteness

Authors: Sebastian Del Corral Winder, Kiriana Sanchez, Mixalis Poulakis, Samantha Gray


This paper seeks to explore White privilege and Whiteness. Being White in the U.S. is often perceived as the norm and it brings significant social, economic, educational, and health privileges that often are hidden in social interactions. One quality of Whiteness has been its invisibility given its intrinsic impact on the system, which becomes only visible when paying close attention to White identity and culture and during cross-cultural interactions. The cross-cultural interaction provides an emphasis on differences between the participants and people of color are often viewed as “the other.” These interactions may promote an increased opportunity for discrimination and negative stereotypes against a person of color. Given the recent increase of violence against culturally diverse groups, there has been an increased sense of otherness and division in the country. Furthermore, the accent prestige theory has found that individuals who speak English with a foreign accent are perceived as less educated, competent, friendly, and trustworthy by White individuals in the United States. Using the consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology, this study explored the cross-cultural dyad from the White individual’s perspective focusing on the psychotherapeutic relationship. The participants were presented with an audio recording of a conversation between a psychotherapist with a Hispanic accent and a patient with an American English accent. Then, the participants completed an interview regarding their perceptions of race, culture, and cross-cultural interactions. The preliminary results suggested that the Hispanic accent alone was enough for the participants to assign stereotypical ethnic and cultural characteristics to the individual with the Hispanic accent. Given the quality of the responses, the authors completed a secondary analysis to explore Whiteness and White privilege in more depth. Participants were found to be on a continuum in their understanding and acknowledgment of systemic racism; while some participants listed examples of inequality, other participants noted: “all people are treated equally.” Most participants noted their feelings of discomfort in discussing topics of cultural diversity and systemic racism by fearing to “say the ‘wrong thing.” Most participants placed the responsibility of discussing cultural differences with the person of color, which has been observed to create further alienation and otherness for culturally diverse individuals. The results indicate the importance of examining racial and cultural biases from White individuals to promote an anti-racist stance. The results emphasize the need for greater systemic changes in education, policies, and individual awareness regarding cultural identity. The results suggest the importance for White individuals to take ownership of their own cultural biases in order to promote equity and engage in cultural humility in a multicultural world. Future research should continue exploring the role of White ethnic identity and education as they appear to moderate White individuals’ attitudes and beliefs regarding other races and cultures.

Keywords: culture, qualitative research, whiteness, white privilege

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1514 I Can’t Escape the Scars, Even If I Do Get Better”: A Discourse Analysis of Adolescent Talk About Their Self-Harm During Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Sessions for Major Depressive Disorder

Authors: Anna Kristen


There has been a pronounced increase in societal discourses around adolescent self-harm, yet there is a paucity of literature examining adolescent talk about self-harm that accounts for the sociocultural context. The objective of this study was to explore how adolescents with Depression talk about their self-harm engagement in consideration of both socio-cultural discourses and the therapy context during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) sessions. Utilizing a sample from the Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies study, discourse analysis was carried out on audio-recorded CBT sessions. The study established three groupings of results: (a) adolescent positioning as stuck in self-harm engagement; (b) adolescent positioning as ambivalent in the talk about ceasing self-harm; and (c) adolescent use of stigma discourses in self-harm talk & constructions of self-harm scars. These findings indicate that clinician awareness of adolescent use of language and discourse may inform interventions beyond Manualized CBT strategies. These findings are highly relevant in light of research that demonstrates CBT treatment for adolescent depression does not effectively address concurring self-harm and given that self-harm is the most significant risk factor predictive of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

Keywords: adolescence, cognitive-behavioral therapy, discourse, self-harm, stigma

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1513 Role of Speech Language Pathologists in Vocational Rehabilitation

Authors: Marlyn Mathew


Communication is the key factor in any vocational /job set-up. However many persons with disabilities suffer a deficit in this very area in terms of comprehension, expression and cognitive skills making it difficult for them to get employed appropriately or stay employed. Vocational Rehabilitation is a continuous and coordinated process which involves the provision of vocational related services designed to enable a person with disability to obtain and maintain employment. Therefore the role of the speech language pathologist is crucial in assessing the communication deficits and needs of the individual at the various phases of employment- right from the time of seeking a job and attending interview with suitable employers and also at regular intervals of the employment. This article discusses the various communication deficits and the obstacles faced by individuals with special needs including but not limited to cognitive- linguistic deficits, execution function deficits, speech and language processing difficulties and strategies that can be introduced in the workplace to overcome these obstacles including use of visual cues, checklists, flow charts. The paper also throws light on the importance of educating colleagues and work partners about the communication difficulties faced by the individual. This would help to reduce the communication barriers in the workplace, help colleagues develop an empathetic approach and also reduce misunderstandings that can arise as a result of the communication impairment.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation, disability, speech language pathologist, cognitive, linguistics

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1512 Effects of the Curious Class Pilot Project among Finnish School Children

Authors: Silja Martikainen, Vesa Putkinen, Katri Saarikivi, Mari Falcon


We studied the effects of the Finnish Curious Class Pilot Project in an experimental study on empathy skill development and empathy-related brain mechanisms among 35 children participating in the program and 23 same-age peers not participating in the program. The results suggest that there might be slight benefits of the Curious Class Pilot on children’s emotion recognition abilities and attention-related brain functions, although more research is still needed to confirm these findings.

Keywords: empathy, socioemotional development, education, intervention, creative partnerships

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1511 Effects of External Body Movement on Visual Attentional Performance in Children with ADHD

Authors: Hung-Yu Lin


Background: Parts of researchers assert that external hyperactivity behaviors of ADHD children interfere with their abilities to perform internal cognitive tasks; however, there are still other researchers hold the opposite viewpoint, the external high level of activity may serve as the role of improving internal executive function.Objectives: Thisstudy explored the effects of external motor behavior of ADHD on internal visual attentional performance. Methods: A randomized, two-period crossover design was used in this study, a total of 80 children (aged 6-12) were recruited in this study. 40participants have received ADHD diagnosis, and others are children with typically developing. These children were measured through the visual edition of TOVA (The Test of Variables of Attention) when they wore actigraphy, their testing behavior and movement data werecollected through closely observation and the actigraphies under different research conditions. Result: According to the research result, the author found (1) Higherfrequencyof movement under attentional testing condition was found in children with ADHD, comparing to children with typically developing, and (2) Higher frequency of foot movement showed better attentional performance of the visual attentional test in children with ADHD. However, these results were not showed in children with typically developing. Conclusions: The findings support the functional working memory model, which advocated that a positive relation between gross motor activity and attentional performance within the context of attentive behavior in children with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, movement, visual attention, children

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1510 Embodied Spirituality in Gestalt Therapy

Authors: Silvia Alaimo


This lecture brings to our attention the theme of spirituality within Gestalt therapy’s theoretical and clinical perspectives and which is closely connected to the fertile emptiness and creative indifference’ experiences. First of all, the premise that must be done is the overcoming traditional western culture’s philosophical and religious misunderstandings, such as the dicotomy between spirituality and pratical/material daily life, as well as the widespread secular perspective of classic psychology. Even fullness and emptiness have traditionally been associated with the concepts of being and not being. "There is only one way through which we can contact the deepest layers of our existence, rejuvenate our thinking and reach intuition (the harmony of thought and being): inner silence" (Perls) *. Therefore, "fertile void" doesn't mean empty in itself, but rather an useful condition of every creative and responsible act, making room for a deeper dimension close to spirituality. Spirituality concerns questions about the meaning of existence, which lays beyond the concrete and literal dimension, looking for the essence of things, and looking at the value of personal experience. Looking at fundamentals of Gestalt epistemology, phenomenology, aesthetics, and the relationship, we can reach the heart of a therapeutic work that takes spiritual contours and which are based on an embodied (incarnate size), through the relational aesthetic knowledge (Spagnuolo Lobb ), the deep contact with each other, the role of compassion and responsibility, as the patient's recognition criteria (Orange, 2013) rooted in the body. The aesthetic dimension, like the spiritual dimension to which it is often associated, is a subtle dimension: it is the dimension of the essence of things, of their "soul." In clinical practice, it implies that the relationship between therapist and patient is "in the absence of judgment," also called "zero point of creative indifference," expressed by ‘therapeutic mentality’. It consists in following with interest and authentic curiosity where the patient wants to go and support him in his intentionality of contact. It’s a condition of pure and simple awareness, of the full acceptance of "what is," a moment of detachment from one's own life in which one does not take oneself too seriously, a starting point for finding a center of balance and integration that brings to the creative act, to growth, and, as Perls would say, to the excitement and adventure of living.

Keywords: spirituality, bodily, embodied aesthetics, phenomenology, relationship

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1509 The Relationship between Permissive Parenting Style and Sexual Exploitation

Authors: Natalia Langner Smith


Because of the covert nature of sexual exploitation (SE), there is a need to explore a range of risk profiles beyond the typical victim to increase victim identification and services. The current study utilized ADD health data to assess the influence of parental involvement on the risk of SE using the logistic regression analysis. The study showed the need to expand risk assessment to minors who show red flags for SE instead of focusing on specific characteristics of their vulnerabilities. The study showed that minors from loving and warm families are also at risk for exploitation.

Keywords: permissive parenting style, sexual exploitation, risk profiles, identification

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1508 Impact of Stress on Physical-Mental Wellbeing of Working Women in India: Awareness and Acceptability

Authors: Meera Shanker


Excellent education and financial need have encouraged Indian women to go out and work in well-paid and high-status occupations. In the era of cutthroat competition, women are expected to work hard to produce the desired result; hence, workload and expectations haveincreased. At home, they are anticipated to take care of family members, children, and household work. Women are stretching themselves mechanically to remain in the job competition and try to give their best at home. Consequentially, they are under tremendous pressure, stressed, and having issues related to physical-mental wellness. Mental healthcare is often ignored and not accepted due to a lack of awareness and cultural barriers. These further compounds the problem, resulting in decreased productivity in economic terms and an increase in stress-related physical-mental ailments. The main objective of the study was to find out the impact of stress on the physical-mental wellbeing of working women in India, along with their awareness and acceptability related to mental health. Six hundred and one woman working at various levels took part in this study, responding to the items related to stress and physical-mental illness. Finally, 21 items were retained under four meaningful factors measuring stress dimensions along with 17 items with three factors measuring physical-mental wellbeing. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), path analysis, in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), was used to get a relationship, validity of the instruments. The psychometric properties of items and Cronbach’s Alpha reliabilities calculated for the subscales were relatively acceptable. The subscale correlations, regression, and path analysis of stress dimensions with physical-mental illness were found to be positive, indicating the growing stress among working women in India, which is impacting their physical-mental health. Single item analysis revealed that 77 percent of women have never visited psychologists. However, 70 percent of working women were not ready to seek the help of a psychologist.

Keywords: working women, stress, physical-mental well-being, confirmatory factor analysis

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1507 The Different Effects of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention Group Therapy on QEEG Measures in Various Severity Substance Use Disorder Involuntary Clients

Authors: Yu-Chi Liao, Nai-Wen Guo, Chun‑Hung Lee, Yung-Chin Lu, Cheng-Hung Ko


Objective: The incidence of behavioral addictions, especially substance use disorders (SUDs), is gradually be taken seriously with various physical health problems. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a treatment option for promoting long-term health behavior change in recent years. MBRP is a structured protocol that integrates formal meditation practices with the cognitive-behavioral approach of relapse prevention treatment by teaching participants not to engage in reappraisal or savoring techniques. However, considering SUDs as a complex brain disease, questionnaires and symptom evaluation are not sufficient to evaluate the effect of MBRP. Neurophysiological biomarkers such as quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) may improve accurately represent the curative effects. This study attempted to find out the neurophysiological indicator of MBRP in various severity SUD involuntary clients. Participants and Methods: Thirteen participants (all males) completed 8-week mindfulness-based treatment provided by trained, licensed clinical psychologists. The behavioral data were from the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) and Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMR) before and afterMBRP treatment. The QEEG data were simultaneously recorded with executive attention tasks, called comprehensive nonverbal attention test(CNAT). The two-way repeated-measures (treatment * severity) ANOVA and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Thirteen participants regrouped into high substance dependence (HS) and low substance dependence (LS) by SDS cut-off. The HS group showed more SDS total score and lower gamma wave in the Go/No Go task of CNAT at pretest. Both groups showed the main effect that they had a lower frontal theta/beta ratio (TBR) during the simple reaction time task of CNAT. The main effect showed that the delay errors of CNAT were lower after MBRP. There was no other difference in CNAT between groups. However, after MBRP, compared to LS, the HS group have resonant progress in improving SDS and NMR scores. The neurophysiological index, the frontal TBR of the HS during the Go/No Go task of CNATdecreased than that of the LS group. Otherwise, the LS group’s gamma wave was a significant reduction on the Go/No Go task of CNAT. Conclusion: The QEEG data supports the MBRP can restore the prefrontal function of involuntary addicts and lower their errors in executive attention tasks. However, the improvement of MBRPfor the addict with high addiction severity is significantly more than that with low severity, including QEEG’s indicators and negative emotion regulation. Future directions include investigating the reasons for differences in efficacy among different severity of the addiction.

Keywords: mindfulness, involuntary clients, QEEG, emotion regulation

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1506 Impact of Belongingness, Relational Communication, Religiosity and Screen Time of College Student Levels of Anxiety

Authors: Cherri Kelly Seese, Renee Bourdeaux, Sarah Drivdahl


Emergent adults in the United States are currently experiencing high levels of anxiety. It is imperative to uncover insulating factors which mitigate the impact of anxiety. This study aims to explore how constructs such as belongingness, relational communication, screen time and religiosity impact anxiety levels of emerging adults. Approximately 250 college students from a small, private university on the West Coast were given an online assessment that included: the General Belongingness Scale, Relational Communication Scale, Duke University Religion Index (DUREL), a survey of screen time, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. A MANOVA statistical test was conducted by assessing the effects of multiple dependent variables (scores on GBS, RCS, self-reported screen time and DUREL) on the four different levels of anxiety as measured on the BAI (minimal = 1, mild =2, moderate = 3, or severe = 4). Results indicated a significant relationship between one’s sense of belonging and one’s reported level of anxiety. These findings have implications for systems, like universities, churches, and corporations that want to improve young adults’ level of anxiety.

Keywords: anxiety, belongingness, relational communication, religiosity, screen time

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1505 The Mental Health of Indigenous People During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Sarah J. Ponton, Mikaela D. Gabriel, Roy Strebel, Xinyi Lu


Indigenous Peoples have faced unique barriers to accessing and receiving culturally safe and appropriate mental health care while also facing daunting rates of mental health diagnoses and comorbidities. Indigenous researchers and clinicians have well established the connection of the current mental health issues in Indigenous communities as a direct result of colonization by way of intergenerational trauma throughout Canada’s colonial history. Such mental health barriers and challenges have become exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the pandemic, access to mental health, cultural, ceremonial, and community services were severely impacted and restricted; however, it is these same cultural activities and community resources that are key to supporting Indigenous mental health from a traditional and community-based perspective. This research employed a unique combination of a thorough, analytical scoping review of the existent mental health literature of Indigenous mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside narrative interviews employing an oral storytelling tradition methodology with key community informants that provide comprehensive cultural services to the Indigenous community of Toronto, as well as across Canada. These key informant interviews provided a wealth of insights into virtual transitions of Indigenous care and mental health support; intersections of historical underfunding and current financial navigation in technology infrastructure; accessibility and connection with Indigenous youth in remote locations; as well as maintaining community involvement and traditional practices in a current pandemic. Both the scoping review and narrative interviews were meticulously analyzed for overarching narrative themes to best explore the extent of the literature on Indigenous mental health and services during COVID-19; identify gaps in this literature; identify barriers and supports for the Indigenous community, and explore the intersection of community and cultural impacts to mental health. Themes of the scoping review included: Historical Context; Challenges in Culturally-Based Services; and Strengths in Culturally-Based Services. Meta themes across narrative interviews included: Virtual Transitions; Financial Support for Indigenous Services; Health Service Delivery & Wellbeing; and Culture & Community Connection. The results of this scoping review and narrative interviews provide wide application and contribution to the mental health literature, as well as recommendations for policy, service provision, autonomy in Indigenous health and wellbeing, and crucial insights into the present and enduring mental health needs of Indigenous Peoples throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: indigenous community services, indigenous mental health, indigenous scoping review, indigenous peoples and Covid-19

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