Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 919

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Physical and Mathematical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

919 The application of Gel Dosimeters and Comparison with other Dosimeters in Radiotherapy: A Literature Review

Authors: Sujan Mahamud

Abstract:

Purpose: A major challenge in radiotherapy treatment is to deliver precise dose of radiation to the tumor with minimum dose to the healthy normal tissues. Recently, gel dosimetry has emerged as a powerful tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution for complex delivery verification and quality assurance. These dosimeters act both as a phantom and detector, thus confirming the versatility of dosimetry technique. The aim of the study is to know the application of Gel Dosimeters in Radiotherapy and find out the comparison with 1D and 2D dimensional dosimeters. Methods and Materials: The study is carried out from Gel Dosimeter literatures. Secondary data and images have been collected from different sources such as different guidelines, books, and internet, etc. Result: Analyzing, verifying, and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) is determined that gel dosimeter is a very excellent powerful tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous gel. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimized MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The method developed for comparing measuring gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method, was proven to be a useful for radiation treatment planning verification. In 1D and 2D Film, the depth dose and lateral for RMSD are 1.8% and 2%, and max (Di-Dj) are 2.5% and 8%. Other side 2D+ ( 3D) Film Gel and Plan Gel for RMSDstruct and RMSDstoch are 2.3% & 3.6% and 1% & 1% and system deviation are -0.6% and 2.5%. The study is investigated that the result fined 2D+ (3D) Film Dosimeter is better than the 1D and 2D Dosimeter. Discussion: Gel Dosimeters is quality control and quality assurance tool which will used the future clinical application.

Keywords: gel dosimeters, phantom, rmsd, QC, detector

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
918 Computational Study on the Crystal Structure, Optoelectronic Properties of Perovskites A2BX6 for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Meriem Harmel

Abstract:

The optoelectronic properties and high power conversion efficiency make lead halide perovskites ideal material for solar cell applications. However, the toxic nature of lead and instability of organic cation are the two key challenges in the emerging perovskite solar cells. To overcome these challenges, we present our study about finding potential alternatives to lead in the form of A2BX6 perovskite using the first principles DFT-based calculations. The highly accurate modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) and hybrid functional (HSE06) have been used to investigate the Main Document Click here to view linked References optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of A2PdBr6 (A = K, Rb, and Cs) perovskite. The results indicate that different A-cations in A2PdBr6 can significantly alter their electronic and optical properties. Calculated band structures indicate semiconducting nature, with band gap values of 1.84, 1.53, and 1.54 eV for K2PdBr6, Rb2PdBr6, and Cs2PdBr6, respectively. We find strong optical absorption in the visible region with small effective masses for A2PdBr6. The ideal band gap and optimum light absorption suggest Rb2PdBr6 and Cs2PdBr6 potential candidates for the light absorption layer in perovskite solar cells. Additionally.

Keywords: solar cell, lead free double perovskite, seebeck coefficient, electronic band structiure

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
917 An Axisymmetric Finite Element Method for Compressible Swirling Flow

Authors: Raphael Zanella, Todd A. Oliver, Karl W. Schulz

Abstract:

This work deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric compressible flows with swirl velocity. We are interested in problems where the flow, while weakly dependent on the azimuthal coordinate, may have a strong azimuthal velocity component. We describe the approximation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with H^1-conformal spaces of axisymmetric functions. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with explicit march-in-time. The code is first verified with a convergence test on a manufactured solution. The verification is completed by comparing the numerical and analytical solutions in a Poiseuille flow case and a Taylor-Couette flow case. The code is finally applied to the problem of a swirling subsonic air flow in a plasma torch.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, compressible Navier-Stokes equations, continuous finite elements, swirling flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
916 Fabrication and Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite

Authors: Yahya Asanoglu, Celaletdin Ergun

Abstract:

Ceramic-matrix composites (CMC) have significant prominence in various engineering applications because of their heat resistance associated with an ability to withstand the brittle type of catastrophic failure. In this study, specific raw materials have been chosen for the purpose of having suitable CMC material for high-temperature dielectric applications. CMC material will be manufactured through the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method. During the manufacturing process, vacuum infiltration and autoclave will be applied so as to decrease porosity and obtain higher mechanical properties, although this advantage leads to a decrease in the electrical performance of the material. Time and temperature adjustment in pyrolysis parameters provide a significant difference in the properties of the resulting material. The mechanical and thermal properties will be investigated in addition to the measurement of dielectric constant and tangent loss values within the spectrum of Ku-band (12 to 18 GHz). Also, XRD, TGA/PTA analyses will be employed to prove the transition of precursor to ceramic phases and to detect critical transition temperatures. Additionally, SEM analysis on the fracture surfaces will be performed to see failure mechanism whether there is fiber pull-out, crack deflection and others which lead to ductility and toughness in the material. In this research, the cost-effectiveness and applicability of the PIP method will be proven in the manufacture of CMC materials while optimization of pyrolysis time, temperature and cycle for specific materials is detected by experiment. Also, several resins will be shown to be a potential raw material for CMC radome and antenna applications. This research will be distinguished from previous related papers due to the fact that in this research, the combination of different precursors and fabrics will be experimented with to specify the unique cons and pros of each combination. In this way, this is an experimental sum of previous works with unique PIP parameters and a guide to the manufacture of CMC radome and antenna.

Keywords: CMC, PIP, precursor, quartz

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
915 Finite Element Approximation of the Heat Equation under Axisymmetry Assumption

Authors: Raphael Zanella

Abstract:

This works deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric problems. The weak formulation of the heat equation under the axisymmetry assumption is established for continuous finite elements. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with implicit march-in-time. The code is verified by space and time convergence tests using a manufactured solution. The solving of an example problem with an axisymmetric formulation is compared to that with a full-3D formulation. Both formulations lead to the same result, but the code based on the axisymmetric formulation is much faster due to the lower number of degrees of freedom. This confirms the correctness of our approach and the interest in using an axisymmetric formulation when it is possible.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, continuous finite elements, heat equation, weak formulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
914 Path-Spin to Spin-Spin Hybrid Quantum Entanglement: A Conversion Protocol

Authors: Indranil Bayal, Pradipta Panchadhyayee

Abstract:

Path-spin hybrid entanglement generated and confined in a single spin-1/2 particle is converted to spin-spin hybrid interparticle entanglement, which finds its important applications in quantum information processing. This protocol uses beam splitter, spin flipper, spin measurement, classical channel, unitary transformations, etc., and requires no collective operation on the pair of particles whose spin variables share complete entanglement after the accomplishment of the protocol. The specialty of the protocol lies in the fact that the path-spin entanglement is transferred between spin degrees of freedom of two separate particles initially possessed by a single party.

Keywords: entanglement, path-spin entanglement, spin-spin entanglement, CNOT operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
913 Theoretical Study of Electronic Structure of Erbium (Er), Fermium (Fm), and Nobelium (No)

Authors: Saleh O. Allehabi, V. A. Dzubaa, V. V. Flambaum, Jiguang Li, A. V. Afanasjev, S. E. Agbemava

Abstract:

Recently developed versions of the configuration method for open shells, configuration interaction with perturbation theory (CIPT), and configuration interaction with many-body perturbation theory (CI+MBPT) techniques are used to study the electronic structure of Er, Fm, and No atoms. Excitation energies of odd states connected to the even ground state by electric dipole transitions, the corresponding transition rates, isotope shift, hyperfine structure, ionization potentials, and static scalar polarizabilities are calculated. The way of extracting parameters of nuclear charge distribution beyond nuclear root mean square (RMS) radius, e.g., a parameter of quadrupole deformation β, is demonstrated. In nuclei with spin > 1/2, parameter β is extracted from the quadrupole hyperfine structure. With zero nuclear spin or spin 1/2, it is impossible since quadrupole zero, so a different method was developed. The measurements of at least two atomic transitions are needed to disentangle the contributions of the changes in deformation and nuclear RMS radius into field isotopic shift. This is important for testing nuclear theory and for searching for the hypothetical island of stability. Fm and No are heavy elements approaching the superheavy region, for which the experimental data are very poor, only seven lines for the Fm element and one line for the No element. Since Er and Fm have similar electronic structures, calculations for Er serve as a guide to the accuracy of the calculations. Twenty-eight new levels of Fm atom are reported.

Keywords: atomic spectra, electronic transitions, isotope effect, electron correlation calculations for atoms

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
912 Bandgap Engineering of CsMAPbI3-xBrx Quantum Dots for Intermediate Band Solar Cell

Authors: Deborah Eric, Abbas Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Lead halide perovskites quantum dots have attracted immense scientific and technological interest for successful photovoltaic applications because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties. In this paper, we have simulated CsMAPbI3-xBrx based quantum dots to implement their use in intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). These types of materials exhibit optical and electrical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts due to quantum confinement. The conceptual framework provides a route to analyze the electronic properties of quantum dots. This layer of quantum dots optimizes the position and bandwidth of IB that lies in the forbidden region of the conventional bandgap. A three-dimensional MAPbI3 quantum dot (QD) with geometries including spherical, cubic, and conical has been embedded in the CsPbBr3 matrix. Bound energy wavefunction gives rise to miniband, which results in the formation of IB. If there is more than one miniband, then there is a possibility of having more than one IB. The optimization of QD size results in more IBs in the forbidden region. One band time-independent Schrödinger equation using the effective mass approximation with step potential barrier is solved to compute the electronic states. Envelope function approximation with BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition is used in combination with the Schrödinger equation for the calculation of eigen energies and Eigen energies are solved for the quasi-bound states using an eigenvalue study. The transfer matrix method is used to study the quantum tunneling of MAPbI3 QD through neighbor barriers of CsPbI3. Electronic states are computed using Schrödinger equation with effective mass approximation by considering quantum dot and wetting layer assembly. Results have shown the varying the quantum dot size affects the energy pinning of QD. Changes in the ground, first, second state energies have been observed. The QD is non-zero at the center and decays exponentially to zero at boundaries. Quasi-bound states are characterized by envelope functions. It has been observed that conical quantum dots have maximum ground state energy at a small radius. Increasing the wetting layer thickness exhibits energy signatures similar to bulk material for each QD size.

Keywords: perovskite, intermediate bandgap, quantum dots, miniband formation

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
911 Standardization Of Miniature Neutron Research Reactor And Occupational Safety Analysis

Authors: Raymond Limen Njinga

Abstract:

The comparator factors (Fc) for miniature research reactors are of great importance in the field of nuclear physics as it provide accurate bases for the evaluation of elements in all form of samples via ko-NAA techniques. The Fc was initially simulated theoretically thereafter, series of experiments were performed to validate the results. In this situation, the experimental values were obtained using the alloy of Au(0.1%) - Al monitor foil and a neutron flux setting of 5.00E+11 cm-2.s-1. As was observed in the inner irradiation position, the average experimental value of 7.120E+05 was reported against the theoretical value of 7.330E+05. In comparison, a percentage deviation of 2.86 (from theoretical value) was observed. In the large case of the outer irradiation position, the experimental value of 1.170E+06 was recorded against the theoretical value of 1.210E+06 with a percentage deviation of 3.310 (from the theoretical value). The estimation of equivalent dose rate at 5m from neutron flux of 5.00E+11 cm-2.s-1 within the neutron energies of 1KeV, 10KeV, 100KeV, 500KeV, 1MeV, 5MeV and 10MeV were calculated to be 0.01 Sv/h, 0.01 Sv/h, 0.03 Sv/h, 0.15 Sv/h, 0.21Sv/h and 0.25 Sv/h respectively with a total dose within a period of an hour was obtained to be 0.66 Sv.

Keywords: neutron flux, comparator factor, NAA techniques, neutron energy, equivalent dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
910 Doped and Co-doped ZnO Based Nanoparticles and their Photocatalytic and Gas Sensing Property

Authors: Neha Verma, Manik Rakhra

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Nowadays, a tremendous increase in population and advanced industrialization augment the problems related to air and water pollutions. Growing industries promoting environmental danger, which is an alarming threat to the ecosystem. For safeguard, the environment, detection of perilous gases and release of colored wastewater is required for eutrophication pollution. Researchers around the globe are trying their best efforts to save the environment. For this remediation advanced oxidation process is used for potential applications. ZnO is an important semiconductor photocatalyst with high photocatalytic and gas sensing activities. For efficient photocatalytic and gas sensing properties, it is necessary to prepare a doped/co-doped ZnO compound to decrease the electron-hole recombination rates. However, lanthanide doped and co-doped metal oxide is seldom studied for photocatalytic and gas sensing applications. The purpose of this study is to describe the best photocatalyst for the photodegradation of dyes and gas sensing properties. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Economical framework has to be used for the synthesis of ZnO. In the depth literature survey, a simple combustion method is utilized for gas sensing and photocatalytic activities. Findings: Rare earth doped and co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were the best photocatalysts for photodegradation of organic dyes and different gas sensing applications by varying various factors such as pH, aging time, and different concentrations of doping and codoping metals in ZnO. Complete degradation of dye was observed only in min. Gas sensing nanodevice showed a better response and quick recovery time for doped/co-doped ZnO. Conclusion & Significance: In order to prevent air and water pollution, well crystalline ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid and economic method, which is used as photocatalyst for photodegradation of organic dyes and gas sensing applications to sense the release of hazardous gases from the environment.

Keywords: ZnO, photocatalyst, photodegradation of dye, gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
909 Raman Spectroscopy of Fossil-like Feature in Sooke #1 from Vancouver Island

Authors: J. A. Sawicki, C. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The first geochemical, petrological, X-ray diffraction, Raman, Mössbauer, and oxygen isotopic analyses of very intriguing 13-kg Sooke #1 stone covered in 70% of its surface with black fusion crust, found in and recovered from Sooke Basin, near Juan de Fuca Strait, in British Columbia, were reported as poster #2775 at LPSC52 in March. Our further analyses reported in poster #6305 at 84AMMS in August and comparisons with the Mössbauer spectra of Martian meteorite MIL03346 and Martian rocks in Gusev Crater reported by Morris et al. suggest that Sooke #1 find could be a stony achondrite of Martian polymict breccia type ejected from early watery Mars. Here, the Raman spectra of a carbon-rich ~1-mm² fossil-like white area identified in this rock on a surface of polished cut have been examined in more detail. The low-intensity 532 nm and 633 nm beams of the InviaRenishaw microscope were used to avoid any destructive effects. The beam was focused through the microscope objective to a 2 m spot on a sample, and backscattered light collected through this objective was recorded with CCD detector. Raman spectra of dark areas outside fossil have shown bands of clinopyroxene at 320, 660, and 1020 cm-1 and small peaks of forsteritic olivine at 820-840 cm-1, in agreement with results of X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses. Raman spectra of the white area showed the broad band D at ~1310 cm-1 consisting of main mode A1g at 1305 cm⁻¹, E2g mode at 1245 cm⁻¹, and E1g mode at 1355 cm⁻¹ due to stretching diamond-like sp3 bonds in diamond polytype lonsdaleite, as in Ovsyuk et al. study. The band near 1600 cm-1 mostly consists of D2 band at 1620 cm-1 and not of the narrower G band at 1583 cm⁻¹ due to E2g stretching in planar sp2 bonds that are fundamental building blocks of carbon allotropes graphite and graphene. In addition, the broad second-order Raman bands were observed with 532 nm beam at 2150, ~2340, ~2500, 2650, 2800, 2970, 3140, and ~3300 cm⁻¹ shifts. Second-order bands in diamond and other carbon structures are ascribed to the combinations of bands observed in the first-order region: here 2650 cm⁻¹ as 2D, 2970 cm⁻¹ as D+G, and 3140 cm⁻¹ as 2G ones. Nanodiamonds are abundant in the Universe, found in meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, comets, and carbon-rich stars. The diamonds in meteorites are presently intensely investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Such particles can be formed by CVD process and during major impact shocks at ~1000-2300 K and ~30-40 GPa. It cannot be excluded that the fossil discovered in Sooke #1 could be a remnant of an alien carbon organism that transformed under shock impact to nanodiamonds. We trust that for the benefit of research in astro-bio-geology of meteorites, asteroids, Martian rocks, and soil, this find deserves further, more thorough investigations. If possible, the Raman SHERLOCK spectrometer operating on the Perseverance Rover should also search for such objects in the Martian rocks.

Keywords: achondrite, nanodiamonds, lonsdaleite, raman spectra

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
908 Effort Dynamics with Selective Predator Harvesting of a Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System

Authors: Uganta Yadav, Sunita Gakkhar

Abstract:

Sustainable harvesting of renewable resources is a core issue in fisheries and forest management. The over-exploitation of valuable resources has led to the undesirable extinction of several biological species causing non-reversible damage to ecology and the environment. In this paper, the selective predator harvesting is considered in a predator prey system. The logistic growth of prey and ratio-dependent functional response is assumed. The dynamically varying effort is employed for selective harvesting of predator species using the Michaelis-Menten type function. The boundedness, positivity, and persistence of the nonlinear dynamical system are established. The system being non-singular about the origin, its dynamics is explored by transforming it to a regular system. It is observed that the system may collapse even with positive initial conditions attracted to one of the boundary points under certain conditions. The local stability of various other equilibrium states of the dynamic model is investigated. The region of attraction of the interior equilibrium state is obtained using Lyapunov stability. The occurrence of hopf bifurcation about the coexistence equilibrium point with respect to the parameter m (fraction of predators available for harvesting) is established. The sustainable harvesting is possible in two ways firstly, in the form of a stable interior equilibrium state, and secondly, in the form of a limit cycle. Considering the fraction m as a control variable, the optimal harvesting policy is obtained using Pontraygin’s maximum principle. The two-parameter bifurcation diagram is obtained with respect to c and d (the cost of harvesting and the death rate of predators, respectively). The two bi-stability regions of parameter space are identified. One of the regions shows the bi-stability of the origin and the effort free equilibrium state. The other region involves the bi-stability of the origin and interior equilibrium state. It is proved that for sustainable harvesting of predators, the ratio of p to c (price to cost) should be greater than a certain threshold value dependent on predator density. The analytical results are illustrated numerically with different parametric values.

Keywords: bifurcation, bistability, coexistence, optimal harvesting, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
907 Transient Response of Rheological Properties of a CI-Water Based Magnetorheological Fluid under Different Operating Modes

Authors: Chandra Shekhar Maurya, Chiranjit Sarkar

Abstract:

The transient response of rheological properties of a carbonyl iron (CI)-water-based magnetorheological fluid (MRF) was studied under shear rate, shear stress, and shear strain working mode subjected to step-change in an applied magnetic field. MR fluid is a kind of smart material whose rheological properties change under an applied magnetic field. We prepared an MR fluid comprising of CI 65 weight %, water 35 weight %, and OPTIGEL WX used as an additive by changing the weight %. It was found that the MR effect of the CI/water suspension was enhanced by using an additive. A transient shear stress response was observed by switched on and switched off of the magnetic field to see the stability, relaxation behavior, and resulting change in rheological properties. When the magnetic field is on, a sudden increase in the shear stress was observed due to the fast motion of magnetic structures that describe the transition from the liquidlike state to the solid-like state due to an increase in dipole-dipole interaction of magnetic particles. Simultaneously, the complete reverse transition occurs due to instantaneous breakage of the chain structure once the magnetic field is switched off.

Keywords: magnetorheological fluid, rheological properties, shears stress, shears strain, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
906 The Mathematics of Fractal Art: Using a Derived Cubic Method and the Julia Programming Language to Make Fractal Zoom Videos

Authors: Darsh N. Patel, Eric Olson

Abstract:

Fractals can be found everywhere, whether it be the shape of a leaf or a system of blood vessels. Fractals are used to help study and understand different physical and mathematical processes; however, their artistic nature is also beautiful to simply explore. This project explores fractals generated by a cubically convergent extension to Newton's method. With this iteration as a starting point, a complex plane spanning from -2 to 2 is created with a color wheel mapped onto it. Next, the polynomial whose roots the fractal will generate from is established. From the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, it is known that any polynomial has as many roots (counted by multiplicity) as its degree. When generating the fractals, each root will receive its own color. The complex plane can then be colored to indicate the basins of attraction that converge to each root. From a computational point of view, this project’s code identifies which points converge to which roots and then obtains fractal images. A zoom path into the fractal was implemented to easily visualize the self-similar structure. This path was obtained by selecting keyframes at different magnifications through which a path is then interpolated. Using parallel processing, many images were generated and condensed into a video. This project illustrates how practical techniques used for scientific visualization can also have an artistic side.

Keywords: fractals, cubic method, Julia programming language, basin of attraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
905 Electrochemical Radiofrequency Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Measurements for Fingerprinting Single Electron Transfer Processes

Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Mohamed Awadein, Georg Gramse, Luyang Song, He Sun, Wolfgang Schofberger, Stefan Müllegger

Abstract:

Electron transfer is a crucial part of chemical reactions which drive everyday processes. With the help of an electro-chemical radio frequency scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-RF-STM) setup, we are observing single electron mediated oxidation-reduction processes in molecules like ferrocene and transition metal corroles. Combining the techniques of scanning microwave microscopy and cyclic voltammetry allows us to monitor such processes with attoampere sensitivity. A systematic study of such phenomena would be critical to understanding the nano-scale behavior of catalysts, molecular sensors, and batteries relevant to the development of novel material and energy applications.

Keywords: radiofrequency, STM, cyclic voltammetry, ferrocene

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
904 Tailoring Quantum Oscillations of Excitonic Schrodinger’s Cats as Qubits

Authors: Amit Bhunia, Mohit Kumar Singh, Maryam Al Huwayz, Mohamed Henini, Shouvik Datta

Abstract:

We report [https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.13518] experimental detection and control of Schrodinger’s Cat like macroscopically large, quantum coherent state of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate of spatially indirect electron-hole pairs or excitons using a resonant tunneling diode of III-V Semiconductors. This provides access to millions of excitons as qubits to allow efficient, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this work, we measure phase-coherent periodic oscillations in photo-generated capacitance as a function of an applied voltage bias and light intensity over a macroscopically large area. Periodic presence and absence of splitting of excitonic peaks in the optical spectra measured by photocapacitance point towards tunneling induced variations in capacitive coupling between the quantum well and quantum dots. Observation of negative ‘quantum capacitance’ due to a screening of charge carriers by the quantum well indicates Coulomb correlations of interacting excitons in the plane of the sample. We also establish that coherent resonant tunneling in this well-dot heterostructure restricts the available momentum space of the charge carriers within this quantum well. Consequently, the electric polarization vector of the associated indirect excitons collective orients along the direction of applied bias and these excitons undergo Bose-Einstein condensation below ~100 K. Generation of interference beats in photocapacitance oscillation even with incoherent white light further confirm the presence of stable, long-range spatial correlation among these indirect excitons. We finally demonstrate collective Rabi oscillations of these macroscopically large, ‘multipartite’, two-level, coupled and uncoupled quantum states of excitonic condensate as qubits. Therefore, our study not only brings the physics and technology of Bose-Einstein condensation within the reaches of semiconductor chips but also opens up experimental investigations of the fundamentals of quantum physics using similar techniques. Operational temperatures of such two-component excitonic BEC can be raised further with a more densely packed, ordered array of QDs and/or using materials having larger excitonic binding energies. However, fabrications of single crystals of 0D-2D heterostructures using 2D materials (e.g. transition metal di-chalcogenides, oxides, perovskites etc.) having higher excitonic binding energies are still an open challenge for semiconductor optoelectronics. As of now, these 0D-2D heterostructures can already be scaled up for mass production of miniaturized, portable quantum optoelectronic devices using the existing III-V and/or Nitride based semiconductor fabrication technologies.

Keywords: exciton, Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum computation, heterostructures, semiconductor Physics, quantum fluids, Schrodinger's Cat

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
903 Reinforcement Learning for Classification of Low-Resolution Satellite Images

Authors: Khadija Bouzaachane, El Mahdi El Guarmah

Abstract:

The classification of low-resolution satellite images has been a worthwhile and fertile field that attracts plenty of researchers due to its importance in monitoring geographical areas. It could be used for several purposes such as disaster management, military surveillance, agricultural monitoring. The main objective of this work is to classify efficiently and accurately low-resolution satellite images by using novel technics of deep learning and reinforcement learning. The images include roads, residential areas, industrial areas, rivers, sea lakes, and vegetation. To achieve that goal, we carried out experiments on the sentinel-2 images considering both high accuracy and efficiency classification. Our proposed model achieved a 91% accuracy on the testing dataset besides a good classification for land cover. Focus on the parameter precision; we have obtained 93% for the river, 92% for residential, 97% for residential, 96% for the forest, 87% for annual crop, 84% for herbaceous vegetation, 85% for pasture, 78% highway and 100% for Sea Lake.

Keywords: classification, deep learning, reinforcement learning, satellite imagery

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
902 Development of Colorimetric Based Microfluidic Platform for Quantification of Fluid Contaminants

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Mahima Rana, Jayu Kalambe

Abstract:

In this paper, a microfluidic-based platform for the quantification of contaminants in the water is proposed. The proposed system uses microfluidic channels with an embedded environment for contaminants detection in water. Microfluidics-based platforms present an evident stage of innovation for fluid analysis, with different applications advancing minimal efforts and simplicity of fabrication. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidics channel is fabricated using a soft lithography technique. Vertical and horizontal connections for fluid dispensing with the microfluidic channel are explored. The principle of colorimetry, which incorporates the use of Griess reagent for the detection of nitrite, has been adopted. Nitrite has high water solubility and water retention, due to which it has a greater potential to stay in groundwater, endangering aquatic life along with human health, hence taken as a case study in this work. The developed platform also compares the detection methodology, containing photodetectors for measuring absorbance and image sensors for measuring color change for quantification of contaminants like nitrite in water. The utilization of image processing techniques offers the advantage of operational flexibility, as the same system can be used to identify other contaminants present in water by introducing minor software changes.

Keywords: colorimetric, fluid contaminants, nitrite detection, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
901 Glucose Monitoring System Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Neeraj Rangwani, Akash Poddar, Jayu Kalambe

Abstract:

The bio-medical analysis is an indispensable procedure for identifying health-related diseases like diabetes. Monitoring the glucose level in our body regularly helps us identify hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, which can cause severe medical problems like nerve damage or kidney diseases. This paper presents a method for predicting the glucose concentration in blood samples using image processing and machine learning algorithms. The glucose solution is prepared by the glucose oxidase (GOD) and peroxidase (POD) method. An experimental database is generated based on the colorimetric technique. The image of the glucose solution is captured by the raspberry pi camera and analyzed using image processing by extracting the RGB, HSV, LUX color space values. Regression algorithms like multiple linear regression, decision tree, RandomForest, and XGBoost were used to predict the unknown glucose concentration. The multiple linear regression algorithm predicts the results with 97% accuracy. The image processing and machine learning-based approach reduce the hardware complexities of existing platforms.

Keywords: artificial intelligence glucose detection, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, image processing, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
900 Universe at Zero Second and the Creation Process of the First Particle from the Absolute Void

Authors: Shivan Sirdy

Abstract:

In this study, we discuss the properties of absolute void space or the universe at zero seconds, and how these properties play a vital role in creating a mechanism in which the very first particle gets created simultaneously everywhere. We find the limit in which when the absolute void volume reaches will lead to the collapse that leads to the creation of the first particle. This discussion is made following the elementary dimensions theory study that was peer-reviewed at the end of 2020; everything in the universe is made from four elementary dimensions, these dimensions are the three spatial dimensions (X, Y, and Z) and the Void resistance as the factor of change among the four. Time itself was not considered as the fourth dimension. Rather time corresponds to a factor of change, and during the research, it was found out that the Void resistance is the factor of change in the absolute Void space, where time is a hypothetical concept that represents changes during certain events compared to a constant change rate event. Therefore, time does exist, but as a factor of change as the Void resistance: Time= factor of change= Void resistance.

Keywords: elementary dimensions, absolute void, time alternative, early universe, universe at zero second, Void resistant, Hydrogen atom, Hadron field, Lepton field

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
899 Establishment of Virtual Fracture Clinic in Princess Royal Hospital Telford: Experience and Recommendations during the First 9 Months

Authors: Tahir Khaleeq, Patrick Lancaster, Keji Fakoya, Pedro Ferreira, Usman Ahmed

Abstract:

Introduction: Virtual fracture clinics (VFC) have been shown to be a safe and cost-effective way of managing outpatient referrals to the orthopaedic department. During the coronavirus pandemic there has been a push to reduce unnecessary patient contact whilst maintaining patient safety. Materials and Methods: A protocol was developed by the clinical team in collaboration with Advanced Physiotherapy Practitioners (APP) on how to manage common musculoskeletal presentations to A&E prior to COVID as part of routine service development. Patients broadly triaged into 4 categories; discharge with advice, referral to VFC, referral to face to face clinic or discussion with on call team. The first 9 months of data were analysed to assess types of injury seen and outcomes. Results: In total 2489 patients were referred to VFC from internal and external sources. 734 patients were discharged without follow-up and 182 patients were discharged for physiotherapy review. Only 3 patients required admission. Regarding follow-ups, 431 patients had a virtual follow-up while 1036 of patients required further face to face follow up. 87 patients were triaged into subspecialty clinics. 37 patients were felt to have been referred inappropriately. Discussion: BOA guidelines suggest all patients need to be reviewed within 72 hours of their orthopaedic injury. Implementation of a VFC allows this target to be achieved and at the same time reduce patient contact. Almost half the patients were discharged following VFC review, the remaining patients were appropriately followed up. This is especially relevant in the current pandemic where reducing unnecessary trips to hospital will benefit the patient as well as make the most of the resources available.

Keywords: virtual fracture clinic, lockdown, trauma and orthopaedics, Covid- 19

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
898 Check Red Blood Cells Concentrations of a Blood Sample by Using Photoconductive Antenna

Authors: Ahmed Banda, Alaa Maghrabi, Aiman Fakieh

Abstract:

Terahertz (THz) range lies in the area between 0.1 to 10 THz. The process of generating and detecting THz can be done through different techniques. One of the most familiar techniques is done through a photoconductive antenna (PCA). The process of generating THz radiation at PCA includes applying a laser pump in femtosecond and DC voltage difference. However, photocurrent is generated at PCA, which its value is affected by different parameters (e.g., dielectric properties, DC voltage difference and incident power of laser pump). THz radiation is used for biomedical applications. However, different biomedical fields need new technologies to meet patients’ needs (e.g. blood-related conditions). In this work, a novel method to check the red blood cells (RBCs) concentration of a blood sample using PCA is presented. RBCs constitute 44% of total blood volume. RBCs contain Hemoglobin that transfers oxygen from lungs to body organs. Then it returns to the lungs carrying carbon dioxide, which the body then gets rid of in the process of exhalation. The configuration has been simulated and optimized using COMSOL Multiphysics. The differentiation of RBCs concentration affects its dielectric properties (e.g., the relative permittivity of RBCs in the blood sample). However, the effects of four blood samples (with different concentrations of RBCs) on photocurrent value have been tested. Photocurrent peak value and RBCs concentration are inversely proportional to each other due to the change of dielectric properties of RBCs. It was noticed that photocurrent peak value has dropped from 162.99 nA to 108.66 nA when RBCs concentration has risen from 0% to 100% of a blood sample. The optimization of this method helps to launch new products for diagnosing blood-related conditions (e.g., anemia and leukemia). The resultant electric field from DC components can not be used to count the RBCs of the blood sample.

Keywords: biomedical applications, photoconductive antenna, photocurrent, red blood cells, THz radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
897 Cellular Automata Model for Car Accidents at a Signalized Intersection

Authors: Rachid Marzoug, Noureddine Lakouari, Beatriz Castillo Téllez, Margarita Castillo Téllez, Gerardo Alberto Mejía Pérez

Abstract:

This paper developed a two-lane cellular automata model to explain the relationship between car accidents at a signalized intersection and traffic-related parameters. It is found that the increase of the lane-changing probability P𝒸ₕ𝓰 increases the risk of accidents, besides, the inflow α and the probability of accidents Pₐ𝒸 exhibit a nonlinear relationship. Furthermore, depending on the inflow, Pₐ𝒸 exhibits three different phases. The transition from phase I to phase II is of first (second) order when P𝒸ₕ𝓰=0 (P𝒸ₕ𝓰>0). However, the system exhibits a second (first) order transition from phase II to phase III when P𝒸ₕ𝓰=0 (P𝒸ₕ𝓰>0). In addition, when the inflow is not very high, the green light length of one road should be increased to improve road safety. Finally, simulation results show that the traffic at the intersection is safer adopting symmetric lane-changing rules than asymmetric ones.

Keywords: two-lane intersection, accidents, fatality risk, lane-changing, phase transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
896 Effect of the Tidal Charge Parameter on CMBR Temperature Anisotropies

Authors: Evariste Boj, Jan Schee

Abstract:

We present the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the inhomogeneity region constructed on a 3-brane in the framework of a Randall-Sundrum one brane immersed into a 5D bulk $AdS_5$ spacetime. We employ the Brane-World Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological model to describe the cosmic expansion on the brane. The inhomogeneity is modeled by the static, spherically symmetric spacetime that replaces the spherically symmetric part of a dust-filled universe and is connected to the FLRW spacetime through the junction conditions. As the vacuum region expands it induces an additional frequency shift to a CMBR photon passing through this inhomogeneity in comparison to the case of a photon propagating through a pure FLRW spacetime. This frequency shift is associated with the effective temperature change of the CMBR in the corresponding direction. We give an estimate of the CMBR effective temperature changes with the change of the value of the tidal charge parameter.

Keywords: CMBR, Randall-Sundrum model, Rees-Sciama effect, Braneworld

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
895 Effect of Control Lasers Polarization on Absorption Coefficient and Refractive Index of a W-Type 4- Level Cylindrical Quantum Dot in the Presence Of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (ETI)

Authors: Marziehossadat Moezzi

Abstract:

In this paper, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) with a parabolic confinement potential. We study the effect of control lasers polarization on absorption coefficient, refractive index and also on the generation of the double transparency windows in this system. Considering an effective mass method, the time-independent Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the energy structure of the QD. Also, we study the effect of structural characteristics of the QD on refraction and absorption of the QD in the presence of EIT.

Keywords: electromagnetically induced transparency, cylindrical quantum dot, absorption coefficient, refractive index

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
894 Representation of the Solution of One Dynamical System on the Plane

Authors: Kushakov Kholmurodjon, Muhammadjonov Akbarshox

Abstract:

This present paper is devoted to a system of second-order nonlinear differential equations with a special right-hand side, exactly, the linear part and a third-order polynomial of a special form. It is shown that for some relations between the parameters, there is a second-order curve in which trajectories leaving the points of this curve remain in the same place. Thus, the curve is invariant with respect to the given system. Moreover, this system is invariant under a non-degenerate linear transformation of variables. The form of this curve, depending on the relations between the parameters and the eigenvalues of the matrix, is proved. All solutions of this system of differential equations are shown analytically.

Keywords: dynamic system, ellipse, hyperbola, Hess system, polar coordinate system

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
893 Effect of Curing Temperature on the Gel Strength and Melting Temperature of Gelatine-SDS Hydrogels

Authors: Virginia Martin, Binjie Wu

Abstract:

Gelatine is a protein biopolymer obtained from the partial hydrolysis of animal tissues which contain collagen, the primary structural component in connective tissue. Gelatine hydrogels have attracted considerable research in recent years as an alternative to synthetic materials due to their outstanding gelling properties, biocompatibility and compostability. Surfactants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are often used in hydrogels solutions as surface modifiers or solubility enhancers, and their incorporation can influence the hydrogel's viscoelastic properties and, in turn, its processing and applications. Literature usually focuses on studying the impact of formulation parameters (e.g., gelatine content, gelatine strength, additives incorporation) on gelatine hydrogels properties, but processing parameters, such as curing temperature, are commonly overlooked. For example, some authors have reported a decrease in gel strength at lower curing temperatures, but there is a lack of research on the systematic viscoelastic characterisation of high strength gelatine and gelatine-SDS systems at a wide range of curing temperatures. This knowledge is essential to meet and adjust the technological requirements for different applications (e.g., viscosity, setting time, gel strength or melting/gelling temperature). This work investigated the effect of curing temperature (10, 15, 20, 23 and 25 and 30°C) on the elastic modulus (G’) and melting temperature of high strength gelatine-SDS hydrogels, at s10 wt% and 20 wt% gelatine contents, by small-amplitude oscillatory shear rheology coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. It also correlates the gel strength obtained by rheological measurements with the gel strength measured by texture analysis. Gelatine and gelatine-SDS hydrogels’ rheological behaviour strongly depended on the curing temperature, and its gel strength and melting temperature can be slightly modified to adjust it to given processing and applications needs. Lower curing temperatures led to gelatine and gelatine-SDS hydrogels with considerably higher storage modulus. However, their melting temperature was lower than those gels cured at higher temperatures and lower gel strength. This effect was more considerable at longer timescales. This behaviour is attributed to the development of thermal-resistant structures in the lower strength gels cured at higher temperatures.

Keywords: gelatine gelation kinetics, gelatine-SDS interactions, gelatine-surfactant hydrogels, melting and gelling temperature of gelatine gels, rheology of gelatine hydrogelss

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
892 Effects of Two Cross Focused Intense Laser Beams On THz Generation in Rippled Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

Terahertz (THz) generation has been investigated by beating two cosh-Gaussian laser beams of the same amplitude but different wavenumbers and frequencies through rippled collisionless plasma. The ponderomotive force is operative which is induced due to the intensity gradient of the laser beam over the cross-section area of the wavefront. The electrons evacuate towards a low-intensity regime, which modifies the dielectric function of the medium and results in cross focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beams. The evolution of spot size of laser beams has been studied by solving nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with variational technique. The laser beams impart oscillations to electrons which are enhanced with ripple density. The nonlinear oscillatory motion of electrons gives rise to a nonlinear current density driving THz radiation. It has been observed that the periodicity of the ripple density helps to enhance the THz radiation.

Keywords: rippled collisionless plasma, cosh-gaussian laser beam, ponderomotive force, variational technique, nonlinear current density

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
891 Physical Aspects of Shape Memory and Reversibility in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys take place in a class of smart materials by exhibiting a peculiar property called the shape memory effect. This property is characterized by the recoverability of two certain shapes of material at different temperatures. These materials are often called smart materials due to their functionality and their capacity of responding to changes in the environment. Shape memory materials are used as shape memory devices in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, bioengineering, metallurgy, building industry and many engineering fields. The shape memory effect is performed thermally by heating and cooling after first cooling and stressing treatments, and this behavior is called thermoelasticity. This effect is based on martensitic transformations characterized by changes in the crystal structure of the material. The shape memory effect is the result of successive thermally and stress-induced martensitic transformations. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermoelasticity and superelasticity by means of deformation in the low-temperature product phase and high-temperature parent phase region, respectively. Superelasticity is performed by stressing and releasing the material in the parent phase region. Loading and unloading paths are different in the stress-strain diagram, and the cycling loop reveals energy dissipation. The strain energy is stored after releasing, and these alloys are mainly used as deformation absorbent materials in control of civil structures subjected to seismic events, due to the absorbance of strain energy during any disaster or earthquake. Thermal-induced martensitic transformation occurs thermally on cooling, along with lattice twinning with cooperative movements of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears, and ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned martensite structures, and twinned structures turn into the detwinned structures by means of stress-induced martensitic transformation by stressing the material in the martensitic condition. Thermal induced transformation occurs with the cooperative movements of atoms in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110} - type planes of austenite matrix which is the basal plane of martensite. Copper-based alloys exhibit this property in the metastable β-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high-temperature parent phase field. Lattice invariant shear and twinning is not uniform in copper-based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of complex layered structures, depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered parent phase lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper-based CuAlMn and CuZnAl alloys. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit superlattice reflections inherited from the parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that diffraction angles and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging duration at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close to each other. This result refers to the rearrangement of atoms in a diffusive manner.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, reversibility, superelasticity, twinning, detwinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
890 Interaction of Tungsten Tips with Laguerre-Gaussian Beams

Authors: Abhisek Sinha, Debobrata Rajak, Shilpa Rani, Ram Gopal, Vandana Sharma

Abstract:

The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with metallic tips has been studied extensively, and they have proved to be a very good source of ultrashort electron pulses. A study of the interaction of femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser modes with Tungsten tips is presented here. Laser pulses of 35 fs pulse durations were incident on Tungsten tips, and their electron emission rates were studied for LG (l=1, p=0) and Gaussian modes. A change in the order of the interaction for LG beams is reported, and the difference in the order of interaction is attributed to ponderomotive shifts in the energy levels corresponding to the enhanced near-field intensity supported by numerical simulations.

Keywords: femtosecond, Laguerre-Gaussian, OAM, tip

Procedia PDF Downloads 40