Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1040

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Physical and Mathematical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1040 Current of Drain for Various Values of Mobility in the Gaas Mesfet

Authors: S. Belhour, A. K. Ferouani, C. Azizi


In recent years, a considerable effort (experience, numerical simulation, and theoretical prediction models) has characterised by high efficiency and low cost. Then an improved physics analytical model for simulating is proposed. The performance of GaAs MESFETs has been developed for use in device design for high frequency. This model is based on mathematical analysis, and a new approach for the standard model is proposed, this approach allowed to conceive applicable model for MESFET’s operating in the turn-one or pinch-off region and valid for the short-channel and the long channel MESFET’s in which the two dimensional potential distribution contributed by the depletion layer under the gate is obtained by conventional approximation. More ever, comparisons between the analytical models with different values of mobility are proposed, and a good agreement is obtained.

Keywords: analytical, gallium arsenide, MESFET, mobility, models

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1039 Effect of Barium Doping on Structural, Morphological, Optical and Photocatalytic Properties of Sprayed ZnO Thin Films

Authors: H. Djaaboube, I. Loucif, Y. Bouachiba, R. Aouati, A. Maameri, A. Taabouche, A. Bouabellou


Thin films of pure and barium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) were prepared using a spray pyrolysis process. The films were deposited on glass substrates at 450°C. The different samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of a single ZnO Wurtzite structure and the good crystallinity of the films. The substitution of Ba ions influences the texture of the layers and makes the (002) plane a preferential growth plane. At concentrations below 6% Ba, the hexagonal structure of ZnO undergoes compressive stresses due to barium ions which have a radius twice of the Zn ions. This result leads to the decrees of a and c parameters and, therefore, the volume of the unit cell. This result is confirmed by the decrease in the number of crystallites and the increase in the size of the crystallites. At concentrations above 6%, barium substitutes the zinc atom and modifies the structural parameters of the thin layers. The bandgap of ZnO films decreased with increasing doping; this decrease is probably due to the 4d orbitals of the Ba atom due to the sp-d spin-exchange interactions between the band electrons and the localized d-electrons of the substituted Ba ion. Although, the Urbache energy undergoes an increase which implies the creation of energy levels below the conduction band and decreases the band gap width. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO doped 9% Ba was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation.

Keywords: barium, doping, photodegradation, spray pyrolysis, ZnO

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1038 Quantum Mechanics as A Limiting Case of Relativistic Mechanics

Authors: Ahmad Almajid


The idea of unifying quantum mechanics with general relativity is still a dream for many researchers, as physics has only two paths, no more. Einstein's path, which is mainly based on particle mechanics, and the path of Paul Dirac and others, which is based on wave mechanics, the incompatibility of the two approaches is due to the radical difference in the initial assumptions and the mathematical nature of each approach. Logical thinking in modern physics leads us to two problems: - In quantum mechanics, despite its success, the problem of measurement and the problem of wave function interpretation is still obscure. - In special relativity, despite the success of the equivalence of rest-mass and energy, but at the speed of light, the fact that the energy becomes infinite is contrary to logic because the speed of light is not infinite, and the mass of the particle is not infinite too. These contradictions arise from the overlap of relativistic and quantum mechanics in the neighborhood of the speed of light, and in order to solve these problems, one must understand well how to move from relativistic mechanics to quantum mechanics, or rather, to unify them in a way different from Dirac's method, in order to go along with God or Nature, since, as Einstein said, "God doesn't play dice." From De Broglie's hypothesis about wave-particle duality, Léon Brillouin's definition of the new proper time was deduced, and thus the quantum Lorentz factor was obtained. Finally, using the Euler-Lagrange equation, we come up with new equations in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the two problems in modern physics mentioned above are solved; it can be said that this new approach to quantum mechanics will enable us to unify it with general relativity quite simply. If the experiments prove the validity of the results of this research, we will be able in the future to transport the matter at speed close to the speed of light. Finally, this research yielded three important results: 1- Lorentz quantum factor. 2- Planck energy is a limited case of Einstein energy. 3- Real quantum mechanics, in which new equations for quantum mechanics match and exceed Dirac's equations, these equations have been reached in a completely different way from Dirac's method. These equations show that quantum mechanics is a limited case of relativistic mechanics. At the Solvay Conference in 1927, the debate about quantum mechanics between Bohr, Einstein, and others reached its climax, while Bohr suggested that if particles are not observed, they are in a probabilistic state, then Einstein said his famous claim ("God does not play dice"). Thus, Einstein was right, especially when he didn't accept the principle of indeterminacy in quantum theory, although experiments support quantum mechanics. However, the results of our research indicate that God really does not play dice; when the electron disappears, it turns into amicable particles or an elastic medium, according to the above obvious equations. Likewise, Bohr was right also, when he indicated that there must be a science like quantum mechanics to monitor and study the motion of subatomic particles, but the picture in front of him was blurry and not clear, so he resorted to the probabilistic interpretation.

Keywords: lorentz quantum factor, new, planck’s energy as a limiting case of einstein’s energy, real quantum mechanics, new equations for quantum mechanics

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1037 A TgCNN-Based Surrogate Model for Subsurface Oil-Water Phase Flow under Multi-Well Conditions

Authors: Jian Li


The uncertainty quantification and inversion problems of subsurface oil-water phase flow usually require extensive repeated forward calculations for new runs with changed conditions. To reduce the computational time, various forms of surrogate models have been built. Related research shows that deep learning has emerged as an effective surrogate model, while most surrogate models with deep learning are purely data-driven, which always leads to poor robustness and abnormal results. To guarantee the model more consistent with the physical laws, a coupled theory-guided convolutional neural network (TgCNN) based surrogate model is built to facilitate computation efficiency under the premise of satisfactory accuracy. The model is a convolutional neural network based on multi-well reservoir simulation. The core notion of this proposed method is to bridge two separate blocks on top of an overall network. They underlie the TgCNN model in a coupled form, which reflects the coupling nature of pressure and water saturation in the two-phase flow equation. The model is driven by not only labeled data but also scientific theories, including governing equations, stochastic parameterization, boundary, and initial conditions, well conditions, and expert knowledge. The results show that the TgCNN-based surrogate model exhibits satisfactory accuracy and efficiency in subsurface oil-water phase flow under multi-well conditions.

Keywords: coupled theory-guided convolutional neural network, multi-well conditions, surrogate model, subsurface oil-water phase

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1036 Gravity Due to the Expansion of Matter and Distortion of Hyperspace

Authors: Arif Ali, Divya Raj Sapkota


In this paper, we explain gravitational attraction as the consequence of the dynamics of four-dimensional bodies and the consequent distortion of space. This approach provides an alternative direction to understand various physical phenomena based on the existence of the fourth spatial dimension. For this interpretation, we formulate the acceleration due to gravity and orbital velocity based on the accelerating expansion of three-dimensional symmetric bodies. It is also shown how distortion in space caused by the dynamics of four-dimensional bodies counterbalances the effect of expansion. We find that the motion of four-dimensional bodies through four-dimensional space leads to gravitational attraction, and the expansion of bodies leads to surface gravity. Thus, dynamics in the fourth spatial dimension provide an alternative explanation to gravity.

Keywords: dimensions, four, gravity, voluceleration

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1035 Next Generation Radiation Risk Assessment and Prediction Tools Generation Applying AI-Machine (Deep) Learning Algorithms

Authors: Selim M. Khan


Indoor air quality is strongly influenced by the presence of radioactive radon (222Rn) gas. Indeed, exposure to high 222Rn concentrations is unequivocally linked to DNA damage and lung cancer and is a worsening issue in North American and European built environments, having increased over time within newer housing stocks as a function of as yet unclear variables. Indoor air radon concentration can be influenced by a wide range of environmental, structural, and behavioral factors. As some of these factors are quantitative while others are qualitative, no single statistical model can determine indoor radon level precisely while simultaneously considering all these variables across a complex and highly diverse dataset. The ability of AI- machine (deep) learning to simultaneously analyze multiple quantitative and qualitative features makes it suitable to predict radon with a high degree of precision. Using Canadian and Swedish long-term indoor air radon exposure data, we are using artificial deep neural network models with random weights and polynomial statistical models in MATLAB to assess and predict radon health risk to human as a function of geospatial, human behavioral, and built environmental metrics. Our initial artificial neural network with random weights model run by sigmoid activation tested different combinations of variables and showed the highest prediction accuracy (>96%) within the reasonable iterations. Here, we present details of these emerging methods and discuss strengths and weaknesses compared to the traditional artificial neural network and statistical methods commonly used to predict indoor air quality in different countries. We propose an artificial deep neural network with random weights as a highly effective method for assessing and predicting indoor radon.

Keywords: radon, radiation protection, lung cancer, aI-machine deep learnng, risk assessment, risk prediction, Europe, North America

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1034 AI-based Optimization Model for Plastics Biodegradable Substitutes

Authors: Zaid Almahmoud, Rana Mahmoud


To mitigate the environmental impacts of throwing away plastic waste, there has been a recent interest in manufacturing and producing biodegradable plastics. Here, we study a new class of biodegradable plastics which are mixed with external natural additives, including catalytic additives that lead to a successful degradation of the resulting material. To recommend the best alternative among multiple materials, we propose a multi-objective AI model that evaluates the material against multiple objectives given the material properties. As a proof of concept, the AI model was implemented in an expert system and evaluated using multiple materials. Our findings showed that Polyethylene Terephalate is potentially the best biodegradable plastic substitute based on its material properties. Therefore, it is recommended that governments shift the attention to the use of Polyethylene Terephalate in the manufacturing of bottles to gain a great environmental and sustainable benefits.

Keywords: plastic bottles, expert systems, multi-objective model, biodegradable substitutes

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1033 Silicon Carbide (SiC) Crystallization Obtained as a Side Effect of SF6 Etching Process

Authors: N. K. A. M. Galvão, A. Godoy Jr., A. L. J. Pereira, G. V. Martins, R. S. Pessoa, H. S. Maciel, M. A. Fraga


Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide band-gap semiconductor material with very attractive properties, such as high breakdown voltage, chemical inertness, and high thermal and electrical stability, which makes it a promising candidate for several applications, including microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and electronic devices. In MEMS manufacturing, the etching process is an important step. It has been proved that wet etching of SiC is not feasible due to its high bond strength and high chemical inertness. In view of this difficulty, the plasma etching technique has been applied with paramount success. However, in most of these studies, only the determination of the etching rate and/or morphological characterization of SiC, as well as the analysis of the reactive ions present in the plasma, are lowly explored. There is a lack of results in the literature on the chemical and structural properties of SiC after the etching process [4]. In this work, we investigated the etching process of sputtered amorphous SiC thin films on Si substrates in a reactive ion etching (RIE) system using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas under different RF power. The results of the chemical and structural analyses of the etched films revealed that, for all conditions, a SiC crystallization occurred, in addition to fluoride contamination. In conclusion, we observed that SiC crystallization is a side effect promoted by structural, morphological and chemical changes caused by RIE SF6 etching process.

Keywords: plasma etching, plasma deposition, Silicon Carbide, microelectromechanical systems

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1032 Assessment and Evaluation of Traffic Noise in Selected Government Healthcare Facilities at Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State-Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Naziru Yahaya, Buhari Samaila, Nasiru Abubakar


Noise pollution caused by vehicular movement in urban cities has reached alarming proportions due to continuous increases in vehicles and industrialization. Traffic noise causes deafness, annoyance, and other health challenges. According to World Health Organization recommends 60Db daytime sound levels and 40db night time sound levels in hospitals, schools, and other residential areas. Measurements of traffic noise were taken at six different locations of selected healthcare facilities at Birnin Kebbi (Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital and Federal Medical Centre Birnin Kebbi). The data was collected in the vicinity of hospitals using the slow setting of the device and pointed at noise sources. An integrated multifunctional sound level GM1352, KK2821163 model, was used for measuring the emitted noise and temperatures. The data was measured and recorded at three different periods of the day 8 am – 12 pm, 3 pm – 6 pm, and 6 pm – 8:30 pm, respectively. The results show that a fair traffic flow producing an average sound level in the order of 38db – 64db was recorded at GOPDF, amenityF, and ante-natalF. Similarly, high traffic noise was observed at GOPDS, amenityS, and Fati-LamiS in the order of 52db – 78db unsatisfactory threshold for human hearing.

Keywords: amenities, healthcare, noise, hospital, traffic

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1031 Secondary Radiation in Laser-Accelerated Proton Beamline (LAP)

Authors: Seyed Ali Mahdipour, Maryam Shafeei Sarvestani


Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) and target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) are the most important methods of Laser-accelerated proton beams (LAP) planning systems.LAP has inspired novel applications that can benefit from proton bunch properties different from conventionally accelerated proton beams. The secondary neutron and photon produced in the collision of protons with beamline components are of the important concern in proton therapy. Various published Monte Carlo researches evaluated the beamline and shielding considerations for TNSA method, but there is no studies directly address secondary neutron and photon production from RPA method in LAP. The purpose of this study is to calculate the flux distribution of neutron and photon secondary radiations on the first area ofLAP and to determine the optimize thickness and radius of the energyselector in a LAP planning system based on RPA method. Also, we present the Monte Carlo calculations to determine the appropriate beam pipe for shielding a LAP planning system. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit has been used to simulate a secondary radiation production in LAP. A section of new multifunctional LAP beamlinehas been proposed, based on the pulsed power solenoid scheme as a GEANT4 toolkit. The results show that the energy selector is the most important source of neutron and photon secondary particles in LAP beamline. According to the calculations, the pure Tungsten energy selector not be the proper case, and using of Tungsten+Polyethylene or Tungsten+Graphitecomposite selectors will reduce the production of neutron and photon intensities by approximately ~10% and ~25%, respectively. Also the optimal radiuses of energy selectors were found to be ~4 cm and ~6 cm for a 3 degree and 5 degree proton deviation angles, respectively.

Keywords: neutron, photon, flux distribution, energy selector, GEANT4 toolkit

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1030 Spaces of Interpretation: Personal Space

Authors: Yehuda Roth


In quantum theory, a system’s time evolution is predictable unless an observer performs measurement, as the measurement process can randomize the system. This randomness appears when the measuring device does not accurately describe the measured item, i.e., when the states characterizing the measuring device appear as a superposition of those being measured. When such a mismatch occurs, the measured data randomly collapse into a single eigenstate of the measuring device. This scenario resembles the interpretation process in which the observer does not experience an objective reality but interprets it based on preliminary descriptions initially ingrained into his/her mind. This distinction is the motivation for the present study in which the collapse scenario is regarded as part of the interpretation process of the observer. By adopting the formalism of the quantum theory, we present a complete mathematical approach that describes the interpretation process. We demonstrate this process by applying the proposed interpretation formalism to the ambiguous image "My wife and mother-in-law" to identify whether a woman in the picture is young or old.

Keywords: quantum-like interpretation, ambiguous image, determination, quantum-like collapse, classified representation

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1029 A Potential Spin-orbit Torque Device Using the Tri-layer Structure

Authors: Chih-Wei Cheng, Wei-Jen Chan, Yu-Han Huang, Yi-Tsung Lin, Yen-Wei Huang, Min-Cheng Chen, Shou-Zen Chang, G. Chern, Yuan-Chieh Tseng


How to develop spin-orbit-torque (SOT) devices with the virtues of field-free, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), and low switching current is one of the many challenges in spintronics today. We propose a CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB tri-layer antiferromagnetic SOT device that could meet the above requirements. The device’s PMA was developed by adopting CoFeB–MgO interface. The key to the success of this structure is to ensure that (i)changes of the inter-layer coupling(IEC) and CoFeB anisotropy can occur simultaneously; (ii) one of the CoFeB needs to have a slightly tilted moment in the beginning. When sufficient current is given, the SHEreverses the already-tiltedCoFeB, and the other CoFeB can be reversed simultaneously by the IEC with the field-free nature. Adjusting the thickness of Ta can modify the coupling state to reduce the switching current while the field-free nature was preserved. Micromagnetic simulation suggests that the Néel orange peel effect (NOPE) is non-negligible due to interface roughness and coupling effect in the presence of perpendicular anisotropy. Fortunately, the Néel field induced by the NOPE appears to favor the field-free reversal.

Keywords: CoFeB, spin-orbit torque, antiferromagnetic, MRAM, trilayer

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1028 Freeform Lens System for Collimation SERS irradiation Radiation Produced by Biolayers which Deposit on High Quality Resonant System

Authors: Iuliia Riabenko, Konstantin Beloshenko, Sergey Shulga, Valeriy Shulga


An optical system has been developed consisting of a TIR lens and an aspherical surface designed to collect Stokes radiation from biomolecules. The freeform material is SYLGARD-184, which provides a low level of noise associated with the luminescence of the substrate. The refractive index of SYLGARD-184 is 1.4028 for a wavelength of 632 nm, the Abbe number is 72, these material parameters make it possible to design the desired shape for the wavelength range of 640-700 nm. The system consists of a TIR lens, inside which is placed a high-quality resonant system consisting of a biomolecule and a metal colloid. This system can be described using the coupled oscillator model. The laser excitation radiation was fed through the base of the TIR lens. The sample was mounted inside the TIR lens at a distance of 8 mm from the base. As a result of Raman scattering of laser radiation, a Stokes bend appeared from the biolayer. The task of this work was that it was necessary to collect this radiation emitted at a 4π steradian angle. For this, an internal aspherical surface was used, which made it possible to defocus the beam emanating from the biolayer and direct its radiation to the borders of the TIR lens at the Brewster angle. The collated beam of Stokes radiation contains 97% of the energy scattered by the biolayer. Thus, a simple scheme was proposed for collecting and collimating the Stokes radiation of biomolecules.

Keywords: TIR lens, freeform material, raman scattering, biolayer, brewster angle

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1027 New Refrigerant La₀.₇Ca₀.₁₅Sr₀.₁₅Mn₁₋ₓGaₓO₃ for Application in Magnetic Refrigeration

Authors: Essebti Dhahri


We present a new refrigerant La₀.₇Ca₀.₁₅Sr₀.₁₅Mn₁₋ₓGaₓO₃ (x = 0.0-0.1) manganites. These compounds were prepared by the sol-gel method. The refinement of the X-ray diffraction reveals that all samples crystallize in a rhombohedral structure (space group R3 ̅c). Detailed measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic applied field M (µ₀H, T) were carried out. From the M(µ₀H, T) curves, we have calculated the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) according to the Maxwell relation. The temperature dependence of the magnetization M(T) reveals a decrease of M when increasing the x content. The magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) reaches a maximum value near room temperature. It was also found that this compound exhibits a large magnetocaloric effect MCE which increases when decreasing Ga concentration. So, the studied compounds could be considered potential materials for magnetic refrigeration application.

Keywords: magnetic measurements, Rietveld refinement, magnetic refrigeration, magnetocaloric effect

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1026 A New Co(II) Metal Complex Template with 4-dimethylaminopyridine Organic Cation: Structural, Hirshfeld Surface, Phase Transition, Electrical Study and Dielectric Behavior

Authors: Mohamed dammak


Great attention has been paid to the design and synthesis of novel organic-inorganic compounds in recent decades because of their structural variety and the large diversity of atomic arrangements. In this work, the structure for the novel dimethyl aminopyridine tetrachlorocobaltate (C₇H₁₁N₂)₂CoCl₄ prepared by the slow evaporation method at room temperature has been successfully discussed. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the hybrid material has a triclinic structure with a P space group and features a 0D structure containing isolated distorted [CoCl₄]2- tetrahedra interposed between [C7H11N²⁻]+ cations forming planes perpendicular to the c axis at z = 0 and z = ½. The effect of the synthesis conditions and the reactants used, the interactions between the cationic planes, and the isolated [CoCl4]2- tetrahedra are employing N-H...Cl and C-H…Cl hydrogen bonding contacts. The inspection of the Hirshfeld surface analysis helps to discuss the strength of hydrogen bonds and to quantify the inter-contacts. A phase transition was discovered by thermal analysis at 390 K, and comprehensive dielectric research was reported, showing a good agreement with thermal data. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were used to study the electrical and dielectric characteristics over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures, 40 Hz–10 MHz and 313–483 K, respectively. The Nyquist plot (Z" versus Z') from the complex impedance spectrum revealed semicircular arcs described by a Cole-Cole model. An electrical circuit consisting of a link of grain and grain boundary elements is employed. The real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity, as well as tg(δ) of (C₇H₁₁N₂)₂CoCl₄ at different frequencies, reveal a distribution of relaxation times. The presence of grain and grain boundaries is confirmed by the modulus investigations. Electric and dielectric analyses highlight the good protonic conduction of this material.

Keywords: organic-inorganic, phase transitions, complex impedance, protonic conduction, dielectric analysis

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1025 Quantum Dynamics for General Time-Dependent Three Coupled Oscillators

Authors: Salah Menouar, Sara Hassoul


The dynamic of time-dependent three coupled oscillators is studied through an approach based on decoupling of them using the unitary transformation method. From a first unitary transformation, the Hamiltonian of the complicated original system is transformed to an equal but a simple one associated with the three coupled oscillators of which masses are unity. Finally, we diagonalize the matrix representation of the transformed hamiltonian by using a unitary matrix. The diagonalized Hamiltonian is just the same as the Hamiltonian of three simple oscillators. Through these procedures, the coupled oscillatory subsystems are completely decoupled. From this uncouplement, we can develop complete dynamics of the whole system in an easy way by just examining each oscillator independently. Such a development of the mechanical theory can be done regardless of the complication of the parameters' variations.

Keywords: schrödinger equation, hamiltonian, time-dependent three coupled oscillators, unitary transformation

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1024 Synthesis and Characterization of Chromenoformimidate

Authors: Houcine Ammar


Chromenederivatives are an important class of heterocycles that are found in a wide range of natural products. Chromenes are commonly used as cosmetics, food additives, and possibly biodegradable agrochemicals. Recently, the synthesis of chromene derivatives has drawn more attention due to their pharmacological and biological applications. In the present work, we are interested in the synthesis and characterization of chromeno [2,3-b] pyridin-4-yl) formimidate, carried out in 4 steps: (i) the synthesis of 3-cyanoiminocoumarins is realized first by Knœvenagel reaction by reacting malonitrile with variously substituted o-phenolic benzaldehydes. In order to undergo reduction by sodium tetraborohydride NaBH4 to lead to new 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-chromenes, these compounds were easily transformed by the action of malonitrile leading to 2,4-diamino-5H-chromeno [2,3-b] pyridine-3-carbonitrile under microwave activation. For the final step, the action of triethylorthoformate on 2,4-diamino-5H-chromeno [2,3-b] pyridine-3-carbonitrile leads to new chromeno [2,3-b] pyridinheterocycles. -4-yl) formimidate. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by different spectroscopic techniques 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and IRTF.

Keywords: chromene, microwave, knovenagel condensation, chromeno [2, 3-b] pyridine

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1023 Molecular Junctions between Graphene Strips: Electronic and Transport Properties

Authors: Adel Belayadi, Ahmed Mougari, Boualem Bourahla


Molecular junctions are currently considered a promising style in the miniaturization of electronic devices. In this contribution, we provide a tight-binding model to investigate the quantum transport properties across-molecular junctions sandwiched between 2D-graphene nanoribbons in the zigzag direction. We investigate, in particular, the effect of embedded atoms such as Gold and Silicon across the molecular junction. The results exhibit a resonance behavior in terms of incident Fermi levels, depending on the molecular junction type. Additionally, the transport properties under a perpendicular magnetic field exhibit an oscillation for the transmittance versus the magnetic field strength.

Keywords: molecular junction, 2D-graphene nanoribbons, quantum transport properties, magnetic field

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1022 Effect of Viscosity in Void Structure with Interacting Variable Charge Dust Grains

Authors: Nebbat El Amine


The void is a dust free region inside the dust cloud in the plasma. It is found that the dust grain charge variation lead to the extension of the void. Moreover, for bigger dust grains, it is seen that the wave-like structure recedes when charge variation is dealt with. Furthermore, as the grain-grain distance is inversely proportional to density, the grain-grain interaction gets more important for a denser dust population and is to be included in momentum equation. For the result indicate above, the plasma is considered non viscous. But in fact, it’s not always true. Some authors measured experimentally the viscosity of this background and found that the viscosity of dusty plasma increase with background gas pressure. In this paper, we tack account the viscosity of the fluid, and we compare the result with that found in the recent work.

Keywords: voids, dusty plasmas, variable charge, viscosity

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1021 Radiation Dosimetry Using Sintered Pellets of Yellow Beryl (Heliodor) Crystals

Authors: Lucas Sátiro Do Carmo, Betzabel Noemi Silva Carrera, Shigueo Watanabe, J. F. D. Chubaci


Beryl is a silicate with chemical formula Be₃Al₂(SiO₃)₆ commonly found in Brazil. It has a few colored variations used as jewelry, like Aquamarine (blueish), Emerald (green) and Heliodor (yellow). The color of each variation depends on the dopant that is naturally present in the crystal lattice. In this work, Heliodor pellets of 5 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness have been produced and investigated using thermoluminescence (TL) to evaluate its potential for use as gamma ray’s dosimeter. The results show that the pellets exhibited a prominent TL peak at 205 °C that grows linearly with dose when irradiated from 1 Gy to 1000 Gy. A comparison has been made between powdered and sintered dosimeters. The results show that sintered pellets have higher sensitivity than powder dosimeter. The TL response of this mineral is satisfactory for radiation dosimetry applications in the studied dose range.

Keywords: dosimetry, beryl, gamma rays, sintered pellets, new material

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1020 Investigation of Resistive Switching in CsPbCl₃ / Cs₄PbCl₆ Core-Shell Nanocrystals Using Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy: A Step Towards High Density Memory-based Applications

Authors: Arpan Bera, Rini Ganguly, Raja Chakraborty, Amlan J. Pal


To deal with the increasing demands for the high-density non-volatile memory devices, we need nano-sites with efficient and stable charge storage capabilities. We prepared nanocrystals (NCs) of inorganic perovskite, CsPbCl₃ coated with Cs₄PbCl₆, by colloidal synthesis. Due to the type-I band alignment at the junction, this core-shell composite is expected to behave as a charge trapping site. Using Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS), we investigated voltage-controlled resistive switching in this heterostructure by tracking the change in its current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. By applying voltage pulse of appropriate magnitude on the NCs through this non-invasive method, different resistive states of this system were systematically accessed. For suitable pulse-magnitude, the response jumped to a branch with enhanced current indicating a high-resistance state (HRS) to low-resistance state (LRS) switching in the core-shell NCs. We could reverse this process by using a pulse of opposite polarity. These two distinct resistive states can be considered as two logic states, 0 and 1, which are accessible by varying voltage magnitude and polarity. STS being a local probe in space enabled us to capture this switching at individual NC site. Hence, we claim a bright prospect of these core-shell NCs made of inorganic halide perovskites in future high density memory application.

Keywords: Core-shell perovskite, CsPbCl₃-Cs₄PbCl₆, resistive switching, Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

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1019 Density functional (DFT), Study of the Structural and Phase Transition of ThC and ThN: LDA vs GGA Computational

Authors: Hamza Rekab Djabri, Salah Daoud


The present paper deals with the computational of structural and electronic properties of ThC and ThN compounds using density functional theory within generalized-gradient (GGA) apraximation and local density approximation (LDA). We employ the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals (FP-LMTO) as implemented in the Lmtart code. We have used to examine structure parameter in eight different structures such as in NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2), ZB (B3), NiAs (B8), PbO (B10), Wurtzite (B4) , HCP (A3) βSn (A5) structures . The equilibrium lattice parameter, bulk modulus, and its pressure derivative were presented for all calculated phases. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical results.

Keywords: DFT, GGA, LDA, properties structurales, ThC, ThN

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1018 Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Using Charcoal and Graphene Saturable Absorbers to Generate 20-GHz and 50-GHz Pulse Trains, Respectively

Authors: Ashiq Rahman, Sunil Thapa, Shunyao Fan, Niloy K. Dutta


A 20-GHz and a 50-GHz pulse train are generated using a fiber ring laser setup that incorporates Rational Harmonic Mode Locking. Two separate experiments were carried out using charcoal nanoparticles and graphene nanoparticles acting as saturable absorbers to reduce the pulse width generated from rational harmonic mode-locking (RHML). Autocorrelator trace shows that the pulse width is reduced from 5.6-ps to 3.2-ps using charcoal at 20-GHz, and to 2.7-ps using graphene at 50-GHz repetition rates, which agrees with the simulation findings. Numerical simulations have been carried out to study the effect of varying the linear and nonlinear absorbance parameters of both absorbers on output pulse widths. Experiments closely agree with the simulations.

Keywords: fiber optics, fiber lasers, mode locking, saturable absorbers

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1017 Application of Deep Learning in Top Pair and Single Top Quark Production at the Large Hadron Collider

Authors: Ijaz Ahmed, Anwar Zada, Muhammad Waqas, M. U. Ashraf


We demonstrate the performance of a very efficient tagger applies on hadronically decaying top quark pairs as signal based on deep neural network algorithms and compares with the QCD multi-jet background events. A significant enhancement of performance in boosted top quark events is observed with our limited computing resources. We also compare modern machine learning approaches and perform a multivariate analysis of boosted top-pair as well as single top quark production through weak interaction at √s = 14 TeV proton-proton Collider. The most relevant known background processes are incorporated. Through the techniques of Boosted Decision Tree (BDT), likelihood and Multlayer Perceptron (MLP) the analysis is trained to observe the performance in comparison with the conventional cut based and count approach

Keywords: top tagger, multivariate, deep learning, LHC, single top

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1016 Basics of Gamma Ray Burst and Its Afterglow

Authors: Swapnil Kumar Singh


Gamma-ray bursts (GRB's), short and intense pulses of low-energy γ rays, have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in the late sixties. GRB'sare accompanied by long-lasting afterglows, and they are associated with core-collapse supernovae. The detection of delayed emission in X-ray, optical, and radio wavelength, or "afterglow," following a γ-ray burst can be described as the emission of a relativistic shell decelerating upon collision with the interstellar medium. While it is fair to say that there is strong diversity amongst the afterglow population, probably reflecting diversity in the energy, luminosity, shock efficiency, baryon loading, progenitor properties, circumstellar medium, and more, the afterglows of GRBs do appear more similar than the bursts themselves, and it is possible to identify common features within afterglows that lead to some canonical expectations. After an initial flash of gamma rays, a longer-lived "afterglow" is usually emitted at longer wavelengths (X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, microwave, and radio). It is a slowly fading emission at longer wavelengths created by collisions between the burst ejecta and interstellar gas. In X-ray wavelengths, the GRB afterglow fades quickly at first, then transitions to a less-steep drop-off (it does other stuff after that, but we'll ignore that for now). During these early phases, the X-ray afterglow has a spectrum that looks like a power law: flux F∝ E^β, where E is energy and beta is some number called the spectral index. This kind of spectrum is characteristic of synchrotron emission, which is produced when charged particles spiral around magnetic field lines at close to the speed of light. In addition to the outgoing forward shock that ploughs into the interstellar medium, there is also a so-called reverse shock, which propagates backward through the ejecta. In many ways," reverse" shock can be misleading; this shock is still moving outward from the restframe of the star at relativistic velocity but is ploughing backward through the ejecta in their frame and is slowing the expansion. This reverse shock can be dynamically important, as it can carry comparable energy to the forward shock. The early phases of the GRB afterglow still provide a good description even if the GRB is highly collimated since the individual emitting regions of the outflow are not in causal contact at large angles and so behave as though they are expanding isotropically. The majority of afterglows, at times typically observed, fall in the slow cooling regime, and the cooling break lies between the optical and the X-ray. Numerous observations support this broad picture for afterglows in the spectral energy distribution of the afterglow of the very bright GRB. The bluer light (optical and X-ray) appears to follow a typical synchrotron forward shock expectation (note that the apparent features in the X-ray and optical spectrum are due to the presence of dust within the host galaxy). We need more research in GRB and Particle Physics in order to unfold the mysteries of afterglow.

Keywords: GRB, synchrotron, X-ray, isotropic energy

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1015 Thermal and Dielectric Breakdown Criterium for Low Voltage Switching Devices

Authors: Thomas Merciris, Mathieu Masquere, Yann Cressault, Pascale Petit


The goal of an alternative current (AC) switching device is to allow the arc (created during the opening phase of the contacts) to extinguish at the current zero. The plasma temperature rate of cooling down, the electrical characteristic of the arc (current-voltage), and the rise rate of the transient recovery voltage (TRV) are critical parameters which influence the performance of a switching device. To simulate the thermal extinction of the arc and to obtain qualitative data on the processes responsible for this phenomenon, a 1D MHD fluid model in the air was developed and coupled to an external electric circuit. After thermal extinction, the dielectric strength of the hot air (< 4kK) was then estimated by the Bolsig+ software and the critical electric fields method with the temperature obtained by the MHD simulation. The influence of copper Cu and silver Ag vapors was investigated on the thermal and dielectric part of the simulation with various current forms (100A to 1kA). Finally, those values of dielectric strength have been compared to the experimental values obtained in the case of two separating silver contacts. The preliminary results seem to indicate the dielectric strength after multiples hundreds of microseconds is the same order of magnitude as experimentally found.

Keywords: MHD simulation, dielectric recovery, Bolsig+, silver vapors, copper vapors, breakers, electric arc

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1014 LTE Modelling of a DC Arc Ignition on Cold Electrodes

Authors: O. Ojeda Mena, Y. Cressault, P. Teulet, J. P. Gonnet, D. F. N. Santos, MD. Cunha, M. S. Benilov


The assumption of plasma in local thermal equilibrium (LTE) is commonly used to perform electric arc simulations for industrial applications. This assumption allows to model the arc using a set of magneto-hydromagnetic equations that can be solved with a computational fluid dynamic code. However, the LTE description is only valid in the arc column, whereas in the regions close to the electrodes the plasma deviates from the LTE state. The importance of these near-electrode regions is non-trivial since they define the energy and current transfer between the arc and the electrodes. Therefore, any accurate modelling of the arc must include a good description of the arc-electrode phenomena. Due to the modelling complexity and computational cost of solving the near-electrode layers, a simplified description of the arc-electrode interaction was developed in a previous work to study a steady high-pressure arc discharge, where the near-electrode regions are introduced at the interface between arc and electrode as boundary conditions. The present work proposes a similar approach to simulate the arc ignition in a free-burning arc configuration following an LTE description of the plasma. To obtain the transient evolution of the arc characteristics, appropriate boundary conditions for both the near-cathode and the near-anode regions are used based on recent publications. The arc-cathode interaction is modeled using a non-linear surface heating approach considering the secondary electron emission. On the other hand, the interaction between the arc and the anode is taken into account by means of the heating voltage approach. From the numerical modelling, three main stages can be identified during the arc ignition. Initially, a glow discharge is observed, where the cold non-thermionic cathode is uniformly heated at its surface and the near-cathode voltage drop is in the order of a few hundred volts. Next, a spot with high temperature is formed at the cathode tip followed by a sudden decrease of the near-cathode voltage drop, marking the glow-to-arc discharge transition. During this stage, the LTE plasma also presents an important increase of the temperature in the region adjacent to the hot spot. Finally, the near-cathode voltage drop stabilizes at a few volts and both the electrode and plasma temperatures reach the steady solution. The results after some seconds are similar to those presented for thermionic cathodes.

Keywords: arc-electrode interaction, thermal plasmas, electric arc simulation, cold electrodes

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1013 Constant-Roll Warm Inflation within Rastall Gravity

Authors: Rabia Saleem


This research has a recently proposed strategy to find the exact inflationary solution of the Friedman equations in the context of the Rastall theory of gravity (RTG), known as constant-roll warm inflation, including dissipation effects. We establish the model to evaluate the effective potential of inflation and entropy. We develop the inflationary observable like scalar-tensor power spectra, scalar-tensor spectral indices, tensor-to-scalar ratio, and running of spectral-index. The theory parameter $\lambda$ is constrained to observe the compatibility of our model with Planck 2013, Planck TT, TE, EE+lowP (2015), and Planck 2018 bounds. The results are feasible and interesting up to the 2$\sigma$ confidence level.

Keywords: modified gravity, warm inflation, constant-roll limit, dissipation

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1012 Polarization Effects in Cosmic-Ray Acceleration by Cyclotron Auto-Resonance

Authors: Yousef I. Salamin


Theoretical investigations, analytical as well as numerical, have shown that electrons can be accelerated to GeV energies by the process of cyclotron auto-resonance acceleration (CARA). In CARA, the particle would be injected along the lines of a uniform magnetic field aligned parallel to the direction of propagation of a plane-wave radiation field. Unfortunately, an accelerator based on CARA would be prohibitively too long and too expensive to build and maintain. However, the process stands a better chance of success near the polar cap of a compact object (such as a neutron star, a black hole or a magnetar) or in an environment created in the wake of a binary neutron-star or blackhole merger. Dynamics of the nuclides ₁H¹, ₂He⁴, ₂₆Fe⁵⁶, and ₂₈Ni⁶², in such astrophysical conditions, have been investigated by single-particle calculations and many-particle simulations. The investigations show that these nuclides can reach ZeV energies (1 ZeV = 10²¹ eV) due to interaction with super-intense radiation of wavelengths = 1 and 10 m and = 50 pm and magnetic fields of strengths at the mega- and giga-tesla levels. Examples employing radiation intensities in the range 10³²-10⁴² W/m² have been used. Employing a two-parameter model for representing the radiation field, CARA is analytically generalized to include any state of polarization, and the basic working equations are derived rigorously and in closed analytic form.

Keywords: compact objects, cosmic-ray acceleration, cyclotron auto-resonance, polarization effects, zevatron

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1011 The Grand Unified Theory of Everything as a Generalization to the Standard Model Called as the General Standard Model

Authors: Amir Deljoo


The endeavor to comprehend the existence have been the center of thought for human in form of different disciplines and now basically in physics as the theory of everything. Here, after a brief review of the basic frameworks of thought, and a history of thought since ancient up to present, a logical methodology is presented based on a core axiom after which a function, a proto-field and then a coordinates are explained. Afterwards a generalization to Standard Model is proposed as General Standard Model which is believed to be the base of the Unified Theory of Everything.

Keywords: general relativity, grand unified theory, quantum mechanics, standard model, theory of everything

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