Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1206

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Physical and Mathematical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1206 The Utilization of Magneto-Hydrodynamics Framework in Expansion of Magnetized Conformal Flow

Authors: Majid Karimabadi, Ahmad Farzaneh Kore, Behnam Azadegan


The evolution of magnetized quark gluon plasma (QGP) in the framework of magneto- hydrodynamics is the focus of our study. We are investigating the temporal and spatial evolution of QGP using a second order viscous hydrodynamic framework. The fluid is considered to be magnetized and subjected to the influence of a magnetic field that is generated during the early stages of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We assume boost invariance along the beam line, which is represented by the z coordinate, and fluid expansion in the x direction. Additionally, we assume that the magnetic field is perpendicular to the reaction plane, which corresponds to the y direction. The fluid is considered to have infinite electrical conductivity. To analyze this system, we solve the coupled Maxwell and conservation equations. By doing so, we are able to determine the time and space dependence of the energy density, velocity, and magnetic field in the transverse plane of the viscous magnetized hot plasma. Furthermore, we obtain the spectrum of hadrons and compare it with experimental data.

Keywords: QGP, magnetohydrodynamics, hadrons, conversation

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
1205 Periodic Change in the Earth’s Rotation Velocity

Authors: Sung Duk Kim, Kwan U. Kim, Jin Sim, Ryong Jin Jang


The phenomenon of seasonal variations in the Earth’s rotation velocity was discovered in the 1930s when a crystal clock was developed and analyzed in a quantitative way for the first time between 1955 and 1968 when observation data of the seasonal variations was analyzed by an atomic clock. In order to solve the problem, it is necessary to apply dynamics to consider the Earth’s spatial motion, rotation, and change of shape of the Earth (movement of materials in and out of the Earth and change of the Earth’s figure) at the same time and in interrelation to the accuracy of post-Newtonian approximation regarding the Earth body as a system of mass points because the stability of the Earth’s rotation angular velocity is in the range of 10⁻⁸~10⁻⁹ . For this purpose, the equation was derived, which can consider the 3 kinds of motion mentioned above at the same time by taking the effect of the resultant external force on the Earth’s rotation into account in a relativistic way to the accuracy of post-Newtonian approximation. Therefore, the equation has been solved to obtain the theoretical values of periodic change in the Earth’s rotation velocity, and they have been compared with the astronomical observation data to reveal the cause for the periodic change in the Earth’s rotation velocity.

Keywords: Earth rotation, moment function, periodic change, seasonal variation, relativistic change

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1204 Chaos Analysis of a 3D Finance System and Generalized Synchronization for N-Dimension

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz


The article in hand is the study of complex features like Zero Hopf Bifurcation, Chaos and Synchronization of integer and fractional order version of a new 3D finance system. Trusted tools of averaging theory and active control method are utilized for investigation of Zero Hopf bifurcation and synchronization for both versions respectively. Inventiveness of the paper is to find the answer of a question that is it possible to find a chaotic system which can be synchronized with any other of the same dimension? Based on different examples we categorically develop a theory that if a couple of master and slave chaotic dynamical system is synchronized by selecting a suitable gain matrix with special conditions then the master system is synchronized with any chaotic dynamical system of the same dimension. With the help of this study we developed generalized theorems for synchronization of n-dimension dynamical systems for integer as well as fractional versions. it proposed that this investigation will contribute a lot to control dynamical systems and only a suitable gain matrix with special conditions is enough to synchronize the system under consideration with any other chaotic system of the same dimension. Chaotic properties of fractional version of the new finance system are also analyzed at fractional order q=0.87. Simulations results, where required, also provided for authenticity of analytical study.

Keywords: complex analysis, chaos, generalized synchronization, control dynamics, fractional order analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
1203 Relativistic Effects of Rotation

Authors: Yin Rui, Yin Ming, Wang Yang


For a rotational reference frame of the theory of special relativity, the critical radius is defined as the distance from the axis to the point where the tangential velocity is equal to the speed of light, and the critical cylinder as the set of all points separated from axis by this critical radius. Based on these terms, two relativistic effects of rotation are discovered: (i) the tangential velocity in the region of Outside Critical Cylinder (OCC) is not superluminal, due to existing of space-time exchange; (ii) some of physical quantities of rotational body have opposite mathematic sign at OCC versus those at Inside Critical Cylinder (ICC), which is termed as the Critical Cylindrical Effect (CCE). The laboratory experiments demonstrate that the repulsive force exerted on an anion by electrons will change to an attractive force by the electrons in precession while the anion is at OCC of the precession. Thirty-six screenshots from experimental videos are provided. Theoretical proofs for both space-time exchange and CCE are then presented.

Keywords: critical radius, critical cylindrical effect, special relativity, space-time exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1202 Main Factor That Causes the Instabilities of the Earth’s Rotation

Authors: Jin-Sim, Kwan-U Kim, Ryong-Jin Jang, Sung-Duk Kim


Earth rotation is one of astronomical phenomena without which it is impossible to think of human life. That is why the investigation of the Earth's rotation is very important, and it has a long history of study. The invention of quartz clocks in the 1930s, atomic time in the 1950s, and the introduction of modern technology into astronomic observation in recent years resulted in rapid development of the study of Earth’s rotation. The theory of the Earth's rotation, however, has not been up to the high level of astronomic observation due to the limitation of time. As a typical example, we can take the problems that cover the instabilities of the Earth’s rotation, proved completely by the astronomic observations as well as polar motion, the precession and nutation of the Earth's rotation axis, which have not been described in a single equation in a quantificational way from the unique law of Earth rotation. In particular, at present the problem of what is the main factor causing the instabilities of the Earth rotation has not been solved clearly in quantificational ways yet. Therefore, this paper gives quantificational proof that the main factor that causes the instabilities of the Earth's rotation is the moment of external force other than variations in the relative atmospheric angular momentum due to the time limitation and under some assumptions or the moment of inertia of the Earth’s body.

Keywords: atmospheric angular momentum, instabilities of the earth’s rotation, law of the earth’s rotation change, moment of inertia of the earth

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1201 Exact Solution of Geodesic Equation in Schwarzschild Metric and Overall Examination of Physical Laws

Authors: Kwan-u Kim, Jin-Sim, Ryong-Jin Jang, Sung-Duk Kim


106 years have passed since a great number of physicists explained astronomical and physical phenomena by solving geodesic equations in Schwarzschild metric. However, when solving the geodesic equations in Schwarzschild metric, they did not solve correctly one branch of the component of space among spatial and temporal components of four-dimensional force and did not come up with physical laws correctly by means of physical analysis from the results obtained by solving the geodesic equations. In addition to it, they did not treat the astronomical and physical phenomena in a physical way based on the exact physical laws obtained from the solution of the geodesic equations in Schwarzschild metric, so some former scholars mentioned that Einstein’s theoretical basis of general theory of relativity was obscure and incorrect, but they have not given a correct physical solution to the problems. Furthermore, because general theory of relativity has not given a quantitative solution to the obscure and incorrect problems, generalization of gravitational theory although the former scholars thought of it and tried to do it. In order to solve the problems it is necessary to explore theobscure and incorrect problems in general theory of relativity based on the physical laws and to find out the methodology of solving the problems. Therefore, first of all, as the first sarytep for achieving the purpose, the correct solution of the geodesic equation in Schwarzschild metric has been presented. Next, the correct physical laws found by making a physical analysis of the results has been presented, the obscure and incorrect problems have been showed and an analysis of them has been made on the basis of the physical laws. In addition, the experimental verification of the physical laws found by us has been made.

Keywords: equivalence principle, general relativity, geometrodynamics, Schwarzschild

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
1200 Study of the Morphological and Optical Properties of Nanometric NiO

Authors: Nassima Hamzaoui, Mostefa Ghamnia


Nanoscale thin films of pure and Mn-doped Nickel oxide (NiO) were prepared by dissolving nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2, 6H2O) and manganese chloride tetrahydrate (MnCl2,4H2O) under experimental conditions. The resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 30 OC minutes in order to obtain homogeneity. The solution was sprayed onto heated glass substrates. The films obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction to verify crystallinity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals surface topographical structure. UV-visible spectroscopy shows good transparency of the NiO layers.

Keywords: films, NiO, AFM, X-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1199 Kauffman Model on a Network of Containers

Authors: Johannes J. Schneider, Mathias S. Weyland, Peter Eggenberger Hotz, William D. Jamieson, Oliver Castell, Alessia Faggian, Rudolf M. Füchslin


In the description of the origin of life, there are still some open gaps, e.g., the formation of macromolecules cannot be fully explained so far. The Kauffman model proposes the existence of autocatalytic sets of macromolecules which mutually catalyze reactions leading to each other’s formation. Usually, this model is simulated in one well-stirred pot only, with a continuous inflow of small building blocks, from which larger molecules are created by a set of catalyzed ligation and cleavage reactions. This approach represents the picture of the primordial soup. However, the conditions on the early Earth must have differed geographically, leading to spatially different outcomes whether a specific reaction could be performed or not. Guided by this picture, the Kauffman model is simulated in a large number of containers in parallel, with neighboring containers being connected by diffusion. In each container, only a subset of the overall reaction set can be performed. Under specific conditions, this approach leads to a larger probability for the existence of an autocatalytic metabolism than in the original Kauffman model.

Keywords: agglomeration, autocatalytic set, differential equation, Kauffman model

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
1198 Percolation Transition in an Agglomeration of Spherical Particles

Authors: Johannes J. Schneider, Mathias S. Weyland, Peter Eggenberger Hotz, William D. Jamieson, Oliver Castell, Alessia Faggian, Rudolf M. Füchslin


Agglomerations of polydisperse systems of spherical particles are created in computer simulations using a simplified stochastic-hydrodynamic model: Particles sink to the bottom of the cylinder, taking into account gravity reduced by the buoyant force, the Stokes friction force, the added mass effect, and random velocity changes. Two types of particles are considered, with one of them being able to create connections to neighboring particles of the same type, thus forming a network within the agglomeration at the bottom of a cylinder. Decreasing the fraction of these particles, a percolation transition occurs. The critical regime is determined by investigating the maximum cluster size and the percolation susceptibility.

Keywords: binary system, maximum cluster size, percolation, polydisperse

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
1197 Analysis of the Attitude of Students in the Use of Simulation in Physics Teaching

Authors: Ricardo Merlo


The use of simulation as a digital didactic tool allowed students to reproduce the laws of Physics in order to improve their academic performance. The didactic resource of simulation also favored the motivation of most of the young people, depending on the subject of Physics to be developed in the classroom and in that sense, it was significant to know the favorable or unfavorable attitude that the students presented about the use of simulation resources to maximize the anchorage of the contents planned for the different classes developed in the classroom. The different real-time simulation applications that were offered free of charge through the Internet were not presented as a specific resource that could be used in a didactic model, and in that framework, the teachers of Physics at the university level did not apply these resources in a systematic way with the knowledge of the favorable or unfavorable attitude of the students towards these didactic resources. For this reason, this work proposed the design and application of attitude questionnaires to enhance the use of those simulation resources that allowed for improving the quality of the class and the academic performance of the students.

Keywords: physics teaching, attitude, motivation, didactic resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
1196 Raising Awareness among Residents about the Exact Fate of Dirt in the Neighborhood of Porto Belo

Authors: Marie Oslène Honorat


Porto Belo is a neighborhood in the city of Foz do Iguaçu / PR, located in the Vila C region of Brazil. It is a project that addresses the question of the dirt generated by the neighborhood community about how they dispose and recycle domestic waste. This project aimed at raising awareness among residents, on how important it is to preserve the environment and take care, especially of the space in which we are located. Living this way manages to minimize the exploitation of natural resources, soil and water pollution. After collecting information about what one saw, we questioned some people in the neighborhood to find out about selective collection, recycling, and the separation and final destination of garbage. From the study, it was possible to verify the importance of placing more trash cans on neighborhood streets, where garbage is discarded, and the importance of promoting environmental education to improve the environment and quality of life. The methodology used in this research was a qualitative methodology that seeks the principle of transforming reality through investigation.

Keywords: awareness, recycling, selective collection, waste disposal

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
1195 Challenge in Teaching Physics during the Pandemic: Another Way of Teaching and Learning

Authors: Edson Pierre, Gustavo de Jesus Lopez Nunez


The objective of this work is to analyze how physics can be taught remotely through the use of platforms and software to attract the attention of 2nd-year high school students at Colégio Cívico Militar Professor Carmelita Souza Dias and point out how remote teaching can be a teaching-learning strategy during the period of social distancing. Teaching physics has been a challenge for teachers and students, permeating common sense with the great difficulty of teaching and learning the subject. The challenge increased in 2020 and 2021 with the impact caused by the new coronavirus pandemic (Sars-Cov-2) and its variants that have affected the entire world. With these changes, a new teaching modality emerged: remote teaching. It brought new challenges and one of them was promoting distance research experiences, especially in physics teaching, since there are learning difficulties and it is often impossible for the student to relate the theory observed in class with the reality that surrounds them. Teaching physics in schools faces some difficulties, which makes it increasingly less attractive for young people to choose this profession. Bearing in mind that the study of physics is very important, as it puts students in front of concrete and real situations, situations that physical principles can respond to, helping to understand nature, nourishing and nurturing a taste for science. The use of new platforms and software, such as PhET Interactive Simulations from the University of Colorado at Boulder, is a virtual laboratory that has numerous simulations of scientific experiments, which serve to improve the understanding of the content taught practically, facilitating student learning and absorption of content, being a simple, practical and free simulation tool, attracts more attention from students, causing them to acquire greater knowledge about the subject studied, or even a quiz, bringing certain healthy competitiveness to students, generating knowledge and interest in the themes used. The present study takes the Theory of Social Representations as a theoretical reference, examining the content and process of constructing the representations of teachers, subjects of our investigation, on the evaluation of teaching and learning processes, through a methodology of qualitative. The result of this work has shown that remote teaching was really a very important strategy for the process of teaching and learning physics in the 2nd year of high school. It provided greater interaction between the teacher and the student. Therefore, the teacher also plays a fundamental role since technology is increasingly present in the educational environment, and he is the main protagonist of this process.

Keywords: physics teaching, technologies, remote learning, pandemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
1194 The Unique Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Thorium Di-Iodide Indicate the Arrival of Its Superconducting State

Authors: Dong Zhao


Even though the recent claim of room temperature superconductivity by LK-99 was confirmed an unsuccessful attempt, this work reawakened people’s century striving to get applicable superconductors with Tc of room temperature or higher and under ambient pressure. One of the efforts was focusing on exploring the thorium salts. This is because certain thorium compounds revealed an unusual property of having both high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism or the so-called “coexistence of high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism.” It is well known that this property of the coexistence of high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism is held by superconductors because of the electron pairings. Consequently, the likelihood for these thorium compounds to have superconducting properties becomes great. However, as a surprise, these thorium salts possess this property at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. This gives rise to solid evidence for these thorium compounds to be room-temperature superconductors without a need for external pressure. Among these thorium compound superconductors claimed in that work, thorium di-iodide (ThI₂) is a unique one and has received comprehensive discussion. ThI₂ was synthesized and structurally analyzed by the single crystal diffraction method in the 1960s. Its special property of coexistence of high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism was revealed. Because of this unique property, a special molecular configuration was sketched. Except for an ordinary oxidation of +2 for the thorium cation, the thorium’s oxidation state in ThI₂ is +4. According to the experimental results, ThI₂‘s actual molecular configuration was determined as an unusual one of [Th4+(e-)2](I-)2. This means that the ThI₂ salt’s cation is composed of a [Th4+(e-)2]2+ cation core. In other words, the cation of ThI₂ is constructed by combining an oxidation state +4 of the thorium atom and a pair of electrons or an electron lone pair located on the thorium atom. This combination of the thorium atom and the electron lone pair leads to an oxidation state +2 for the [Th4+(e-)2]2+ cation core. This special construction of the thorium cation is very distinctive, which is believed to be the factor that grants ThI₂ the room temperature superconductivity. Actually, the key for ThI₂ to become a room-temperature superconductor is this characteristic electron lone pair residing on the thorium atom along with the formation of a network constructed by the thorium atoms. This network specializes in a way that allows the electron lone pairs to hop over it and, thus, to generate the supercurrent. This work will discuss, in detail, the special electrical and magnetic properties of ThI₂ as well as its structural features at ambient conditions. The exploration of how the electron pairing in combination with the structurally specialized network works together to bring ThI₂ into a superconducting state. From the experimental results, strong evidence has definitely pointed out that the ThI₂ should be a superconductor, at least at room temperature and under atmosphere pressure.

Keywords: co-existence of high electrical conductivity and diamagnetism, electron lone pair, room temperature superconductor, special molecular configuration of thorium di-iodide ThI₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
1193 Effect of Viscosity on Void Structure in Dusty Plasma

Authors: El Amine Nebbat


A void is a dust-free region in dusty plasma, a medium formed of electrons, ions, and charged dust (grain). This structure appears in multiple experimental works. Several researchers have developed models to understand it. Recently, Nebbat and Annou proposed a nonlinear model that describes the void in non-viscos plasma, where the particles of the dusty plasma are treated as a fluid. In fact, the void appears even in dense dusty plasma where viscosity exists through the strong interaction between grains, so in this work, we augment the nonlinear model of Nebbat and Annou by introducing viscosity into the fluid equations. The analysis of the data of the numerical resolution confirms the important effect of this parameter (viscosity). The study revealed that the viscosity increases the dimension of the void for certain dimensions of the grains, and its effect on the value of the density of the grains at the boundary of the void is inversely proportional to their radii, i.e., this density increase for submicron grains and decrease for others. Finally, this parameter reduces the rings of dust density which surround the void.

Keywords: voids, dusty plasmas, variable charge, density, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
1192 Testing Ammonia Borane for Multilayer Aprons in Nuclear Medicine as a Promising Non-toxic, Lightweight, Hydrogen Rich Material and to Enhance the Efficiency of Aprons for Workers Who Deal with Neutrons Radiation in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Wed Othman Alghamdi


The current study aims to find a non-toxic, low density, hydrogen-rich material that can be used in aprons without causing health issues for nuclear medical workers that could hinder their work and negatively affect patients. Five samples were tested in terms of fast neutron removal cross-section(C21H25ClO5, C2H4, LiH,H3NBH3,MgH2) mathematically using computer program called Phy-x/PSD it is a computer program designed to calculate the fast neutron removal cross section, and it was obtained that ammonia borane (𝐻3𝑁𝐵𝐻3) with a density of 0.78 (g/ cm3) ,And it containment of the three most important elements that play a major role in protection shields, which are (hydrogen, boron, nitrogen), Hydrogen works as a moderator that slows neutrons and turn them into thermal neutrons, boron and nitrogen both have the largest neutron absorption cross section. Ammonia borane has the highest fast neutron removal cross-section with the value of (0.122959317985393cm-1) and the least for polyethylene (𝐶2𝐻4) with the value of (0.0838038707225853 cm-1) which made the ammonia borane a better candidate than polyethylene and other compounds that have been tasted in previous research for multi-layer aprons in nuclear medicine, and may approve a proper protection against the hazard radiations that its produced in nuclear medicine filed by several ways, due to it is low density and non-toxicity.

Keywords: aprons, radiation, non-toxic, nuclear medicine, neutrons

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1191 Elastic Collisions of Electrons with DNA and Water From 10 eV to 100 KeV: Scar Macro Investigation

Authors: Aouina Nabila Yasmina, Zine El Abidine Chaoui


Recently, understanding the interactions of electrons with the DNA molecule and its components has attracted considerable interest because DNA is the main site damaged by ionizing radiation. The interactions of radiation with DNA induce a variety of molecular damage such as single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, basic damage, cross-links between proteins and DNA, and others, or the formation of free radicals, which, by chemical reactions with DNA, can also lead to breakage of the strand. One factor that can contribute significantly to these processes is the effect of water hydration on the formation and reaction of radiation induced by these radicals in and / or around DNA. B-DNA requires about 30% by weight of water to maintain its native conformation in the crystalline state. The transformation depends on various factors such as sequence, ion composition, concentration and water activity. Partial dehydration converts it to DNA-A. The present study shows the results of theoretical calculations for positrons and electrons elastic scattering with DNA medium and water over a broad energy range from 10 eV to 100 keV. Indeed, electron elastic cross sections and elastic mean free paths are calculated using a corrected form of the independent atom method, taking into account the geometry of the biomolecule (SCAR macro). Moreover, the elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms of the biomolecule was evaluated by means of relativistic (Dirac) partial wave analysis. Our calculated results are compared with theoretical data available in the literature in the absence of experimental data, in particular for positron. As a central result, our electron elastic cross sections are in good agreement with existing theoretical data in the range of 10 eV to 1 keV.

Keywords: elastic cross scrion, elastic mean free path, scar macro method, electron collision

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1190 Exploring Spin Reorientation Transition and Berry Curvature Driven Anomalous Hall Effect in Quasi-2D vdW Ferromagnet Fe4GeTe2

Authors: Satyabrata Bera, Mintu Mondal


Two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnetic materials have garnered significant attention due to their potential to host intriguing scientific phenomena such as the anomalous Hall effect, anomalous Nernst effect, and high transport spin polarization. This study focuses on the investigation of air-stable van der Waals(vdW) ferromagnets, FeGeTe₂ (FₙGT with n = 3, 4, and 5). Particular emphasis is placed on the Fe4GeTe2 (F4GT) compound, which exhibits a complex and fascinating magnetic behavior characterized by two distinct transitions: (i) paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) around T C ∼ 270 K, and (ii) another spins reorientation transition (SRT) at T SRT ∼ 100 K . Scaling analysis of magnetocaloric effect confirms the second-order character of the ferromagnetic transition, while the same analysis at T SRT suggests that SRT is first-order phase transition. Moreover, the F4GT exhibits a large anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC), ∼ 490 S/cm at 2 K . The near-quadratic behavior of the anomalous Hall resistivity with the longitudinal resistivity suggests that a dominant AHC contribution arises from an intrinsic Berry curvature (BC) mechanism. Electronic structure calculations reveal a significant BC resulting from SOC-induced gapped nodal lines around the Fermi level, thereby giving rise to large AHC. Additionally, we reported exceptionally large anomalous Hall angle (≃ 10.6%) and Hall factor (≃ 0.22 V −1 ) values, the largest observed within this vdW family. The findings presented here, provide valuable insights into the fascinating magnetic and transport properties of 2D ferromagnetic materials, in particular, FₙGT family.

Keywords: 2D vdW ferromagnet, spin reorientation transition, anomalous hall effect, berry curvature

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
1189 Astronomical Object Classification

Authors: Alina Muradyan, Lina Babayan, Arsen Nanyan, Gohar Galstyan, Vigen Khachatryan


We present a photometric method for identifying stars, galaxies and quasars in multi-color surveys, which uses a library of ∼> 65000 color templates for comparison with observed objects. The method aims for extracting the information content of object colors in a statistically correct way, and performs a classification as well as a redshift estimation for galaxies and quasars in a unified approach based on the same probability density functions. For the redshift estimation, we employ an advanced version of the Minimum Error Variance estimator which determines the redshift error from the redshift dependent probability density function itself. The method was originally developed for the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS), but is now used in a wide variety of survey projects. We checked its performance by spectroscopy of CADIS objects, where the method provides high reliability (6 errors among 151 objects with R < 24), especially for the quasar selection, and redshifts accurate within σz ≈ 0.03 for galaxies and σz ≈ 0.1 for quasars. For an optimization of future survey efforts, a few model surveys are compared, which are designed to use the same total amount of telescope time but different sets of broad-band and medium-band filters. Their performance is investigated by Monte-Carlo simulations as well as by analytic evaluation in terms of classification and redshift estimation. If photon noise were the only error source, broad-band surveys and medium-band surveys should perform equally well, as long as they provide the same spectral coverage. In practice, medium-band surveys show superior performance due to their higher tolerance for calibration errors and cosmic variance. Finally, we discuss the relevance of color calibration and derive important conclusions for the issues of library design and choice of filters. The calibration accuracy poses strong constraints on an accurate classification, which are most critical for surveys with few, broad and deeply exposed filters, but less severe for surveys with many, narrow and less deep filters.

Keywords: VO, ArVO, DFBS, FITS, image processing, data analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
1188 Transverse Momentum Dependent Factorization and Evolution for Spin Physics

Authors: Bipin Popat Sonawane


After 1988 Electron muon Collaboration (EMC) announcement of measurement of spin dependent structure function, it has been found that it has become a need to understand spin structure of a hadron. In the study of three-dimensional spin structure of a proton, we need to understand the foundation of quantum field theory in terms of electro-weak and strong theories using rigorous mathematical theories and models. In the process of understanding the inner dynamical stricture of proton we need understand the mathematical formalism in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD). In QCD processes like proton-proton collision at high energy we calculate cross section using conventional collinear factorization schemes. In this calculations, parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation function are used which provide the information about probability density of finding quarks and gluons ( partons) inside the proton and probability density of finding final hadronic state from initial partons. In transverse momentum dependent (TMD) PDFs and FFs, collectively called as TMDs, take an account for intrinsic transverse motion of partons. The TMD factorization in the calculation of cross sections provide a scheme of hadronic and partonic states in the given QCD process. In this study we review Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) factorization scheme using Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) Formalism. CSS formalism considers the transverse momentum dependence of the partons, in this formalism the cross section is written as a Fourier transform over a transverse position variable which has physical interpretation as impact parameter. Along with this we compare this formalism with improved CSS formalism. In this work we study the TMD evolution schemes and their comparison with other schemes. This would provide description in the process of measurement of transverse single spin asymmetry (TSSA) in hadro-production and electro-production of J/psi meson at RHIC, LHC, ILC energy scales. This would surely help us to understand J/psi production mechanism which is an appropriate test of QCD.

Keywords: QCD, PDF, TMD, CSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1187 Primary and Secondary Big Bangs Theory of Creation of Universe

Authors: Shyam Sunder Gupta


For creation of Universe, theory of Big Bang , from Singularity is most acceptable theory, but has limitations as it does not answer ; how Singularity gets created and what causes Big Bang ?Further , Universe is composed of 95% Dark Energy and Dark Matter and balance 5% is visible part of Universe , but no explanation . Recently, it has been reported that there could be very large number of Universes, but only , a stipulation. This research which is based on Bhagvat Puran, a Vedic Scripture answers all questions. There is a Unique Energy Field which is eternal and infinite. The carrier Particles of Unique Energy are Paramanus; God Particles. Paramanus are Fundamental Particles and combination of these particles create bigger particles from which Universe gets created. For creation to initiate, Unique Energy gets represented in three phases; Positive Male Energy, Neutral Energy(creates Eternal Time)and Negative Female Energy. Positive Male Energy further expands in three forms of Creative Energies (CE1,CE2andCE3)and 16 principles get created, namely, Energy of Activation , Energy of Action, Energy of Darkness, Pradhan ( Equilibrium state of three energies ) , Prakriti(Non-equilibrium state of three energies, creating modes of Activation, Action and Darkness),Mahat-tattva ( consists of three modes , dominant in Mode of Darkness), Time, Energy of Consciousness, Ego Energy(consists of three modes , very strongly dominated by Mode of Darkness),Energy of Intellect, Mind Energy , Sky( creates Space and Sound Energy),Air(creates gaseous substances), Fire( creates different forms of energies like thermal, light, electrical etc.), Water( creates liquid substances)and Earth(creates solid substances). CE1 Energy creates Infinite number of Singularities from seven principles, Pradhan , Mahat-tattva, Sky , Air, Fire, Water and Earth . CE1 Energy gets divided as CE2 and enters along with other 9 principles , in each of Singularity and Primary Big Bang takes and infinite number of Universes get created. Each Universe has seven coverings of 7 principles and each layer is 10 times thicker than previous layer. By Energy CE2 , space in Universe under the coverings is divided in two parts , upper part and lower part. Upper part is occupied by Dark Energy which is created from Mode of Darkness in Ego Energy which keeps getting converted in Dark Matter and forms Invisible part of Universe. In the lower part , process of evolution gets initiated and seeds of 24 elements , Consciousness , Ego, Intellect, Mind, 5 Fundamental Elements( space, Air, Fire, Water Earth, which create non-living matter ),5 senses which receive inputs( eyes, nose, ears, tongue , skin), 5 Working Senses (Smell, Taste, Sight, Touch and Hearing);5 elements of Action( Organs of procreation , excretion, locomotion , speech and acquisition ), get created . In EC2 Energy, Singularity gets created which gets exploded by force of Energy of Action ,and Secondary Big Bang takes place and Visible Universe gets created in the shape of Bud of Flower Lotus . Within the Visible part of Universe, a small part gets created , Phenomenal Universe. Diameter of Sun and planetary system ,at the time of formation ,is 6.4 billion km, which is close to reported value . There are 5 different orbits , with reference to our Solar System. Moon around earth takes one month,, earth around sun one year, sun around Milk way one cosmic year(322.58 million years), Milky way around Universe 4.32 billion years and universe around center of universe 311.04 trillion years. Universe creation is a cyclic process with cycle time of 622.08 trillion years.In summary, Universe consists of 4 parts; covering of 7 layers, Dark Energy and Dark Matter, Visible and Phenomenal universe.

Keywords: big bang, creation, dark energy, dark matter, singularity, universe

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
1186 Reliable Soup: Reliable-Driven Model Weight Fusion on Ultrasound Imaging Classification

Authors: Shuge Lei, Haonan Hu, Dasheng Sun, Huabin Zhang, Kehong Yuan, Jian Dai, Yan Tong


It remains challenging to measure reliability from classification results from different machine learning models. This paper proposes a reliable soup optimization algorithm based on the model weight fusion algorithm Model Soup, aiming to improve reliability by using dual-channel reliability as the objective function to fuse a series of weights in the breast ultrasound classification models. Experimental results on breast ultrasound clinical datasets demonstrate that reliable soup significantly enhances the reliability of breast ultrasound image classification tasks. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified via multicenter trials. The results from five centers indicate that the reliability optimization algorithm can enhance the reliability of the breast ultrasound image classification model and exhibit low multicenter correlation.

Keywords: breast ultrasound image classification, feature attribution, reliability assessment, reliability optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
1185 Dual-Channel Reliable Breast Ultrasound Image Classification Based on Explainable Attribution and Uncertainty Quantification

Authors: Haonan Hu, Shuge Lei, Dasheng Sun, Huabin Zhang, Kehong Yuan, Jian Dai, Jijun Tang


This paper focuses on the classification task of breast ultrasound images and conducts research on the reliability measurement of classification results. A dual-channel evaluation framework was developed based on the proposed inference reliability and predictive reliability scores. For the inference reliability evaluation, human-aligned and doctor-agreed inference rationals based on the improved feature attribution algorithm SP-RISA are gracefully applied. Uncertainty quantification is used to evaluate the predictive reliability via the test time enhancement. The effectiveness of this reliability evaluation framework has been verified on the breast ultrasound clinical dataset YBUS, and its robustness is verified on the public dataset BUSI. The expected calibration errors on both datasets are significantly lower than traditional evaluation methods, which proves the effectiveness of the proposed reliability measurement.

Keywords: medical imaging, ultrasound imaging, XAI, uncertainty measurement, trustworthy AI

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
1184 Using Fly Ash Based Synthetic Zeolite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remove Arsenic, Cadmium, and their Mixture from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Mozhgan Bahadory, Gholam-Hossein Rostami


Over the next quarter of a century, the US government and the private sector will spend billions of dollars annually to clean the contaminated sites from pollution such as petroleum products, heavy metals, and solvents organic compounds. During the past three decades, almost 750,000 sites that require remediation have been reported to the United States federal and state agencies. Out of these contamination sites, approximately 300,000 are still in need of remediation. In these sites, the most widespread forms of contamination are petroleum products and heavy metals. At least half of US Department of Defense, US Department of Energy, Superfund sites, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites have been reported to contain heavy metals. Heavy metals most often found in the contaminated water are lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. This investigation emphasizes the elimination of arsenic and cadmium from aqueous solution. During the past several years, we developed a novel material called Alkali-Activated fly ash Material Permeable Reactive Barrier (AAM-PRB), which includes fly ash, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, activating chemicals, and water. AAM can be produced with high permeability, 10-1 cm/s, then crushed into pelletized form. Laboratory experiments showed that water containing 10 ppm, 100 ppm, and 1000 ppm of arsenic and cadmium ion passing through AAM-PRB reduced to less than 0.1 ppm. However, water containing 10,000 ppm arsenic ion passing through AAM- PRB shows that the breakthrough was achieved. The removal of the mixture of arsenic and cadmium from aqueous solutions was also tested by using AAM-PRB. The results indicate that the efficiency of AAM-PRB for simultaneous removal of arsenic and cadmium from 10 ppm, 100 ppm, and 1,000 ppm were marginally below that of arsenic alone. Still, it was significantly lower for cadmium from the aqueous solution. The basic science behind removing heavy metal and microstructural investigation AAM-PRB will be the focus of our future work.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, contaminated water, fly ash, permeability, reactive barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
1183 Statistical Model of Water Quality in Estero El Macho, Machala-El Oro

Authors: Rafael Zhindon Almeida


Surface water quality is an important concern for the evaluation and prediction of water quality conditions. The objective of this study is to develop a statistical model that can accurately predict the water quality of the El Macho estuary in the city of Machala, El Oro province. The methodology employed in this study is of a basic type that involves a thorough search for theoretical foundations to improve the understanding of statistical modeling for water quality analysis. The research design is correlational, using a multivariate statistical model involving multiple linear regression and principal component analysis. The results indicate that water quality parameters such as fecal coliforms, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, iron and dissolved oxygen exceed the allowable limits. The water of the El Macho estuary is determined to be below the required water quality criteria. The multiple linear regression model, based on chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids, explains 99.9% of the variance of the dependent variable. In addition, principal component analysis shows that the model has an explanatory power of 86.242%. The study successfully developed a statistical model to evaluate the water quality of the El Macho estuary. The estuary did not meet the water quality criteria, with several parameters exceeding the allowable limits. The multiple linear regression model and principal component analysis provide valuable information on the relationship between the various water quality parameters. The findings of the study emphasize the need for immediate action to improve the water quality of the El Macho estuary to ensure the preservation and protection of this valuable natural resource.

Keywords: statistical modeling, water quality, multiple linear regression, principal components, statistical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1182 Structural Evolution of Na6Mn(SO4)4 from High-Pressure Synchrotron Powder X-ray Diffraction

Authors: Monalisa Pradhan, Ajana Dutta, Irshad Kariyattuparamb Abbas, Boby Joseph, T. N. Guru Row, Diptikanta Swain, Gopal K. Pradhan


Compounds with the Vanthoffite crystal structure having general formula Na6M(SO₄)₄ (M= Mg, Mn, Ni , Co, Fe, Cu and Zn) display a variety of intriguing physical properties intimately related to their structural arrangements. The compound Na6Mn(SO4)4 shows antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperature where the in-plane Mn-O•••O-Mn interactions facilitates antiferromagnetic ordering via a super-exchange interaction between the Mn atoms through the oxygen atoms . The inter-atomic bond distances and angles can easily be tuned by applying external pressure and can be probed using high resolution X-ray diffraction. Moreover, because the magnetic interaction among the Mn atoms are super-exchange type via Mn-O•••O-Mn path, the variation of the Mn-O•••O-Mn dihedral angle and Mn-O bond distances under high pressure inevitably affects the magnetic properties. Therefore, it is evident that high pressure studies on the magnetically ordered materials would shed light on the interplay between their structural properties and magnetic ordering. This will indeed confirm the role of buckling of the Mn-O polyhedral in understanding the origin of anti-ferromagnetism. In this context, we carried out the pressure dependent X-ray diffraction measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to a maximum pressure of 17 GPa to study the phase transition and determine equation of state from the volume compression data. Upon increasing the pressure, we didn’t observe any new diffraction peaks or sudden discontinuity in the pressure dependences of the d values up to the maximum achieved pressure of ~17 GPa. However, it is noticed that beyond 12 GPa the a and b lattice parameters become identical while there is a discontinuity in the β value around the same pressure. This indicates a subtle transition to a pseudo-monoclinic phase. Using the third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) to fit the volume compression data for the entire range, we found the bulk modulus (B0) to be 44 GPa. If we consider the subtle transition at 12 GPa, we tried to fit another equation state for the volume beyond 12 GPa using the second order Birch-Murnaghan EOS. This gives a bulk modulus of ~ 34 GPa for this phase.

Keywords: mineral, structural phase transition, high pressure XRD, spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
1181 Fabrication and Characterization of PPy/rGO|PPy/ZnO Composite with Varying Zno Concentration as Anode for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: Bryan D. Llenarizas, Maria Carla F. Manzano


The rapid growth of electricity demand has led to a pursuit of alternative energy sources with high power output and not harmful to the environment. The fuel cell is a device that generates electricity via chemical reactions between the fuel and oxidant. Fuel cells have been known for decades, but the development of high-power output and durability was still one of the drawbacks of this energy source. This study investigates the potential of layer-by-layer composite for fuel cell applications. A two-electrode electrochemical cell was used for the galvanostatic electrochemical deposition method to fabricate a Polypyrrole/rGO|Polypyrrole/ZnO layer-by-layer composite material for fuel cell applications. In the synthesis, the first layer comprised 0.1M pyrrole monomer and 1mg of rGO, while the second layer had 0.1M pyrrole monomer and variations of ZnO concentration ranging from 0.08M up to 0.12M. A constant current density of 8mA/cm² was applied for 1 hour in fabricating each layer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the fabricated LBL material shows a globular surface with white spots. These white spots are the ZnO particles confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicating a successful deposition of the second layer onto the first layer. The observed surface morphology was consistent for each variation of ZnO concentrations. AC measurements were conducted to obtain the AC resistance of the fabricated film. Results show a decrease in AC resistance as the concentration of ZnO increases.

Keywords: anode, composite material, electropolymerization, fuel cell, galvanostatic, polypyrrole

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1180 Idea, Creativity, Design, and Ultimately, Playing with Mathematics

Authors: Yasaman Azarmjoo


Since ancient times, it has been said that mathematics is the mother of all sciences and the foundation of basic concepts in every field and profession. It would be great if, after learning this subject, we could enable students to create games and activities based on the same mathematical concepts. This article explores the design of various mathematical activities in the form of games, utilizing different mathematical topics such as algebra, equations, binary systems, and one-to-one correspondence. The theoretical significance of this article lies in uncovering alternative approaches to teaching and learning mathematics. By employing creative and interactive methods such as game design, it challenges the traditional perception of mathematics as a difficult and laborious subject. The theoretical significance of this article lies in demonstrating that mathematics can be made more accessible and enjoyable, which can result in heightened interest and engagement in the subject. In general, this article reveals another aspect of mathematics.

Keywords: playing with mathematics, algebra and equations, binary systems, one-to-one correspondence

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1179 Designing a Refractive Index Gas Biosensor Exploiting Defects in Photonic Crystal Core-Shell Rods

Authors: Bilal Tebboub, AmelLabbani


This article introduces a compact sensor based on high-transmission, high-sensitivity two-dimensional photonic crystals. The photonic crystal consists of a square network of silicon rods in the air. The sensor is composed of two waveguide couplers and a microcavity designed for monitoring the percentage of hydrogen in the air and identifying gas types. Through the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, we demonstrate that the sensor's resonance wavelength is contingent upon changes in the gas refractive index. We analyze transmission spectra, quality factors, and sensor sensitivity. The sensor exhibits a notable quality factor and a sensitivity value of 1374 nm/RIU. Notably, the sensor's compact structure occupies an area of 74.5 μm2, rendering it suitable for integrated optical circuits.

Keywords: 2-D photonic crystal, sensitivity, F.D.T.D method, label-free biosensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1178 Quantum Engine Proposal using Two-level Atom Like Manipulation and Relativistic Motoring Control

Authors: Montree Bunruangses, Sonath Bhattacharyya, Somchat Sonasang, Preecha Yupapin


A two-level system is manipulated by a microstrip add-drop circuit configured as an atom like system for wave-particle behavior investigation when its traveling speed along the circuit perimeter is the speed of light. The entangled pair formed by the upper and lower sideband peaks is bound by the angular displacement, which is given by 0≤θ≤π/2. The control signals associated with 3-peak signal frequencies are applied by the external inputs via the microstrip add-drop multiplexer ports, where they are time functions without the space term involved. When a system satisfies the speed of light conditions, the mass term has been changed to energy based on the relativistic limit described by the Lorentz factor and Einstein equation. The different applied frequencies can be utilized to form the 3-phase torques that can be applied for quantum engines. The experiment will use the two-level system circuit and be conducted in the laboratory. The 3-phase torques will be recorded and investigated for quantum engine driving purpose. The obtained results will be compared to the simulation. The optimum amplification of torque can be obtained by the resonant successive filtering operation. Torque will be vanished when the system is balanced at the stopped position, where |Time|=0, which is required to be a system stability condition. It will be discussed for future applications. A larger device may be tested in the future for realistic use. A synchronous and asynchronous driven motor is also discussed for the warp drive use.

Keywords: quantum engine, relativistic motor, 3-phase torque, atomic engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
1177 Modeling Atmospheric Correction for Global Navigation Satellite System Signal to Improve Urban Cadastre 3D Positional Accuracy Case of: TANA and ADIS IGS Stations

Authors: Asmamaw Yehun


The name “TANA” is one of International Geodetic Service (IGS) Global Positioning System (GPS) station which is found in Bahir Dar University in Institute of Land Administration. The station name taken from one of big Lakes in Africa ,Lake Tana. The Institute of Land Administration (ILA) is part of Bahir Dar University, located in the capital of the Amhara National Regional State, Bahir Dar. The institute is the first of its kind in East Africa. The station is installed by cooperation of ILA and Sweden International Development Agency (SIDA) fund support. The Continues Operating Reference Station (CORS) is a network of stations that provide global satellite system navigation data to help three dimensional positioning, meteorology, space, weather, and geophysical applications throughout the globe. TANA station was as CORS since 2013 and sites are independently owned and operated by governments, research and education facilities and others. The data collected by the reference station is downloadable through Internet for post processing purpose by interested parties who carry out GNSS measurements and want to achieve a higher accuracy. We made a first observation on TANA, monitor stations on May 29th 2013. We used Leica 1200 receivers and AX1202GG antennas and made observations from 11:30 until 15:20 for about 3h 50minutes. Processing of data was done in an automatic post processing service CSRS-PPP by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) . Post processing was done June 27th 2013 so precise ephemeris was used 30 days after observation. We found Latitude (ITRF08): 11 34 08.6573 (dms) / 0.008 (m), Longitude (ITRF08): 37 19 44.7811 (dms) / 0.018 (m) and Ellipsoidal Height (ITRF08): 1850.958 (m) / 0.037 (m). We were compared this result with GAMIT/GLOBK processed data and it was very closed and accurate. TANA station is one of the second IGS station for Ethiopia since 2015 up to now. It provides data for any civilian users, researchers, governmental and nongovernmental users. TANA station is installed with very advanced choke ring antenna and GR25 Leica receiver and also the site is very good for satellite accessibility. In order to test hydrostatic and wet zenith delay for positional data quality, we used GAMIT/GLOBK and we found that TANA station is the most accurate IGS station in East Africa. Due to lower tropospheric zenith and ionospheric delay, TANA and ADIS IGS stations has 2 and 1.9 meters 3D positional accuracy respectively.

Keywords: atmosphere, GNSS, neutral atmosphere, precipitable water vapour

Procedia PDF Downloads 27