Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 846

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Physical and Mathematical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

846 Feasibility of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter Candidates: Exploratory Study on The Possible Reasons for Lack of WIMP Detection

Authors: Sloka Bhushan

Abstract:

Dark matter constitutes a majority of matter in the universe, yet very little is known about it due to its extreme lack of interaction with regular matter and the fundamental forces. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, have been contested to be one of the strongest candidates for dark matter due to their promising theoretical properties. However, various endeavors to detect these elusive particles have failed. This paper explores the various particles which may be WIMPs and the detection techniques being employed to detect WIMPs (such as underground detectors, LHC experiments, and so on). There is a special focus on the reasons for the lack of detection of WIMPs so far, and the possibility of limits in detection being a reason for the lack of physical evidence of the existence of WIMPs. This paper also explores possible inconsistencies within the WIMP particle theory as a reason for the lack of physical detection. There is a brief review on the possible solutions and alternatives to these inconsistencies. Additionally, this paper also reviews the supersymmetry theory and the possibility of the supersymmetric neutralino (A possible WIMP particle) being detectable. Lastly, a review on alternate candidates for dark matter such as axions and MACHOs has been conducted. The explorative study in this paper is conducted through a series of literature reviews.

Keywords: Dark Matter, Supersymmetry, particle detection, weakly interacting massive particles

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845 Determining the Effects of Wind-Aided Midge Movement on the Probability of Coexistence of Multiple Bluetongue Virus Serotypes in Patchy Environments

Authors: Kevin Duffy, Francis Mugabi, Joseph J. Y. T Mugisha, Obiora Collins

Abstract:

Bluetongue virus (BTV) has 27 serotypes, with some of them coexisting in patchy (different) environments, which make its control difficult. Wind-aided midge movement is a known mechanism in the spread of BTV. However, its effects on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes are not clear. Deterministic and stochastic models for r BTV serotypes in n discrete patches connected by midge and/or cattle movement are formulated and analyzed. For the deterministic model without midge and cattle movement, using the comparison principle, it is shown that if the patch reproduction number R0 < 1, i=1,2,...,n, j=1,2,...,r, all serotypes go extinct. If R^j_i0>1, competitive exclusion takes place. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that when the n patches are connected by midge movement, coexistence takes place. To account for demographic and movement variability, the deterministic model is transformed into a continuous-time Markov chain stochastic model. Utilizing a multitype branching process, it is shown that the midge movement can have a large effect on the probability of coexistence of multiple BTV serotypes. The probability of coexistence can be brought to zero when the control interventions that directly kill the adult midges are applied. These results indicate the significance of wind-aided midge movement and vector control interventions on the coexistence and control of multiple BTV serotypes in patchy environments.

Keywords: Coexistence, branching process, bluetongue virus, multiple serotypes, midge movement

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844 A Hybrid Classical-Quantum Algorithm for Boundary Integral Equations of Scattering Theory

Authors: Damir Latypov

Abstract:

A hybrid classical-quantum algorithm to solve boundary integral equations (BIE) arising in problems of electromagnetic and acoustic scattering is proposed. The quantum speed-up is due to a Quantum Linear System Algorithm (QLSA). The original QLSA of Harrow et al. provides an exponential speed-up over the best-known classical algorithms but only in the case of sparse systems. Due to the non-local nature of integral operators, matrices arising from discretization of BIEs, are, however, dense. A QLSA for dense matrices was introduced in 2017. Its runtime as function of the system's size N is bounded by O(√Npolylog(N)). The run time of the best-known classical algorithm for an arbitrary dense matrix scales as O(N².³⁷³). Instead of exponential as in case of sparse matrices, here we have only a polynomial speed-up. Nevertheless, sufficiently high power of this polynomial, ~4.7, should make QLSA an appealing alternative. Unfortunately for the QLSA, the asymptotic separability of the Green's function leads to high compressibility of the BIEs matrices. Classical fast algorithms such as Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) take advantage of this fact and reduce the runtime to O(Nlog(N)), i.e., the QLSA is only quadratically faster than the MLFMM. To be truly impactful for computational electromagnetics and acoustics engineers, QLSA must provide more substantial advantage than that. We propose a computational scheme which combines elements of the classical fast algorithms with the QLSA to achieve the required performance.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Scattering Theory, boundary integral equations, quantum linear system algorithm, dense matrices

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843 The Explanation for Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Richard Lewis

Abstract:

The following assumptions of the Big Bang theory are challenged and found to be false: the cosmological principle, the assumption that all matter formed at the same time and the assumption regarding the cause of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The evolution of the universe is described based on the conclusion that the universe is finite with a space boundary. This conclusion is reached by ruling out the possibility of an infinite universe or a universe which is finite with no boundary. In a finite universe, the centre of the universe can be located with reference to our home galaxy (The Milky Way) using the speed relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame and Hubble's law. This places our home galaxy at a distance of approximately 26 million light years from the centre of the universe. Because we are making observations from a point relatively close to the centre of the universe, the universe appears to be isotropic and homogeneous but this is not the case. The CMB is coming from a source located within the event horizon of the universe. There is sufficient mass in the universe to create an event horizon at the Schwarzschild radius. Galaxies form over time due to the energy released by the expansion of space. Conservation of energy must consider total energy which is mass (+ve) plus energy (+ve) plus spacetime curvature (-ve) so that the total energy of the universe is always zero. The predominant position of galaxy formation moves over time from the centre of the universe towards the boundary so that today the majority of new galaxy formation is taking place beyond our horizon of observation at 14 billion light years.

Keywords: Cosmology, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, evolution of the universe

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842 Characterization of Iron Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Ability for Congo Red Dye

Authors: Vishakha Parihar

Abstract:

This study reports the preparation of iron metal-doped nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide by the sol-gel process and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. Nano-particles were characterized by SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed study confirmed that nanoparticles have grown in high density and have good optical properties. The photocatalytic batch experiment was performed in an aqueous solution where congo red dye was used as a dye pollutant under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays created by using a mercury lamp source. Total degradation efficiency achieved was approximately 85% to 93% in the duration of 100-120 minutes of irradiation under an ultraviolet light source. The decolorization ability of this process was measured by absorbance at a maximum wavelength of 498nm. The results indicated that the iron-doped Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic response to the degradation of dye under the ultraviolet light source within a very short period of time.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, photocatalytic degradation, sol-gel process, nano-particles iron dope, Congo red dye

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841 About the Number of Fundamental Physical Interactions

Authors: Andrey Angorsky

Abstract:

In the article an issue about the possible number of fundamental physical interactions is studied. The theory of similarity on the dimensionless quantity as the damping ratio serves as the instrument of analysis. The structure with the features of Higgs field comes out from non-commutative expression for this ratio. The experimentally checked up supposition about the nature of dark energy is spoken out.

Keywords: Dark Energy, damping ratio, dimensionless quantity, fundamental physical interactions, Higgs field, non-commutative expression

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840 Thermodynamics of Stable Micro Black Holes Production by Modeling from the LHC

Authors: Aref Yazdani, Ali Tofighi

Abstract:

We study a simulative model for production of stable micro black holes based on investigation on thermodynamics of LHC experiment. We show that how this production can be achieved through a thermodynamic process of stability. Indeed, this process can be done through a very small amount of powerful fuel. By applying the second law of black hole thermodynamics at the scale of quantum gravity and perturbation expansion of the given entropy function, a time-dependent potential function is obtained which is illustrated with exact numerical values in higher dimensions. Seeking for the conditions for stability of micro black holes is another purpose of this study. This is proven through an injection method of putting the exact amount of energy into the final phase of the production which is equivalent to the same energy injection into the center of collision at the LHC in order to stabilize the produced particles. Injection of energy into the center of collision at the LHC is a new pattern that it is worth a try for the first time.

Keywords: micro black holes, LHC experiment, black holes thermodynamics, extra dimensions model

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839 An Interlock Model of Friction and Superlubricity

Authors: Azadeh Malekan, Shahin Rouhani

Abstract:

Superlubricity is a phenomenon where two surfaces in contact show negligible friction;this may be because the asperities of the two surfaces do not interlock. Two rough surfaces, when pressed against each other, can get into a formation where the summits of asperities of one surface lock into the valleys of the other surface. The amount of interlock depends on the geometry of the two surfaces. We suggest the friction force may then be proportional to the amount of interlock; this explains Superlubricity as the situation where there is little interlock. Then the friction force will be directly proportional to the normal force as it is related to the work necessary to lift the upper surface in order to clear the interlock. To investigate this model, we simulate the contact of two surfaces. In order to validate our model, we first investigate Amontons‘ law. Assuming that asperities retain deformations in the time scale while the top asperity moves across the lattice spacing Amonton’s law is observed. Structural superlubricity is examined by the hypothesis that surfaces are very rigid and there is no deformation in asperities. This may happen at small normal forces. When two identical surfaces come into contact, rotating the top surface we observe a peak in friction force near the angle of orientation where the two surfaces can interlock.

Keywords: friction, contact model, amonton`s law, superlubricity

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838 The Effectiveness of Using Nihongo Mantappu Channel on Youtube as an Effort to Succeed Sustainable Development Goals 2030 for Tenth Graders of Smam 10 GKB Gresik

Authors: Salsabila Meutia Meutia

Abstract:

Indonesia as one of the countries that agreed to SDG's must commit to achieve this SDG's goal until the deadline of 2030. The government has tried hard to realize all the goals in the SDG’s, but there is still something that has not been achieved, especially the goal in number 4 which is to ensure that every human being has a decent and inclusive education and encourages lifelong learning opportunities for everyone. Teenagers who are the golden generation for Indonesia are starting to feel dependent on Youtube. The addictive virus of teenagers about using YouTube is both good news and bad news for the sustainability of government programs in achieving goals in SDG’s, especially in term of education. One popular YouTube channel among high school teenagers is Nihongo Mantappu which has 1.8 million followers. This channel contains interesting but quality content that can have a positive influence for the audience. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Nihongo Mantappu channel on Youtube as a means of fostering enthusiasm and awareness of learning in tenth graders of SMA Muhammadiyah 10 GKB, as well as how it affected in achieving quality educational goals as an effort to succeed in the Sustainable Development Goals of 2030. The objectives of this study were carried out with distributing questionnaires to tenth graders of SMA Muhammadiyah 10 GKB and observing objects in the real life. Then the data obtained are analyzed and described properly so that this research is a descriptive study. The results of the study mentioned that YouTube as one of the websites for viewing and sharing videos is a very effective media for disseminating information, especially among teenagers. The Nihongo Mantappu channel is also considered to be a very effective channel in building enthusiasm and awareness of learning in tenth graders of SMA Muhammadiyah 10 GKB. Students as the main subject of education have a great influence on the achievement of one of SDG’s fourth goals, named quality education. Students who are always on fire in the spirit and awareness of learning will greatly help the achievement of quality education goals in the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

Keywords: YouTube, Nihongo, Mantappu, SDG's

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837 Applications for Tracking Close Contact with COVID-19 Patients in Malaysia

Authors: Bih Ni Lee

Abstract:

This paper discusses the unending coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. The activity of detecting, testing those with symptoms, and isolating their contacts is the most effective method of stopping the chain of coronavirus infection. The number of cases of coronavirus continues to increase with some reporting a cure, but not a few die. Efforts to treat and prevent continue to fight COVID-19 with flu-like symptoms. The importance of the study is to identify smartphone applications that can track the movement of individuals in an effort to curb the spread of COVID-19, especially in Malaysia. This research method used a literature review, which included new insights into the quality of action and scientific papers. It synthesized information gleaned from a variety of sources. The findings of the study are that the Government of Malaysia has launched three main applications to track the movement of individuals, namely Gerak Malaysia, MyTrace, MySejahtera. Similarly, every state in Malaysia has its own state government application to track individual movements. Overall, Malaysia is one of the countries in the world that has successfully curbed the spread of COVID-19; Covid-19 cases in Malaysia are under control.

Keywords: COVID-19 app, national security council, Gerak Malaysia, MyTrace, MySejahtera

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836 Multivariate Analysis of Spectroscopic Data for Agriculture Applications

Authors: Asmaa M. Hussein, Amr Wassal, Ahmed Farouk Al-Sadek, A. F. Abd El-Rahman

Abstract:

In this study, a multivariate analysis of potato spectroscopic data was presented to detect the presence of brown rot disease or not. Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (1,350-2,500 nm) combined with multivariate analysis was used as a rapid, non-destructive technique for the detection of brown rot disease in potatoes. Spectral measurements were performed in 565 samples, which were chosen randomly at the infection place in the potato slice. In this study, 254 infected and 311 uninfected (brown rot-free) samples were analyzed using different advanced statistical analysis techniques. The discrimination performance of different multivariate analysis techniques, including classification, pre-processing, and dimension reduction, were compared. Applying a random forest algorithm classifier with different pre-processing techniques to raw spectra had the best performance as the total classification accuracy of 98.7% was achieved in discriminating infected potatoes from control.

Keywords: random forest, potato, NIR spectroscopy, Brown rot disease

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835 Mothwash Formulation of Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera) and Its Activity as an Antibacterial for Streptococcus Mutans

Authors: Amalia Dwi Berliyanti Amel

Abstract:

Streptococcus mutants bacteria are bacteria that are believed to be the cause of the growth of dental plaque which can further adversely affect dental caries if left unchecked. Previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract can slow down the growth rate of this bacterium. This study aims to make the best formulation of mouthwash with the active ingredient of Moringa leaf extract based on its antibacterial and organoleptic test results. Nine mouthwash variations were carried out with two factors and three levels, namely a comparison of the concentration of sorbitol (A) with three levels namely 15% (A1), 20% (A2), and 25% (A3), and peppermint added (B) with three levels, namely 0.2% (B1), 0.25% (B2), and 0.3% (B3). The test parameters performed as the determination of the best mouthwash are based on physicochemical properties which include pH and viscosity as well as organoleptic test results which include color, viscosity, aroma, taste, sensation in the mouth, and general appearance. The results showed that the bright zone as a test for the antibacterial activity of Streptococcus mutants began to be seen at a concentration of 5%. Moringa leaf mouthwash formulation has a pH value between 6 - 7, with a control of 6. Whereas the mucosa leaf mouthwash vascularity produced between 1.1 - 1.7 cP with a control of 1.1 cP. Moringa leaf mouthwash and control have the same total number of microbes, namely 0 colonies / mL. Based on organoleptic tests performed with 20 panelists, it was shown that the best mouthwash formulation was formulation A1B3 with sorbitol composition 15% and peppermint 0.3%.

Keywords: mouthwash, antibasteria, formula, moringa leaf

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834 Modeling of Maximum Rainfall Using Poisson-Generalized Pareto Distribution in Kigali, Rwanda

Authors: Emmanuel Iyamuremye

Abstract:

Extreme rainfall events have caused significant damage to agriculture, ecology, and infrastructure, disruption of human activities, injury, and loss of life. They also have significant social, economic, and environmental consequences because they considerably damage urban as well as rural areas. Early detection of extreme maximum rainfall helps to implement strategies and measures, before they occur, hence mitigating the consequences. Extreme value theory has been used widely in modeling extreme rainfall and in various disciplines, such as financial markets, the insurance industry, failure cases. Climatic extremes have been analyzed by using either generalized extreme value (GEV) or generalized Pareto (GP) distributions, which provides evidence of the importance of modeling extreme rainfall from different regions of the world. In this paper, we focused on Peak Over Thresholds approach, where the Poisson-generalized Pareto distribution is considered as the proper distribution for the study of the exceedances. This research also considers the use of the generalized Pareto (GP) distribution with a Poisson model for arrivals to describe peaks over a threshold. The research used statistical techniques to fit models that used to predict extreme rainfall in Kigali. The results indicate that the proposed Poisson-GP distribution provides a better fit to maximum monthly rainfall data. Further, the Poisson-GP models are able to estimate various return levels. The research also found a slow increase in return levels for maximum monthly rainfall for higher return periods, and further, the intervals are increasingly wider as the return period is increasing.

Keywords: Extreme Value Theory, generalized pareto distribution‎, exceedances, Poisson generalized Pareto distribution

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833 Hamilton-Jacobi Treatment of Damped Motion

Authors: Khaled I. Nawafleh

Abstract:

In this work, we apply the method of Hamilton-Jacobi to obtain solutions of Hamiltonian systems in classical mechanics with two certain structures: the first structure plays a central role in the theory of time-dependent Hamiltonians, whilst the second is used to treat classical Hamiltonians, including dissipation terms. It is proved that the generalization of problems from the calculus of variation methods in the nonstationary case can be obtained naturally in Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. Then, another expression of geometry of the Hamilton Jacobi equation is retrieved for Hamiltonians with time-dependent and frictional terms. Both approaches shall be applied to many physical examples.

Keywords: Variational Principle, Hamilton-Jacobi, time dependent lagrangians, dissipative systems

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832 Categorical Properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Groups

Authors: Poonam Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

The category theory deals with mathematical structures and relationships between them. Categories now appear in most branches of mathematics and in some areas of theoretical computer science and mathematical physics and acting as a unifying notion. In this paper, we study the relationship between the category of groups and the category of intuitionistic fuzzy groups. We proved that the category of groups is a subcategory of category of intuitionistic fuzzy groups and that it is not an abelian category. We established a function β: Hom(A, B) → [0, 1] × [0, 1] on the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy homomorphisms between intuitionistic fuzzy groups A and B of groups G and H respectively. We proved that β is a covariant functor from the category of groups to the category of intuitionistic fuzzy groups. Further, we show that the category of intuitionistic fuzzy groups is a top category by establishing a contravariant functor from the category of intuitionistic fuzzy groups to the lattices of all intuitionistic fuzzy groups.

Keywords: category, Intuitionistic fuzzy group, intuitionistic fuzzy homomorphism, covariant functor, contravariant functor

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831 Pharmaceutical Applications of Newton's Second Law and Disc Inertia

Authors: Nicholas Jensen

Abstract:

As the effort to create new drugs to treat rare conditions cost-effectively intensifies, there is a need to ensure maximum efficiency in the manufacturing process. This includes the creation of ultracompact treatment forms, which can best be achieved via applications of fundamental laws of physics. This paper reports an experiment exploring the relationship between the forms of Newton's 2ⁿᵈ Law appropriate to linear motion and to transversal architraves. The moment of inertia of three discs was determined by experiments and compared with previous data derived from a theoretical relationship. The method used was to attach the discs to a moment arm. Comparing the results with those obtained from previous experiments, it is found to be consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. It was further found that Newton's 2ⁿᵈ law violates the second law of thermodynamics. The purpose of this experiment was to explore the relationship between the forms of Newton's 2nd Law appropriate to linear motion and to apply torque to a twisting force, which is determined by position vector r and force vector F. Substituting equation alpha in place of beta; angular acceleration is a linear acceleration divided by radius r of the moment arm. The nevrological analogy of Newton's 2nd Law states that these findings can contribute to a fuller understanding of thermodynamics in relation to viscosity. Implications for the pharmaceutical industry will be seen to be fruitful from these findings.

Keywords: viscosity, Newtonian physics, inertia, pharmaceutical applications

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830 Microscopic Analysis of Bulk, High-TC Superconductors by Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction

Authors: Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, Michael Koblischka

Abstract:

In this contribution, the transmission-Kikuchi diffrac-tion (TKD, or sometimes called t-EBSD) is applied to bulk, melt-grown YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) superconductors prepared by the MTMG (melt-textured melt-grown) technique and the infiltration (IG) growth technique. TEM slices required for the analysis were prepared by means of focused ion-beam (FIB) milling using mechanically polished sample surfaces, which enable a proper selection of the in-teresting regions for investigations. The required optical transparency was reached by an additional polishing step of the resulting surfaces using FIB-Ga-ion and Ar-ion milling. The improved spatial resolution of TKD enabled the investigation of the tiny Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) particles having a diameter of about 50-100 nm embedded within the YBCO matrix and of other added secondary phase particles. With the TKD technique, the microstructural properties of the YBCO matrix are studied in detail. It is observed that the matrix shows effects of stress/strain, depending on the size and distribution of the embedded particles, which are important for providing additional flux pinning centers in such superconducting bulk samples. Using the Kernel average misorientation (KAM) maps, the strain induced in the superconducting matrix around the particles, which increases the flux pinning effectivity, can be clearly revealed. This type of analysis of the EBSD/TKD data is, therefore, also important for other material systems, where nanoparticles are embedded in a matrix.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Microstructure, SEM, electron backscatter diffraction, YBCO, transmission Kikuchi diffraction

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829 A Geometrical Method for the Smoluchowski Equation on the Sphere

Authors: Adriano Valdes-Gomez, Francisco Javier Sevilla

Abstract:

We devise a numerical algorithm to simulate the diffusion of a Brownian particle restricted to the surface of a three-dimensional sphere when the particle is under the effects of an external potential that is coupled linearly. It is obtained using elementary geometry, yet, it converges, in the weak sense, to the solutions to the Smoluchowski equation. Rotations on the sphere, which are the analogs of linear displacements in euclidean spaces, are calculated using algebraic operations and then by a proper scaling, which makes the algorithm efficient and quite simple, especially to what may be the short-time propagator approach. Our findings prove that the global effects of curvature are taken into account in both dynamic and stationary processes, and it is not restricted to work in configuration space, neither restricted to the overdamped limit. We have generalized it successfully to simulate the Kramers or the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, where it is necessary to work directly in phase space, and it may be adapted to other two dimensional surfaces with non-constant curvature.

Keywords: diffusion on the sphere, Fokker-Planck equation on the sphere, non equilibrium processes on the sphere, numerical methods for diffusion on the sphere

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828 Quantum Computing with Qudits on a Graph

Authors: Aleksey Fedorov

Abstract:

Building a scalable platform for quantum computing remains one of the most challenging tasks in quantum science and technologies. However, the implementation of most important quantum operations with qubits (quantum analogues of classical bits), such as multiqubit Toffoli gate, requires either a polynomial number of operation or a linear number of operations with the use of ancilla qubits. Therefore, the reduction of the number of operations in the presence of scalability is a crucial goal in quantum information processing. One of the most elegant ideas in this direction is to use qudits (multilevel systems) instead of qubits and rely on additional levels of qudits instead of ancillas. Although some of the already obtained results demonstrate a reduction of the number of operation, they suffer from high complexity and/or of the absence of scalability. We show a strong reduction of the number of operations for the realization of the Toffoli gate by using qudits for a scalable multi-qudit processor. This is done on the basis of a general relation between the dimensionality of qudits and their topology of connections, that we derived.

Keywords: Quantum Computing, qudits, Toffoli gates, gate decomposition

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827 Lyapunov Functions for Extended Ross Model

Authors: Rahele Mosleh

Abstract:

This paper gives a survey of results on global stability of extended Ross model for malaria by constructing some elegant Lyapunov functions for two cases of epidemic, including disease-free and endemic occasions. The model is a nonlinear seven-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations that simulates this phenomenon in a more realistic fashion. We discuss the existence of positive disease-free and endemic equilibrium points of the model. It is stated that extended Ross model possesses invariant solutions for human and mosquito in a specific domain of the system.

Keywords: lyapunov function, invariant solutions, global stability, stationary points

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826 Spherical Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Relativistic Quantum Plasma

Authors: Alireza Abdikian

Abstract:

By assuming a quantum relativistic degenerate electron-positron (e-p) plasma media, the nonlinear acoustic solitary propagation in the presence of the stationary ions for neutralizing the plasma background of bounded cylindrical geometry was investigated. By using the standard reductive perturbation technique with cooperation the quantum hydrodynamics model for the e-p fluid, the spherical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation was derived for small but finite amplitude waves and was given the solitary wave solution for the parameters relevant for dense astrophysical objects such as white dwarf stars. By using a suitable coordinate transformation and using improved F-expansion technique, the SKP equation can be solved analytically. The numerical results reveal that the relativistic effects lead to propagate the electrostatic bell shape structures and by increasing the relativistic effects, the amplitude and the width of the e-p acoustic solitary wave will decrease.

Keywords: Electron-positron plasma, Acoustic solitary wave, Relativistic plasmas, the spherical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

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825 Acoustic Blood Plasmapheresis in Polymeric Resonators

Authors: Itziar Gonzalez, Pilar Carreras, Alberto Pinto, Roque Ruben Andres

Abstract:

Acoustophoretic separation of plasma from blood is based on a collection process of the blood cells, driven by an acoustic radiation force. The number of cells, their concentration, and the sample hydrodynamics are involved in these processes. However, their influence on the acoustic blood response has not yet been reported in the literature. Addressing it, this paper presents an experimental study of blood samples exposed to ultrasonic standing waves at different hematocrit levels and hydrodynamic conditions. The experiments were performed in a glass capillary (700µm-square cross section) actuated by a piezoelectric ceramic at 1MHz, hosting 2D orthogonal half-wavelength resonances transverse to the channel length, with a single-pressure-node along its central axis where cells collected driven by the acoustic radiation force. Four blood dilutions in PBS of 1:20, 1:10, 1:5, and 1:2 were tested at eight flow rate conditions Q=0:120µL/min. The 1:5 dilution (H=9%) demonstrated to be optimal for the plasmapheresis at any of the flow rates analyzed, requiring the shortest times to achieve plasma free of cells. The study opens new possibilities to optimize processes of plasmapheresis processes by ultrasounds at different hematocrit conditions in future personalized diagnoses/treatments involving blood samples.

Keywords: Microfluidics, ultrasounds, flow rate, acoustophoresis, polymeric resonators

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824 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh

Abstract:

This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation

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823 Validity of Universe Structure Conception as Nested Vortexes

Authors: Khaled M. Nabil

Abstract:

This paper introduces the Nested Vortexes conception of the universe structure and interprets all the physical phenomena according this conception. The paper first reviews recent physics theories, either in microscopic scale or macroscopic scale, to collect evidence that the space is not empty. But, these theories describe the property of the space medium without determining its structure. Determining the structure of space medium is essential to understand the mechanism that leads to its properties. Without determining the space medium structure, many phenomena; such as electric and magnetic fields, gravity, or wave-particle duality remain uninterpreted. Thus, this paper introduces a conception about the structure of the universe. It assumes that the universe is a medium of ultra-tiny homogeneous particles which are still undiscovered. Like any medium with certain movements, possibly because of a great asymmetric explosion, vortexes have occurred. A vortex condenses the ultra-tiny particles in its center forming a bigger particle, the bigger particles, in turn, could be trapped in a bigger vortex and condense in its center forming a much bigger particle and so on. This conception describes galaxies, stars, protons as particles at different levels. Existing of the particle’s vortexes make the consistency of the speed of light postulate is not true. This conception shows that the vortex motion dynamic agrees with the motion of all the universe particles at any level. An experiment has been carried out to detect the orbiting effect of aggregated vortexes of aligned atoms of a permanent magnet. Based on the described particle’s structure, the gravity force of a particle and attraction between particles as well as charge, electric and magnetic fields and quantum mechanics characteristics are interpreted. All augmented physics phenomena are solved.

Keywords: Astrophysics, Cosmology, particles’ structure model, particles’ forces

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822 Investigation of Chemical Effects on the Lγ2,3 and Lγ4 X-ray Production Cross Sections for Some Compounds of 66dy at Photon Energies Close to L1 Absorption-edge Energy

Authors: Anil Kumar, Rajnish Kaur, Mateusz Czyzycki, Alessandro Migilori, Andreas Germanos Karydas, Sanjiv Puri

Abstract:

The radiative decay of Li(i=1-3) sub-shell vacancies produced through photoionization results in production of the characteristic emission spectrum comprising several X-ray lines, whereas non-radiative vacancy decay results in Auger electron spectrum. Accurate reliable data on the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell X-ray production (XRP) cross sections is of considerable importance for investigation of atomic inner-shell ionization processes as well as for quantitative elemental analysis of different types of samples employing the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis technique. At incident photon energies in vicinity of the absorption edge energies of an element, the many body effects including the electron correlation, core relaxation, inter-channel coupling and post-collision interactions become significant in the photoionization of atomic inner-shells. Further, in case of compounds, the characteristic emission spectrum of the specific element is expected to get influenced by the chemical environment (coordination number, oxidation state, nature of ligand/functional groups attached to central atom, etc.). These chemical effects on L X-ray fluorescence parameters have been investigated by performing the measurements at incident photon energies much higher than the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell absorption edge energies using EDXRF spectrometers. In the present work, the cross sections for production of the Lk(k= γ2,3, γ4) X-rays have been measured for some compounds of 66Dy, namely, Dy2O3, Dy2(CO3)3, Dy2(SO4)3.8H2O, DyI2 and Dy metal by tuning the incident photon energies few eV above the L1 absorption-edge energy in order to investigate the influence of chemical effects on these cross sections in presence of the many body effects which become significant at photon energies close to the absorption-edge energies. The present measurements have been performed under vacuum at the IAEA end-station of the X-ray fluorescence beam line (10.1L) of ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy) using self-supporting pressed pellet targets (1.3 cm diameter, nominal thicknesses ~ 176 mg/cm2) of 66Dy compounds (procured from Sigma Aldrich) and a metallic foil of 66Dy (nominal thickness ~ 3.9 mg/cm2, procured from Good Fellow, UK). The present measured cross sections have been compared with theoretical values calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater(DHS) model based fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, Dirac-Fock(DF) model based X-ray emission rates and two sets of L1 sub-shell photoionization cross sections based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater(HFS) model and those deduced from the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock(DHF) model based total photoionization cross sections. The present measured XRP cross sections for 66Dy as well as for its compounds for the L2,3 and L4 X-rays, are found to be higher by ~14-36% than the two calculated set values. It is worth to be mentioned that L2,3 and L4 X-ray lines are originated by filling up of the L1 sub-shell vacancies by the outer sub-shell (N2,3 and O2,3) electrons which are much more sensitive to the chemical environment around the central atom. The present observed differences between measured and theoretical values are expected due to combined influence of the many-body effects and the chemical effects.

Keywords: Synchrotron Radiation, chemical effects, L X-ray production cross sections, Many body effects

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821 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

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820 Flow-Through Supercritical Installation for Producing Biodiesel Fuel

Authors: Y. A. Shapovalov, F. M. Gumerov, M. K. Nauryzbaev, S. V. Mazanov, R. A. Usmanov, A. V. Klinov, L. K. Safiullina, S. A. Soshin

Abstract:

A flow-through installation was created and manufactured for the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids and production of biodiesel fuel under supercritical fluid conditions. Transesterification of rapeseed oil with ethanol was carried out according to two parameters: temperature and the ratio of alcohol/oil mixture at the constant pressure of 19 MPa. The kinetics of the yield of fatty acids ethyl esters (FAEE) was determined in the temperature range of 320-380 °C at the alcohol/oil molar ratio of 6:1-20:1. The content of the formed fatty acid ethyl esters was determined by the method of correlation of the resulting biodiesel fuel by its kinematic viscosity. The maximum FAEE yield (about 90%) was obtained within 30 min at the ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and a temperature of 380 °C. When studying of transesterification of triglycerides, a kinetic model of an isothermal flow reactor was used. The reaction order implemented in the flow reactor has been determined. The first order of the reaction was confirmed by data on the conversion of FAEE during the reaction at different temperatures and the molar ratios of the initial reagents (ethanol/oil). Using the Arrhenius equation, the values of the effective constants of the transesterification reaction rate were calculated at different reaction temperatures. In addition, based on the experimental data, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the transesterification reaction were determined.

Keywords: Biodiesel, transesterification, fatty acid esters, supercritical fluid technology

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819 Nonlocal Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: HüSeyin ŞIrin, Kazim G. Atman

Abstract:

In theoretical physics, nonlocal phenomena has always been subject of debate. However, in the conventional mathematical approach where the developments of the physical systems are investigated by using the standard mathematical tools, nonlocal effects are not taken into account. In order to investigate the nonlocality in quantum mechanics and fractal property of space, fractional derivative operators are employed in this study. In this manner, fractional creation and annihilation operators are introduced and Einstein coefficients are taken into account as an application of concomitant formalism in quantum field theory. Therefore, each energy mode of photons are considered as fractional quantized harmonic oscillator hereby Einstein coefficients are obtained. Nevertheless, wave function and energy eigenvalues of fractional quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator are obtained via the fractional derivative order α which is a measure of the influence of nonlocal effects. In the case α = 1, where space becomes homogeneous and continuous, standard physical conclusions are recovered.

Keywords: Fractional Calculus, Einstein’s Coefficients, Fractional Quantum Mechanics, Nonlocal Theories

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818 Four-Electron Auger Process for Hollow Ions

Authors: Michael S. Pindzola, Shahin A. Abdel-Naby, James P. Colgan

Abstract:

A time-dependent close-coupling method is developed to calculate a total, double and triple autoionization rates for hollow atomic ions of four-electron systems. This work was motivated by recent observations of the four-electron Auger process in near K-edge photoionization of C+ ions. The time-dependent close-coupled equations are solved using lattice techniques to obtain a discrete representation of radial wave functions and all operators on a four-dimensional grid with uniform spacing. Initial excited states are obtained by relaxation of the Schrodinger equation in imaginary time using a Schmidt orthogonalization method involving interior subshells. The radial wave function grids are partitioned over the cores on a massively parallel computer, which is essential due to the large memory requirements needed to store the coupled-wave functions and the long run times needed to reach the convergence of the ionization process. Total, double, and triple autoionization rates are obtained by the propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations in real-time using integration over bound and continuum single-particle states. These states are generated by matrix diagonalization of one-electron Hamiltonians. The total autoionization rates for each L excited state is found to be slightly above the single autoionization rate for the excited configuration using configuration-average distorted-wave theory. As expected, we find the double and triple autoionization rates to be much smaller than the total autoionization rates. Future work can be extended to study electron-impact triple ionization of atoms or ions. The work was supported in part by grants from the American University of Sharjah and the US Department of Energy. Computational work was carried out at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) in Berkeley, California, USA.

Keywords: hollow atoms, autoionization, auger rates, time-dependent close-coupling method

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817 Electron-Ion Recombination of N^{2+} and O^{3+} Ions

Authors: Shahin A. Abdel-Naby, Asad T. Hassan, Stuart Loch, Michael Fogle, Negil R. Badnell, Michael S. Pindzola

Abstract:

Accurate and reliable laboratory astrophysical data for electron-ion recombination are needed for plasma modeling. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients are calculated for boron-like nitrogen and oxygen ions using state-of-the-art multi-configuration Breit-Pauli atomic structure AUTOSTRUCTURE collisional package within the generalized collisional-radiative framework. The calculations are performed in intermediate coupling scheme associated with n = 0 (2  2) and n = 1 (2  3) core-excitations. Good agreements are found between the theoretically convoluted rate coefficients and the experimental measurements performed at CRYRING heavy-ion storage ring for both ions. Fitting coefficients for the rate coefficients are produced for these ions in the temperature range q2(102-107) K, where q is the ion charge before recombination.

Keywords: plasma, Atomic Processes, Atomic Data, electron-ion collision

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