Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 781

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Physical and Mathematical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

781 Opto-Thermal Frequency Modulation of Phase Change Micro-electro-mechanical systems

Authors: Syed A. Bukhari, Ankur Goswmai, Dale Hume, Thomas Thundat


Here we demonstrate mechanical detection of photo-induced Insulator to metal transition (MIT) in ultra-thin vanadium dioxide (VO₂) micro strings by using < 100 µW of optical power. Highly focused laser beam heated the string locally resulting in through plane and along axial heat diffusion. Localized temperature increase can cause temperature rise > 60 ºC. The heated region of VO₂ can transform from insulating (monoclinic) to conducting (rutile) phase leading to lattice compressions and stiffness increase in the resonator. The mechanical frequency of the resonator can be tuned by changing optical power and wavelength. The first mode resonance frequency was tuned in three different ways. A decrease in frequency below a critical optical power, a large increase between 50-120 µW followed by a large decrease in frequency for optical powers greater than 120 µW. The dynamic mechanical response was studied as a function of incident optical power and gas pressure. The resonance frequency and amplitude of vibration were found to be decreased with increasing laser power from 25-38 µW and increased by1-2 % when the laser power was further increased to 52 µW. The transition in films was induced and detected by a single pump and probe source and by employing external optical sources of different wavelengths. This trend in dynamic parameters of the strings can be co-related with reversible Insulator to metal transition in VO₂ films which creates change in density of the material and hence the overall stiffness of the strings leading to changes in string dynamics. The increase in frequency at a particular optical power manifests a transition to a more ordered metallic phase which tensile stress onto the string. The decrease in frequency at higher optical powers can be correlated with poor phonon thermal conductivity of VO₂ in conducting phase. Poor thermal conductivity of VO₂ can force in-plane penetration of heat causing the underneath SiN supporting VO₂ which can result as a decrease in resonance frequency. This noninvasive, non-contact laser-based excitation and detection of Insulator to metal transition using micro strings resonators at room temperature and with laser power in few µWs is important for low power electronics, and optical switching applications.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, vanadium dioxide, MEMS, frequency tuning

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780 Controlling Excitons Complexes in Two Dimensional MoS₂ Monolayers

Authors: Arslan Usman, Abdul Sattar, Hamid Latif, Afshan Ashfaq, Muhammad Rafique, Martin Koch


Two-dimensional materials have promising applications in optoelectronic and photonics; MoS₂ is the pioneer 2D material in the family of transition metal dichalcogenides. Its optical, optoelectronic, and structural properties are of practical importance along with its exciton dynamics. Exciton, along with exciton complexes, plays a vital role in realizing quantum devices. MoS₂ monolayers were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique on SiO₂ and hBN substrates. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) was used to identify the monolayer, which also reflects the substrate based peak broadening due to screening effects. In-plane and out of plane characteristic vibrational modes E¹₂g and A₁g, respectively, were detected in a different configuration on the substrate. The B-excitons and trions showed a dominant feature at low temperatures due to electron-phonon coupling effects, whereas their energies are separated by 100 meV.

Keywords: 2D materials, photoluminescence, AFM, excitons

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779 Using Stable Isotopes and Hydrochemical Characteristics to Assess Stream Water Sources and Flow Paths: A Case Study of the Jonkershoek Catchment, South Africa

Authors: Retang A. Mokua, Julia Glenday, Jacobus M. Nel


Understanding hydrological processes in mountain headwater catchments, such as the Jonkershoek Valley, is crucial for improving the predictive capability of hydrologic modeling in the Cape Fold Mountain region of South Africa, incorporating the influence of the Table Mountain Group fractured rock aquifers. Determining the contributions of various possible surface and subsurface flow pathways in such catchments has been a challenge due to the complex nature of the fractured rock geology, low ionic concentrations, high rainfall, and streamflow variability. The study aimed to describe the mechanisms of streamflow generation during two seasons (dry and wet). In this study, stable isotopes of water (18O and 2H), hydrochemical tracer electrical conductivity (EC), hydrometric data were used to assess the spatial and temporal variation in flow pathways and geographic sources of stream water. Stream water, groundwater, two shallow piezometers, and spring samples were routinely sampled at two adjacent headwater sub-catchments and analyzed for isotopic ratios during baseflow conditions between January 2018 and January 2019. From these results, no significance (p > 0.05) in seasonal variations in isotopic ratios were observed, the stream isotope signatures were consistent throughout the study period. However, significant seasonal and spatial variations in the EC were evident (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that, in the dry season, baseflow generation mechanisms driven by groundwater and interflow as discharge from perennial springs in these catchments are the primary contributors. The wet season flows were attributed to interflow and perennial and ephemeral springs. Furthermore, the observed seasonal variations in EC were indicative of a greater proportion of sub-surface water inputs. With these results, a conceptual model of streamflow generation processes for the two seasons was constructed.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, Jonkershoek valley, stable isotopes, table mountain group

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778 Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution

Authors: Adham Al-Sayyad, Prashant Lama, Julien Bardon, Pierre Hirchenhahn, Laurent Houssiau, Peter Plapper


Composite metal-polymer materials, in particular, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts an infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate the effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross-sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, the spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.

Keywords: laser welding, metals to polymers joining, process monitoring, temperature profile, thermography

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777 Investigating the Form of the Generalised Equations of Motion of the N-Bob Pendulum and Computing Their Solution Using MATLAB

Authors: Divij Gupta


Pendular systems have a range of both mathematical and engineering applications, ranging from modelling the behaviour of a continuous mass-density rope to utilisation as Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD). Thus, it is of interest to study the differential equations governing the motion of such systems. Here we attempt to generalise these equations of motion for the plane compound pendulum with a finite number of N point masses. A Lagrangian approach is taken, and we attempt to find the generalised form for the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion for the i-th bob of the N -bob pendulum. The co-ordinates are parameterized as angular quantities to reduce the number of degrees of freedom from 2N to N to simplify the form of the equations. We analyse the form of these equations up to N = 4 to determine the general form of the equation. We also develop a MATLAB program to compute a solution to the system for a given input value of N and a given set of initial conditions.

Keywords: classical mechanics, differential equation, lagrangian analysis, pendulum

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776 Deep Neural Networks for Restoration of Sky Images Affected by Static and Anisotropic Aberrations

Authors: Constanza A. Barriga, Rafael Bernardi, Amokrane Berdja, Christian D. Guzman


Most image restoration methods in astronomy rely upon probabilistic tools that infer the best solution for a deconvolution problem. They achieve good performances when the point spread function (PSF) is spatially invariable in the image plane. However, this latter condition is not always satisfied with real optical systems. PSF angular variations cannot be evaluated directly from the observations, neither be corrected at a pixel resolution. We have developed a method for the restoration of images affected by static and anisotropic aberrations using deep neural networks that can be directly applied to sky images. The network is trained using simulated sky images corresponding to the T-80 telescope optical system, an 80 cm survey imager at Cerro Tololo (Chile), which are synthesized using a Zernike polynomial representation of the optical system. Once trained, the network can be used directly on sky images, outputting a corrected version of the image, which has a constant and known PSF across its field-of-view. The method was tested with the T-80 telescope, achieving better results than with PSF deconvolution techniques. We present the method and results on this telescope.

Keywords: aberrations, deep neural networks, image restoration, variable point spread function, wide field images

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775 Coarse-Graining in Micromagnetic Simulations of Magnetic Hyperthermia

Authors: Razyeh Behbahani, Martin L. Plumer, Ivan Saika-Voivod


Micromagnetic simulations based on the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation are used to calculate dynamic magnetic hysteresis loops relevant to magnetic hyperthermia applications. With the goal to effectively simulate room-temperature loops for large iron-oxide based systems at relatively slow sweep rates on the order of 1 Oe/ns or less, a coarse-graining scheme is proposed and tested. The scheme is derived from a previously developed renormalization-group approach. Loops associated with nanorods, used as building blocks for larger nanoparticles that were employed in preclinical trials (Dennis et al., 2009 Nanotechnology 20 395103), serve as the model test system. The scaling algorithm is shown to produce nearly identical loops over several decades in the model grain sizes. Sweep-rate scaling involving the damping constant alpha is also demonstrated.

Keywords: coarse-graining, hyperthermia, hysteresis loops, micromagnetic simulations

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774 Induced Chemistry for Dissociative Electron Attachment to Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition Precursors Based on Ti, Si and Fe Metal Elements

Authors: Maria Pintea, Nigel Mason


Induced chemistry is one of the newest pathways in the nanotechnology field with applications in the focused electron beam induced processes for deposition of nm scale structures. Si(OPr)₄ and Ti(OEt)₄ are two of the precursors that have not been so extensively researched, though highly sought for semiconductor and medical applications fields, the two compounds make good candidates for FEBIP and are the subject of velocity slice map imaging analysis for deposition purposes, offering information on kinetic energies, fragmentation channels, and angular distributions. The velocity slice map imaging technique is a method used for the characterization of molecular dynamics of the molecule and the fragmentation channels as a result of induced chemistry. To support the gas-phase analysis, Meso-Bio-Nano simulations of irradiation dynamics studies are employed with final results on Fe(CO)₅ deposited on various substrates. The software is capable of running large scale simulations for complex biomolecular, nano- and mesoscopic systems with applications to thermos-mechanical DNA damage, complex materials, gases, nanoparticles for cancer research and deposition applications for nanotechnology, using a large library of classical potentials, many-body force fields, molecular force fields involved in the classical molecular dynamics.

Keywords: focused electron beam induced deposition, FEBID, induced chemistry, molecular dynamics, velocity map slice imaging

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773 Retail Strategy to Reduce Waste Keeping High Profit Utilizing Taylor's Law in Point-of-Sales Data

Authors: Gen Sakoda, Hideki Takayasu, Misako Takayasu


Waste reduction is a fundamental problem for sustainability. Methods for waste reduction with point-of-sales (POS) data are proposed, utilizing the knowledge of a recent econophysics study on a statistical property of POS data. Concretely, the non-stationary time series analysis method based on the Particle Filter is developed, which considers abnormal fluctuation scaling known as Taylor's law. This method is extended for handling incomplete sales data because of stock-outs by introducing maximum likelihood estimation for censored data. The way for optimal stock determination with pricing the cost of waste reduction is also proposed. This study focuses on the examination of the methods for large sales numbers where Taylor's law is obvious. Numerical analysis using aggregated POS data shows the effectiveness of the methods to reduce food waste maintaining a high profit for large sales numbers. Moreover, the way of pricing the cost of waste reduction reveals that a small profit loss realizes substantial waste reduction, especially in the case that the proportionality constant  of Taylor’s law is small. Specifically, around 1% profit loss realizes half disposal at =0.12, which is the actual  value of processed food items used in this research. The methods provide practical and effective solutions for waste reduction keeping a high profit, especially with large sales numbers.

Keywords: food waste reduction, particle filter, point-of-sales, sustainable development goals, Taylor's law, time series analysis

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772 An Algorithm to Find Fractional Edge Domination Number and Upper Fractional Edge Domination Number of an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graph

Authors: Karunambigai Mevani Govindasamy, Sathishkumar Ayyappan


In this paper, we formulate the algorithm to find out the dominating function parameters of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graphs(IFG). The methodology we adopted here is converting any physical problem into an IFG, and that has been transformed into Intuitionistic Fuzzy Matrix. Using Linear Program Solver software (LiPS), we found the defined parameters for the given IFG. We obtained these parameters for a path and cycle IFG. This study can be extended to other varieties of IFG. In particular, we obtain the definition of edge dominating function, minimal edge dominating function, fractional edge domination number (γ_if^') and upper fractional edge domination number (Γ_if^') of an intuitionistic fuzzy graph. Also, we formulated an algorithm which is appropriate to work on LiPS to find fractional edge domination number and upper fractional edge domination number of an IFG.

Keywords: fractional edge domination number, intuitionistic fuzzy cycle, intuitionistic fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy path

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771 Comparing the Motion of Solar System with Water Droplet Motion to Predict the Future of Solar System

Authors: Areena Bhatti


The geometric arrangement of planet and moon is the result of a self-organizing system. In our solar system, the planets and moons are constantly orbiting around the sun. The aim of this theory is to compare the motion of a solar system with the motion of water droplet when poured into a water body. The basic methodology is to compare both motions to know how they are related to each other. The difference between both systems will be that one is extremely fast, and the other is extremely slow. The role of this theory is that by looking at the fast system we can conclude how slow the system will get to an end. Just like ripples are formed around water droplet that move away from the droplet and water droplet forming those ripples become small in size will tell us how solar system will behave in the same way. So it is concluded that large and small systems can work under the same process but with different motions of time, and motion of the solar system is the slowest form of water droplet motion.

Keywords: motion, water, sun, time

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770 Effective Interactions between Spin and Charge Degrees of Freedom in Doped Correlated Antiferromagnetic Systems

Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury


The strongly correlated antiferromagnetic insulators, exhibiting high-temperature superconductivity, have been at the peak of interest for the theoreticians and experimentalists since the last few decades. The superconducting properties have been vastly studied; however, the interactions between the spin and the charge degrees of freedom in the doped itinerant phases still remains a challenging problem in the field of theoretical Condensed Matter Physics. In this backdrop, we have used a quantum mechanical, non-perturbative approach for determining the interactions between the spin and charge degrees of freedom in terms of generalized spin stiffness (spin symmetric) and charge stiffness (spin asymmetric) constants corresponding to the t-J-like models in low dimension. Our derived spin stiffness in 2D and 1D are compared with the experimental results on the layers of La₂-ₓSrₓCuO₄ and chains of YBa₂Cu₃O₆₊ₓ respectively. The experimentally extracted effective exchange constant (Jeff) shows a strong similarity with the results of our generalized spin stiffness constant in both dimensions. Thus it is established that generalized spin stiffness constant can play the role of effective exchange constants. Most interestingly, in 1D, we have predicted the tendency of the spin degrees of freedom to form a ferromagnetic-like coupling after the decay of the original semi-localized antiferromagnetic one. On the other hand, we have derived the charge stiffness constant separately in the under-doped strongly correlated regime and over-doped weakly correlated regime. We have compared our results in the under-doped regime with the experimentally extracted effective Coulomb interaction from the layers ofLa₂₋ₓSrₓCuO₄. Similar to the spin stiffness case, this comparison establishes the equivalence of spin symmetric stiffness with the effective Coulomb interaction in the doped antiferromagnetic systems. In the higher doping region, we have compared the results obtained from three different theoretical approaches i.e., (i) t-J model, allowing double occupancies in the system, (ii) t₁-t₂-t₃-J model, both allowing and disallowing double occupancies and (iii) dielectric function approach for high density electron gas and interacting band electrons. Moreover, we have drawn a phase diagram, showing regions of distinct effective Coulomb interactions. The region of very high charge couplings represents the tendency of the charge degrees of freedom to form possible charge density wave ordering in the optimal doping regime, consistent with other experimental and theoretical results. In addition to it, we could see the fall in effective Coulomb interaction in certain regions of doping concentration, but we could not find any region of attractive interaction. Hence, it has been proved that the t-J-like models alone can not produce Cooper-like momentum space pairing without any other external pair producing mechanism. This negates the idea promoted by many theoreticians so far.

Keywords: momentum space pairing, spin and charge couplings, stiffness constant, t-J-like models

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769 Detailed Quantum Circuit Design and Evaluation of Grover's Algorithm for the Bounded Degree Traveling Salesman Problem Using the Q# Language

Authors: Wenjun Hou, Marek Perkowski


The Traveling Salesman problem is famous in computing and graph theory. In short, it asks for the Hamiltonian cycle of the least total weight in a given graph with N nodes. All variations on this problem, such as those with K-bounded-degree nodes, are classified as NP-complete in classical computing. Although several papers propose theoretical high-level designs of quantum algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem, no quantum circuit implementation of these algorithms has been created up to our best knowledge. In contrast to previous papers, the goal of this paper is not to optimize some abstract complexity measures based on the number of oracle iterations, but to be able to evaluate the real circuit and time costs of the quantum computer. Using the emerging quantum programming language Q# developed by Microsoft, which runs quantum circuits in a quantum computer simulation, an implementation of the bounded-degree problem and its respective quantum circuit were created. To apply Grover’s algorithm to this problem, a quantum oracle was designed, evaluating the cost of a particular set of edges in the graph as well as its validity as a Hamiltonian cycle. Repeating the Grover algorithm with an oracle that finds successively lower cost each time allows to transform the decision problem to an optimization problem, finding the minimum cost of Hamiltonian cycles. N log₂ K qubits are put into an equiprobablistic superposition by applying the Hadamard gate on each qubit. Within these N log₂ K qubits, the method uses an encoding in which every node is mapped to a set of its encoded edges. The oracle consists of several blocks of circuits: a custom-written edge weight adder, node index calculator, uniqueness checker, and comparator, which were all created using only quantum Toffoli gates, including its special forms, which are Feynman and Pauli X. The oracle begins by using the edge encodings specified by the qubits to calculate each node that this path visits and adding up the edge weights along the way. Next, the oracle uses the calculated nodes from the previous step and check that all the nodes are unique. Finally, the oracle checks that the calculated cost is less than the previously-calculated cost. By performing the oracle an optimal number of times, a correct answer can be generated with very high probability. The oracle of the Grover Algorithm is modified using the recalculated minimum cost value, and this procedure is repeated until the cost cannot be further reduced. This algorithm and circuit design have been verified, using several datasets, to generate correct outputs.

Keywords: quantum computing, quantum circuit optimization, quantum algorithms, hybrid quantum algorithms, quantum programming, Grover’s algorithm, traveling salesman problem, bounded-degree TSP, minimal cost, Q# language

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768 Unstructured Learning: Development of Free Form Construction in Waldorf and Normative Preschools

Authors: Salam Kodsi


In this research, we sought to focus on constructive play and examine its components in the context of two different educational approaches: Waldorf and normative schools. When they are free to choose, construction is one of the forms of play most favored by children. Its short-term and long-term cognitive contributions are apparent in various areas of development. The lack of empirical studies about play in Waldorf schools, which addresses the possibility of this incidental learning inspired the need to enrich the body of existing knowledge. 90 children (4-6 yrs.old) four preschools ( two normative, two Waldorf) participated in a small homogeneous city. Naturalistic observations documented the time frame, physical space, and construction materials related to the freeform building; processes of construction among focal representative children and its products. The study’s main finding with respect to the construction output points to a connection between educational approach and level of construction sophistication. Higher levels of sophistication were found at the Waldorf preschools than at the mainstream preschools. This finding emerged due to the differences in the level of sophistication among the older children in the two types of preschools, while practically no differences emerged among the younger children. Discussion of the research findings considered the differences between the play environments in terms of time, physical space, and construction materials. The construction processes were characterized according to the design model stages. The construction output was characterized according to the sophistication scale dimensions and the connections between approach, age and gender, and sophistication level.

Keywords: constructive play, preschool, design process model, complexity

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767 Econophysical Approach on Predictability of Financial Crisis: The 2001 Crisis of Turkey and Argentina Case

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli, Tolga Ulusoy


Technological developments and the resulting global communication have made the 21st century when large capitals are moved from one end to the other via a button. As a result, the flow of capital inflows has accelerated, and capital inflow has brought with it crisis-related infectiousness. Considering the irrational human behavior, the financial crisis in the world under the influence of the whole world has turned into the basic problem of the countries and increased the interest of the researchers in the reasons of the crisis and the period in which they lived. Therefore, the complex nature of the financial crises and its linearly unexplained structure have also been included in the new discipline, econophysics. As it is known, although financial crises have prediction mechanisms, there is no definite information. In this context, in this study, using the concept of electric field from the electrostatic part of physics, an early econophysical approach for global financial crises was studied. The aim is to define a model that can take place before the financial crises, identify financial fragility at an earlier stage and help public and private sector members, policy makers and economists with an econophysical approach. 2001 Turkey crisis has been assessed with data from Turkish Central Bank which is covered between 1992 to 2007, and for 2001 Argentina crisis, data was taken from IMF and the Central Bank of Argentina from 1997 to 2007. As an econophysical method, an analogy is used between the Gauss's law used in the calculation of the electric field and the forecasting of the financial crisis. The concept of Φ (Financial Flux) has been adopted for the pre-warning of the crisis by taking advantage of this analogy, which is based on currency movements and money mobility. For the first time used in this study Φ (Financial Flux) calculations obtained by the formula were analyzed by Matlab software, and in this context, in 2001 Turkey and Argentina Crisis for Φ (Financial Flux) crisis of values has been confirmed to give pre-warning.

Keywords: econophysics, financial crisis, Gauss's Law, physics

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766 Iron Yoke Dipole with High Quality Field for Collector Ring FAIR

Authors: Tatyana Rybitskaya, Alexandr Starostenko, Kseniya Ryabchenko


Collector ring (CR) of FAIR project is a large acceptance storage ring and field quality plays a major role in the magnet design. The CR will use normal conducting dipole magnets. There will be 24 H-type sector magnets with a maximum field value of 1.6 T. The integrated over the length of the magnet field quality as a function of radius is ∆B.l/B.l = ±1x10⁻⁴. Below 1.6 T the value ∆B.l/B.l can be higher with a linear approximation up to ±2.5x10⁻⁴ at the field level of 0.8 T. An iron-dominated magnet with required field quality is produced with standard technology as the quality is dominated by the yoke geometry.

Keywords: conventional magnet, iron yoke dipole, harmonic terms, particle accelerators

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765 Studying the Evolution of Soot and Precursors in Turbulent Flames Using Laser Diagnostics

Authors: Muhammad A. Ashraf, Scott Steinmetz, Matthew J. Dunn, Assaad R. Masri


This study focuses on the evolution of soot and soot precursors in three different piloted diffusion turbulent flames. The fuel composition is as follow flame A (ethylene/nitrogen, 2:3 by volume), flame B (ethylene/air, 2:3 by volume), and flame C (pure methane). These flames are stabilized using a 4mm diameter jet surrounded by a pilot annulus with an outer diameter of 15 mm. The pilot issues combustion products from stoichiometric premixed flames of hydrogen, acetylene, and air. In all cases, the jet Reynolds number is 10,000, and air flows in the coflow stream at a velocity of 5 m/s. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is collected at two wavelength bands in the visible (445 nm) and UV regions (266 nm) along with laser-induced incandescence (LII). The combined results are employed to study concentration, size, and growth of soot and precursors. A set of four fast photo-multiplier tubes are used to record emission data in temporal domain. A 266nm laser pulse preferentially excites smaller nanoparticles which emit a fluorescence spectrum which is analysed to track the presence, evolution, and destruction of nanoparticles. A 1064nm laser pulse excites sufficiently large soot particles, and the resulting incandescence is collected at 1064nm. At downstream and outer radial locations, intermittency becomes a relevant factor. Therefore, data collected in turbulent flames is conditioned to account for intermittency so that the resulting mean profiles for scattering, fluorescence, and incandescence are shown for the events that contain traces of soot. It is found that in the upstream regions of the ethylene-air and ethylene-nitrogen flames, the presence of soot precursors is rather similar. However, further downstream, soot concentration grows larger in the ethylene-air flames.

Keywords: laser induced incandescence, laser induced fluorescence, soot, nanoparticles

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764 Creation of GaₓCo₁₋ₓZnSe₀.₄ (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) Nanoparticles Using the Method of Pulse Laser Ablation

Authors: Yong Pan, Li Wang, Xue Qiong Su, Dong Wen Gao


To date, nanomaterials have received extensive attention over the years because of their wide application. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowire, nanoring, nanostars, and other nanostructure have begun to be systematically studied. The preparation of these materials by chemical methods is not only costly but also has a long cycle and high toxicity. At the same time, preparation of nanoparticles of multi-doped composites has been limited due to the special structure of the materials. In order to prepare multi-doped composites with the same structure as macro-materials and simplify the preparation method, the GaₓCo₁₋ₓZnSe₀.₄ (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles are prepared by Pulse Laser Ablation (PLA) method. The particle component and structure are systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra, which show that the success of our preparation and the same concentration between NPs and target. Morphology of the nanoparticles characterized by TEM, indicating the circular-shaped particles in preparation. Fluorescence properties are reflected by PL spectra, which demonstrates the best performance in the concentration of Ga₀.₃Co₀.₃ZnSe₀.₄. Therefore, all the results suggest that PLA is promising to prepare the multi-nanoparticles since it can modulate the performance of NPs.

Keywords: PLA, physics, nanoparticles, multi-doped

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763 Simscape Library for Large-Signal Physical Network Modeling of Inertial Microelectromechanical Devices

Authors: S. Srinivasan, E. Cretu


The information flow (e.g. block-diagram or signal flow graph) paradigm for the design and simulation of Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based systems allows to model MEMS devices using causal transfer functions easily, and interface them with electronic subsystems for fast system-level explorations of design alternatives and optimization. Nevertheless, the physical bi-directional coupling between different energy domains is not easily captured in causal signal flow modeling. Moreover, models of fundamental components acting as building blocks (e.g. gap-varying MEMS capacitor structures) depend not only on the component, but also on the specific excitation mode (e.g. voltage or charge-actuation). In contrast, the energy flow modeling paradigm in terms of generalized across-through variables offers an acausal perspective, separating clearly the physical model from the boundary conditions. This promotes reusability and the use of primitive physical models for assembling MEMS devices from primitive structures, based on the interconnection topology in generalized circuits. The physical modeling capabilities of Simscape have been used in the present work in order to develop a MEMS library containing parameterized fundamental building blocks (area and gap-varying MEMS capacitors, nonlinear springs, displacement stoppers, etc.) for the design, simulation and optimization of MEMS inertial sensors. The models capture both the nonlinear electromechanical interactions and geometrical nonlinearities and can be used for both small and large signal analyses, including the numerical computation of pull-in voltages (stability loss). Simscape behavioral modeling language was used for the implementation of reduced-order macro models, that present the advantage of a seamless interface with Simulink blocks, for creating hybrid information/energy flow system models. Test bench simulations of the library models compare favorably with both analytical results and with more in-depth finite element simulations performed in ANSYS. Separate MEMS-electronic integration tests were done on closed-loop MEMS accelerometers, where Simscape was used for modeling the MEMS device and Simulink for the electronic subsystem.

Keywords: across-through variables, electromechanical coupling, energy flow, information flow, Matlab/Simulink, MEMS, nonlinear, pull-in instability, reduced order macro models, Simscape

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762 DNA-Polycation Condensation by Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Titus A. Beu


Many modern gene-delivery protocols rely on condensed complexes of DNA with polycations to introduce the genetic payload into cells by endocytosis. In particular, polyethyleneimine (PEI) stands out by a high buffering capacity (enabling the efficient condensation of DNA) and relatively simple fabrication. Realistic computational studies can offer essential insights into the formation process of DNA-PEI polyplexes, providing hints on efficient designs and engineering routes. We present comprehensive computational investigations of solvated PEI and DNA-PEI polyplexes involving calculations at three levels: ab initio, all-atom (AA), and coarse-grained (CG) molecular mechanics. In the first stage, we developed a rigorous AA CHARMM (Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics) force field (FF) for PEI on the basis of accurate ab initio calculations on protonated model pentamers. We validated this atomistic FF by matching the results of extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of structural and dynamical properties of PEI with experimental data. In a second stage, we developed a CG MARTINI FF for PEI by Boltzmann inversion techniques from bead-based probability distributions obtained from AA simulations and ensuring an optimal match between the AA and CG structural and dynamical properties. In a third stage, we combined the developed CG FF for PEI with the standard MARTINI FF for DNA and performed comprehensive CG simulations of DNA-PEI complex formation and condensation. Various technical aspects which are crucial for the realistic modeling of DNA-PEI polyplexes, such as options of treating electrostatics and the relevance of polarizable water models, are discussed in detail. Massive CG simulations (with up to 500 000 beads) shed light on the mechanism and provide time scales for DNA polyplex formation independence of PEI chain size and protonation pattern. The DNA-PEI condensation mechanism is shown to primarily rely on the formation of DNA bundles, rather than by changes of the DNA-strand curvature. The gained insights are expected to be of significant help for designing effective gene-delivery applications.

Keywords: DNA condensation, gene-delivery, polyethylene-imine, molecular dynamics.

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761 Effect of Threshold Corrections on Proton Lifetime and Emergence of Topological Defects in Grand Unified Theories

Authors: Rinku Maji, Joydeep Chakrabortty, Stephen F. King


The grand unified theory (GUT) rationales the arbitrariness of the standard model (SM) and explains many enigmas of nature at the outset of a single gauge group. The GUTs predict the proton decay and, the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of the higher symmetry group may lead to the formation of topological defects, which are indispensable in the context of the cosmological observations. The Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) experiment sets sacrosanct bounds on the partial lifetime (τ) of the proton decay for different channels, e.g., τ(p → e+ π0) > 1.6×10³⁴ years which is the most relevant channel to test the viability of the nonsupersymmetric GUTs. The GUTs based on the gauge groups SO(10) and E(6) are broken to the SM spontaneously through one and two intermediate gauge symmetries with the manifestation of the left-right symmetry at least at a single intermediate stage and the proton lifetime for these breaking chains has been computed. The impact of the threshold corrections, as a consequence of integrating out the heavy fields at the breaking scale alter the running of the gauge couplings, which eventually, are found to keep many GUTs off the Super-K bound. The possible topological defects arising in the course of SSB at different breaking scales for all breaking chains have been studied.

Keywords: grand unified theories, proton decay, threshold correction, topological defects

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760 Nondecoupling Signatures of Supersymmetry and an Lμ-Lτ Gauge Boson at Belle-II

Authors: Heerak Banerjee, Sourov Roy


Supersymmetry, one of the most celebrated fields of study for explaining experimental observations where the standard model (SM) falls short, is reeling from the lack of experimental vindication. At the same time, the idea of additional gauge symmetry, in particular, the gauged Lμ-Lτ symmetric models have also generated significant interest. They have been extensively proposed in order to explain the tantalizing discrepancy in the predicted and measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment alongside several other issues plaguing the SM. While very little parameter space within these models remain unconstrained, this work finds that the γ + Missing Energy (ME) signal at the Belle-II detector will be a smoking gun for supersymmetry (SUSY) in the presence of a gauged U(1)Lμ-Lτ symmetry. A remarkable consequence of breaking the enhanced symmetry appearing in the limit of degenerate (s)leptons is the nondecoupling of the radiative contribution of heavy charged sleptons to the γ-Z΄ kinetic mixing. The signal process, e⁺e⁻ →γZ΄→γ+ME, is an outcome of this ubiquitous feature. Taking the severe constraints on gauged Lμ-Lτ models by several low energy observables into account, it is shown that any significant excess in all but the highest photon energy bin would be an undeniable signature of such heavy scalar fields in SUSY coupling to the additional gauge boson Z΄. The number of signal events depends crucially on the logarithm of the ratio of stau to smuon mass in the presence of SUSY. In addition, the number is also inversely proportional to the e⁺e⁻ collision energy, making a low-energy, high-luminosity collider like Belle-II an ideal testing ground for this channel. This process can probe large swathes of the hitherto free slepton mass ratio vs. additional gauge coupling (gₓ) parameter space. More importantly, it can explore the narrow slice of Z΄ mass (MZ΄) vs. gₓ parameter space still allowed in gauged U(1)Lμ-Lτ models for superheavy sparticles. The spectacular finding that the signal significance is independent of individual slepton masses is an exciting prospect indeed. Further, the prospect that signatures of even superheavy SUSY particles that may have escaped detection at the LHC may show up at the Belle-II detector is an invigorating revelation.

Keywords: additional gauge symmetry, electron-positron collider, kinetic mixing, nondecoupling radiative effect, supersymmetry

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759 Resistive Instability in a Multi Ions Hall Thrusters Plasma

Authors: Sukhmander Singh


Hall thrusters are preferred over chemical thrusters because of its high exhaust velocity (around 10 times higher) and high specific impulse. The propellant Xenon is ionized inside the channel and controlled by the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is such that only electrons get magnetized and ions remain unmagnetized because of larger Larmor radius as compared with the length of the channel of the device. There is quite a possibility of the existence of multi ions in a Hall thruster plasma because of dust contribution or another process which take place in the chamber. In this paper, we have derived the dispersion relation for multi ions resistive instability in a hall plasma. The analytical approach is also used to find out the propagating speed and the growth rate of the instability. In addition, some growing waves are also found to exist in the plasma. The dispersion relation is solved numerically to see the behavior of the instability with the plasma parameters viz, the temperature of plasma species, wave number, drift velocity, collision frequency, magnetic field.

Keywords: instability, resisitive, thrusters, waves

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758 Studying the Spatial Variations of Stable Isotopes (18O and 2H) in Precipitation and Groundwater Resources in Zagros Region

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad


Zagros mountain range is a very important precipitation zone in Iran as it receives high average annual precipitation compared to other parts of this country. Although this region is important precipitation zone in semi-arid an arid country like Iran, accurate method to study water resources in this region has not been applied yet. In this study, stable isotope δ18O content of precipitation and groundwater resources showed spatial variations across Zagros region as southern parts of Zagros region showed more enriched isotope values compared to the northern parts. This is normal as southern Zagros region is much drier with higher air temperature and evaporation compared to northern parts. In addition, the spatial variations of stable isotope δ18O in precipitation in Zagros region have been simulated by the models which consider the altitude and latitude variations as input to simulate δ18O in precipitation.

Keywords: groundwater, precipitation, simulation, stable isotopes, Zagros region

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757 Design and Analysis of Shielding Magnetic Field for Active Space Radiation Protection

Authors: Chaoyan Huang, Hongxia Zheng


For deep space exploration and long duration interplanetary manned missions, protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem. However, passive shielding can be little effective for protecting particles which energies are greater than 1GeV/nucleon. In this study, active magnetic protection method is adopted. Taking into account the structure and size of the end-cap, eight shielding magnetic field configurations are designed based on the Hoffman configuration. The shielding effect of shielding magnetic field structure, intensity B and thickness L on H particles with 2GeV energy is compared by test particle simulation. The result shows that the shielding effect is better with the linear type magnetic field structure in the end-cap region. Furthermore, two magnetic field configurations with better shielding effect are investigated through H and He galactic cosmic spectra. And the shielding effect of the linear type configuration adopted in the barrel and end-cap regions is best.

Keywords: galactic cosmic rays, active protection, shielding magnetic field configuration, shielding effect

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756 Analytic Solutions of Solitary Waves in Three-Level Unbalanced Dense Media

Authors: Sofiane Grira, Hichem Eleuch


We explore the analytical soliton-pair solutions for unbalanced coupling between the two coherent lights and the atomic transitions in a dissipative three-level system in lambda configuration. The two allowed atomic transitions are interacting resonantly with two laser fields. For unbalanced coupling, it is possible to derive an explicit solution for non-linear differential equations describing the soliton-pair propagation in this three-level system with the same velocity. We suppose that the spontaneous emission rates from the excited state to both ground states are the same. In this work, we focus on such case where we consider the coupling between the transitions and the optical fields are unbalanced. The existence conditions for the soliton-pair propagations are determined. We will show that there are four possible configurations of the soliton-pair pulses. Two of them can be interpreted as a couple of solitons with same directions of polarization and the other two as soliton-pair with opposite directions of polarization. Due to the fact that solitons have stable shapes while propagating in the considered media, they are insensitive to noise and dispersion. Our results have potential applications in data transfer with the soliton-pair pulses, where a dissipative three-level medium could be a realistic model for the optical communication media.

Keywords: non-linear differential equations, solitons, wave propagations, optical fiber

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755 Experimental Study on the Effect of Storage Conditions on Thermal Hazard of Nitrocellulose

Authors: Hua Chai, Qiangling Duan, Huiqi Cao, Mi Li, Jinhua Sun


Nitrocellulose (NC), a kind of energetic material, has been widely used in the industrial and military fields. However, this material can also cause serious social disasters due to storage conditions. Thermal hazard of nitrocellulose (NC) was experimentally investigated using the CALVET heat flux calorimeter C80, and three kinds of storage conditions were considered in the experiments: (1) drying time, (2) moisture content, (3) cycles. The results showed that the heat flow curves of NC moved to the low-temperature direction firstly and then slightly moved back by increasing the drying hours. Moisture that was responsible for the appearance of small exothermic peaks was proven to be the unfavorable safety factor yet it could increase the onset temperature of the main peak to some extent. And cycles could both lower the onset temperature and the maximum heat flow but enlarged the peak temperature. Besides, relevant kinetic parameters such as the heat of reaction (ΔH) and the activation energy (Ea) were obtained and compared. It was found that all the three conditions could reduce the values of Ea and most of them produced larger reaction heat. In addition, the critical explosion temperature (Tb) of the NC samples were derived. It was clear that not only the drying time but also the cycles would increase the thermal hazard of the NC. Yet, the right amount of water helped to reduce the thermal hazard.

Keywords: C80, nitrocellulose, storage conditions, the critical explosion temperature, thermal hazard

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754 An Association Model to Correlate the Experimentally Determined Mixture Solubilities of Methyl 10-Undecenoate with Methyl Ricinoleate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: V. Mani Rathnam, Giridhar Madras


Fossil fuels are depleting rapidly as the demand for energy, and its allied chemicals are continuously increasing in the modern world. Therefore, sustainable renewable energy sources based on non-edible oils are being explored as a viable option as they do not compete with the food commodities. Oils such as castor oil are rich in fatty acids and thus can be used for the synthesis of biodiesel, bio-lubricants, and many other fine industrial chemicals. There are several processes available for the synthesis of different chemicals obtained from the castor oil. One such process is the transesterification of castor oil, which results in a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters. The main products in the above reaction are methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. To separate these compounds, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) was used as a green solvent. SCCO₂ was chosen as a solvent due to its easy availability, non-toxic, non-flammable, and low cost. In order to design any separation process, the preliminary requirement is the solubility or phase equilibrium data. Therefore, the solubility of a mixture of methyl ricinoleate with methyl 10-undecenoate in SCCO₂ was determined in the present study. The temperature and pressure range selected for the investigation were T = 313 K to 333 K and P = 10 MPa to 18 MPa. It was observed that the solubility (mol·mol⁻¹) of methyl 10-undecenoate varied from 2.44 x 10⁻³ to 8.42 x 10⁻³ whereas it varied from 0.203 x 10⁻³ to 6.28 x 10⁻³ for methyl ricinoleate within the chosen operating conditions. These solubilities followed a retrograde behavior (characterized by the decrease in the solubility values with the increase in temperature) throughout the range of investigated operating conditions. An association theory model, coupled with regular solution theory for activity coefficients, was developed in the present study. The deviation from the experimental data using this model can be quantified using the average absolute relative deviation (AARD). The AARD% for the present compounds is 4.69 and 8.08 for methyl 10-undecenoate and methyl ricinoleate, respectively in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The maximum solubility enhancement of 32% was observed for the methyl ricinoleate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The highest selectivity of SCCO₂ was observed to be 12 for methyl 10-undecenoate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate.

Keywords: association theory, liquid mixtures, solubilities, supercritical carbon dioxide

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753 Occurrence of Half-Metallicity by Sb-Substitution in Non-Magnetic Fe₂TiSn

Authors: S. Chaudhuri, P. A. Bhobe


Fe₂TiSn is a non-magnetic full Heusler alloy with a small gap (~ 0.07 eV) at the Fermi level. The electronic structure is highly symmetric in both the spin bands and a small percentage of substitution of holes or electrons can push the system towards spin polarization. A stable 100% spin polarization or half-metallicity is very desirable in the field of spintronics, making Fe₂TiSn a highly attractive material. However, this composition suffers from an inherent anti-site disorder between Fe and Ti sites. This paper reports on the method adopted to control the anti-site disorder and the realization of the half-metallic ground state in Fe₂TiSn, achieved by chemical substitution. Here, Sb was substituted at Sn site to obtain Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ compositions with x = 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.6. All prepared compositions with x ≤ 0.6 exhibit long-range L2₁ ordering and a decrease in Fe – Ti anti-site disorder. The transport and magnetic properties of Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ compositions were investigated as a function of temperature in the range, 5 K to 400 K. Electrical resistivity, magnetization, and Hall voltage measurements were carried out. All the experimental results indicate the presence of the half-metallic ground state in x ≥ 0.25 compositions. However, the value of saturation magnetization is small, indicating the presence of compensated magnetic moments. The observed magnetic moments' values are in close agreement with the Slater–Pauling rule in half-metallic systems. Magnetic interactions in Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ are understood from the local crystal structural perspective using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The changes in bond distances extracted from EXAFS analysis can be correlated with the hybridization between constituent atoms and hence the RKKY type magnetic interactions that govern the magnetic ground state of these alloys. To complement the experimental findings, first principle electronic structure calculations were also undertaken. The spin-polarized DOS complies with the experimental results for Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ. Substitution of Sb (an electron excess element) at Sn–site shifts the majority spin band to the lower energy side of Fermi level, thus making the system 100% spin polarized and inducing long-range magnetic order in an otherwise non-magnetic Fe₂TiSn. The present study concludes that a stable half-metallic system can be realized in Fe₂TiSn with ≥ 50% Sb – substitution at Sn – site.

Keywords: antisite disorder, EXAFS, Full Heusler alloy, half metallic ferrimagnetism, RKKY interactions

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752 Creation of Ultrafast Ultra-Broadband High Energy Laser Pulses

Authors: Walid Tawfik


The interaction of high intensity ultrashort laser pulses with plasma generates many significant applications, including soft x-ray lasers, time-resolved laser induced plasma spectroscopy LIPS, and laser-driven accelerators. The development in producing of femtosecond down to ten femtosecond optical pulses has facilitates scientists with a vital tool in a variety of ultrashort phenomena, such as high field physics, femtochemistry and high harmonic generation HHG. In this research, we generate a two-octave-wide ultrashort supercontinuum pulses with an optical spectrum extending from 3.5 eV (ultraviolet) to 1.3 eV (near-infrared) using a capillary fiber filled with neon gas. These pulses are formed according to nonlinear self-phase modulation in the neon gas as a nonlinear medium. The investigations of the created pulses were made using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). A complete description of the output pulses was considered. The observed characterization of the produced pulses includes the beam profile, the pulse width, and the spectral bandwidth. After reaching optimization conditions, the intensity of the reconstructed pulse autocorrelation function was applied for the shorts pulse duration to achieve transform limited ultrashort pulses with durations below 6-fs energies up to 600μJ. Moreover, the effect of neon pressure variation on the pulse width was examined. The nonlinear self-phase modulation realized to be increased with the pressure of the neon gas. The observed results may lead to an advanced method to control and monitor ultrashort transit interaction in femtochemistry.

Keywords: supercontinuum, ultrafast, SPIDER, ultra-broadband

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