Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 373

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Information and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

373 Linguistic Features for Sentence Difficulty Prediction in Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Adrian-Gabriel Chifu, Sebastien Fournier


One of the challenges of natural language understanding is to deal with the subjectivity of sentences, which may express opinions and emotions that add layers of complexity and nuance. Sentiment analysis is a field that aims to extract and analyze these subjective elements from text, and it can be applied at different levels of granularity, such as document, paragraph, sentence, or aspect. Aspect-based sentiment analysis is a well-studied topic with many available data sets and models. However, there is no clear definition of what makes a sentence difficult for aspect-based sentiment analysis. In this paper, we explore this question by conducting an experiment with three data sets: ”Laptops”, ”Restaurants”, and ”MTSC” (Multi-Target-dependent Sentiment Classification), and a merged version of these three datasets. We study the impact of domain diversity and syntactic diversity on difficulty. We use a combination of classifiers to identify the most difficult sentences and analyze their characteristics. We employ two ways of defining sentence difficulty. The first one is binary and labels a sentence as difficult if the classifiers fail to correctly predict the sentiment polarity. The second one is a six-level scale based on how many of the top five best-performing classifiers can correctly predict the sentiment polarity. We also define 9 linguistic features that, combined, aim at estimating the difficulty at sentence level.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, difficulty, classification, machine learning

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372 Gacha Games Economy: A Case Study of Arknights

Authors: Amirhossen Zare Rahvard


Freemium games based on the gacha mechanic have proven highly successful in recent years - games with simple graphics and simple gameplay systems but with a highly profitable market. Attempts at developing gacha games have even been made in Iran. Since gacha games are both profitable and easy to develop, they seem to be a suitable starting point for establishing a video game market in underdeveloped countries. This article aims to review the gacha games' approach to gaining revenue by studying the case of Arknights game in order to draw an outline of how simple games have led to great markets.

Keywords: gacha games, game’s economy, underdeveloped countries and games, arkngihts

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371 Study of Religious Women's Acceptance of Religious Women Bloggers on Instagram

Authors: Ali Momeni


Visual media has had a significant impact on the mental structure and behaviors of humanity. One interactive platform that has played a major role in this is Instagram. In Islamic countries, particularly Iran, many Muslims have embraced this interactive media platform for various reasons. Instagram has also provided an opportunity for individuals to become famous and gain micro-celebrity status through its semi-algorithmic features. A notable group of Iranian women who have gained fame through Instagram are religious Muslim women who have transitioned into bloggers. These Iranian religious women bloggers (IRWB) have garnered a large following by showcasing different models of hijab and their private lives. This research aims to qualitatively study the representation of femininity and religiosity of these women. The main question addressed in this study is the acceptance of Instagram activity by IRWB among religious women. Drawing on concepts such as 'The Society of the Spectacle' and 'Celebrity Online', this study utilized the netnography method to analyze 14 pages of IRWB. Data was collected in two phases, with the first phase involving the analysis of religious women's comments on posts related to these themes. The second phase included interviews with religious women students who view or follow these pages. A total of 120 comments and 14 interviews were thematically analyzed. The results revealed that the reception of these pages by religious women fell into four main themes: the spectacle of femininity, the commercialization of religiosity, the distortion of Islam, and the construction of religiosity and femininity. Ultimately, religious women did not find these pages to be reflective of their own experiences of female and religious life.

Keywords: women, bloggers, instagram, IRWB, reception.

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370 Critical Evaluation of Key Performance Indicators in Procurement Management Information System: In Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Qazi Mahdia Ghyas


Electronic Government Procurement (e-GP) has implemented in Bangladesh to ensure the good Governance. e-GP has transformed Bangladesh's procurement process electronically. But, to our best knowledge, there is no study to understand the key features of e-GP in Bangladesh. So, this study tries to identify the features of performance improvement after implementing an e-GP system that will help for further improvements. Data was collected from the PROMIS Overall Report (Central Procurement Technical Unit website) for the financial year from Q1 _July- Sep 2015-16 to Q4 _Apr- Jun 2021-22. This study did component factor analysis on KPIs and found nineteen KPIs that are statistically significant and represent time savings, efficiency, accountability, anti-corruption and compliance key features in procurement activities of e-GP. Based on the analysis, some practical measures have been recommended for better improvement of e-GP. This study has some limitations. Because of having multicollinearity issues, all the 42 KPIs (except 19) did not show a good fit for component factor analysis.

Keywords: public procurement, electronic government procurement, KPI, performance evaluation

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369 On Multiobjective Optimization to Improve the Scalability of Fog Application Deployments Using Fogtorch

Authors: Suleiman Aliyu


Integrating IoT applications with Fog systems presents challenges in optimization due to diverse environments and conflicting objectives. This study explores achieving Pareto optimal deployments for Fog-based IoT systems to address growing QoS demands. We introduce Pareto optimality to balance competing performance metrics. Using the FogTorch optimization framework, we propose a hybrid approach (Backtracking search with branch and bound) for scalable IoT deployments. Our research highlights the advantages of Pareto optimality over single-objective methods and emphasizes the role of FogTorch in this context. Initial results show improvements in IoT deployment cost in Fog systems, promoting resource-efficient strategies.

Keywords: pareto optimality, fog application deployment, resource allocation, internet of things

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368 Studies on the Teaching Pedagogy and Effectiveness for the Multi-Channel Storytelling for Social Media, Cinema, Game, and Streaming Platform: Case Studies of Squid Game

Authors: Chan Ka Lok Sobel


The rapid evolution of digital media platforms has given rise to new forms of narrative engagement, particularly through multi-channel storytelling. This research focuses on exploring the teaching pedagogy and effectiveness of multi-channel storytelling for social media, cinema, games, and streaming platforms. The study employs case studies of the popular series "Squid Game" to investigate the diverse pedagogical approaches and strategies used in teaching multi-channel storytelling. Through qualitative research methods, including interviews, surveys, and content analysis, the research assesses the effectiveness of these approaches in terms of student engagement, knowledge acquisition, critical thinking skills, and the development of digital literacy. The findings contribute to understanding best practices for incorporating multi-channel storytelling into educational contexts and enhancing learning outcomes in the digital media landscape.

Keywords: digital literacy, game-based learning, artificial intelligence, animation production, educational technology

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367 The Road Ahead: Merging Human Cyber Security Expertise with Generative AI

Authors: Brennan Lodge


Cybersecurity professionals have long been embroiled in a digital arms race, confronting increasingly sophisticated threats with innovative solutions. The field of cybersecurity is in an unending race against malicious adversaries. As threats evolve in complexity, the tools used to defend against them need to advance even faster. Burdened with a vast arsenal of tools and an expansive scope of threat intelligence, analysts frequently navigate a complex web, trying to discern patterns amidst information overload. Herein lies the potential of Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG). By combining the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) with a generative AI facet, RAG brings to the table an unparalleled ability for real-time cross-referencing, bridging the gap between raw data and actionable insights. Imagine an analyst named Sarah working at a global Fortune 500 company. Every day, Sarah navigates a maze of diverse knowledge bases, real-time threat intelligence, and her company's vast proprietary data, from network specifics to intricate technical blueprints. One day, she's challenged by a potential breach through a personal device due to the company's global "Bring Your Own Device" policy. With the clock ticking, Sarah has mere minutes to trace the malware's origin, all while considering complex regional regulations. As she races against the benchmark of Mean Time To Resolution (MTTR), she wonders: Could "Cozy Bear" with its notorious malware tactic, HAMMERTOSS, be behind this? Balancing policy intricacies, global network considerations, and ever-emerging cyber threats, Sarah's role epitomizes the intense challenges faced by today's cybersecurity analysts. While analysts grapple with this array of intricate, time-sensitive challenges, the necessity for precision and efficiency is key. RAG technology—a cutting-edge advancement in Gen AI—is a promising solution. Designed to assimilate diverse data sources such as cyber advisory notices, phishing email sentiment, secure and insecure code examples, information security policy documentation, and the MITRE ATT&CK framework, RAG equips analysts with real-time querying capabilities through a vector database and a cross referenced concise response from a Gen AI model. Traditional relational databases often necessitate a tedious process of filtering through numerous entries. Now, with the synergy of vector databases and Gen AI models, analysts can rapidly access both contextually or semantically akin data points. This augmented approach equips analysts with a comprehensive understanding of the prevailing cyber threats, elevating the robustness of cybersecurity defenses and upskilling the analyst and team, too. Vector databases underpin the knowledge translation in Gen AI. They bridge the gap between raw data and translation into meaningful insights, ensuring that analysts are equipped with comprehensive and relevant information. This superior capability of the RAG framework, with its impressive depth and precision, finds application across a broad spectrum of cybersecurity challenges. Let's delve into some use cases where its potential becomes particularly evident: Phishing Email Sentiment Analysis: Phishing remains a predominant vector for cybersecurity breaches. Leveraging RAG's capabilities, analysts can not only assess the potential malevolence of an email but can also understand the context behind it. By cross-referencing patterns from varied data sources in real-time, the detection process evolves from a mere content evaluation to a holistic understanding of attacker tactics, behaviors, and evolving profiles. This allows for the identification of nuanced phishing strategies that might otherwise go undetected. Insecure Code Analysis: Software vulnerabilities form a critical entry point for cyber adversaries. With RAG, the process of code evaluation undergoes a transformation. Instead of manual code reviews, the system pulls insights from vector databases and historical code snippets marked as insecure, enabling detection of vulnerabilities based on historical patterns, emerging threat vectors, and even predictive threat modeling. This ensures that even the most obfuscated or embedded vulnerabilities are identified, and corrective measures can be promptly implemented. Vulnerability and Upskill Advisory: In the fast-paced world of cybersecurity, staying updated is paramount. Through RAG's capabilities, analysts are not only made aware of real-time vulnerabilities but are also guided on the necessary skills and tools needed to combat them. By dynamically sourcing data through vulnerability advisories, news on advanced persistent threats, and tactics to defend, RAG ensures that analysts are not only reactive to threats but are also proactively upskilled, thereby bolstering their defense mechanisms. Information Security Policies for Compliance Teams: Compliance remains at the heart of many organizational cybersecurity strategies. However, with ever-shifting regulatory landscapes, staying compliant becomes a moving target. RAG's ability to source real-time data ensures that compliance teams always have access to the latest policy changes, guidelines, and best practices. This not only facilitates adherence to current standards but also anticipates future shifts, assists with audits, and ensures that organizations remain ahead of the compliance curve. Fusing a RAG architecture with platforms like Slack amplifies its practical utility. Slack, known for its real-time communication prowess, seamlessly evolves into more than just a messaging platform in this context. Cybersecurity analysts can pose intricate queries within Slack and, almost instantaneously, receive comprehensive feedback powered by the harmonious interplay of RAG and Gen AI. This integration effectively transforms Slack into an AI-augmented chatbot-like assistant for cybersecurity professionals, always ready to provide informed insights on-demand, making it an indispensable ally in the ever-evolving cyber battlefield. Navigating the vast landscape of cybersecurity, analysts often encounter unfamiliar terminologies and techniques., analysts require tools that not only detect or inform them of threats, like CISA (U.S Cybersecurity Infrastructure Security Agency) Advisories, but also interpret and communicate them effectively. Consider a junior cybersecurity analyst named Alex, who comes across the term "Kerberoasting" while reviewing a network log. Unfamiliar with its intricacies, Alex turns to Slack to pose a query: "chat explain is Kerberoasting, using CISA." Almost instantaneously, Slack, powered by the harmonious interplay of RAG and Gen AI, provides a detailed response, cross-referencing a recent cyber advisory on the technique. It explains how attackers can exploit the Kerberos Ticket Granting Service to decipher service account passwords, potentially compromising a network. In this dynamic realm of cybersecurity, the blend of RAG and Generative AI represents more than just a technological leap. It embodies a paradigm shift, promising a future where human expertise and AI-driven precision join forces. As cyber threats continue their relentless advance, this synergy ensures that defenders are equipped with an arsenal that's not just reactive, but also profoundly insightful. No longer should analysts be submerged in a deluge of data without direction. Instead, they should be empowered, to discern, act, and preempt with unparalleled clarity and confidence. By harmoniously intertwining human discernment with AI capabilities, we should chart a path towards a future where cybersecurity is not just about defense, but about achieving a strategic advantage, paving the way for a safer, informed and a more secure digital horizon.

Keywords: cybersecurity, gen AI, retrieval augmented generation, cybersecurity defense strategies

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366 Deep Learning-Based Channel Estimation for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Assisted Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Enabled Wireless Communication System

Authors: Getaneh Berie Tarekegn


Wireless communication via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has drawn a great deal of attention due to its flexibility in establishing line-of-sight (LoS) communications. However, in complex urban and dynamic environments, the movement of UAVs can be blocked by trees and high-rise buildings that obstruct directional paths. With reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS), this problem can be effectively addressed. To achieve this goal, accurate channel estimation in RIS-assisted UAV-enabled wireless communications is crucial. This paper proposes an accurate channel estimation model using long short-term memory (LSTM) for a multi-user RIS-assisted UAV-enabled wireless communication system. According to simulation results, LSTM can improve the channel estimation performance of RIS-assisted UAV-enabled wireless communication.

Keywords: channel estimation, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces, long short-term memory, unmanned aerial vehicles

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365 Impregnation Reduction Method for the Preparation of Platinum-Nickel/Carbon Black Alloy Nanoparticles as Faor Electrocatalyst

Authors: Maryam Kiani


In order to enhance the efficiency and stability of an electrocatalyst for formic acid electro-oxidation reaction (FAOR), we developed a method to create Pt/Ni nanoparticles with carbon black. These nanoparticles were prepared using a simple impregnation reduction technique. During the observation, it was found that the nanoparticles had a spherical shape. Additionally, the average particle size remained consistent, falling within the range of about 4 nm. This approach aimed to obtain a loaded Pt-based electrocatalyst that would exhibit improved performance and stability when used in FAOR applications. By utilizing the impregnation reduction method and incorporating Ni nanoparticles along with Pt, we sought to enhance the catalytic properties of the material. By incorporating Ni atoms into the Pt structure, the electronic properties of Pt are modified, resulting in a delay in the chemisorption of harmful CO intermediate species. This modification also promotes the dehydrogenation pathway of the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR). Through electrochemical analysis, it has been observed that the Pt3Ni-C catalyst exhibits enhanced performance in FAOR compared to traditional Pt catalysts. This means that the addition of Ni atoms improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the Pt3Ni-C catalyst in facilitating the FAOR process. Overall, the utilization of these alloy nanoparticles as electrocatalysts represents a significant advancement in fuel cell technology.

Keywords: electrocatalyst, impregnation reduction method, formic acid electro-oxidation reaction, fuel cells

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364 Software Defect Analysis- Eclipse Dataset

Authors: Amrane Meriem, Oukid Salyha


The presence of defects or bugs in software can lead to costly setbacks, operational inefficiencies, and compromised user experiences. The integration of Machine Learning(ML) techniques has emerged to predict and preemptively address software defects. ML represents a proactive strategy aimed at identifying potential anomalies, errors, or vulnerabilities within code before they manifest as operational issues. By analyzing historical data, such as code changes, feature im- plementations, and defect occurrences. This en- ables development teams to anticipate and mitigate these issues, thus enhancing software quality, reducing maintenance costs, and ensuring smoother user interactions. In this work, we used a recommendation system to improve the performance of ML models in terms of predicting the code severity and effort estimation.

Keywords: software engineering, machine learning, bugs detection, effort estimation

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363 Variance-Aware Routing and Authentication Scheme for Harvesting Data in Cloud-Centric Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Olakanmi Oladayo Olufemi, Bamifewe Olusegun James, Badmus Yaya Opeyemi, Adegoke Kayode


The wireless sensor network (WSN) has made a significant contribution to the emergence of various intelligent services or cloud-based applications. Most of the time, these data are stored on a cloud platform for efficient management and sharing among different services or users. However, the sensitivity of the data makes them prone to various confidentiality and performance-related attacks during and after harvesting. Various security schemes have been developed to ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the WSNs' data. However, their specificity towards particular attacks and the resource constraint and heterogeneity of WSNs make most of these schemes imperfect. In this paper, we propose a secure variance-aware routing and authentication scheme with two-tier verification to collect, share, and manage WSN data. The scheme is capable of classifying WSN into different subnets, detecting any attempt of wormhole and black hole attack during harvesting, and enforcing access control on the harvested data stored in the cloud. The results of the analysis showed that the proposed scheme has more security functionalities than other related schemes, solves most of the WSNs and cloud security issues, prevents wormhole and black hole attacks, identifies the attackers during data harvesting, and enforces access control on the harvested data stored in the cloud at low computational, storage, and communication overheads.

Keywords: data block, heterogeneous IoT network, data harvesting, wormhole attack, blackhole attack access control

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362 Exploring the Landscape of Information Visualization through a Mark Lombardi Lens

Authors: Alon Friedman, Antonio Sanchez Chinchon


This bibliometric study takes an artistic and storytelling approach to explore the term ”information visualization.” Analyzing over 1008 titles collected from databases that specialize in data visualization research, we examine the titles of these publications to report on the characteristics and development trends in the field. Employing a qualitative methodology, we delve into the titles of these publications, extracting leading terms and exploring the cooccurrence of these terms to gain deeper insights. By systematically analyzing the leading terms and their relationships within the titles, we shed light on the prevailing themes that shape the landscape of ”information visualization” by employing the artist Mark Lombardi’s techniques to visualize our findings. By doing so, this study provides valuable insights into bibliometrics visualization while also opening new avenues for leveraging art and storytelling to enhance data representation.

Keywords: bibliometrics analysis, Mark Lombardi design, information visualization, qualitative methodology

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361 Adoption of E-Governance: A Case Study of Higher Education Institutes in Pakistan

Authors: Shah Muhammad Butt


The study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the adoption of e-governance in Pakistan's public universities and how that adoption has affected organizational performance. An online Likert scale survey was utilized to gather information from 350 participants from different public universities in Pakistan. The data were examined using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The findings suggest that organizational culture, infrastructure, and leadership support are among the elements impacting the adoption of e-governance at Pakistan's public sector universities. A further finding of the study was that e-governance adoption benefited organizational performance, including effectiveness, efficiency, and customer satisfaction. The study emphasizes the significance of e-governance adoption at public sector universities and the demand for successful policies and strategies to support its implementation. To increase organisational performance and raise the standard of higher education in Pakistan, policymakers and university administrators should use the study's findings to develop and practice e-governance policies and initiatives.

Keywords: e-governance, adoption, public sector universities, Pakistan, organizational performance, higher education, technology, ICT, factors, comparative analysis

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360 Wireless Sensor Networks Optimization by Using 2-Stage Algorithm Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Hamid R. Lashgarian Azad, Seyed N. Shetab Boushehri


Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become progressively popular due to their wide range of applications. Wireless Sensor Network is made of numerous tiny sensor nodes that are battery-powered. It is a very significant problem to maximize the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a two-stage protocol based on an imperialist competitive algorithm (2S-ICA) to solve a sensor network optimization problem. The energy of the sensors can be greatly reduced and the lifetime of the network reduced by long communication distances between the sensors and the sink. We can minimize the overall communication distance considerably, thereby extending the lifetime of the network lifetime through connecting sensors into a series of independent clusters using 2SICA. Comparison results of the proposed protocol and LEACH protocol, which is common to solving WSN problems, show that our protocol has a better performance in terms of improving network life and increasing the number of transmitted data.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, imperialist competitive algorithm, LEACH protocol, k-means clustering

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359 A Contribution to Human Activities Recognition Using Expert System Techniques

Authors: Malika Yaici, Soraya Aloui, Sara Semchaoui


This paper deals with human activity recognition from sensor data. It is an active research area, and the main objective is to obtain a high recognition rate. In this work, a recognition system based on expert systems is proposed; the recognition is performed using the objects, object states, and gestures and taking into account the context (the location of the objects and of the person performing the activity, the duration of the elementary actions and the activity). The system recognizes complex activities after decomposing them into simple, easy-to-recognize activities. The proposed method can be applied to any type of activity. The simulation results show the robustness of our system and its speed of decision.

Keywords: human activity recognition, ubiquitous computing, context-awareness, expert system

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358 Efficient Packet Handling Mechanism in Message Query Telemetry and Transport During Emergency Message Dissemination in Internet of Vehicles

Authors: Manikandan A., Gautham Menon, Aswin R., Parthiv Bijumon Bhaskar, Mahadev Govind R., Ramprasad O. G.


The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an emerging field that applies Internet of Things (IoT) concepts to mobility and transportation. Integrating vehicles, infrastructure, communication networks, and technologies create a connected ecosystem that improves transportation effectiveness, safety, and user experience. The Internet of Vehicles, as it develops, has the potential to alter the way we travel by bringing forth safer, more effective, and more environmentally friendly mobility options. Floating of emergency messages through Message Query Telemetry and Transport (MQTT) with acknowledgment aggregation under IoV is discussed in this paper. Broadcasting emergency warnings to all vehicles on the road is the most challenging task in IoV because of heavy traffic and dynamic channel conditions. This paper proposes an efficient packet-handling mechanism for MQTT with an acknowledgment aggregation technique.

Keywords: internet of vehicles, Internet of things, MQTT, acknowledgment

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357 Systems Lens: Towards Sustainable Management of Maintenance and Renewal of Wire-Based Infrastructure: The Case of Water Network in the City of Linköping, Sweden

Authors: E. Hegazy, S. Anderberg, J. Krook


The city's wire-based infrastructure systems (WBIS) are responsible for the delivery of electricity, telecommunications, sanitation, drainage, and district heating and are a necessity for sustainable modern urban life. Maintaining the functionality of these structures involves high costs and, brings disturbance to the local community and effects on the environment. One key reason for this is that the cables and pipes are placed under streets, making system parts easily worn and their service lifetime reduced, and all maintenance and renewal rely on recurrent needs for excavation. In Sweden, a significant part of wire-based infrastructure is already outdated and will need to be replaced in the coming decades. The replacement of these systems will entail massive costs as well as important traffic disruption and environmental disturbance. However, this challenge may also open a unique opportunity to introduce new, more sustainable technologies and management practices. The transformation of WBIS management for long-term sustainability and meeting maintenance and renewal needs does not have a comprehensive approach. However, a systemic approach may inform WBIS management. This approach considers both technical and non-technical aspects, as well as time-related factors. Nevertheless, there is limited systemic knowledge of how different factors influence current management practices. The aim of this study is to address this knowledge gap and contribute to the understanding of what factors influence the current practice of WBIS management. A case study approach is used to identify current management practices, the underlying factors that influence them, and their implications for sustainability outcomes. The case study is based on both quantitative data on the local system and data from interviews and workshops with local practitioners and other stakeholders. Linköping was selected as a case since it provided good accessibility to the water administration and relevant data for analyzing water infrastructure management strategies. It is a sufficiently important city in Sweden to be able to identify challenges, which, to some extent, are common to all Swedish cities. By uncovering current practices and what is influencing Linköping, knowledge gaps and uncertainties related to sustainability consequences were highlighted. The findings show that goals, priorities, and policies controlling management are short-termed, and decisions on maintenance and renewal are often restricted to finding solutions to the most urgent issues. Sustainability transformation in the infrastructure area will not be possible through individual efforts without coordinated technical, organizational, business, and regulatory changes.

Keywords: case study, infrastructure, management, practice, Sweden

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356 Unlocking the Future of Grocery Shopping: Graph Neural Network-Based Cold Start Item Recommendations with Reverse Next Item Period Recommendation (RNPR)

Authors: Tesfaye Fenta Boka, Niu Zhendong


Recommender systems play a crucial role in connecting individuals with the items they require, as is particularly evident in the rapid growth of online grocery shopping platforms. These systems predominantly rely on user-centered recommendations, where items are suggested based on individual preferences, garnering considerable attention and adoption. However, our focus lies on the item-centered recommendation task within the grocery shopping context. In the reverse next item period recommendation (RNPR) task, we are presented with a specific item and challenged to identify potential users who are likely to consume it in the upcoming period. Despite the ever-expanding inventory of products on online grocery platforms, the cold start item problem persists, posing a substantial hurdle in delivering personalized and accurate recommendations for new or niche grocery items. To address this challenge, we propose a Graph Neural Network (GNN)-based approach. By capitalizing on the inherent relationships among grocery items and leveraging users' historical interactions, our model aims to provide reliable and context-aware recommendations for cold-start items. This integration of GNN technology holds the promise of enhancing recommendation accuracy and catering to users' individual preferences. This research contributes to the advancement of personalized recommendations in the online grocery shopping domain. By harnessing the potential of GNNs and exploring item-centered recommendation strategies, we aim to improve the overall shopping experience and satisfaction of users on these platforms.

Keywords: recommender systems, cold start item recommendations, online grocery shopping platforms, graph neural networks

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355 What We Know About Effective Learning for Pupils with SEN: Results of 2 Systematic Reviews and of a Global Classroom

Authors: Claudia Mertens, Amanda Shufflebarger


Step one: What we know about effective learning for pupils with SEN: results of 2 systematic reviews: Before establishing principles and practices for teaching and learning of pupils with SEN, we need a good overview of the results of empirical studies conducted in the respective field. Therefore, two systematic reviews on the use of digital tools in inclusive and non-inclusive school settings were conducted - taking into consideration studies published in German: One systematic review included studies having undergone a peer review process, and the second included studies without peer review). The results (collaboration of two German universities) will be presented during the conference. Step two: Students’ results of a research lab on “inclusive media education”: On this basis, German students worked on “inclusive media education” in small research projects (duration: 1 year). They were “education majors” enrolled in a course on inclusive media education. They conducted research projects on topics ranging from smartboards in inclusive settings, digital media in gifted math education, Tik Tok in German as a Foreign Language education and many more. As part of their course, the German students created an academic conference poster. In the conference, the results of these research projects/papers are put into the context of the results of the systematic reviews. Step three: Global Classroom: The German students’ posters were critically discussed in a global classroom in cooperation with Indiana University East (USA) and Hamburg University (Germany) in the winter/spring term of 2022/2023. 15 students in Germany collaborated with 15 students at Indiana University East. The IU East student participants were enrolled in “Writing in the Arts and Sciences,” which is specifically designed for pre-service teachers. The joint work began at the beginning of the Spring 2023 semester in January 2023 and continued until the end of the Uni Hamburg semester in February 2023. Before January, Uni Hamburg students had been working on a research project individually or in pairs. Didactic Approach: Both groups of students posted a brief video or audio introduction to a shared Canvas discussion page. In the joint long synchronous session, the students discussed key content terms such as inclusion, inclusive, diversity, etc., with the help of prompt cards, and they compared how they understood or applied these terms differently. Uni Hamburg students presented drafts of academic posters. IU East students gave them specific feedback. After that, IU East students wrote brief reflections summarizing what they learned from the poster. After the class, small groups were expected to create a voice recording reflecting on their experiences. In their recordings, they examined critical incidents, highlighting what they learned from these incidents. Major results of the student research and of the global classroom collaboration can be highlighted during the conference. Results: The aggregated results of the two systematic reviews AND of the research lab/global classroom can now be a sound basis for 1) improving accessibility for students with SEN and 2) for adjusting teaching materials and concepts to the needs of the students with SEN - in order to create successful learning.

Keywords: digitalization, inclusion, inclusive media education, global classroom, systematic review

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354 Improving Security in Healthcare Applications Using Federated Learning System With Blockchain Technology

Authors: Aofan Liu, Qianqian Tan, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


Data security is of the utmost importance in the healthcare area, as sensitive patient information is constantly sent around and analyzed by many different parties. The use of federated learning, which enables data to be evaluated locally on devices rather than being transferred to a central server, has emerged as a potential solution for protecting the privacy of user information. To protect against data breaches and unauthorized access, federated learning alone might not be adequate. In this context, the application of blockchain technology could provide the system extra protection. This study proposes a distributed federated learning system that is built on blockchain technology in order to enhance security in healthcare. This makes it possible for a wide variety of healthcare providers to work together on data analysis without raising concerns about the confidentiality of the data. The technical aspects of the system, including as the design and implementation of distributed learning algorithms, consensus mechanisms, and smart contracts, are also investigated as part of this process. The technique that was offered is a workable alternative that addresses concerns about the safety of healthcare while also fostering collaborative research and the interchange of data.

Keywords: data privacy, distributed system, federated learning, machine learning

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353 The Magic Bullet in Africa: Exploring an Alternative Theoretical Model

Authors: Daniel Nkrumah


The Magic Bullet theory was a popular media effect theory that defined the power of the mass media in altering beliefs and perceptions of its audiences. However, following the People's Choice study, the theory was said to have been disproved and was supplanted by the Two-Step Flow Theory. This paper examines the relevance of the Magic Bullet theory in Africa and establishes whether it is still relevant in Africa's media spaces and societies. Using selected cases on the continent, it adopts a grounded theory approach and explores a new theoretical model that attempts to enforce an argument that the Two-Step Flow theory though important and valid, was ill-conceived as a direct replacement to the Magic Bullet theory.

Keywords: magic bullet theory, two-step flow theory, media effects, african media

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352 Terraria AI: YOLO Interface for Decision-Making Algorithms

Authors: Emmanuel Barrantes Chaves, Ernesto Rivera Alvarado


This paper presents a method to enable agents for the Terraria game to evaluate algorithms commonly used in general video game artificial intelligence competitions. The usage of the ‘You Only Look Once’ model in the first layer of the process obtains information from the screen, translating this information into a video game description language known as “Video Game Description Language”; the agents take that as input to make decisions. For this, the state-of-the-art algorithms were tested and compared; Monte Carlo Tree Search and Rolling Horizon Evolutionary; in this case, Rolling Horizon Evolutionary shows a better performance. This approach’s main advantage is that a VGDL beforehand is unnecessary. It will be built on the fly and opens the road for using more games as a framework for AI.

Keywords: AI, MCTS, RHEA, Terraria, VGDL, YOLOv5

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351 A Review on Big Data Movement with Different Approaches

Authors: Nay Myo Sandar


With the growth of technologies and applications, a large amount of data has been producing at increasing rate from various resources such as social media networks, sensor devices, and other information serving devices. This large collection of massive, complex and exponential growth of dataset is called big data. The traditional database systems cannot store and process such data due to large and complexity. Consequently, cloud computing is a potential solution for data storage and processing since it can provide a pool of resources for servers and storage. However, moving large amount of data to and from is a challenging issue since it can encounter a high latency due to large data size. With respect to big data movement problem, this paper reviews the literature of previous works, discusses about research issues, finds out approaches for dealing with big data movement problem.

Keywords: Big Data, Cloud Computing, Big Data Movement, Network Techniques

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350 Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms and Ensemble Methods for Prediction of Students’ Graduation

Authors: Soha A. Bahanshal, Vaibhav Verdhan, Bayong Kim


Graduation rates at six-year colleges are becoming a more essential indicator for incoming fresh students and for university rankings. Predicting student graduation is extremely beneficial to schools and has a huge potential for targeted intervention. It is important for educational institutions since it enables the development of strategic plans that will assist or improve students' performance in achieving their degrees on time (GOT). A first step and a helping hand in extracting useful information from these data and gaining insights into the prediction of students' progress and performance is offered by machine learning techniques. Data analysis and visualization techniques are applied to understand and interpret the data. The data used for the analysis contains students who have graduated in 6 years in the academic year 2017-2018 for science majors. This analysis can be used to predict the graduation of students in the next academic year. Different Predictive modelings such as logistic regression, decision trees, support vector machines, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, and KNeighborsClassifier are applied to predict whether a student will graduate. These classifiers were evaluated with k folds of 5. The performance of these classifiers was compared based on accuracy measurement. The results indicated that Ensemble Classifier achieves better accuracy, about 91.12%. This GOT prediction model would hopefully be useful to university administration and academics in developing measures for assisting and boosting students' academic performance and ensuring they graduate on time.

Keywords: prediction, decision trees, machine learning, support vector machine, ensemble model, student graduation, GOT graduate on time

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349 The Attitudes of Senior High School Students Toward Work Immersion Programs of Nazareth School of National University

Authors: Kim Katherine Castillo, Nelson John Datubatang, Terrence Phillip Dy, Norelie Hampac, Reichen Crismark Martinez, Nina Faith Pantinople, Jose Dante Santos II, Marchel Ann Santos, Sophia Abigail Santiago, Zyrill Xsar San Juan, Aira Mae Tagao, Crystal Kylla Viagedor


The Work Immersion Program was implemented to help students gain abundant work-related experiences while on-site; additionally, the program aims to help students improve their competencies and interpersonal skills as they are given the option to join the workforce if they ever choose to do so after senior high school. The work immersion experience posed diverse challenges for students, spanning personal, financial, engagement, environmental, and equipment-related domains. These included the need for assistance in time management, transportation expenses, and procurement of materials. Furthermore, students faced difficulties in independent task completion and encountered suboptimal work environments. Addressing these multifaceted obstacles is crucial to optimize the educational outcomes of work immersion programs. In addition to the challenges, several other issues have been identified, including the absence of standardized work immersion programs across schools and industries, the challenges in securing appropriate work immersion placements, the necessity for enhanced monitoring and evaluation of program effectiveness, and the limited availability of field programs aligned with students' chosen courses. Furthermore, there is a lack of comprehensive information regarding the attitudes of Senior High School students toward work immersion programs within their respective schools. This study aims to investigate the attitudes of senior high school students at Nazareth School of National University towards work immersion programs, with a focus on identifying factors that influence their perception and participation, including collegiality and expectations. By exploring the students' attitudes, the research endeavors to enhance the school's work immersion programs and contribute to the overall educational experience of the students. This study addresses challenges related to work immersion programs, focusing on six subtopics: Work Immersion, Work Immersion in the Philippines, Students' Attitudes, Factors Affecting Students' Attitudes, Effectiveness of Work Immersion for Senior High School Students, and Students' Perception and Willingness to Participate. Using a descriptive research design, the study examines the attitudes of senior high school students at Nazareth School of National University in Manila. Data was collected from 100 students, representing different academic strands, through a 35-item researcher-made survey. Descriptive statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability, will be used to analyze the data using JASP, providing valuable insights into the students' attitudes toward work immersion.

Keywords: attitudes, challenges, educational outcomes, work immersion programs

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348 Digital Citizenship: Italy’s Experience in Applying and Strengthening and Ways to Benefit from It in Algeria

Authors: Ikram Harouni


This paper aims to shed light on the policies and initiatives implemented by the Italian government to promote digital citizenship, with the goal of providing recommendations that can be applied in Algeria. The Italian experience was chosen because it is considered a successful model that has benefited from both global and European experiences while adapting to its own capacities. Additionally, the descriptive approach was chosen, which is in line with the nature of this research. The study concluded that the measures taken, as well as the programs and reforms adopted by the Italian authorities, to implement and promote digital citizenship in Italy, have not deviated from the application of the concept of traditional citizenship; the latter can only be achieved by involving citizens in political, social and economic life.

Keywords: citizenship, digital citizenship, digital citizen, Italy, Algeria

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347 Emerging Technology for 6G Networks

Authors: Yaseein S. Hussein, Victor P. Gil Jiménez, Abdulmajeed Al-Jumaily


Due to the rapid advancement of technology, there is an increasing demand for wireless connections that are both fast and reliable, with minimal latency. New wireless communication standards are developed every decade, and the year 2030 is expected to see the introduction of 6G. The primary objectives of 6G network and terminal designs are focused on sustainability and environmental friendliness. The International Telecommunication Union-Recommendation division (ITU-R) has established the minimum requirements for 6G, with peak and user data rates of 1 Tbps and 10-100 Gbps, respectively. In this context, Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) technology is the most promising candidate to meet these requirements. This article will explore the various advantages, features, and potential applications of Li-Fi technology, and compare it with 5G networking, to showcase its potential impact among other emerging technologies that aim to enable 6G networks.

Keywords: 6G networks, artificial intelligence (AI), Li-Fi technology, Terahertz (THz) communication, visible light communication (VLC)

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346 Geopolitical Implications and the Role of LinkedIn in the Russo-Ukrainian War: A Comprehensive Analysis of Social Media in Crisis Situations

Authors: Amber Brittain-Hale


This research investigates the evolving role of social media in crisis situations by employing discourse analysis methodology and honing in on the Russo-Ukrainian War, particularly Ukraine's use of LinkedIn. The study posits that social media platforms, such as LinkedIn, play a crucial role in shaping communication, disseminating information, and influencing geopolitical strategies during conflicts. Focusing on Ukraine's official state account on LinkedIn and analyzing its posts and interactions, the research aims to unveil discourse dynamics in high-stakes scenarios and provide valuable insights for leaders navigating complex global challenges. A comprehensive analysis of the data will contribute to a deeper understanding of the tactics adopted by political leaders in managing communication, the bidirectional nature of discourse provided by online social networks, and the rapid advancement of technology that has led to the growing significance of social media platforms in crisis situations. Through this approach, the geopolitical factors that influenced the country's social media strategy during the Russo-Ukrainian War will be illuminated, offering a broader perspective on the role of social media in such challenging times. Ultimately, the study seeks to uncover lessons that can be drawn from Ukraine's LinkedIn approach, informing future strategies for utilizing social media during crises and advancing the understanding of how social media can be harnessed to address intricate global issues.

Keywords: russo-ukrainian war, social media, crisis, discourse analysis

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345 The Development Status of Terahertz Wave and Its Prospect in Wireless Communication

Authors: Yiquan Liao, Quanhong Jiang


Since terahertz was observed by German scientists, we have obtained terahertz through different generation technologies of broadband and narrowband. Then, with the development of semiconductor and other technologies, the imaging technology of terahertz has become increasingly perfect. From the earliest application of nondestructive testing in aviation to the present application of information transmission and human safety detection, the role of terahertz will shine in various fields. The weapons produced by terahertz were epoch-making, which is a crushing deterrent against technologically backward countries. At the same time, terahertz technology in the fields of imaging, medical and livelihood, communication and communication are for the well-being of the country and the people.

Keywords: terahertz, imaging, communication, medical treatment

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344 Efficacy of Self-Assessment Metacognitive Strategy on Academic Performance Among Upper Basic Students in Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Daodu Joshua Rotimi


This study investigated the Efficacy of Self-Assessment Metacognitive Strategy on Academic performance in Energy Concepts among Upper Basic Science Students in Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria. The research design adopted for the study was a Quasi-experimental control group design which employed a pretest, posttest of the experimental and control groups. The population of the study consisted of one hundred and twenty-four (124) JSSII Students; sixty-five (65) for the experimental group and (59) for the control group. The instrument used for the study was the Energy Concept Performance Test (ECPT), with a reliability coefficient of 0.80. Two research questions were answered using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, while two hypotheses were tested using a t-test at P≤0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the use of the Self-Assessment Metacognitive Strategy has a positive effect on students’ performance in energy concepts among upper Basic Science Students leading to high academic performance; also, there is no significant difference in the mean Academic Performance scores between Male and Female students taught Energy Concept using Self-Assessment Metacognitive Strategy. Based on the research findings, recommendations were made, which include that Secondary school teachers should be encouraged the use Self-Assessment Metacognitive strategy so as to make the learning process attractive, interactive and enriching to the learners.

Keywords: metacognition, self-assessment, performance, efficacy

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