Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 148

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Information and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

148 A Self-Coexistence Strategy for Spectrum Allocation Using Selfish and Unselfish Game Models in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Noel Jeygar Robert, V. K.Vidya

Abstract:

Cognitive radio is a software-defined radio technology that allows cognitive users to operate on the vacant bands of spectrum allocated to licensed users. Cognitive radio plays a vital role in the efficient utilization of wireless radio spectrum available between cognitive users and licensed users without making any interference to licensed users. The spectrum allocation followed by spectrum sharing is done in a fashion where a cognitive user has to wait until spectrum holes are identified and allocated when the licensed user moves out of his own allocated spectrum. In this paper, we propose a self –coexistence strategy using bargaining and Cournot game model for achieving spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks. The game-theoretic model analyses the behaviour of cognitive users in both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios and provides an equilibrium level of spectrum allocation. Game-theoretic models such as bargaining game model and Cournot game model produce a balanced distribution of spectrum resources and energy consumption. Simulation results show that both game theories achieve better performance compared to other popular techniques

Keywords: cognitive radio, game theory, bargaining game, Cournot game

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147 60 GHz Multi-Sector Antenna Array with Switchable Radiation-Beams for Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Haleh Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Yasir Al-Yasir, Ahmed M. Abdulkhaleq, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Peter S. Excell

Abstract:

A compact design of multi-sector patch antenna array for 60 GHz applications is presented and discussed in details. The proposed design combines five 1×8 linear patch antenna arrays, referred to as sectors, in a multi-sector configuration. The coaxial-fed radiation elements of the multi-sector array are designed on 0.2 mm Rogers RT5880 dielectrics. The array operates in the frequency range of 58-62 GHz and provides switchable directional/omnidirectional radiation beams with high gain and high directivity characteristics. The designed multi-sector array exhibits good performances and could be used in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks.

Keywords: mm-wave communications, multi-sector array, patch antenna, small cell networks

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146 A Non-Destructive TeraHertz System and Method for Capsule and Liquid Medicine Identification

Authors: Ke Lin, Steve Wu Qing Yang, Zhang Nan

Abstract:

The medicine and drugs has in the past been manufactured to the final products and then used laboratory analysis to verify their quality. However the industry needs crucially a monitoring technique for the final batch to batch quality check. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) provides an incentive to obtain real-time information about drugs on the production line, with the following optical techniques being considered: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, mid-infrared spectroscopy with the use of chemometric techniques to quantify the final product. However, presents problems in that the spectra obtained will consist of many combination and overtone bands of the fundamental vibrations observed, making analysis difficult. In this work, we describe a non-destructive system and method for capsule and liquid medicine identification, more particularly, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and/or designed terahertz portable system for identifying different types of medicine in the package of capsule or in liquid medicine bottles. The target medicine can be detected directly, non-destructively and non-invasively.

Keywords: terahertz, non-destructive, non-invasive, chemical identification

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145 Remote Monitoring and Control System of Potentiostat Based on Internet of Things

Authors: Liang Zhao, Guangwen Wang, Guichang Liu

Abstract:

Constant potometer is an important component of pipeline anti-corrosion system in the chemical industry. Based on Internet of Things technology, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology and database technology, this paper developed a set of constant potometer remote monitoring management system. The remote monitoring and remote adjustment of the working status of the constant potometer are realized. The system has real-time data display, historical data query, alarm push management, user permission management, and supporting Web access and mobile client application (APP) access. The actual engineering project test results show the stability of the system, which can be widely used in cathodic protection system.

Keywords: internet of things, pipe corrosion protection, potentiostat, remote monitoring

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144 Analysis of Cooperative Hybrid ARQ with Adaptive Modulation and Coding on a Correlated Fading Channel Environment

Authors: Ibrahim Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, a cross-layer design which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) techniques for a cooperative wireless network is investigated analytically. Previous analyses of such systems in the literature are confined to the case where the fading channel is independent at each retransmission, which can be unrealistic unless the channel is varying very fast. On the other hand, temporal channel correlation can have a significant impact on the performance of HARQ systems. In this study, utilizing a Markov channel model which accounts for the temporal correlation, the performance of non-cooperative and cooperative networks are investigated in terms of packet loss rate and throughput metrics for Chase combining HARQ strategy.

Keywords: cooperative network, adaptive modulation and coding, hybrid ARQ, correlated fading

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143 Constructing White-Box Implementations Based on Threshold Shares and Composite Fields

Authors: Tingting Lin, Manfred von Willich, Dafu Lou, Phil Eisen

Abstract:

A white-box implementation of a cryptographic algorithm is a software implementation intended to resist extraction of the secret key by an adversary. To date, most of the white-box techniques are used to protect block cipher implementations. However, a large proportion of the white-box implementations are proven to be vulnerable to affine equivalence attacks and other algebraic attacks, as well as differential computation analysis (DCA). In this paper, we identify a class of block ciphers for which we propose a method of constructing white-box implementations. Our method is based on threshold implementations and operations in composite fields. The resulting implementations consist of lookup tables and few exclusive OR operations. All intermediate values (inputs and outputs of the lookup tables) are masked. The threshold implementation makes the distribution of the masked values uniform and independent of the original inputs, and the operations in composite fields reduce the size of the lookup tables. The white-box implementations can provide resistance against algebraic attacks and DCA-like attacks.

Keywords: white-box, block cipher, composite field, threshold implementation

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142 Make Up Flash: Web Application for the Improvement of Physical Appearance in Images Based on Recognition Methods

Authors: Stefania Arguelles Reyes, Octavio José Salcedo Parra, Alberto Acosta López

Abstract:

This paper presents a web application for the improvement of images through recognition. The web application is based on the analysis of picture-based recognition methods that allow an improvement on the physical appearance of people posting in social networks. The basis relies on the study of tools that can correct or improve some features of the face, with the help of a wide collection of user images taken as reference to build a facial profile. Automatic facial profiling can be achieved with a deeper study of the Object Detection Library. It was possible to improve the initial images with the help of MATLAB and its filtering functions. The user can have a direct interaction with the program and manually adjust his preferences.

Keywords: Matlab, make up, recognition methods, web application

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141 The Paralinguistic Function of Emojis in Twitter Communication

Authors: Yasmin Tantawi, Mary Beth Rosson

Abstract:

In response to the dearth of information about emoji use for different purposes in different settings, this paper investigates the paralinguistic function of emojis within Twitter communication in the United States. To conduct this investigation, the Twitter feeds from 16 population centers spread throughout the United States were collected from the Twitter public API. One hundred tweets were collected from each population center, totaling to 1,600 tweets. Tweets containing emojis were next extracted using the “emot” Python package; these were then analyzed via the IBM Watson API Natural Language Understanding module to identify the topics discussed. A manual content analysis was then conducted to ascertain the paralinguistic and emotional features of the emojis used in these tweets. We present our characterization of emoji usage in Twitter and discuss implications for the design of Twitter and other text-based communication tools.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, content analysis, paralinguistics, sociology

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140 Online Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Hedonic Shopping Value and Website Quality

Authors: Chechen Liao, Hung Wen Shaw

Abstract:

Recently, online impulse buying has been growing rapidly. It has become a major issue of concern and provided a lot of opportunities for online businesses. This study examines the effect of hedonic shopping values on hedonic motivations, and in turn affecting the urge of impulse buying. The study also explores the effects of website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness on the urge of impulse buying. A total of 459 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modelling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that adventure shopping, value shopping, and social shopping have a positive effect on hedonic motivations, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness have a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. The result of this study validates the phenomenon of online impulse buying behavior. This study also suggests that having a good website quality is the most important factor for increasing the likelihood of consumer impulse purchase. The study could serve as a basis for future research regarding online impulse buying behavior.

Keywords: hedonic motivation, hedonic shopping value, impulse buying, impulsiveness, website quality

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139 Specific Emitter Identification Based on Refined Composite Multiscale Dispersion Entropy

Authors: Shaoying Guo, Yanyun Xu, Meng Zhang, Weiqing Huang

Abstract:

The wireless communication network is developing rapidly, thus the wireless security becomes more and more important. Specific emitter identification (SEI) is an vital part of wireless communication security as a technique to identify the unique transmitters. In this paper, a SEI method based on multiscale dispersion entropy (MDE) and refined composite multiscale dispersion entropy (RCMDE) is proposed. The algorithms of MDE and RCMDE are used to extract features for identification of five wireless devices and cross-validation support vector machine (CV-SVM) is used as the classifier. The experimental results show that the total identification accuracy is 99.3%, even at low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of 5dB, which proves that MDE and RCMDE can describe the communication signal series well. In addition, compared with other methods, the proposed method is effective and provides better accuracy and stability for SEI.

Keywords: cross-validation support vector machine, refined com- posite multiscale dispersion entropy, specific emitter identification, transient signal, wireless communication device

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138 Labview-Based System for Fiber Links Events Detection

Authors: Bo Liu, Qingshan Kong, Weiqing Huang

Abstract:

With the rapid development of modern communication, diagnosing the fiber-optic quality and faults in real-time is widely focused. In this paper, a Labview-based system is proposed for fiber-optic faults detection. The wavelet threshold denoising method combined with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to denoise the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) signal. Then the method based on Gabor representation is used to detect events. Experimental measurements show that signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the OTDR signal is improved by 1.34dB on average, compared with using the wavelet threshold denosing method. The proposed system has a high score in event detection capability and accuracy. The maximum detectable fiber length of the proposed Labview-based system can be 65km.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, events detection, Gabor transform, optical time domain reflectometer, wavelet threshold denoising

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137 Collaborative Early Warning System: An Integrated Framework for Mitigating Impacts of Natural Hazards in the UAE

Authors: Abdulla Al Hmoudi

Abstract:

The impacts and costs of natural disasters on people, properties and the environment is often severe when they occur on a large scale or when not prepared for. Factors such as impacts of climate change, urban growth, poor planning to mention a few, have continued to significantly increase the frequencies and aggravate the impacts of natural hazards across the world; the United Arab Emirates (UAE) inclusive. The lack of deployment of an early warning system, low risk and hazard knowledge and impact of natural hazard experienced in some communities in the UAE have emphasised the need for more effective early warning systems. This paper focuses on the collaborative approach taken to instituting and implementing an early warning system. Using mixed methods 888 people completed the questionnaire and eight people were interviewed in Abu Dhabi. The results indicate that the collaborative approach to early warning system is UAE is needed, but lacks essential principles of the early warning system and currently underutilised. It is recommended that the collaborative early warning system is applied at every stage of the early warning system with the specific responsibility of each stakeholder and actor.

Keywords: community, early warning system, emergency management, UAE

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136 Context Aware Anomaly Behavior Analysis for Smart Home Systems

Authors: Zhiwen Pan, Jesus Pacheco, Salim Hariri, Yiqiang Chen, Bozhi Liu

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IoT) will lead to the development of advanced Smart Home services that are pervasive, cost-effective, and can be accessed by home occupants from anywhere and at any time. However, advanced smart home applications will introduce grand security challenges due to the increase in the attack surface. Current approaches do not handle cybersecurity from a holistic point of view; hence, a systematic cybersecurity mechanism needs to be adopted when designing smart home applications. In this paper, we present a generic intrusion detection methodology to detect and mitigate the anomaly behaviors happened in Smart Home Systems (SHS). By utilizing our Smart Home Context Data Structure, the heterogeneous information and services acquired from SHS are mapped in context attributes which can describe the context of smart home operation precisely and accurately. Runtime models for describing usage patterns of home assets are developed based on characterization functions. A threat-aware action management methodology, used to efficiently mitigate anomaly behaviors, is proposed at the end. Our preliminary experimental results show that our methodology can be used to detect and mitigate known and unknown threats, as well as to protect SHS premises and services.

Keywords: Internet of Things, network security, context awareness, intrusion detection

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135 Optimizing the Probabilistic Neural Network Training Algorithm for Multi-Class Identification

Authors: Abdelhadi Lotfi, Abdelkader Benyettou

Abstract:

In this work, a training algorithm for probabilistic neural networks (PNN) is presented. The algorithm addresses one of the major drawbacks of PNN, which is the size of the hidden layer in the network. By using a cross-validation training algorithm, the number of hidden neurons is shrunk to a smaller number consisting of the most representative samples of the training set. This is done without affecting the overall architecture of the network. Performance of the network is compared against performance of standard PNN for different databases from the UCI database repository. Results show an important gain in network size and performance.

Keywords: classification, probabilistic neural networks, network optimization, pattern recognition

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134 Efficient Schemes of Classifiers for Remote Sensing Satellite Imageries of Land Use Pattern Classifications

Authors: S. S. Patil, Sachidanand Kini

Abstract:

Classification of land use patterns is compelling in complexity and variability of remote sensing imageries data. An imperative research in remote sensing application exploited to mine some of the significant spatially variable factors as land cover and land use from satellite images for remote arid areas in Karnataka State, India. The diverse classification techniques, unsupervised and supervised consisting of maximum likelihood, Mahalanobis distance, and minimum distance are applied in Bellary District in Karnataka State, India for the classification of the raw satellite images. The accuracy evaluations of results are compared visually with the standard maps with ground-truths. We initiated with the maximum likelihood technique that gave the finest results and both minimum distance and Mahalanobis distance methods over valued agriculture land areas. In meanness of mislaid few irrelevant features due to the low resolution of the satellite images, high-quality accord between parameters extracted automatically from the developed maps and field observations was found.

Keywords: Mahalanobis distance, minimum distance, supervised, unsupervised, user classification accuracy, producer's classification accuracy, maximum likelihood, kappa coefficient

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133 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, sensors, wireless sensor networks

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132 Adaptive Multipath Mitigation Acquisition Approach for Global Positioning System Software Receivers

Authors: Animut Meseret Simachew

Abstract:

Parallel Code Phase Search Acquisition (PCSA) Algorithm has been considered as a promising method in GPS software receivers for detection and estimation of the accurate correlation peak between the received Global Positioning System (GPS) signal and locally generated replicas. GPS signal acquisition in highly dense multipath environments is the main research challenge. In this work, we proposed a robust variable step-size (RVSS) PCSA algorithm based on fast frequency transform (FFT) filtering technique to mitigate short time delay multipath signals. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the conventional PCSA algorithm. The proposed RVSS-PCSA algorithm equalizes the received carrier wiped-off signal with locally generated C/A code.

Keywords: adaptive PCSA, detection and estimation, GPS signal acquisition, GPS software receiver

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131 Dynamic Route Optimization in Vehicle Adhoc Networks: A Heuristics Routing Protocol

Authors: Rafi Ullah, Shah Muhammad Emaduddin, Taha Jilani

Abstract:

Vehicle Adhoc Networks (VANET) belongs to a special class of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) with high mobility. Network is created by road side vehicles equipped with communication devices like GPS and Wifi etc. Since the environment is highly dynamic due to difference in speed and high mobility of vehicles and weak stability of the network connection, it is a challenging task to design an efficient routing protocol for such an unstable environment. Our proposed algorithm uses heuristic for the calculation of optimal path for routing the packet efficiently in collaboration with several other parameters like geographical location, speed, priority, the distance among the vehicles, communication range, and networks congestion. We have incorporated probabilistic, heuristic and machine learning based approach inconsistency with the relay function of the memory buffer to keep the packet moving towards the destination. These parameters when used in collaboration provide us a very strong and admissible heuristics. We have mathematically proved that the proposed technique is efficient for the routing of packets, especially in a medical emergency situation. These networks can be used for medical emergency, security, entertainment and routing purposes.

Keywords: heuristics routing, intelligent routing, VANET, route optimization

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130 Machine Learning Invariants to Detect Anomalies in Secure Water Treatment

Authors: Jonathan Heng, Yoong Cheah Huei

Abstract:

A strategic model that does not trigger any false alarms to detect anomalies in Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) test bed is presented. This model uses machine learning invariants formulated from streamlining the general form of Auto-Regressive models with eXogenous input. A creative generalized CUSUM algorithm to integrate the invariants and the detection strategy technique is successfully developed and tested in the SWaT Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). Three steps to fine-tune parameters, b and τ in the generalized algorithm are stated and an example used to demonstrate the tuning process is discussed. This approach can swiftly and effectively detect various scopes of cyber-attacks such as multiple points single stage and multiple points multiple stages in SWaT. This technique can be applied in water treatment plants and other cyber physical systems like power and gas plants too.

Keywords: machine learning invariants, generalized CUSUM algorithm with invariants and detection strategy, scope of cyber attacks, strategic model, tuning parameters

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129 Cognitive Radio in Aeronautic: Comparison of Some Spectrum Sensing Technics

Authors: Abdelkhalek Bouchikhi, Elyes Benmokhtar, Sebastien Saletzki

Abstract:

The aeronautical field is experiencing issues with RF spectrum congestion due to the constant increase in the number of flights, aircrafts and telecom systems on board. In addition, these systems are bulky in size, weight and energy consumption. The cognitive radio helps particularly solving the spectrum congestion issue by its capacity to detect idle frequency channels then, allowing an opportunistic exploitation of the RF spectrum. The present work aims to propose a new use case for aeronautical spectrum sharing and to study the performances of three different detection techniques: energy detector, matched filter and cyclostationary detector within the aeronautical use case. The spectrum in the proposed cognitive radio is allocated dynamically where each cognitive radio follows a cognitive cycle. The spectrum sensing is a crucial step. The goal of the sensing is gathering data about the surrounding environment. Cognitive radio can use different sensors: antennas, cameras, accelerometer, thermometer, etc. In IEEE 802.22 standard, for example, a primary user (PU) has always the priority to communicate. When a frequency channel witch used by the primary user is idle, the secondary user (SU) is allowed to transmit in this channel. The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is composed of a UHF transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF receiver/transmitter on the ground. While the future cognitive radio will be used jointly to alleviate the spectrum congestion issue in the aeronautical field. LDACS, for example, is a good candidate; it provides two isolated data-links: ground-to-air and air-to-ground data-links. The first contribution of the present work is a strategy allowing sharing the L-band. The adopted spectrum sharing strategy is as follow: the DME will play the role of PU which is the licensed user and the LDACS1 systems will be the SUs. The SUs could use the L-band channels opportunely as long as they do not causing harmful interference signals which affect the QoS of the DME system. Although the spectrum sensing is a key step, it helps detecting holes by determining whether the primary signal is present or not in a given frequency channel. A missing detection on primary user presence creates interference between PU and SU and will affect seriously the QoS of the legacy radio. In this study, first brief definitions, concepts and the state of the art of cognitive radio will be presented. Then, a study of three communication channel detection algorithms in a cognitive radio context is carried out. The study is made from the point of view of functions, material requirements and signal detection capability in the aeronautical field. Then, we presented a modeling of the detection problem by three different methods (energy, adapted filter, and cyclostationary) as well as an algorithmic description of these detectors is done. Then, we study and compare the performance of the algorithms. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB software. We analyzed the results based on ROCs curves for SNR between -10dB and 20dB. The three detectors have been tested with a synthetics and real world signals.

Keywords: aeronautic, communication, navigation, surveillance systems, cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, software defined radio

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128 Specification of Requirements to Ensure Proper Implementation of Security Policies in Cloud-Based Multi-Tenant Systems

Authors: Rebecca Zahra, Joseph G. Vella, Ernest Cachia

Abstract:

The notion of cloud computing is rapidly gaining ground in the IT industry and is appealing mostly due to making computing more adaptable and expedient whilst diminishing the total cost of ownership. This paper focuses on the software as a service (SaaS) architecture of cloud computing which is used for the outsourcing of databases with their associated business processes. One approach for offering SaaS is basing the system’s architecture on multi-tenancy. Multi-tenancy allows multiple tenants (users) to make use of the same single application instance. Their requests and configurations might then differ according to specific requirements met through tenant customisation through the software. Despite the known advantages, companies still feel uneasy to opt for the multi-tenancy with data security being a principle concern. The fact that multiple tenants, possibly competitors, would have their data located on the same server process and share the same database tables heighten the fear of unauthorised access. Security is a vital aspect which needs to be considered by application developers, database administrators, data owners and end users. This is further complicated in cloud-based multi-tenant system where boundaries must be established between tenants and additional access control models must be in place to prevent unauthorised cross-tenant access to data. Moreover, when altering the database state, the transactions need to strictly adhere to the tenant’s known business processes. This paper focuses on the fact that security in cloud databases should not be considered as an isolated issue. Rather it should be included in the initial phases of the database design and monitored continuously throughout the whole development process. This paper aims to identify a number of the most common security risks and threats specifically in the area of multi-tenant cloud systems. Issues and bottlenecks relating to security risks in cloud databases are surveyed. Some techniques which might be utilised to overcome them are then listed and evaluated. After a description and evaluation of the main security threats, this paper produces a list of software requirements to ensure that proper security policies are implemented by a software development team when designing and implementing a multi-tenant based SaaS. This would then assist the cloud service providers to define, implement, and manage security policies as per tenant customisation requirements whilst assuring security for the customers’ data.

Keywords: cloud computing, data management, multi-tenancy, requirements, security

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127 Large Core Silica Few-Mode Optical Fibers with Reduced Differential Mode Delay and Enhanced Mode Effective Area over 'C'-Band

Authors: Anton V. Bourdine, Vladimir A. Burdin, Oleg R. Delmukhametov

Abstract:

This work presents a fast and simple method for the design of large core silica optical fibers with differential mode delay (DMD) management. Some results are reported concerned with refractive index profile optimization for 42 µm core 16-LP-mode optical fiber for next-generation optical networks. Here special refractive index profile form provides total DMD reducing over all mode staff under desired enhanced mode effective area. Method for the simulation of 'real manufactured' few-mode optical fiber (FMF) core geometry differing from the desired optimized structure by core non-symmetrical ellipticity and refractive index profile deviation including local fluctuations is proposed. Results of the following analysis of optimized FMF with inserted geometry distortions performed by earlier on developed modification of rigorous mixed finite-element method showed strong DMD degradation that requires additional higher-order mode management. In addition, this work also presents a method for design mode division multiplexer channel precision spatial positioning scheme at FMF core end that provides one of the potentiality solutions of described DMD degradation problem concerned with 'distorted' core geometry due to features of optical fiber manufacturing techniques.

Keywords: differential mode delay, few-mode optical fibers, nonlinear Shannon limit, optical fiber non-circularity, ‘real manufactured’ optical fiber core geometry simulation, refractive index profile optimization

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126 Monitoring Co-Creation: A Survey of Lithuanian Urban Communities

Authors: Aelita Skarzauskiene, Monika Maciuliene

Abstract:

In this paper, we conduct a systematic survey of urban communities in Lithuania to evaluate their potential to co-create collective intelligence or “civic intelligence” applying Digital Co-creation Index methodology that includes different socio-technological indicators. Civic intelligence is a form of collective intelligence that refers to the group’s capacity to perceive societal problems and to address them effectively. The research focuses on evaluation of diverse organizational designs that increase efficient collective performance. The current scientific project advanced the state of the art by evaluating the basic preconditions in the urban communities through which the collective intelligence is being co-created under the systemic manner. The research subject is the “bottom up” digital enabled urban platforms, initiated by Lithuanian public organizations, civic movements or business entities. The web-based monitoring results obtained by applying a social indices calculation methodology and Pearson correlation analysis provided the information about the potential and limits of the urban communities and what possible changes need to be implemented to overcome the limitations.

Keywords: computer supported collaboration, socio-technological system, collective intelligence, networked society

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125 Detectability Analysis of Typical Aerial Targets from Space-Based Platforms

Authors: Yin Zhang, Kai Qiao, Xiyang Zhi, Jinnan Gong, Jianming Hu

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In order to achieve effective detection of aerial targets over long distances from space-based platforms, the mechanism of interaction between the radiation characteristics of the aerial targets and the complex scene environment including the sunlight conditions, underlying surfaces and the atmosphere are analyzed. A large simulated database of space-based radiance images is constructed considering several typical aerial targets, target working modes (flight velocity and altitude), illumination and observation angles, background types (cloud, ocean, and urban areas) and sensor spectrums ranging from visible to thermal infrared. The target detectability is characterized by the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) extracted from the images. The influence laws of the target detectability are discussed under different detection bands and instantaneous fields of view (IFOV). Furthermore, the optimal center wavelengths and widths of the detection bands are suggested, and the minimum IFOV requirements are proposed. The research can provide theoretical support and scientific guidance for the design of space-based detection systems and on-board information processing algorithms.

Keywords: space-based detection, aerial targets, detectability analysis, scene environment

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124 Electronic Payment Recording with Payment History Retrieval Module: A System Software

Authors: Adrian Forca, Simeon Cainday III

Abstract:

The Electronic Payment Recording with Payment History Retrieval Module is developed intendedly for the College of Science and Technology. This system software innovates the manual process of recording the payments done in the department through the development of electronic payment recording system software shifting from the slow and time-consuming procedure to quick yet reliable and accurate way of recording payments because it immediately generates receipts for every transaction. As an added feature to its software process, generation of recorded payment report is integrated eliminating the manual reporting to a more easy and consolidated report. As an added feature to the system, all recorded payments of the students can be retrieved immediately making the system transparent and reliable payment recording software. Viewing the whole process, the system software will shift from the manual process to an organized software technology because the information will be stored in a logically correct and normalized database. Further, the software will be developed using the modern programming language and implement strict programming methods to validate all users accessing the system, evaluate all data passed into the system and information retrieved to ensure data accuracy and reliability. In addition, the system will identify the user and limit its access privilege to establish boundaries of the specific access to information allowed for the store, modify, and update making the information secure against unauthorized data manipulation. As a result, the System software will eliminate the manual procedure and replace with an innovative modern information technology resulting to the improvement of the whole process of payment recording fast, secure, accurate and reliable software innovations.

Keywords: collection, information system, manual procedure, payment

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123 Quantifying Mobility of Urban Inhabitant Based on Social Media Data

Authors: Yuyun, Fritz Akhmad Nuzir, Bart Julien Dewancker

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Check-in locations on social media provide information about an individual’s location. The millions of units of data generated from these sites provide knowledge for human activity. In this research, we used a geolocation service and users’ texts posted on Twitter social media to analyze human mobility. Our research will answer the questions; what are the movement patterns of a citizen? And, how far do people travel in the city? We explore the people trajectory of 201,118 check-ins and 22,318 users over a period of one month in Makassar city, Indonesia. To accommodate individual mobility, the authors only analyze the users with check-in activity greater than 30 times. We used sampling method with a systematic sampling approach to assign the research sample. The study found that the individual movement shows a high degree of regularity and intensity in certain places. The other finding found that the average distance an urban inhabitant can travel per day is as far as 9.6 km.

Keywords: mobility, check-in, distance, Twitter

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122 Self-Disclosure of Location: Influences of Personality Traits, Intrinsic Motivations and Extrinsic Motivations

Authors: Chechen Liao, Sheng Yi Lin

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With the popularity of smartphone usage and the flourish of social networks, many people began to use the 'check-in' functions to share their location information and days of live and self-disclosure. In order to increase exposure and awareness, some stores provide discounts and other benefits to attract consumers to 'check-in' in their stores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether personality traits, intrinsic motivations, extrinsic motivations, and privacy concerns would affect self-disclosure of location for consumers. Research data were collected from 407 individuals that have used Facebook check-in in Taiwan. This study used SmartPLS 2.0 structural equation modeling to validate the model. The results show that information sharing, information storage, enjoyment, self-presentation, get a feedback, economic reward, and keep up with trends had significant positive effects on self-disclosure. While extroversion and openness to use have significant positive effects on self-disclosure, conscientiousness and privacy concerns have significant negative effects on self-disclosure. The results of the study provide academic and practical implications for the future growth of location-based self-disclosure.

Keywords: check-in, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, personality trait, self-disclosure

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121 Community Structure Detection in Networks Based on Bee Colony

Authors: Bilal Saoud

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to find the community structure in networks. Our method is based on bee colony and the maximization of modularity to find the community structure. We use a bee colony algorithm to find the first community structure that has a good value of modularity. To improve the community structure, that was found, we merge communities until we get a community structure that has a high value of modularity. We provide a general framework for implementing our approach. We tested our method on computer-generated and real-world networks with a comparison to very known community detection methods. The obtained results show the effectiveness of our proposition.

Keywords: bee colony, networks, modularity, normalized mutual information

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120 Internet Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Yi-Jing Tsai

Abstract:

As the advance of e-commerce technologies, the consumers buying behavior have changed. The focus on consumer buying behavior has already shifted from physical space to the cyberspace, which impulse buying is a major issue of concern. This study examines the stimulus effect of web environment on the consumer's emotional states, and in turn, affecting the urge of impulse buying based on a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) theory. Website ambiance and website service quality are the two stimulus variables. The study also explores the effects and the moderator effects of contextual variables and individual characteristic variables on the web environment, the emotional states and the urge of impulse buying. A total of 328 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that both website ambiance and website service quality have a positive effect on consumer emotion, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s trait of impulse buying has a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s hedonic motivation has a positive effect on both emotion state and the urge of impulse buying. On the other hand, the study found that money available for the consumer would positively affect consumer's emotion state and time available for the consumer would negatively affect the relationship between website service quality and consumer emotion. The result of this study validates Internet impulse buying behavior based on the S-O-R theory. This study also suggests that having a good website atmosphere and service quality is important to influencing consumers’ emotion and increasing the likelihood of consumer purchasing. The study could serve as a basis for the future research regarding online consumer behavior.

Keywords: emotion state, impulse buying, stimulus-organism-response, the urge of impulse buying

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119 Multi Tier Data Collection and Estimation, Utilizing Queue Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amirhossein Mohajerzadeh, Abolghasem Mohajerzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, target parameter is estimated with desirable precision in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSN) while the proposed algorithm also tries to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, using efficient data collecting algorithm. Target parameter distribution function is considered unknown. Sensor nodes sense the environment and send the data to the base station called fusion center (FC) using hierarchical data collecting algorithm. FC builds underlying phenomena based on collected data. Considering the aggregation level, x, the goal is providing the essential infrastructure to find the best value for aggregation level in order to prolong network lifetime as much as possible, while desirable accuracy is guaranteed (required sample size is fully depended on desirable precision). First, the sample size calculation algorithm is discussed, second, the average queue length based on M/M[x]/1/K queue model is determined and it is used for energy consumption calculation. Nodes can decrease transmission cost by aggregating incoming data. Furthermore, the performance of the new algorithm is evaluated in terms of lifetime and estimation accuracy.

Keywords: aggregation, estimation, queuing, wireless sensor network

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