Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 315

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Information and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

315 Protecting Privacy and Data Security in Online Business

Authors: Bilquis Ferdousi

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of an online business, the threat to consumers’ privacy and data security has become a serious challenge. This study focuses on a better understanding of those threats and what measures can be taken to face those challenges. Research shows that people are increasingly involved in online business; however, this practice varies based on age groups. There are some measures taken at the federal and state level to protect consumers’ privacy and data security in the USA. The study was based on an extensive review of current literature that focused on the need for protecting consumers’ privacy and data security, and the legislative measures that have been taken.

Keywords: privacy, data security, legislation, online business

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
314 Farm-Mine: Text Mining of Veterinary Forums for Epidemiological Surveillance Supplementation

Authors: Samuel Munaf, Kevin Swingler, Franz Brulisauer, Anthony O'hare, George Gunn, Aaron Reeves

Abstract:

Web scraping and texting mining are popular computer science methods deployed by public health researchers to augment traditional epidemiological surveillance. However, within the veterinary epidemiology domain, such techniques are still in the early stages of development and have not yet been fully utilised. As a result, there is an opportunity to explore the utility of incorporating internet-based data within this field to better understand the smallholder farming communities within Scotland by using online text extraction and the subsequent mining of this data. A combination of Python and R were used for data scraping of the forums, and text mining was applied to the data in search of common themes, words, and topics found within the text. Results from bi-grams and topic modelling uncover 4 main topics of interest within the data pertaining to aspects of livestock husbandry: Feeding, breeding, slaughter, and disposal. These topics were found amongst both the poultry and pig sub-forums. Topic modelling appears to be a useful method of unsupervised classification regarding this form of data, as it has produced clusters that relate to biosecurity and animal welfare. Internet data can be a very effective tool in aiding traditional veterinary surveillance methods, but the requirement for human validation of said data is crucial. This opens avenues of research via the incorporation of other dynamic social media data i.e., Twitter and Facebook, in addition to time series analysis.

Keywords: veterinary epidemiology, infoveillance, web scraping, topic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
313 Commercial Automobile Insurance: A Practical Approach of the Generalized Additive Model

Authors: Nicolas Plamondon, Stuart Atkinson, Shuzi Zhou

Abstract:

The insurance industry is usually not the first topic one has in mind when thinking about applications of data science. However, the use of data science in the finance and insurance industry is growing quickly for several reasons, including an abundance of reliable customer data, ferocious competition requiring more accurate pricing, etc. Among the top use cases of data science, we find pricing optimization, customer segmentation, customer risk assessment, fraud detection, marketing, and triage analytics. The objective of this paper is to present an application of the generalized additive model (GAM) on a commercial automobile insurance product: an individually rated commercial automobile. These are vehicles used for commercial purposes, but for which there is not enough volume to apply pricing to several vehicles at the same time. The GAM model was selected as an improvement over GLM for its ease of use and its wide range of applications. The model was trained using the largest split of the data to determine model parameters. The remaining part of the data was used as testing data to verify the quality of the modeling activity. We used the Gini coefficient to evaluate the performance of the model. For long-term monitoring, commonly used metrics such as RMSE and MAE will be used. Another topic of interest in the insurance industry is to process of producing the model. We will discuss at a high level the interactions between the different teams with an insurance company that needs to work together to produce a model and then monitor the performance of the model over time. Moreover, we will discuss the regulations in place in the insurance industry. Finally, we will discuss the maintenance of the model and the fact that new data does not come constantly and that some metrics can take a long time to become meaningful.

Keywords: insurance, data science, modeling, monitoring, regulation, processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
312 An Internet of Things Smart Washroom Framework

Authors: Robin Ratnasingham, Maher Elshakankiri

Abstract:

This research report will look at how to make a smart washroom to increase public hygiene and cleanliness. The system would use IoT devices to pick up various activities in the washroom and notify the appropriate stakeholders or devices to regulate the condition of the washroom. As more people are required to physically go back to the office or school, ensuring a clean and sanitized washroom is even more important now than before. It would help prevent virus outbreaks and safeguard the organization from shutdowns or slowdowns in their business. A framework of the suggested smart washroom was introduced to help reduce the chances of a virus outbreak. Most organizations outsource renovation or implementation to an external party. Using the smart washroom framework, we looked at vendors that provide smart washroom solutions. There are IoT vendors that cannot match the framework, and there are vendors that can support the framework design. This segment is a niche market, and most of the devices are similar in their basic functions. However, all the vendors have unique characteristics to give them a competitive advantage over the rest of the IoT washroom companies. Ultimately, the organization would need to decide if they want to add IoT devices to enable smart capability or renovate the washroom to create a fluid IoT smart washroom design. The report would introduce an IoT smart washroom framework to help organizations design a cohesive preventive measure network for the daily maintenance routine. The framework is designed to help understand how to manage washroom cleanliness more efficiently and to provide guidance in achieving this goal. The leading result is eliminating potential viral outbreaks that could jeopardize the organization.

Keywords: IoT, smart washroom, public hygiene, cleanliness, virus outbreaks, safeguard

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
311 Comparison of User Experience in VR When Hand Gestures Are Used vs. Using Controller

Authors: Sanu Muhammed C., Nihal Vadakkan, Sahil Athrij, Sasi Gopalan

Abstract:

Currently, the content entertainment industry is dominated by mobile devices. As the trends slowly shift towards AR/VR applications, the user experience on these devices should be considered, and we are trying to improve user experience in VR. This paper proposes a survey-based solution to improve user experience in VR. By creating a VR environment where users can move a ball from one position to another using a remote controller and another VR environment where users can move a ball from one place to another using hand gestures/ By allowing a set of audience to use these two environments, we can get their feedback. There are two steps in this comparison, 1) Using Hand Gestures To Move Ball In VR Environment: Here, we create a VR environment where two baskets are there, and one ball will be there in a basket. Here users can transfer the ball to another basket using hand gestures. They will be able to move the ball using hand gestures. 2) Using Remote Control To Move Ball In VR Environment: Here, we create a VR environment where two baskets are there, and one ball will be there in a basket. Here users can transfer the ball to another basket using a remote control. They will be able to move the ball using a remote controller. The above two environments are given to users to experience, and their responses will be recorded to compare the user experience in the above two environments.

Keywords: virtual reality, user experience, hand gestures, remote control

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
310 Protocol for Dynamic Load Distributed Low Latency Web-Based Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality

Authors: Rohit T. P., Sahil Athrij, Sasi Gopalan

Abstract:

Currently, the content entertainment industry is dominated by mobile devices. As the trends slowly shift towards Augmented/Virtual Reality applications the computational demands on these devices are increasing exponentially and we are already reaching the limits of hardware optimizations. This paper proposes a software solution to this problem. By leveraging the capabilities of cloud computing we can offload the work from mobile devices to dedicated rendering servers that are way more powerful. But this introduces the problem of latency. This paper introduces a protocol that can achieve high-performance low latency Augmented/Virtual Reality experience. There are two parts to the protocol, 1) In-flight compression The main cause of latency in the system is the time required to transmit the camera frame from client to server. The round trip time is directly proportional to the amount of data transmitted. This can therefore be reduced by compressing the frames before sending. Using some standard compression algorithms like JPEG can result in minor size reduction only. Since the images to be compressed are consecutive camera frames there won't be a lot of changes between two consecutive images. So inter-frame compression is preferred. Inter-frame compression can be implemented efficiently using WebGL but the implementation of WebGL limits the precision of floating point numbers to 16bit in most devices. This can introduce noise to the image due to rounding errors, which will add up eventually. This can be solved using an improved interframe compression algorithm. The algorithm detects changes between frames and reuses unchanged pixels from the previous frame. This eliminates the need for floating point subtraction thereby cutting down on noise. The change detection is also improved drastically by taking the weighted average difference of pixels instead of the absolute difference. The kernel weights for this comparison can be fine-tuned to match the type of image to be compressed. 2) Dynamic Load distribution Conventional cloud computing architectures work by offloading as much work as possible to the servers, but this approach can cause a hit on bandwidth and server costs. The most optimal solution is obtained when the device utilizes 100% of its resources and the rest is done by the server. The protocol balances the load between the server and the client by doing a fraction of the computing on the device depending on the power of the device and network conditions. The protocol will be responsible for dynamically partitioning the tasks. Special flags will be used to communicate the workload fraction between the client and the server and will be updated in a constant interval of time ( or frames ). The whole of the protocol is designed so that it can be client agnostic. Flags are available to the client for resetting the frame, indicating latency, switching mode, etc. The server can react to client-side changes on the fly and adapt accordingly by switching to different pipelines. The server is designed to effectively spread the load and thereby scale horizontally. This is achieved by isolating client connections into different processes.

Keywords: 2D kernelling, augmented reality, cloud computing, dynamic load distribution, immersive experience, mobile computing, motion tracking, protocols, real-time systems, web-based augmented reality application

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
309 Adoption of Digital Storytelling Tool to Teach 21st Century Skills by Malaysian Pre-service Teachers

Authors: Siti Aisyah binti Jumpaan

Abstract:

21ˢᵗ century skills (PAK-21) integration has made its way into Malaysian curriculum when Ministry of Education introduce its implementation since 2016. This study was conducted to explore pre-service teachers’ readiness in integrating 21st century skills in the classroom via the digital storytelling (DST) method and to find gaps between theory and practice that can be integral towards pre-service teachers’ professional growth. Qualitative research method was used in this research involving six respondents who were selected using a purposive sampling method. Their response from interviews and lesson plan analysis were analysed using narrative analysis. The findings showed that pre-service teachers showed a moderate level of readiness in integrating 21st century skills using DST. Pre-service teachers demonstrated high level of preparedness in writing their lesson plan, but their interview revealed that they faced struggles in implementation due to several factors, such as lack of technology and failure to obtain students’ participation. This study further strengthens the need for specialised curriculum for pre-service teachers in teaching 21st century skills via DST.

Keywords: digital storytelling, 21ˢᵗ century skills, preservice teachers, teacher training

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
308 The Algerian Experience in Developing Higher Education in the Country in Light of Modern Technology: Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Mohammed Messaoudi

Abstract:

The higher education sector in Algeria has witnessed in recent years a remarkable transformation, as it witnessed the integration of institutions within the modern technological environment and harnessing all appropriate mechanisms to raise the level of education and the level of training. Observers and those interested that it is necessary for the Algerian university to enter this field, especially with the efforts that seek to employ modern technology in the sector and encourage investment in this field, in addition to the state’s keenness to move towards building a path to benefit from modern technology, and to encourage energies in light of a reality that carries many Aspirations and challenges by achieving openness to the new digital environment and keeping pace with the ranks of international universities. Higher education is one of the engines of development for societies, as it is a vital field for the transfer of knowledge and scientific expertise, and the university is at the top of the comprehensive educational system for various disciplines in light of the achievement of a multi-dimensional educational system, and amid the integration of three basic axes that establish the sound educational process (teaching, research, relevant outputs efficiency), and according to a clear strategy that monitors the advancement of academic work, and works on developing its future directions to achieve development in this field. The Algerian University is considered one of the service institutions that seeks to find the optimal mechanisms to keep pace with the changes of the times, as it has become necessary for the university to enter the technological space and thus ensure the quality of education in it and achieve the required empowerment by dedicating a structure that matches the requirements of the challenges on which the sector is based, amid unremitting efforts to develop the capabilities. He sought to harness the mechanisms of communication and information technology and achieve transformation at the level of the higher education sector with what is called higher education technology. The conceptual framework of information and communication technology at the level of higher education institutions in Algeria is determined through the factors of organization, factors of higher education institutions, characteristics of the professor, characteristics of students, the outcomes of the educational process, and there is a relentless pursuit to achieve a positive interaction between these axes as they are basic components on which the success and achievement of higher education are based for his goals.

Keywords: Information and communication technology, Algerian university, scientific and cognitive development, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
307 Resale Housing Development Board Price Prediction Considering Covid-19 through Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Srinaath Anbu Durai, Wang Zhaoxia

Abstract:

Twitter sentiment has been used as a predictor to predict price values or trends in both the stock market and housing market. The pioneering works in this stream of research drew upon works in behavioural economics to show that sentiment or emotions impact economic decisions. Latest works in this stream focus on the algorithm used as opposed to the data used. A literature review of works in this stream through the lens of data used shows that there is a paucity of work that considers the impact of sentiments caused due to an external factor on either the stock or the housing market. This is despite an abundance of works in behavioural economics that show that sentiment or emotions caused due to an external factor impact economic decisions. To address this gap, this research studies the impact of Twitter sentiment pertaining to the Covid-19 pandemic on resale Housing Development Board (HDB) apartment prices in Singapore. It leverages SNSCRAPE to collect tweets pertaining to Covid-19 for sentiment analysis, lexicon based tools VADER and TextBlob are used for sentiment analysis, Granger Causality is used to examine the relationship between Covid-19 cases and the sentiment score, and neural networks are leveraged as prediction models. Twitter sentiment pertaining to Covid-19 as a predictor of HDB price in Singapore is studied in comparison with the traditional predictors of housing prices i.e., the structural and neighbourhood characteristics. The results indicate that using Twitter sentiment pertaining to Covid19 leads to better prediction than using only the traditional predictors and performs better as a predictor compared to two of the traditional predictors. Hence, Twitter sentiment pertaining to an external factor should be considered as important as traditional predictors. This paper demonstrates the real world economic applications of sentiment analysis of Twitter data.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, Covid-19, housing price prediction, tweets, social media, Singapore HDB, behavioral economics, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
306 Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Channel for Foglet Assisted Smart Asset Reporting

Authors: Hasan Farahneh

Abstract:

Smart asset management along roadsides and in deserted areas is a topic of deprived attention. We find most of the work in emergency reporting services in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and rural areas but not much in asset reporting. Currently, available asset management mechanisms are based on scheduled maintenance and do not effectively report any emergency situation in a timely manner. This paper is the continuation of our previous work, in which we proposed the usage of Foglets and VLC link between smart vehicles and road side assets. In this paper, we propose a hybrid communication system for asset management and emergency reporting architecture for smart transportation. We incorporate Foglets along with visible light communication (VLC) and radio frequency (RF) communication. We present the channel model and parameters of a hybrid model to support an intelligent transportation system (ITS) system. Simulations show high improvement in the system performance in terms of communication range and received data. We present a comparative analysis of a hybrid ITS system.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Foglets, VLC, RF, smart vehicle, roadside asset management

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
305 A Review of Encryption Algorithms Used in Cloud Computing

Authors: Derick M. Rakgoale, Topside E. Mathonsi, Vusumuzi Malele

Abstract:

Cloud computing offers distributed online and on-demand computational services from anywhere in the world. Cloud computing services have grown immensely over the past years, especially in the past year due to the Coronavirus pandemic. Cloud computing has changed the working environment and introduced work from work phenomenon, which enabled the adoption of technologies to fulfill the new workings, including cloud services offerings. The increased cloud computing adoption has come with new challenges regarding data privacy and its integrity in the cloud environment. Previously advanced encryption algorithms failed to reduce the memory space required for cloud computing performance, thus increasing the computational cost. This paper reviews the existing encryption algorithms used in cloud computing. In the future, artificial neural networks (ANN) algorithm design will be presented as a security solution to ensure data integrity, confidentiality, privacy, and availability of user data in cloud computing. Moreover, MATLAB will be used to evaluate the proposed solution, and simulation results will be presented.

Keywords: cloud computing, data integrity, confidentiality, privacy, availability

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
304 Utilize 5G Mobile Connection as a Node in the Proof of Authority Blockchain Used for Microtransaction

Authors: Frode van der Laak

Abstract:

The paper contributes to the feasibility of using a 5G mobile connection as a node for a Proof of Authority (PoA) blockchain, which is used for microtransactions at the same time. It uses the phone number identity of the users that are linked to the crypto wallet address. It also proposed a consensus protocol based on Proof-of-Authority (PoA) blockchain; PoA is a permission blockchain where consensus is achieved through a set of designated authority rather than through mining, as is the case with a Proof of Work (PoW) blockchain. This report will first explain the concept of a PoA blockchain and how it works. It will then discuss the potential benefits and challenges of using a 5G mobile connection as a node in such a blockchain, and finally, the main open problem statement and proposed solutions with the requirements.

Keywords: 5G, mobile, connection, node, PoA, blockchain, microtransaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
303 Segmented Pupil Phasing with Deep Learning

Authors: Dumont Maxime, Correia Carlos, Sauvage Jean-François, Schwartz Noah, Gray Morgan

Abstract:

Context: The concept of the segmented telescope is unavoidable to build extremely large telescopes (ELT) in the quest for spatial resolution, but it also allows one to fit a large telescope within a reduced volume of space (JWST) or into an even smaller volume (Standard Cubesat). Cubesats have tight constraints on the computational burden available and the small payload volume allowed. At the same time, they undergo thermal gradients leading to large and evolving optical aberrations. The pupil segmentation comes nevertheless with an obvious difficulty: to co-phase the different segments. The CubeSat constraints prevent the use of a dedicated wavefront sensor (WFS), making the focal-plane images acquired by the science detector the most practical alternative. Yet, one of the challenges for the wavefront sensing is the non-linearity between the image intensity and the phase aberrations. Plus, for Earth observation, the object is unknown and unrepeatable. Recently, several studies have suggested Neural Networks (NN) for wavefront sensing; especially convolutional NN, which are well known for being non-linear and image-friendly problem solvers. Aims: We study in this paper the prospect of using NN to measure the phasing aberrations of a segmented pupil from the focal-plane image directly without a dedicated wavefront sensing. Methods: In our application, we take the case of a deployable telescope fitting in a CubeSat for Earth observations which triples the aperture size (compared to the 10cm CubeSat standard) and therefore triples the angular resolution capacity. In order to reach the diffraction-limited regime in the visible wavelength, typically, a wavefront error below lambda/50 is required. The telescope focal-plane detector, used for imaging, will be used as a wavefront-sensor. In this work, we study a point source, i.e. the Point Spread Function [PSF] of the optical system as an input of a VGG-net neural network, an architecture designed for image regression/classification. Results: This approach shows some promising results (about 2nm RMS, which is sub lambda/50 of residual WFE with 40-100nm RMS of input WFE) using a relatively fast computational time less than 30 ms which translates a small computation burder. These results allow one further study for higher aberrations and noise.

Keywords: wavefront sensing, deep learning, deployable telescope, space telescope

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
302 A Miniaturized Circular Patch Antenna Based on Metamaterial for WI-FI Applications

Authors: Fatima Zahra Moussa, Yamina Belhadef, Souheyla Ferouani

Abstract:

In this work, we present a new form of miniature circular patch antenna based on CSRR metamaterials with an extended bandwidth proposed for 5 GHz Wi-Fiapplications. A reflection coefficient of -35 dB and a radiation pattern of 7.47 dB are obtained when simulating the initial proposed antenna with the CST microwave studio simulation software. The notch insertion technique in the radiating element was used for matching the antenna to the desired frequency in the frequency band [5150-5875] MHz.An extension of the bandwidth from 332 MHz to 1423 MHz was done by the DGS (defected ground structure) technique to meet the user's requirement in the 5 GHz Wi-Fi frequency band.

Keywords: patch antenna, miniaturisation, CSRR, notches, wifi, DGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
301 Design of Circular Patch Antenna in Terahertz Band for Medical Applications

Authors: Moulfi Bouchra, Ferouani Souheyla, Ziani Kerarti Djalal, Moulessehoul Wassila

Abstract:

The wireless body network (WBAN) is the most interesting network these days and especially with the appearance of contagious illnesses such as covid 19, which require surveillance in the house. In this article, we have designed a circular microstrip antenna. Gold is the material used respectively for the patch and the ground plane and Gallium (εr=12.94) is chosen as the dielectric substrate. The dimensions of the antenna are 82.10*62.84 μm2 operating at a frequency of 3.85 THz. The proposed, designed antenna has a return loss of -46.046 dB and a gain of 3.74 dBi, and it can measure various physiological parameters and sensors that help in the overall monitoring of an individual's health condition.

Keywords: circular patch antenna, Terahertz transmission, WBAN applications, real-time monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
300 Improving Data Completeness and Timely Reporting: A Joint Collaborative Effort between Partners in Health and Ministry of Health in Remote Areas, Neno District, Malawi

Authors: Wiseman Emmanuel Nkhomah, Chiyembekezo Kachimanga, Moses Banda Aron, Julia Higgins, Manuel Mulwafu, Kondwani Mpinga, Mwayi Chunga, Grace Momba, Enock Ndarama, Dickson Sumphi, Atupere Phiri, Fabien Munyaneza

Abstract:

Background: Data is key to supporting health service delivery as stakeholders, including NGOs rely on it for effective service delivery, decision making and system strengthening. Several studies generated debate in data quality from national health management information systems (HMIS) in sub-Saharan Africa. This limits utilizations of data in resource-limited settings which already struggle to meet standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO). We aimed at evaluating data quality improvement of Neno district HMIS over a 4-year period (2018 – 2021) following quarterly data reviews introduced in January 2020 by the district health management team and Partners In Health. Methods: Exploratory Mixed Research was used to examine report rates followed by in-depth interviews using Key Informant Interview (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). We used WHO module desk review to assess the quality of HMIS data in Neno district captured from 2018 to 2021. Metrics assessed included completeness and timeliness of 34 reports. Completeness was measured as percentage of non-missing reports. Timeliness was measured as span between data inputs and expected outputs meeting needs. We computed T-Test, recorded P-values, summaries and percentage change using R and Excel 2016. We analyzed demographics for key informant interviews in Power BI. We developed themes from 7 FGDs and 11 KIIs using Dedoose software from which we picked perceptions of healthcare workers, interventions implemented and improvement suggestions. The study was reviewed and approved by Malawi National Health Science Research Committee (IRB: 22/02/2866). Results: Overall, average reporting completeness rate was 83.4% (before) and 98.1% (after) while timeliness was 68.1% and 76.4 respectively. Completeness of reports increased over time: 2018, 78.8%; 2019, 88%; 2020, 96.3% and 2021, 99.9% (p< 0.004). Trend for timeliness has been declining except in 2021 where it improved: 2018, 68.4%; 2019, 68.3%; 2020, 67.1% and 2021, 81% (p< 0.279). Comparing 2021 reporting rates to the mean of three preceding years, both completeness increased from 88% to 99% (in 2021) while timeliness from 68% to 81%. Sixty-five percent of reports have maintained meeting national standard of 90%+ in completeness while only 24% in timeliness. Thirty-Two percent of reports met national standard. Only 9% improved on both completeness and timeliness and these are; Cervical Cancer, Nutrition Care Support and Treatment and Youth Friendly Health Services reports. 50% of reports did not improve to standard in timeliness and only one did not in completeness. On the other hand, factors associated with improvement included improved communications and reminders using internal communication, data quality assessments, checks and reviews. Decentralizing data entry at facility level was suggested to improve timeliness. Conclusion: Findings suggest that data quality in HMIS for the district has improved following collaborative efforts. We recommend maintaining such initiatives to identify remaining quality gaps and that results be shared publicly to support increased use of data. These results can inform Ministry of Health and its partners on some interventions and advise initiatives for improving its quality.

Keywords: data quality, data utilization, HMIS, collaboration, completeness, timeliness, decision-making

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
299 An Analysis into Global Suicide Trends and Their Relation to Current Events Through a Socio-Cultural Lens

Authors: Lyndsey Kim

Abstract:

We utilized country-level data on suicide rates from 1985 through 2015 provided by the WHO to explore global trends as well as country-specific trends. First, we find that up until 1995, there was an increase in suicide rates globally, followed by a steep decline in deaths. This observation is largely driven by the data from Europe, where suicides are prominent but steadily declining. Second, men are more likely to commit suicide than women across the world over the years. Third, the older generation is more likely to commit suicide than youth and adults. Finally, we turn to Durkheim’s theory and use it as a lens to understand trends in suicide across time and countries and attempt to identify social and economic events that might explain patterns that we observe. For example, we discovered a drastically different pattern in suicide rates in the US, with a steep increase in suicides in the early 2000s. We hypothesize this might be driven by both the 9/11 attacks and the recession of 2008.

Keywords: suicide trends, current events, data analysis, world health organization, durkheim theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
298 Effects of Self-Disclosure and Transparency on Conversational Agents in a Healthcare-Related Decision Support System

Authors: Luca Martignoni, Joseph Nserat, Eric Arand, Marvin Braun

Abstract:

The increasing application of conversational agents in healthcare and the demand for applications that enable patients to take informed decisions is changing the way patients access healthcare and take decisions. Promising results related to the acceptance of CAs in healthcare have been accomplished. In that regard, understanding how to design CAs in a way that patients trust their recommendations and decisions constitutes an important area of research. Our study examines self-disclosure and transparency as drivers of trust to enhance the medical assistance of CAs for patients. Accordingly, we examined the effects of self-disclosure and transparency on patients trust and service satisfaction by conducting an online experiment with 136 participants. Our results show that the expression of both self-disclosure and conversational agents transparency leads to an increased perception of trust but does not necessarily improve the service satisfaction. Therefore, developers should implement self-disclosure and transparency to create a trustworthy environment.

Keywords: conversational agent, transparency, self-disclosure, healthcare

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
297 Schooling Culture in Egyptian Public Schools: Reform in Professional Development for Equity and hope in Education

Authors: Nora El-Bilawia

Abstract:

This paper discovers the challenges and/or opportunities to implementing multiple intelligence (MI) practices in English as foreign language (EFL) classrooms at Egyptian public schools as part of the government’s educational reform plan. It is found that Egyptian EFL teachers value the use of MI’s ways of teaching as means for active and higher order thinking. However, teachers believed they were underprivileged, as the government did not provide appropriate trainings, tools, or means to integrate MI in their daily lessons. They also conferred challenges they face due to some Egyptian schooling cultural practices. At the end of this chapter, a proposed need for a paradigm shift in the schooling culture in Egypt to implement practical changes in schools to promote hope in education such as the use of MI teaching tools. This study promotes cross-cultural understanding of educational opportunities and efforts for equal learning outcomes around the globe.

Keywords: professional development, schooling culture, acculturation, equitable education

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
296 Machine Learning and Deep Learning Approach for People Recognition and Tracking in Crowd for Safety Monitoring

Authors: A. Degale Desta, Cheng Jian

Abstract:

Deep learning application in computer vision is rapidly advancing, giving it the ability to monitor the public and quickly identify potentially anomalous behaviour from crowd scenes. Therefore, the purpose of the current work is to improve the performance of safety of people in crowd events from panic behaviour through introducing the innovative idea of Aggregation of Ensembles (AOE), which makes use of the pre-trained ConvNets and a pool of classifiers to find anomalies in video data with packed scenes. According to the theory of algorithms that applied K-means, KNN, CNN, SVD, and Faster-CNN, YOLOv5 architectures learn different levels of semantic representation from crowd videos; the proposed approach leverages an ensemble of various fine-tuned convolutional neural networks (CNN), allowing for the extraction of enriched feature sets. In addition to the above algorithms, a long short-term memory neural network to forecast future feature values and a handmade feature that takes into consideration the peculiarities of the crowd to understand human behavior. On well-known datasets of panic situations, experiments are run to assess the effectiveness and precision of the suggested method. Results reveal that, compared to state-of-the-art methodologies, the system produces better and more promising results in terms of accuracy and processing speed.

Keywords: action recognition, computer vision, crowd detecting and tracking, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
295 Early Prediction of Disposable Addresses in Ethereum Blockchain

Authors: Ahmad Saleem

Abstract:

Ethereum is the second largest crypto currency in blockchain ecosystem. Along with standard transactions, it supports smart contracts and NFT’s. Current research trends are focused on analyzing the overall structure of the network its growth and behavior. Ethereum addresses are anonymous and can be created on fly. The nature of Ethereum network and addresses make it hard to predict their behavior. The activity period of an ethereum address is not much analyzed. Using machine learning we can make early prediction about the disposability of the address. In this paper we analyzed the lifetime of the addresses. We also identified and predicted the disposable addresses using machine learning models and compared the results.

Keywords: blockchain, Ethereum, cryptocurrency, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
294 Operations Guide Implementation Practice in Information Technology Organizations

Authors: Ziad M. Hejazi, Hani F. Mokhtar, Mohammed S. Bahabri, Mohammed H. Ghafouri, Ahmed S. Bahaitham

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the efforts taken by an Information Technology (IT) organization at Saudi Aramco to establish Operations Guide in a practical manner. Review of related work and literature revealed several important aspects to be considered when implementing the operation guide including Identify supporting IT groups, specify each group roles and responsibilities, formulate the IT operations in terms of processes (input/output), list each process main steps, provide the details of each process main step, develop the RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed) chart, highlight the process KPI’s, utilized systems, and forms. Identified aspects were then addressed in the actual implementation via several practices, including developing the operation guide for all IT supported operations, creating a shared folder for the operations guide, and announcing the implementation to all IT staff. The implementation of the mentioned practice was benchmarked, identified as best in class, and adopted by other internal organizations. Moreover, it was evident and appreciated by IT management. The significance of this study stems from the fact that it might be among the first studies in Saudi Arabia that propose a practical guideline to implement IT operations guide by IT organizations. Additional research significance comes from the study being conducted in Saudi Aramco, one of the world’s biggest integrated energy and petrochemical companies.

Keywords: operations guide, process implementation, Saudi Aramco company, information technology, standard of procedure

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
293 Digital Joint Equivalent Channel Hybrid Precoding for Millimeterwave Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems

Authors: Lingyu Wang, Mingjun Zhu, Jianhong Xiang, Hanyu Jiang

Abstract:

Aiming at the problem that the spectral efficiency of hybrid precoding (HP) is too low in the current millimeter wave (mmWave) massive multiple input multiple outputs (MIMO) system, this paper proposes a digital joint equivalent channel hybrid precoding algorithm, which is based on the introduction of digital encoding matrix iteration. First, the objective function is expanded to obtain the relation equation, and the pseudoinverse iterative function of the analog encoder is derived by using the pseudoinverse method, which solves the problem of greatly increasing the amount of computation caused by the lack of rank of the digital encoding matrix, and reduces the overall complexity of hybrid precoding. Secondly, the analog coding matrix and the millimeter-wave sparse channel matrix are combined into an equivalent channel, and then the equivalent channel is subjected to Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to obtain a digital coding matrix, and then the derived pseudoinverse iterative function is used to iteratively regenerates the simulated encoding matrix. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves the system spectral efficiency by 10~20%compared with other algorithms, and the stability is also improved.

Keywords: mmWave, massive MIMO, hybrid precoding, singular value decompositing, equivalent channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
292 Navigating States of Emergency: A Preliminary Comparison of Online Public Reaction to COVID-19 and Monkeypox on Twitter

Authors: Antonia Egli, Theo Lynn, Pierangelo Rosati, Gary Sinclair

Abstract:

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines vaccine hesitancy as the postponement or complete denial of vaccines and estimates a direct linkage to approximately 1.5 million avoidable deaths annually. This figure is not immune to public health developments, as has become evident since the global spread of COVID-19 from Wuhan, China in early 2020. Since then, the proliferation of influential, but oftentimes inaccurate, outdated, incomplete, or false vaccine-related information on social media has impacted hesitancy levels to a degree described by the WHO as an infodemic. The COVID-19 pandemic and related vaccine hesitancy levels have in 2022 resulted in the largest drop in childhood vaccinations of the 21st century, while the prevalence of online stigma towards vaccine hesitant consumers continues to grow. Simultaneously, a second disease has risen to global importance: Monkeypox is an infection originating from west and central Africa and, due to racially motivated online hate, was in August 2022 set to be renamed by the WHO. To better understand public reactions towards two viral infections that became global threats to public health no two years apart, this research examines user replies to threads published by the WHO on Twitter. Replies to two Tweets from the @WHO account declaring COVID-19 and Monkeypox as ‘public health emergencies of international concern’ on January 30, 2020, and July 23, 2022, are gathered using the Twitter application programming interface and user mention timeline endpoint. Research methodology is unique in its analysis of stigmatizing, racist, and hateful content shared on social media within the vaccine discourse over the course of two disease outbreaks. Three distinct analyses are conducted to provide insight into (i) the most prevalent topics and sub-topics among user reactions, (ii) changes in sentiment towards the spread of the two diseases, and (iii) the presence of stigma, racism, and online hate. Findings indicate an increase in hesitancy to accept further vaccines and social distancing measures, the presence of stigmatizing content aimed primarily at anti-vaccine cohorts and racially motivated abusive messages, and a prevalent fatigue towards disease-related news overall. This research provides value to non-profit organizations or government agencies associated with vaccines and vaccination programs in emphasizing the need for public health communication fitted to consumers' vaccine sentiments, levels of health information literacy, and degrees of trust towards public health institutions. Considering the importance of addressing fears among the vaccine hesitant, findings also illustrate the risk of alienation through stigmatization, lead future research in probing the relatively underexamined field of online, vaccine-related stigma, and discuss the potential effects of stigma towards vaccine hesitant Twitter users in their decisions to vaccinate.

Keywords: social marketing, social media, public health communication, vaccines

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
291 Sidelobe Free Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Non Cooperative Moving Targets Using WiFi

Authors: Jiamin Huang, Shuliang Gui, Zengshan Tian, Fei Yan, Xiaodong Wu

Abstract:

In recent years, with the rapid development of radio frequency technology, the differences between radar sensing and wireless communication in terms of receiving and sending channels, signal processing, data management and control are gradually shrinking. There has been a trend of integrated communication radar sensing. However, most of the existing radar imaging technologies based on communication signals are combined with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, which does not conform to the practical application case of the integration of communication and radar. Therefore, in this paper proposes a high-precision imaging method using communication signals based on the imaging mechanism of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. This method makes full use of the structural characteristics of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal, so the sidelobe effect in distance compression is removed and combines radon transform and Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT) parameter estimation methods to achieve ISAR imaging of non-cooperative targets. The simulation experiment and measured results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the method, and prove its broad application prospects in the field of intelligent transportation.

Keywords: integration of communication and radar, OFDM, radon, FrFT, ISAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
290 Image Reconstruction Method Based on L0 Norm

Authors: Jianhong Xiang, Hao Xiang, Linyu Wang

Abstract:

Compressed sensing (CS) has a wide range of applications in sparse signal reconstruction. Aiming at the problems of low recovery accuracy and long reconstruction time of existing reconstruction algorithms in medical imaging, this paper proposes a corrected smoothing L0 algorithm based on compressed sensing (CSL0). First, an approximate hyperbolic tangent function (AHTF) that is more similar to the L0 norm is proposed to approximate the L0 norm. Secondly, in view of the "sawtooth phenomenon" in the steepest descent method and the problem of sensitivity to the initial value selection in the modified Newton method, the use of the steepest descent method and the modified Newton method are jointly optimized to improve the reconstruction accuracy. Finally, the CSL0 algorithm is simulated on various images. The results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper improves the reconstruction accuracy of the test image by 0-0. 98dB.

Keywords: smoothed L0, compressed sensing, image processing, sparse reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
289 Pilot-free Image Transmission System of Joint Source Channel Based on Multi-Level Semantic Information

Authors: Linyu Wang, Liguo Qiao, Jianhong Xiang, Hao Xu

Abstract:

In semantic communication, the existing joint Source Channel coding (JSCC) wireless communication system without pilot has unstable transmission performance and can not effectively capture the global information and location information of images. In this paper, a pilot-free image transmission system of joint source channel based on multi-level semantic information (Multi-level JSCC) is proposed. The transmitter of the system is composed of two networks. The feature extraction network is used to extract the high-level semantic features of the image, compress the information transmitted by the image, and improve the bandwidth utilization. Feature retention network is used to preserve low-level semantic features and image details to improve communication quality. The receiver also is composed of two networks. The received high-level semantic features are fused with the low-level semantic features after feature enhancement network in the same dimension, and then the image dimension is restored through feature recovery network, and the image location information is effectively used for image reconstruction. This paper verifies that the proposed multi-level JSCC algorithm can effectively transmit and recover image information in both AWGN channel and Rayleigh fading channel, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is improved by 1~2dB compared with other algorithms under the same simulation conditions.

Keywords: deep learning, JSCC, pilot-free picture transmission, multilevel semantic information, robustness

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
288 Research on Pilot Sequence Design Method of MIMO-OFDM System Based on High Power Joint Criterion

Authors: Linyu Wang, Jiahui Ma, Jianhong Xiang, Hanyu Jiang

Abstract:

For the pilot design of the sparse channel estimation model in Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, the observation matrix constructed according to the matrix cross-correlation criterion, total correlation criterion and other optimization criteria is not optimal, resulting in inaccurate channel estimation and high bit error rate at the receiver. This paper proposes a pilot design method combining high-power sum and high-power variance criteria, which can more accurately estimate the channel. First, the pilot insertion position is designed according to the high-power variance criterion under the condition of equal power. Then, according to the high power sum criterion, the pilot power allocation is converted into a cone programming problem, and the power allocation is carried out. Finally, the optimal pilot is determined by calculating the weighted sum of the high power sum and the high power variance. Compared with the traditional pilot frequency, under the same conditions, the constructed MIMO-OFDM system uses the optimal pilot frequency for channel estimation, and the communication bit error rate performance obtains a gain of 6~7dB.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, pilot optimization, compressed sensing, channel estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
287 Artificial Intelligence for Cloud Computing

Authors: Sandesh Achar

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence is being increasingly incorporated into many applications across various sectors such as health, education, security, and agriculture. Recently, there has been rapid development in cloud computing technology, resulting in AI’s implementation into cloud computing to enhance and optimize the technology service rendered. The deployment of AI in cloud-based applications has brought about autonomous computing, whereby systems achieve stated results without human intervention. Despite the amount of research into autonomous computing, work incorporating AI/ML into cloud computing to enhance its performance and resource allocation remain a fundamental challenge. This paper highlights different manifestations, roles, trends, and challenges related to AI-based cloud computing models. This work reviews and highlights excellent investigations and progress in the domain. Future directions are suggested for leveraging AI/ML in next-generation computing for emerging computing paradigms such as cloud environments. Adopting AI-based algorithms and techniques to increase operational efficiency, cost savings, automation, reducing energy consumption and solving complex cloud computing issues are the major findings outlined in this paper.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, cloud computing, deep learning, machine learning, internet of things

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
286 An Investigation on Engineering Students’ Perceptions Towards E-learning in the UK

Authors: Vida Razzaghifard

Abstract:

E-learning, also known as online learning, has indicated an increased growth in recent years. One of the critical factors in the successful application of e-learning in higher education is students’ perceptions towards it. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of engineering students about e-learning in UK. For the purpose of the present study, 145 second year Engineering students were randomly selected from the total population of 1280 participants. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 16 items. The data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The findings of the study revealed that the majority of participants have negative perceptions on e-learning. Most of the students had trouble interacting effectively during online classes. Furthermore, the majority of participants had negative experiences with the learning platform they used during e-learning. Suggestions were made on what could be done to improve the students’ perceptions towards e-learning.

Keywords: E-learning, higher, education, engineering education, online learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 26