Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 218

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Information and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

218 CPW-Fed Broadband Circularly Polarized Planar Antenna with Improved Ground

Authors: Gnanadeep Gudapati, V. Annie Grace


A broadband circular polarization (CP) feature is designed for a CPW-fed planar printed monopole antenna. A rectangle patch and an improved ground plane make up the antenna. The antenna's impedance bandwidth can be increased by adding a vertical stub and a horizontal slit in the ground plane. The measured results show that the proposed antenna has a wide 10-dB return loss bandwidth of 70.2% (4.35GHz, 3.7-8.1GHz) centered at 4.2 GHz.

Keywords: CPW-fed, circular polarised, FR4 epoxy, slit and stub

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217 A Comparative Study Of Cognitive Factors Affecting Social Distancing Among Vaccinated And Unvaccinated Filipinos

Authors: Emmanuel Carlo Belara, Albert John Dela Merced, Mark Anthony Dominguez, Diomari Erasga, Jerome Ferrer, Bernard Ombrog


Social distancing errors are a common prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the Filipino community. This study aims to identify and relate the factors on how they affect our daily lives. Observed factors include memory, attention, anxiety, decision-making, and stress. Upon applying the ergonomic tools and statistical treatment such as t-test and multiple linear regression, stress and attention turned out to have the most impact to the errors of social distancing.

Keywords: vaccinated, unvaccinated, socoal distancing, filipinos

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216 Bringing Design Science Research Methodology into Real World Applications

Authors: Maya Jaber


In today's ever-changing world, organizational leaders will need to transform their organizations to meet the demands they face from employees, consumers, local and federal governments, and the global market. Change agents and leaders will need a new paradigm of thinking for creative problem solving and innovation in a time of uncertainty. A new framework that is developed from Design Science Research foundations with holistic design thinking methodologies (HTDM) and action research approaches has been developed through Dr. Jaber’s research. It combines these philosophies into a three-step process that can be utilized in practice for any sustainability, change, or project management applications. This framework was developed to assist in the pedagogy for the implementation of her holistic strategy formalized framework Integral Design Thinking (IDT). Her work focuses on real world application for the streamlining and adoption of initiatives into organizational culture transformation. This paper will discuss the foundations of this philosophy and the methods for utilization in practice developed in Dr. Jaber's research.

Keywords: design science research, action research, critical thinking, design thinking, organizational transformation, sustainability management, organizational culture change

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215 Dielectric Thickness Modulation Based Optically Transparent Leaky Wave Antenna Design

Authors: Waqar Ali Khan


A leaky-wave antenna design is proposed which is based on the realization of a certain kind of surface impedance profile that allows the existence of a perturbed surface wave (fast wave) that radiates. The antenna is realized by using optically transparent material Plexiglas. Plexiglas behaves as a dielectric at radio frequencies and is transparent at optical frequencies. In order to have a ground plane for the microwave frequencies, metal strips are used parallel to the E field of the operating mode. The microwave wavelength chosen is large enough such that it does not resolve the metal strip ground plane and sees it to be a uniform ground plane. While, at optical frequencies, the metal strips do have some shadowing effect. However still, about 62% of optical power can be transmitted through the antenna.

Keywords: Plexiglass, surface-wave, optically transparent, metal strip

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214 Seamless Handover in Urban 5G-UAV Systems Using Entropy Weighted Method

Authors: Anirudh Sunil Warrier, Saba Al-Rubaye, Dimitrios Panagiotakopoulos, Gokhan Inalhan, Antonios Tsourdos


The demand for increased data transfer rate and network traffic capacity has given rise to the concept of heterogeneous networks. Heterogeneous networks are wireless networks, consisting of devices using different underlying radio access technologies (RAT). For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) this enhanced data rate and network capacity is even more critical especially in their applications of medicine, delivery missions and military. In an urban heterogeneous network environment, the UAVs must be able switch seamlessly from one base station (BS) to another for maintaining a reliable link. Therefore, seamless handover in such urban environments have become a major challenge. In this paper, a novel scheme to achieve seamless handover is developed, an algorithm based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) criterion for network selection is used and Entropy Weighted Method (EWM) is implemented for decision making. Seamless handover using EWM decision-making is demonstrated successfully for a UAV moving across fifth generation(5G) and long-term evolution (LTE) networks via a simulation level analysis. Thus, a solution for UAV-5G communication, specifically the mobility challenge in heterogeneous networks is solved and this work could act as step forward in making UAV-5G architecture integration a possibility.

Keywords: air to ground (A2G), fifth generation (5G), handover, mobility, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), urban environments

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213 Developed CNN Model with Various Input Scale Data Evaluation for Bearing Faults Prognostics

Authors: Anas H. Aljemely, Jianping Xuan


Rolling bearing fault diagnosis plays a pivotal issue in the rotating machinery of modern manufacturing. In this research, a raw vibration signal and improved deep learning method for bearing fault diagnosis are proposed. The multi-dimensional scales of raw vibration signals are selected for evaluation condition monitoring system, and the deep learning process has shown its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. In the proposed method, employing an Exponential linear unit (ELU) layer in a convolutional neural network (CNN) that conducts the identical function on positive data, an exponential nonlinearity on negative inputs, and a particular convolutional operation to extract valuable features. The identification results show the improved method has achieved the highest accuracy with a 100-dimensional scale and increase the training and testing speed.

Keywords: bearing fault prognostics, developed CNN model, multiple-scale evaluation, deep learning features

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212 Improved Anatomy Teaching by the 3D Slicer Platform

Authors: Ahmedou Moulaye Idriss, Yahya Tfeil


Medical imaging technology has become an indispensable tool in many branches of the biomedical, health area, and research and is vitally important for the training of professionals in these fields. It is not only about the tools, technologies, and knowledge provided but also about the community that this training project proposes. In order to be able to raise the level of anatomy teaching in the medical school of Nouakchott in Mauritania, it is necessary and even urgent to facilitate access to modern technology for African countries. The role of technology as a key driver of justifiable development has long been recognized. Anatomy is an essential discipline for the training of medical students; it is a key element for the training of medical specialists. The quality and results of the work of a young surgeon depend on his better knowledge of anatomical structures. The teaching of anatomy is difficult as the discipline is being neglected by medical students in many academic institutions. However, anatomy remains a vital part of any medical education program. When anatomy is presented in various planes medical students approve of difficulties in understanding. They do not increase their ability to visualize and mentally manipulate 3D structures. They are sometimes not able to correctly identify neighbouring or associated structures. This is the case when they have to make the identification of structures related to the caudate lobe when the liver is moved to different positions. In recent decades, some modern educational tools using digital sources tend to replace old methods. One of the main reasons for this change is the lack of cadavers in laboratories with poorly qualified staff. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated mathematical models, image processing, and visualization tools in biomedical imaging research have enabled sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) representations of anatomical structures. In this paper, we report our current experience in the Faculty of Medicine in Nouakchott Mauritania. One of our main aims is to create a local learning community in the fields of anatomy. The main technological platform used in this project is called 3D Slicer. 3D Slicer platform is an open-source application available for free for viewing, analysis, and interaction with biomedical imaging data. Using the 3D Slicer platform, we created from real medical images anatomical atlases of parts of the human body, including head, thorax, abdomen, liver, and pelvis, upper and lower limbs. Data were collected from several local hospitals and also from the website. We used MRI and CT-Scan imaging data from children and adults. Many different anatomy atlases exist, both in print and digital forms. Anatomy Atlas displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labelled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. Open and free online anatomical atlases developed by our anatomy laboratory team will be available to our students. This will allow pedagogical autonomy and remedy the shortcomings by responding more fully to the objectives of sustainable local development of quality education and good health at the national level. To make this work a reality, our team produced several atlases available in our faculty in the form of research projects.

Keywords: anatomy, education, medical imaging, three dimensional

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211 Load Balancing and Resource Utilization in Cloud Computing

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur


Cloud computing uses various computing resources such as CPU, memory, processor etc. which is used to deliver service over the network and is one of the emerging fields for large scale distributed computing. In cloud computing, execution of large number of tasks with available resources to achieve high performance, minimal total time for completion, minimum response time, effective utilization of resources etc. are the major research areas. In the proposed research, an algorithm has been proposed to achieve high performance in load balancing and resource utilization. The proposed algorithm is used to reduce the makespan, increase the resource utilization and performance cost for independent tasks. Further scheduling metrics based on algorithm in cloud computing has been proposed.

Keywords: resource utilization, response time, load balancing, performance cost

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210 Bitcoin Adoption in E-Transaction: Barriers of Its Implementation

Authors: Naby Nouhou Conde, Adamu Abubakar Ibrahim, Norbik Idris, Hazwani Mohd Mohadis


Cryptocurrency is a type of cryptographic e-currency generated by the computational result of mathematical techniques throughout blockchain technology. It has bitcoin as the world's first decentralized anonymous digital currency, which allows online transactions without relying on any third-party institutions or government. Though bitcoin is considered as one of the secure online integrated payment systems in financial transactions for many different businesses, it is still struggling for its integration, and people are reluctant to embrace its adoption. Therefore, to address this gap, the research utilized a quantitative method survey built on theories of Technological Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Delone and McLean Information System Success Model, and Self-determination Theory Model (SDT) to examine the factors influencing its adoption in e-payment. We used a sample of 402 participants for the analysis where seven main variables and nine hypotheses got formulated and tested using PLS-SEM path modeling with SPSS. The result shows that the analysis of the data provided support for all the hypotheses and established a positive relationship between variables, and the findings obtained have both academic and practical worth in terms of information systems technology adoption for improving the understanding of factors influencing bitcoin adoption in e-transaction.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, bitcoin, resource appropriateness, perceived trust, perceived risk

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209 A Survey of Dynamic QoS Methods in Sofware Defined Networking

Authors: Vikram Kalekar


Modern Internet Protocol (IP) networks deploy traditional and modern Quality of Service (QoS) management methods to ensure the smooth flow of network packets during regular operations. SDN (Software-defined networking) networks have also made headway into better service delivery by means of novel QoS methodologies. While many of these techniques are experimental, some of them have been tested extensively in controlled environments, and few of them have the potential to be deployed widely in the industry. With this survey, we plan to analyze the approaches to QoS and resource allocation in SDN, and we will try to comment on the possible improvements to QoS management in the context of SDN.

Keywords: QoS, policy, congestion, flow management, latency, delay index terms-SDN, delay

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208 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh


Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

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207 The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR) in a Constrained Environment

Authors: Dipo Dunsin


Digital investigators often have a hard time spotting evidence in digital information. It has become hard to determine which source of proof relates to a specific investigation. A growing concern is that the various processes, technology, and specific procedures used in the digital investigation are not keeping up with criminal developments. Therefore, the criminals are taking advantage of these weaknesses to commit further crimes. In digital forensics investigations, Artificial Intelligence is invaluable in identifying crime. It has been observed that an algorithm based on artificial intelligence (AI) is highly effective in detecting risks, preventing criminal activity, and forecasting illegal activity. Providing objective data and conducting an assessment is the goal of digital forensics and digital investigation, which will assist in developing a plausible theory that can be presented as evidence in court. Researchers and other authorities have used the available data as evidence in court to convict a person. This research paper aims at developing a multi-agent framework for digital investigations using specific intelligent software agents (ISA). During each task, the agents communicate to address particular tasks jointly and keep the same objectives in mind. The rules and knowledge contained within each agent are dependent on the investigation type. A criminal investigation is classified quickly and efficiently using the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique. The MADIK is implemented using the Java Agent Development Framework and implemented using Eclipse, Postgres repository and a rule engine for agent reasoning. Testing of the proposed framework was carried out using the Lone Wolf image files and datasets. Experiments were conducted using various sets of ISA and VMs. There was a significant reduction in the time taken for the Hash Set Agent to execute. As a result of loading the agents, 5 percent of the time was lost, as the File Path Agent prescribed deleting 1,510, while the Timeline Agent found multiple executable files. In comparison, the integrity check carried out on the Lone Wolf image file using a digital forensic tool kit took approximately 48 minutes (2,880ms), whereas the MADIK framework accomplished this in 16 minutes (960ms). The framework is integrated with Python, allowing for further integration of other digital forensic tools, such as AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK), Wireshark, Volatility, and Scapy.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, computer science, criminal investigation, digital forensics

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206 Anti-Forensics: A Script-Based Tool for Extracting Evidence Hidden by Cryptographic and Steganographic Techniques

Authors: Maider Daniels Uribarri


Anti-forensics has become an increasingly important issue in the modern world of digital evidence. It is a 50/50 split between the privacy-conscious and the criminally malicious, generally dependent on the severity of the methods deployed. This project aims to determine the correlation between unprocessed evidence artifacts and extreme methods of data hiding, in the form of Steganographic and Cryptographic techniques. It will generate an in-depth investigation into the state of current digital forensic toolkits, the legal ramifications of data seizure and factor the design and testing of experimental research methodology in the form of problem-solving. Using qualitative data appropriated from reliable sources, the project will establish an environment specifically for the testing and analysis of a new toolkit: A script-based toolkit for extracting evidence hidden by Cryptographic and Steganographic techniques. By establishing a connection between legal encumbrance, the inadequacy of features currently present on toolkits and the measure of evidence artifacts hampered due to the inability of current processing, the hope is to establish an indisputable need for the project toolkit in order to remediate some of the problems facing law enforcement officials and agencies today

Keywords: anti-forensics, cryptography, data hiding, steganography

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205 Room Temperature Sensitive Broadband Terahertz Photo Response Using Platinum Telluride Based Devices

Authors: Alka Jakhar, Harmanpreet Kaur Sandhu, Samaresh Das


The Terahertz (THz) technology-based devices are heightening at an alarming rate on account of the wide range of applications in imaging, security, communication, and spectroscopic field. The various available room operational THz detectors, including Golay cell, pyroelectric detector, field-effect transistors, and photoconductive antennas, have some limitations such as narrow-band response, slow response speed, transit time limits, and complex fabrication process. There is an urgent demand to explore new materials and device structures to accomplish efficient THz detection systems. Recently, TMDs including topological semimetals and topological insulators such as PtSe₂, MoTe₂, WSe₂, and PtTe₂ provide novel feasibility for photonic and optical devices. The peculiar properties of these materials, such as Dirac cone, fermions presence, nonlinear optical response, high conductivity, and ambient stability, make them worthy for the development of the THz devices. Here, the platinum telluride (PtTe₂) based devices have been demonstrated for THz detection in the frequency range of 0.1-1 THz. The PtTe₂ is synthesized by direct selenization of the sputtered platinum film on the high-resistivity silicon substrate by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The Raman spectra, XRD, and XPS spectra confirm the formation of the thin PtTe₂ film. The PtTe₂ channel length is 5µm and it is connected with a bow-tie antenna for strong THz electric field confinement in the channel. The characterization of the devices has been carried out in a wide frequency range from 0.1-1 THz. The induced THz photocurrent is measured by using lock-in-amplifier after preamplifier. The maximum responsivity is achieved up to 1 A/W under self-biased mode. Further, this responsivity has been increased by applying biasing voltage. This photo response corresponds to low energy THz photons is mainly due to the photo galvanic effect in PtTe₂. The DC current is induced along the PtTe₂ channel, which is directly proportional to the amplitude of the incident THz electric field. Thus, these new topological semimetal materials provide new pathways for sensitive detection and sensing applications in the THz domain.

Keywords: terahertz, detector, responsivity, topological-semimetals

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204 A Real Time Monitoring System of the Supply Chain Conditions, Products and Means of Transport

Authors: Dimitris E. Kontaxis, George Litainas, Dimitris P. Ptochos


Real-time monitoring of the supply chain conditions and procedures is a critical element for the optimal coordination and safety of the deliveries, as well as for the minimization of the delivery time and cost. Real-time monitoring requires IoT data streams, which are related to the conditions of the products and the means of transport (e.g., location, temperature/humidity conditions, kinematic state, ambient light conditions, etc.). These streams are generated by battery-based IoT tracking devices, equipped with appropriate sensors, and are transmitted to a cloud-based back-end system. Proper handling and processing of the IoT data streams, using predictive and artificial intelligence algorithms, can provide significant and useful results, which can be exploited by the supply chain stakeholders in order to enhance their financial benefits, as well as the efficiency, security, transparency, coordination, and sustainability of the supply chain procedures. The technology, the features, and the characteristics of a complete, proprietary system, including hardware, firmware, and software tools -developed in the context of a co-funded R&D programme- are addressed and presented in this paper.

Keywords: IoT embedded electronics, real-time monitoring, tracking device, sensor platform

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203 Bit Error Rate Monitoring for Automatic Bias Control of Quadrature Amplitude Modulators

Authors: Naji Ali Albakay, Abdulrahman Alothaim, Isa Barshushi


The most common quadrature amplitude modulator (QAM) applies two Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) and one phase shifter to generate high order modulation format. The bias of MZM changes over time due to temperature, vibration, and aging factors. The change in the biasing causes distortion to the generated QAM signal which leads to deterioration of bit error rate (BER) performance. Therefore, it is critical to be able to lock MZM’s Q point to the required operating point for good performance. We propose a technique for automatic bias control (ABC) of QAM transmitter using BER measurements and gradient descent optimization algorithm. The proposed technique is attractive because it uses the pertinent metric, BER, which compensates for bias drifting independently from other system variations such as laser source output power. The proposed scheme performance and its operating principles are simulated using OptiSystem simulation software for 4-QAM and 16-QAM transmitters.

Keywords: automatic bias control, optical fiber communication, optical modulation, optical devices

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202 Internet of Things for Smart Dedicated Outdoor Air System in Buildings

Authors: Dararat Tongdee, Surapong Chirarattananon, Somchai Maneewan, Chantana Punlek


Recently, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the important technology that connects devices to the network and people can access real-time communication. This technology is used to report, collect, and analyze the big data for achieving a purpose. For a smart building, there are many IoT technologies that enable management and building operators to improve occupant thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and building energy efficiency. In this research, we propose monitoring and controlling performance of a smart dedicated outdoor air system (SDOAS) based on IoT platform. The SDOAS was specifically designed with the desiccant unit and thermoelectric module. The designed system was intended to monitor, notify, and control indoor environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide (CO₂) level. The SDOAS was tested under the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 62.2) and indoor air quality standard. The system will notify the user by Blynk notification when the status of the building is uncomfortable or tolerable limits are reached according to the conditions that were set. The user can then control the system via a Blynk application on a smartphone. The experimental result indicates that the temperature and humidity of indoor fresh air in the comfort zone are approximately 26 degree Celsius and 58% respectively. Furthermore, the CO₂ level was controlled lower than 1000 ppm by indoor air quality standard condition. Therefore, the proposed system can efficiently work and be easy to use for buildings.

Keywords: internet of things, indoor air quality, smart dedicated outdoor air system, thermal comfort

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201 Using Cyclic Structure to Improve Inference on Network Community Structure

Authors: Behnaz Moradijamei, Michael Higgins


Identifying community structure is a critical task in analyzing social media data sets often modeled by networks. Statistical models such as the stochastic block model have proven to explain the structure of communities in real-world network data. In this work, we develop a goodness-of-fit test to examine community structure's existence by using a distinguishing property in networks: cyclic structures are more prevalent within communities than across them. To better understand how communities are shaped by the cyclic structure of the network rather than just the number of edges, we introduce a novel method for deciding on the existence of communities. We utilize these structures by using renewal non-backtracking random walk (RNBRW) to the existing goodness-of-fit test. RNBRW is an important variant of random walk in which the walk is prohibited from returning back to a node in exactly two steps and terminates and restarts once it completes a cycle. We investigate the use of RNBRW to improve the performance of existing goodness-of-fit tests for community detection algorithms based on the spectral properties of the adjacency matrix. Our proposed test on community structure is based on the probability distribution of eigenvalues of the normalized retracing probability matrix derived by RNBRW. We attempt to make the best use of asymptotic results on such a distribution when there is no community structure, i.e., asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. Moreover, we provide a theoretical foundation for our statistic by obtaining the true mean and a tight lower bound for RNBRW edge weights variance.

Keywords: hypothesis testing, RNBRW, network inference, community structure

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200 Relational Attention Shift on Images Using Bu-Td Architecture and Sequential Structure Revealing

Authors: Alona Faktor


In this work, we present a NN-based computational model that can perform attention shifts according to high-level instruction. The instruction specifies the type of attentional shift using explicit geometrical relation. The instruction also can be of cognitive nature, specifying more complex human-human interaction or human-object interaction, or object-object interaction. Applying this approach sequentially allows obtaining a structural description of an image. A novel data-set of interacting humans and objects is constructed using a computer graphics engine. Using this data, we perform systematic research of relational segmentation shifts.

Keywords: cognitive science, attentin, deep learning, generalization

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199 A Survey on the Blockchain Smart Contract System: Security Strengths and Weaknesses

Authors: Malaw Ndiaye, Karim Konate


Smart contracts are computer protocols that facilitate, verify, and execute the negotiation or execution of a contract, or that render a contractual term unnecessary. Blockchain and smart contracts can be used to facilitate almost any financial transaction. Thanks to these smart contracts, the settlement of dividends and coupons could be automated. Smart contracts have become lucrative and profitable targets for attackers because they can hold a great amount of money. Smart contracts, although widely used in blockchain technology, are far from perfect due to security concerns. Since there are recent studies on smart contract security, none of them systematically study the strengths and weaknesses of smart contract security. Some have focused on an analysis of program-related vulnerabilities by providing a taxonomy of vulnerabilities. Other studies are responsible for listing the series of attacks linked to smart contracts. Although a series of attacks are listed, there is a lack of discussions and proposals on improving security. This survey takes stock of smart contract security from a more comprehensive perspective by correlating the level of vulnerability and systematic review of security levels in smart contracts.

Keywords: blockchain, Bitcoin, smart contract, criminal smart contract, security

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198 Deep Learning-Based Approach to Automatic Abstractive Summarization of Patent Documents

Authors: Sakshi V. Tantak, Vishap K. Malik, Neelanjney Pilarisetty


A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention. It can be a product or a process that provides an innovative method of doing something, or offers a new technical perspective or solution to a problem. A patent can be obtained by making the technical information and details about the invention publicly available. The patent owner has exclusive rights to prevent or stop anyone from using the patented invention for commercial uses. Any commercial usage, distribution, import or export of a patented invention or product requires the patent owner’s consent. It has been observed that the central and important parts of patents are scripted in idiosyncratic and complex linguistic structures that can be difficult to read, comprehend or interpret for the masses. The abstracts of these patents tend to obfuscate the precise nature of the patent instead of clarifying it via direct and simple linguistic constructs. This makes it necessary to have an efficient access to this knowledge via concise and transparent summaries. However, as mentioned above, due to complex and repetitive linguistic constructs and extremely long sentences, common extraction-oriented automatic text summarization methods should not be expected to show a remarkable performance when applied to patent documents. Other, more content-oriented or abstractive summarization techniques are able to perform much better and generate more concise summaries. This paper proposes an efficient summarization system for patents using artificial intelligence, natural language processing and deep learning techniques to condense the knowledge and essential information from a patent document into a single summary that is easier to understand without any redundant formatting and difficult jargon.

Keywords: abstractive summarization, deep learning, natural language Processing, patent document

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197 BOFSC: A Blockchain Based Decentralized Framework to Ensure the Transparency of Organic Food Supply Chain

Authors: Mifta Ul Jannat, Raju Ahmed, Al Mamun, Jannatul Ferdaus, Ritu Costa, Milon Biswas


Blockchain is an internet-based invention that is coveted in the permanent, scumbled record for its capacity to openly accept, record, and distribute transactions. In a traditional supply chain, there are no trustworthy participants for an organic product. Yet blockchain engineering may provide confidence, transparency, and traceability. Blockchain varies in how companies get real, checked, and lasting information from their supply chain and lock in customers. In an arrangement of cryptographic squares, Blockchain digitizes each connection by sparing it. No one person may alter the documents, and any alteration within the agreement is clear to all. The coming to the record is tamper proof and unchanging, offering a complete history of the object’s life cycle and minimizing opening for extorting. The primary aim of this analysis is to identify the underlying problem that the customer faces. In this post, we will minimize the allocation of fraud data through the ’Smart Contract’ and include a certificate of quality assurance.

Keywords: blockchain technology, food supply chain, Ethereum, smart contract, quality assurance, trustability, security, transparency

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196 Investigating Non-suicidal Self-Injury Discussions on Twitter

Authors: Muhammad Abubakar Alhassan, Diane Pennington


Social networking sites have become a space for people to discuss public health issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). There are thousands of tweets containing self-harm and self-injury hashtags on Twitter. It is difficult to distinguish between different users who participate in self-injury discussions on Twitter and how their opinions change over time. Also, it is challenging to understand the topics surrounding NSSI discussions on Twitter. We retrieved tweets using #selfham and #selfinjury hashtags and investigated those from the United kingdom. We applied inductive coding and grouped tweeters into different categories. This study used the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm to infer the optimum number of topics that describes our corpus. Our findings revealed that many of those participating in NSSI discussions are non-professional users as opposed to medical experts and academics. Support organisations, medical teams, and academics were campaigning positively on rais-ing self-injury awareness and recovery. Using LDAvis visualisation technique, we selected the top 20 most relevant terms from each topic and interpreted the topics as; children and youth well-being, self-harm misjudgement, mental health awareness, school and mental health support and, suicide and mental-health issues. More than 50% of these topics were discussed in England compared to Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Northern Ireland. Our findings highlight the advantages of using the Twitter social network in tackling the problem of self-injury through awareness. There is a need to study the potential risks associated with the use of social networks among self-injurers.

Keywords: self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury, Twitter, social networks

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195 Integrating Blockchain and Internet of Things Platforms: An Empirical Study on Immunization Cold Chain

Authors: Fawzia Abujalala, Asma Elmangoush, Majdi Ashibani


The adoption of Blockchain technology introduces the possibility to decentralize cold chain systems. This adaptation enhances them to be more efficient, accessible, verifiable, and data security. Additionally, the Internet of Things (IoT) concept is considered as an added-value to various application domains. Cargo tracking and cold chain are a few to name. However, the security of the IoT transactions and integrated devices remains one of the key challenges to the IoT application’s success. Consequently, Blockchain technology and its consensus protocols have been used to solve many information security problems. In this paper, the researchers discussed the advantages of integrating Blockchain technology into IoT platform to improve security and provide an overview of existing literature on integrating Blockchain and IoT platforms. Then, presented the immunization cold chain solution as a use-case that could apply to any critical goods based on integrating hyperledger fabric platform and IoT platform.

Keywords: blockchain, hyperledger fabric, internet of things, security, traceability

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194 Multiband Fractal Patch Antenna for Small Spacecraft of Earth Remote Sensing

Authors: Beibit Karibayev, Akmaral Imanbayeva, Timur Namazbayev


Currently, the small spacecraft (SSC) industry is experiencing a big boom in popularity. This is primarily due to ease of use, low cost and mobility. In addition, these programs can be implemented not only at the state level but also at the level of companies, universities and other organizations. For remote sensing of the Earth (ERS), small spacecraft with an orientation system is used. It is important to take into account here that a remote sensing device, for example, a camera for photographing the Earth's surface, must be directed at the Earth's surface. But this, at first glance, the limitation can be turned into an advantage using a patch antenna. This work proposed to use a patch antenna based on a unidirectional fractal in the SSC. The CST Microwave Studio software package was used for simulation and research. Copper (ε = 1.0) was chosen as the emitting element and reflector. The height of the substrate was 1.6 mm, the type of substrate material was FR-4 (ε = 4.3). The simulation was performed in the frequency range of 0 – 6 GHz. As a result of the research, a patch antenna based on fractal geometry was developed for ERS nanosatellites. The capabilities of these antennas are modeled and investigated. A method for calculating and modeling fractal geometry for patch antennas has been developed.

Keywords: antenna, earth remote sensing, fractal, small spacecraft

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193 Capacity Estimation of Hybrid Automated Repeat Request Protocol for Low Earth Orbit Mega-Constellations

Authors: Arif Armagan Gozutok, Alper Kule, Burak Tos, Selman Demirel


Wireless communication chain requires effective ways to keep throughput efficiency high while it suffers location-dependent, time-varying burst errors. Several techniques are developed in order to assure that the receiver recovers the transmitted information without errors. The most fundamental approaches are error checking and correction besides re-transmission of the non-acknowledged packets. In this paper, stop & wait (SAW) and chase combined (CC) hybrid automated repeat request (HARQ) protocols are compared and analyzed in terms of throughput and average delay for the usage of low earth orbit (LEO) mega-constellations case. Several assumptions and technological implementations are considered as well as usage of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes together with several constellation orbit configurations.

Keywords: HARQ, LEO, satellite constellation, throughput

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192 Building Blocks for the Next eGovernment Era: Exploratory Study Based on Dubai and UAE’s Ministry of Happiness Communication in 2020

Authors: Diamantino Ribeiro, António Pedro Costa, Jorge Remondes


Dubai and the UAE governments have been investing in technology and digital communication for a long time. These governments are pioneers in introducing innovative strategies, policies and projects. They are also recognized worldwide for defining and implementing long term public programs. In terms of eGovernment Dubai and the UAE rank among the world’s most advanced. Both governments have surprised the world a few years ago by creating a Happiness Ministry. This paper focuses on UAE’s government digital strategies and its approach to the next era. The main goal of this exploratory study is to understand the new era of eGovernment and transfer of the happiness and wellness programs. Data were collected from the corpus latente and analysis was anchored in qualitative methodology using content analysis and observation as analysis techniques. The study allowed to highlight that the 2020 government reshuffle has a strong focus on digital reorganisation and digital sustainability, one of the newest trends in sustainability. Regarding happiness and wellbeing portfolio, we were able to observe that there has been a major change within the government organisation: The Ministry of Happiness was extinct and the Ministry of Community Development will manage the so-called ‘Happiness Portfolio’. Additionally, our observation allowed to note the government dual approach to governance: one through digital transformation, thus enhancing the digital sustainability process and, the second one trough government development.

Keywords: ministry of happiness, eGovernment, communication, digital sustainability

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191 An Application to Predict the Best Study Path for Information Technology Students in Learning Institutes

Authors: L. S. Chathurika


Early prediction of student performance is an important factor to be gained academic excellence. Whatever the study stream in secondary education, students lay the foundation for higher studies during the first year of their degree or diploma program in Sri Lanka. The information technology (IT) field has certain improvements in the education domain by selecting specialization areas to show the talents and skills of students. These specializations can be software engineering, network administration, database administration, multimedia design, etc. After completing the first-year, students attempt to select the best path by considering numerous factors. The purpose of this experiment is to predict the best study path using machine learning algorithms. Five classification algorithms: decision tree, support vector machine, artificial neural network, Naïve Bayes, and logistic regression are selected and tested. The support vector machine obtained the highest accuracy, 82.4%. Then affecting features are recognized to select the best study path.

Keywords: algorithm, classification, evaluation, features, testing, training

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190 The Role of Virtual Reality in Mediating the Vulnerability of Distant Suffering: Distance, Agency, and the Hierarchies of Human Life

Authors: Z. Xu


Immersive virtual reality (VR) has gained momentum in humanitarian communication due to its utopian promises of co-presence, immediacy, and transcendence. These potential benefits have led the United Nations (UN) to tirelessly produce and distribute VR series to evoke global empathy and encourage policymakers, philanthropic business tycoons and citizens around the world to actually do something (i.e. give a donation). However, it is unclear whether or not VR can cultivate cosmopolitans with a sense of social responsibility towards the geographically, socially/culturally and morally mediated misfortune of faraway others. Drawing upon existing works on the mediation of distant suffering, this article constructs an analytical framework to articulate the issue. Applying this framework on a case study of five of the UN’s VR pieces, the article identifies three paradoxes that exist between cyber-utopian and cyber-dystopian narratives. In the “paradox of distance”, VR relies on the notions of “presence” and “storyliving” to implicitly link audiences spatially and temporally to distant suffering, creating global connectivity and reducing perceived distances between audiences and others; yet it also enables audiences to fully occupy the point of view of distant sufferers (creating too close/absolute proximity), which may cause them to feel naive self-righteousness or narcissism with their pleasures and desire, thereby destroying the “proper distance”. In the “paradox of agency”, VR simulates a superficially “real” encounter for visual intimacy, thereby establishing an “audiences–beneficiary” relationship in humanitarian communication; yet in this case the mediated hyperreality is not an authentic reality, and its simulation does not fill the gap between reality and the virtual world. In the “paradox of the hierarchies of human life”, VR enables an audience to experience virtually fundamental “freedom”, epitomizing an attitude of cultural relativism that informs a great deal of contemporary multiculturalism, providing vast possibilities for a more egalitarian representation of distant sufferers; yet it also takes the spectator’s personally empathic feelings as the focus of intervention, rather than structural inequality and political exclusion (an economic and political power relations of viewing). Thus, the audience can potentially remain trapped within the minefield of hegemonic humanitarianism. This study is significant in two respects. First, it advances the turn of digitalization in studies of media and morality in the polymedia milieu; it is motivated by the necessary call for a move beyond traditional technological environments to arrive at a more novel understanding of the asymmetry of power between the safety of spectators and the vulnerability of mediated sufferers. Second, it not only reminds humanitarian journalists and NGOs that they should not rely entirely on the richer news experience or powerful response-ability enabled by VR to gain a “moral bond” with distant sufferers, but also argues that when fully-fledged VR technology is developed, it can serve as a kind of alchemy and should not be underestimated merely as a “bugaboo” of an alarmist philosophical and fictional dystopia.

Keywords: audience, cosmopolitan, distant suffering, virtual reality, humanitarian communication

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189 Mourning Motivations for Celebrities in Instagram: A Case Study of Mohammadreza Shajarian's Death

Authors: Zahra Afshordi


Instagram, as an everyday life social network, hosts from the ultrasound image of an unborn fetus to the pictures of newly placed gravestones and funerals. It is a platform that allows its users to create a second identity independently from and at the same time in relation to the real space identity. The motives behind this identification are what this article is about. This article studies the motivations of Instagram users mourning for celebrities with a focus on the death of MohammadReza Shajarian. The Shajarian’s death had a wide reflection on Instagram Persian-speaking users. The purpose of this qualitative survey is to comprehend and study the user’s motivations in posting mourning and memorializing content. The methodology of the essay is a hybrid methodology consisting of content analysis and open-ended interviews. The results highlight that users' motives are more than just simple sympathy and include political protest, gaining cultural capital, reaching social status, and escaping from solitude.

Keywords: case study, celebrity, identity, Instagram, mourning, qualitative survey

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