Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 475

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geotechnical and Geological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

475 Characterization of Aquifer Systems and Identification of Potential Groundwater Recharge Zones Using Geospatial Data and Arc GIS in Kagandi Water Supply System Well Field

Authors: Aijuka Nicholas

Abstract:

A research study was undertaken to characterize the aquifers and identify the potential groundwater recharge zones in the Kagandi district. Quantitative characterization of hydraulic conductivities of aquifers is of fundamental importance to the study of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in aquifers. A conditional approach is used to represent the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity. Briefly, it involves using qualitative and quantitative geologic borehole-log data to generate a three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic conductivity distribution, which is then adjusted through calibration of a 3D groundwater flow model using pumping-test data and historic hydraulic data. The approach consists of several steps. The study area was divided into five sub-watersheds on the basis of artificial drainage divides. A digital terrain model (DTM) was developed using Arc GIS to determine the general drainage pattern of Kagandi watershed. Hydrologic characterization involved the determination of the various hydraulic properties of the aquifers. Potential groundwater recharge zones were identified by integrating various thematic maps pertaining to the digital elevation model, land use, and drainage pattern in Arc GIS and Sufer golden software. The study demonstrates the potential of GIS in delineating groundwater recharge zones and that the developed methodology will be applicable to other watersheds in Uganda.

Keywords: aquifers, Arc GIS, groundwater recharge, recharge zones

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474 Groundwater Investigation Using Resistivity Method and Drilling for Irrigation during the Dry Season in Lwantonde District, Uganda

Authors: Tamale Vincent

Abstract:

Groundwater investigation is the investigation of underground formations to understand the hydrologic cycle, known groundwater occurrences, and identify the nature and types of aquifers. There are different groundwater investigation methods and surface geophysical method is one of the groundwater investigation more especially the Geoelectrical resistivity Schlumberger configuration method which provides valuable information regarding the lateral and vertical successions of subsurface geomaterials in terms of their individual thickness and corresponding resistivity values besides using surface geophysical method, hydrogeological and geological investigation methods are also incorporated to aid in preliminary groundwater investigation. Investigation for groundwater in lwantonde district has been implemented. The area project is located cattle corridor and the dry seasonal troubles the communities in lwantonde district of which 99% of people living there are farmers, thus making agriculture difficult and local government to provide social services to its people. The investigation was done using the Geoelectrical resistivity Schlumberger configuration method. The measurement point is located in the three sub-counties, with a total of 17 measurement points. The study location is at 0025S, 3110E, and covers an area of 160 square kilometers. Based on the results of the Geoelectrical information data, it was found two types of aquifers, which are open aquifers in depth ranging from six meters to twenty-two meters and a confined aquifer in depth ranging from forty-five meters to eighty meters. In addition to the Geoelectrical information data, drilling was done at an accessible point by heavy equipment in the Lwakagura village, Kabura sub-county. At the drilling point, artesian wells were obtained at a depth of eighty meters and can rise to two meters above the soil surface. The discovery of artesian well is then used by residents to meet the needs of clean water and for irrigation considering that in this area most wells contain iron content.

Keywords: artesian well, geoelectrical, lwantonde, Schlumberger

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473 Modeling of Gas Migration in High-Pressure–High-Temperature Fields

Authors: Deane Roehl, Roberto Quevedo

Abstract:

Gas migration from pressurized formations is a problem reported in the oil and gas industry. This means increased risks for drilling, production, well integrity, and hydrocarbon escape. Different processes can contribute to the development of pressurized formations, particularly in High-Pressure–High-Temperature (HPHT) gas fields. Over geological time-scales, the different formations of those fields have maintained and/or developed abnormal pressures owing to low permeability and the presence of an impermeable seal. However, if this seal is broken, large volumes of gas could migrate into other less pressurized formations. Three main mechanisms for gas migration have been identified in the literature –molecular diffusion, continuous-phase flow, and continuous-phase flow coupled with mechanical effects. In relation to the latter, gas migration can occur as a consequence of the mechanical effects triggered by reservoir depletion. The compaction of the reservoir can redistribute the in-situ stresses sufficiently to induce deformations that may increase the permeability of rocks and lead to fracture processes or reactivate nearby faults. The understanding of gas flow through discontinuities is still under development. However, some models based on porosity changes and fracture aperture have been developed in order to obtain enhanced permeabilities in numerical simulations. In this work, a simple relationship to integrate fluid flow through rock matrix and discontinuities has been implemented in a fully thermo-hydro-mechanical simulator developed in-house. Numerical simulations of hydrocarbon production in an HPHT field were carried out. Results suggest that rock permeability can be considerably affected by the deformation of the field, creating preferential flow paths for the transport of large volumes of gas.

Keywords: gas migration, pressurized formations, fractured rocks, numerical modeling

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472 Estimation of Coefficient of Discharge of Side Trapezoidal Labyrinth Weir Using Group Method of Data Handling Technique

Authors: M. A. Ansari, A. Hussain, A. Uddin

Abstract:

A side weir is a flow diversion structure provided in the side wall of a channel to divert water from the main channel to a branch channel. The trapezoidal labyrinth weir is a special type of weir in which crest length of the weir is increased to pass higher discharge. Experimental and numerical studies related to the coefficient of discharge of trapezoidal labyrinth weir in an open channel have been presented in the present study. Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) with the transfer function of quadratic polynomial has been used to predict the coefficient of discharge for the side trapezoidal labyrinth weir. A new model is developed for coefficient of discharge of labyrinth weir by regression method. Generalized models for predicting the coefficient of discharge for labyrinth weir using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network have also been developed. The prediction based on GMDH model is more satisfactory than those given by traditional regression equations.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, group method of data handling, open channel, side labyrinth weir

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471 Suitability Number of Coarse-Grained Soils and Relationships among Fineness Modulus, Density and Strength Parameters

Authors: Khandaker Fariha Ahmed, Md. Noman Munshi, Tarin Sultana, Md. Zoynul Abedin

Abstract:

Suitability number (SN) is perhaps one of the most important parameters of coarse-grained soil in assessing its appropriateness to use as a backfill in retaining structures, sand compaction pile, Vibro compaction, and other similar foundation and ground improvement works. Though determined in an empirical manner, it is imperative to study SN to understand its relation with other aggregate properties like fineness modulus (FM), and strength and density properties of sandy soil. The present paper reports the findings of the study on the examination of the properties of sandy soil, as mentioned. Random numbers were generated to obtain the percent fineness on various sieve sizes, and fineness modulus and suitability numbers were predicted. Sand samples were collected from the field, and test samples were prepared to determine maximum density, minimum density and shear strength parameter φ against particular fineness modulus and corresponding suitability number Five samples of SN value of excellent (0-10) and three samples of SN value fair (20-30) were taken and relevant tests were done. The data obtained from the laboratory tests were statistically analyzed. Results show that with the increase of SN, the value of FM decreases. Within the SN value rated as excellent (0-10), there is a decreasing trend of φ for a higher value of SN. It is found that SN is dependent on various combinations of grain size properties like D10, D30, and D20, D50. Strong linear relationships were obtained between SN and FM (R²=.0.93) and between SN value and φ (R²=.94). Correlation equations are proposed to define relationships among SN, φ, and FM.

Keywords: density, fineness modulus, shear strength parameter, suitability number

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470 Managing Data from One Hundred Thousand Internet of Things Devices Globally for Mining Insights

Authors: Julian Wise

Abstract:

Newcrest Mining is one of the world’s top five gold and rare earth mining organizations by production, reserves and market capitalization in the world. This paper elaborates on the data acquisition processes employed by Newcrest in collaboration with Fortune 500 listed organization, Insight Enterprises, to standardize machine learning solutions which process data from over a hundred thousand distributed Internet of Things (IoT) devices located at mine sites globally. Through the utilization of software architecture cloud technologies and edge computing, the technological developments enable for standardized processes of machine learning applications to influence the strategic optimization of mineral processing. Target objectives of the machine learning optimizations include time savings on mineral processing, production efficiencies, risk identification, and increased production throughput. The data acquired and utilized for predictive modelling is processed through edge computing by resources collectively stored within a data lake. Being involved in the digital transformation has necessitated the standardization software architecture to manage the machine learning models submitted by vendors, to ensure effective automation and continuous improvements to the mineral process models. Operating at scale, the system processes hundreds of gigabytes of data per day from distributed mine sites across the globe, for the purposes of increased improved worker safety, and production efficiency through big data applications.

Keywords: mineral technology, big data, machine learning operations, data lake

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469 Controlling Differential Settlement of Large Reservoir through Soil Structure Interaction Approach

Authors: Madhav Khadilkar

Abstract:

Construction of a large standby reservoir was required to provide secure water supply. The new reservoir was required to be constructed at the same location of an abandoned old open pond due to space constraints. Some investigations were carried out earlier to improvise and re-commission the existing pond. But due to a lack of quantified risk of settlement from voids in the underlying limestone, the shallow foundations were not found feasible. Since the reservoir was resting on hard strata for about three-quarter of plan area and one quarter was resting on soil underlying with limestone and considerably low subgrade modulus. Further investigations were carried out to ascertain the locations and extent of voids within the limestone. It was concluded that the risk due to lime dissolution was acceptably low, and the site was found geotechnically feasible. The hazard posed by limestone dissolution was addressed through the integrated structural and geotechnical analysis and design approach. Finite Element Analysis was carried out to quantify the stresses and differential settlement due to various probable loads and soil-structure interaction. Walls behaving as cantilever under operational loads were found undergoing in-plane bending and tensile forces due to soil-structure interaction. Sensitivity analysis for varying soil subgrade modulus was carried out to check the variation in the response of the structure and magnitude of stresses developed. The base slab was additionally checked for the loss of soil contact due to lime pocket formations at random locations. The expansion and contraction joints were planned to receive minimal additional forces due to differential settlement. The reservoir was designed to sustain the actions corresponding to allowable deformation limits per code, and geotechnical measures were proposed to achieve the soil parameters set in structural analysis.

Keywords: differential settlement, limestone dissolution, reservoir, soil structure interaction

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468 Application of Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation for Surface Control of Gold Mining Tailing Waste

Authors: Yogi Priyo Pradana, Heriansyah Putra, Regina Aprilia Zulfikar, Maulana Rafiq Ramadhan, Devyan Meisnnehr, Zalfa Maulida Insani

Abstract:

This paper studied the effects and mechanisms of fine-grained tailing by Enzyme-Mediated Calcite Precipitation (EMCP). Grouting solution used consists of reagents (CaCl₂ and (CO(NH₂)₂) and urease enzymes which react to produce CaCO₃. In sample preparation, the test tube is used to investigate the precipitation rate of calcite. The grouting solution added is 75 mL for one mold sample. The solution was poured into a mold sample up to as high as 5 mm from the top surface of the tailing to ensure the entire surface is submerged. The sample is left open in a cylinder for up to 3 days for curing. The direct mixing method is conducted so that the cementation process occurs by evenly distributed. The relationship between the results of the UCS test and the calcite precipitation rate likely indicates that the amount of calcite deposited in treated tailing could control the strength of the tailing. The sample results are analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to evaluate metal and metalloid content. Calcium carbonate deposited in the tailing is expected to strengthen the bond between tailing granules, which are easily slipped on the banks of the tailing dam. The EMCP method is expected to strengthen tailing in erosion-control surfaces.

Keywords: tailing, EMCP, UCS, AAS

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467 The Concept of Anchor Hazard Potential Map

Authors: Sao-Jeng Chao, Chia-Yun Wei, Si-Han Lai, Cheng-Yu Huang, Yu-Han Teng

Abstract:

In Taiwan, the landforms are mainly dominated by mountains and hills. Many road sections of the National Highway are impossible to avoid problems such as slope excavation or slope filling. In order to increase the safety of the slope, various slope protection methods are used to stabilize the slope, especially the soil anchor technique is the most common. This study is inspired by the soil liquefaction potential map. The concept of the potential map is widely used. The typhoon, earth-rock flow, tsunami, flooded area, and the recent discussion of soil liquefaction have safety potential concepts. This paper brings the concept of safety potential to the anchored slope. Because the soil anchor inspection is only the concept of points, this study extends the concept of the point to the surface, using the Quantum GIS program to present the slope damage area, and depicts the slope appearance and soil anchor point with the slope as-built drawing. The soil anchor scores are obtained by anchor inspection data, and the low, medium and high potential areas are remitted by interpolation. Thus, the area where the anchored slope may be harmful is judged and relevant maintenance is provided. The maintenance units can thus prevent judgment and deal with the anchored slope as soon as possible.

Keywords: anchor, slope, potential map, lift-off test, existing load

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466 Analysis of the Development of Mining Companies Social Corporate Responsibility Based on the Rating Score

Authors: Tatiana Ponomarenko, Oksana Marinina, Marina Nevskaya

Abstract:

Modern corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a sphere of multilevel responsibility of a company toward society represented by various stakeholders. The relevance of CSR management grows due to the active development of socially responsible investing (principles for responsible investment) taking into account factors of environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG), growing attention of the investment community in general to the long-term stability of companies and the quality of control of nonfinancial risks. The modern approach to CSR strategic management is aimed at the creation of trustful relationships with stakeholders, on the basis of which a contribution to the sustainable development of companies, regions, and national economics is insured. However, the practical concepts of social responsibility in mining companies are different, which leads to various degrees of application of CSR. A number of companies implement CSR using a traditional (limited) understanding of responsibility toward employees and counteragents, the others understand CSR much wider and try to use leverages of efficient cooperation. As in large mining companies the scope of CSR measures is diverse and characterized by different indices, the study was aimed at evaluating CSR efficiency on the basis of a proprietary methodology and determining the level of development of CSR management in terms of anti-crisis, reactive and proactive development. The methodology of the research includes analysis of integrated global reporting initiative (GRI) reports of large mining companies; choice of most representative sectoral agents by a criterion of the regularity of issuance and publication of reports; calculation of indices of evaluation of CSR level of the selected companies in dynamics. The methodology of evaluation of CSR level is based on a rating score of changes in standard indices of GRI reports by economic, environmental, and social directions. Result. By the results of the analysis, companies of fuel and energy and metallurgic complexes, in overwhelming majority, reflecting three indices out of a wide range of possible indicators of SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals), were selected for the study. The evaluation of the scopes of CSR of the companies Gazprom, LUKOIL, Metalloinvest, Nornikel, Rosneft, Severstal, SIBUR, SUEK corresponds to the reactive type of development according to a scale of CSR strategic management, which is the average value out of the possible values. The chief drawback is that companies, in the process of analyzing global goals, often choose the goals which relate to their own activities, paying insufficient attention to the interests of the stakeholders inside the country. This fact evidences the necessity of searching for more effective mechanisms of CSR control. Acknowledgment: This article is prepared within grant support of the RFBR, project 19-510-44013 'Development of the concept of mineral resources value formation in the context of sustainable development in resource-oriented economies'.

Keywords: sustainable development, corporate social responsibility, development strategies, efficiency assessment

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465 UBCSAND Model Calibration for Generic Liquefaction Triggering Curves

Authors: Jui-Ching Chou

Abstract:

Numerical simulation is a popular method used to evaluate the effects of soil liquefaction on a structure or the effectiveness of a mitigation plan. Many constitutive models (UBCSAND model, PM4 model, SANISAND model, etc.) were presented to model the liquefaction phenomenon. In general, inputs of a constitutive model need to be calibrated against the soil cyclic resistance before being applied to the numerical simulation model. Then, simulation results can be compared with results from simplified liquefaction potential assessing methods. In this article, inputs of the UBCSAND model, a simple elastic-plastic stress-strain model, are calibrated against several popular generic liquefaction triggering curves of simplified liquefaction potential assessing methods via FLAC program. Calibrated inputs can provide engineers to perform a preliminary evaluation of an existing structure or a new design project.

Keywords: calibration, liquefaction, numerical simulation, UBCSAND Model

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464 Ballast Coating as a Measure to Increase Resistance to Breakage During Tamping

Authors: Marvin Zzigwa, Tensay Berhe

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of improving railway ballast material resistance to degradation due to tamping operations during ballast maintenance by applying a plastic coating. Tamping operations and repeated train loads degrade ballast through ballast particle breakage which leads to ballast fouling. Laboratory testing to investigate the effect of coating ballast with plastic on the properties of ballast material has been carried out. Also, a ballast box was made to study the field behavior of coated ballast under tamping maintenance. The ballast material used in this study is of igneous origin which is majorly basalt rock mixed with vesicular scoria. The ballast material is uniformly graded with the coefficient of uniformity (Cu) equal to 1.4, bulk density of about 1710 kg/m³ and a specific gravity of about 2.75. The coated ballast was found to perform well in reducing water absorption of ballast to 0.1%. The coated ballast material has Aggregate Crushing value (ACV) of 15.96% lower than 23.24% of non-coated ballast. The Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA) value of coated ballast is 10% lower than 20% of non-coated ballast. Plastic coated ballast performed better in the resistance of particle breakage during tamping maintenance. The particle breakage index (Bg) after 24 maintenance cycles for coated ballast was found to be 16% lower than 23% of non-coated ballast. The fouling material as a result of tamping was found to be 0.127 kg/tamp for plastic-coated material less than 0.208 kg/tamp for non-coated ballast. The grading of the tamped material changed with increased tamping cycles with the material changing from uniformly graded to broadly graded as the coefficient of uniformity changed from 1.4 to 3.30 of non-coated material tamped for 24 maintenance cycles. But for coated ballast, the material maintained its uniformity with a Cu changing to 1.7 from 1.4 after 24 tamping maintenance cycles. Coating the ballast with the plastic can, therefore, increase the resistance against breakage during the tamping operation.

Keywords: ballast, fouling, plastic-coated-ballast, tamping

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463 Mudlogging, a Key Tool in Effective Well Delivery: A Case Study of Bisas Field Niger Delta, Nigeria

Authors: Segun Steven Bodunde

Abstract:

Mudlogging is the continuous analysis of rock cuttings and drilling fluids to ascertain the presence or absence of oil and gas from the formation penetrated by the drilling bit. This research highlighted a case study of Well BSS-99ST from ‘Bisas Field’, Niger Delta, with depth extending from 1950m to 3640m (Measured Depth). It was focused on identifying the lithologies encountered at specified depth intervals and to accurately delineate the targeted potential reservoir on the field and prepare the lithology and Master log. Equipment such as the Microscope, Fluoroscope, spin drier, oven, and chemicals, which includes: hydrochloric acid, chloroethene, and phenolphthalein, were used to check the cuttings for their calcareous nature, for oil show and for the presence of Cement respectively. Gas analysis was done using the gas chromatograph and the Flame Ionization Detector, which was connected to the Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer (THA). Drilling Parameters and Gas concentration logs were used alongside the lithology log to predict and accurately delineate the targeted reservoir on the field. The result showed continuous intercalation of sand and shale, with the presence of small quantities of siltstone at a depth of 2300m. The lithology log was generated using Log Plot software. The targeted reservoir was identified between 3478m to 3510m after inspection of the gas analysis, lithology log, electric logs, and the drilling parameters. Total gas of about 345 units and five Alkane Gas components were identified in the specific depth range. A comparative check with the Gamma ray log from the well further confirmed the lithologic sequence and the accurate delineation of the targeted potential reservoir using mudlogging.

Keywords: mudlogging, chromatograph, drilling fluids, calcareous

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462 Effects of Porosity Logs on Pore Connectivity and Volumetric Estimation

Authors: Segun S. Bodunde

Abstract:

In Bona Field, Niger Delta, two reservoirs across three wells were analyzed. The research aimed at determining the statistical dependence of permeability and oil volume in place on porosity logs. Of the three popular porosity logs, two were used; the sonic and density logs. The objectives of the research were to identify the porosity logs that vary more with location and direction, to visualize the depth trend of both logs and to determine the influence of these logs on pore connectivity determination and volumetric analysis. The focus was on density and sonic logs. It was observed that the sonic derived porosities were higher than the density derived porosities (in well two, across the two reservoir sands, sonic porosity averaged 30.8% while density derived porosity averaged 23.65%, and the same trend was observed in other wells.). The sonic logs were further observed to have lower co-efficient of variation when compared to the density logs (in sand A, well 2, sonic derived porosity had a co-efficient of variation of 12.15% compared to 22.52% from the density logs) indicating a lower tendency to vary with location and direction. The bulk density was observed to increase with depth while the transit time reduced with depth. It was also observed that for an 8.87% decrease in porosity, the pore connectivity was observed to decrease by about 38%.

Keywords: pore connectivity, co-efficient of variation, density derived porosity, sonic derived porosity

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461 Effect of Cantilever Sheet Pile Wall to Adjacent Buildings

Authors: Ahmed A. Mohamed Aly

Abstract:

Ground movements induced from excavations is a major cause of deformation and damage to the adjacent buildings and utilities. With the increasing rate of construction work in urban area, this problem is growing more significant and has become the cause of numerous legal disputes. This problem is investigated numerically in the present study using finite element method. Five-story reinforced concrete building rests on raft foundation is idealized as two dimensional model. The building is considered to be constructed adjacent to excavation affected by an adjacent excavation in medium sand. Excavation is supported using sheet pile wall. Two dimensional plane strain program PLAXIS is used in this study. 15 nodes triangular element is used to idealize soil with Mohr-Coulomb model. Five nodes isoperimetric beam element is used to idealize sheet pile and building. Interface element is used to represent the contact between beam element and soil. Two parameters were studied, the first is the foundation depth and the second is the building distance from the excavation. Nodal displacements and elements straining actions were obtained and studied from the analyzed finite element model results.

Keywords: excavation, relative distance, effective stresses, lateral deformation, relative depth

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460 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear

Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovsek

Abstract:

Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well recognised behavior when tunneling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of bolt deformation under shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated shear along discrete defects. A solution to this is the use of precision monitoring using fiber optic technology. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. The technology successfully measured the 3D strain of the bolts when subject to bedding shear; the axial and lateral strains were resolved to create the deformation geometry. The result also compared well to the current visual method of monitoring using endoscope holes, confirming this method as suitable.

Keywords: distributed optical strain sensing, rock bolt, bedding shear, sandstone tunnel

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459 Effects of Daily Temperature Changes on Transient Heat and Moisture Transport in Unsaturated Soils

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Ali Pak, Mehrdad Jafarzadeh

Abstract:

This research contains the formulation of a two-dimensional analytical solution to transient heat, and moisture flow in a semi-infinite unsaturated soil environment under the influence of daily temperature changes. For this purpose, coupled energy conservation and mass fluid continuity equations governing hydrothermal behavior of unsaturated soil media are presented in terms of temperature and volumetric moisture content. In consideration of the soil environment as an infinite half-space and by linearization of the governing equations, Laplace–Fourier transformation is conducted to convert differential equations with partial derivatives (PDEs) to ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The obtained ODEs are solved, and the inverse transformations are calculated to determine the solution to the system of equations. Results indicate that heat variation induces moisture transport in both horizontal and vertical directions.

Keywords: analytical solution, heat conduction, hydrothermal analysis, laplace–fourier transformation, two-dimensional

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458 Effect of Compaction and Degree of Saturation on the Unconsolidated Undrained Shear Strength of Sandy Clay

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq, Rabeea Bakhtawer

Abstract:

For geotechnical engineers, one of the most important properties of soil to consider in various stability analyses is its shear strength which is governed by a number of factors. The objective of this research is to ascertain the effect of compaction and degree of saturation on the shear strength of fine-grained soil. For this purpose, three different dry densities such as in-situ, maximum standard proctor, and maximum modified proctor, were determined for the sandy clay soil. The soil samples were then prepared to keep dry density constant and varying degrees of saturation. These samples were tested for (UU) unconsolidated undrained shear strength in triaxial compression tests. The decrease in shear strength was observed with the decrease in density and increase in the saturation. The values of the angle of internal friction followed the same trend. However, the change in cohesion with the increase in saturation showed a different behavior, analogous to the compaction curve.

Keywords: compaction, degree of saturation, dry density, geotechnical investigation, laboratory testing, shear strength

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457 Failure Analysis of Khaliqabad Landslide along Mangla Reservoir Rim

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq

Abstract:

After the Mangla dam raising in 2010, the maximum reservoir impoundment level of 378.5 m SPD (Survey of Pakistan Datum) was achieved in September 2014. The reservoir drawdown was started on September 29, 2014 and a landslide occurred on Mirpur-Kotli Road near Khaliqabad on November 27, 2014. This landslide took place due to the failure of a slope along the reservoir rim. This study was undertaken to investigate the causative factors of Khaliqabad landslide. Site visits were carried out for recording the field observations and collection of the soil samples. The soil was subjected to different laboratory tests for the determination of index and engineering properties. The shear strength tests were performed at various levels of density and degrees of saturation. These soil parameters were used in an integrated SEEP-SLOPE/W analysis to obtain the drop in factor of safety with time and reservoir drawdown. The results showed the factor of safety dropped from 1.28 to 0.85 over a period of 60 days. The ultimate reduction in the shear strength of soil due to saturation with the simultaneous removal of the stabilizing effect of reservoir caused the disturbing forces to increase, and thus failure happened. The findings of this study can serve as a guideline for the modeling of the slopes experiencing rapid drawdown scenario with the consideration of more realistic distribution of soil moisture/ properties across the slope

Keywords: geotechnical investigation, landslide, reservoir drawdown, shear strength, slope stability

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456 Compression Index Estimation by Water Content, Liquid Limit, and Void Ratio

Authors: Lizhou Chen

Abstract:

Compression index is essential in foundation settlement calculation. The traditional method for determining compression index is consolidation test which is expensive and time consuming. Many researchers have used regression methods to develop empirical equations for predicting compression index from soil properties. Based on a large number of compression index data collected from consolidation tests, the accuracy of some popularly empirical equations were assessed. It was found that primary compression index is significantly overestimated in some equations while it is underestimated in others. The sensitivity analyses of soil parameters including water content, liquid limit and void ratio were performed. The results indicate that the compression index obtained from void ratio is most accurate. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) demonstrates that the equations with multiple soil parameters cannot provide better predictions than the equations with single soil parameter. In other words, it is not necessary to develop the relationships between compression index and multiple soil parameters. Meanwhile, it was noted that secondary compression index is approximately 0.7-5.0% of primary compression index with an average of 2.0%. In the end, the proposed prediction equations using power regression technique were provided that can provide more accurate predictions than those from existing equations.

Keywords: compression index, clay, settlement, consolidation, secondary compression index, soil parameter

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455 Mechanical Properties of Cement Slurry by Partially Substitution of Industry Waste Natural Pozzolans

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Seyed Poorya Emadoleslami Oskoei, Seyed Davoud Beladi Mousavi, A. Taleb Beydokhti

Abstract:

There have been many reports of the destructive effects of cement on the environment in recent years. In the present research, it has been attempted to reduce the destructive effects of cement by replacing silica fume as adhesive materials instead of cement. The present study has attempted to improve the mechanical properties of cement slurry by using waste material from the glass production factory, located in Qazvin city of Iran, in which accumulation volume has become an environmental threat. The chemical analysis of the waste material indicates that this material contains about 94% of Sio2 and AL2O3 and has a close structure to silica fume. Also, the particle grain size test was performed on the mentioned waste. Then, the unconfined compressive strength test of the slurry was performed by preparing a mixture of water and adhesives with different percentages of cement and silica fume. The water to an adhesive ratio of this mixture is 1 to 3, and the curing process lasts 28 days. It was found that the sample had an unconfined compressive strength of about 300 kg/cm2 in a mixture with equal proportions of cement and silica fume. Besides, the sample had a brittle fracture in the slurry sample made of pure cement, however, the fracture in cement-silica fume slurry mixture is flexible and the structure of the specimen remains coherent after fracture. Therefore, considering the flexibility that is achieved by replacing this waste, it can be used to stabilize soils with cracking potential.

Keywords: cement replacement, cement slurry, environmental threat, natural pozzolan, silica fume, waste material

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454 Analytical Solution for Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Analysis of Unsaturated Porous Media Using AG Method

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Hussein Hashemi Senejani

Abstract:

In this paper, a convenient analytical solution for a system of coupled differential equations, derived from thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of three-phase porous media such as unsaturated soils is developed. This kind of analysis can be used in various fields such as geothermal energy systems and seepage of leachate from buried municipal and domestic waste in geomaterials. Initially, a system of coupled differential equations, including energy, mass, and momentum conservation equations is considered, and an analytical method called AGM is employed to solve the problem. The method is straightforward and comprehensible and can be used to solve various nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Results indicate the accuracy of the applied method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: AGM, analytical solution, porous media, thermo-hydro-mechanical, unsaturated soils

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453 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S.A. Naeini

Abstract:

Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr=30% and dense Dr=70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand NO.161is selected for this paper. The experiments show by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear, TSS

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452 Evaluation of Numerical Modeling of Jet Grouting Design Using in-situ Loading Test

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Ehsan Azini

Abstract:

Jet grouting is one of the methods of improving and increasing the strength and bearing of soil. High pressure injection, in which high velocity or high pressure water or grout, is injected through the nozzles into the soil and damages the structure. During this process, a part of the soil and grout particles come out of the drill borehole, and the other part is mixed up with the grout in place, as a result of this process, a mass of modified soil is created. The purpose of this method is to change the soil into a mixture of soil and cement, commonly known as 'soil-cement'. In this paper, first, the principles of high pressure injection and then the effective parameters in the jet grouting method (JG) are described. Then the tests on the samples taken from the columns formed from the excavation around the soil-cement columns, as well as the static loading test on the created column, are discussed. In the other part of this paper, the soil behavior models for numerical modeling in PlAXIS software is mentioned. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of numerical modeling based on in-situ static loading tests. The results indicate an acceptable agreement between the results of the tests mentioned and the modeling results. Also, modeling with this software as an appropriate option for technical feasibility can be used to soil improvement using jet grouting.

Keywords: jet grouting column, soil improvement, numerical modeling, in-situ loading test

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451 Variation with Depth of Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical and Physical Properties of Overburden over Gneiss Basement Complex in Minna Metropolis, North Central Nigeria

Authors: M. M. Alhaji, M. Alhassan, A. M. Yahaya

Abstract:

Soil engineers pay very little or no attention to variation in the mineralogical and consequently, the geotechnical properties of overburden with depth on basement complexes, a situation which can lead to sudden failure of civil engineering structures. Soil samples collected at depths ranging from 0.5m to 4.0m at 0.5m intervals, from a trial pit dogged manually to depth of 4.0m on an overburden over gneiss basement complex, was evaluated for physico-chemical, mineralogical and physical properties. This is to determine the variation of these properties with depth within the profile of the strata. Results showed that sodium amphibolite and feldspar, which are both primary minerals dominate the overall profile of the overburden. Carbon which dominates the lower profile of the strata was observed to alter to gregorite at upper section of the profile. Organic matter contents and cation exchange capacity reduces with increase in depth while lost on ignition and pH were relatively constant with depth. The index properties, as well as natural moisture contents, increases from 0.5m to between 1.0m to 1.5m depth after which the values reduced to constant values at 3.0m depth. The grain size analysis shows high composition of sand sized particles with silts of low to non-plasticity. The maximum dry density (MDD) values are generally relatively high and increases from 2.262g/cm³ at 0.5m depth to 2.410g/cm³ at 4.0m depth while the optimum moisture content (OMC) reduced from 9.8% at 0.5m depth to 6.7% at 4.0m depth.

Keywords: Gneiss basement complex, mineralogical properties, North Central Nigeria, physico-chemical properties, physical properties, overburden soil

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450 A Study of Seismic Design Approaches for Steel Sheet Piles: Hydrodynamic Pressures and Reduction Factors Using CFD and Dynamic Calculations

Authors: Helena Pera, Arcadi Sanmartin, Albert Falques, Rafael Rebolo, Xavier Ametller, Heiko Zillgen, Cecile Prum, Boris Even, Eric Kapornyai

Abstract:

Sheet piles system can be an interesting solution when dealing with harbors or quays designs. However, current design methods lead to conservative approaches due to the lack of specific basis of design. For instance, some design features still deal with pseudo-static approaches, although being a dynamic problem. Under this concern, the study particularly focuses on hydrodynamic water pressure definition and stability analysis of sheet pile system under seismic loads. During a seismic event, seawater produces hydrodynamic pressures on structures. Currently, design methods introduce hydrodynamic forces by means of Westergaard formulation and Eurocodes recommendations. They apply constant hydrodynamic pressure on the front sheet pile during the entire earthquake. As a result, the hydrodynamic load may represent 20% of the total forces produced on the sheet pile. Nonetheless, some studies question that approach. Hence, this study assesses the soil-structure-fluid interaction of sheet piles under seismic action in order to evaluate if current design strategies overestimate hydrodynamic pressures. For that purpose, this study performs various simulations by Plaxis 2D, a well-known geotechnical software, and CFD models, which treat fluid dynamic behaviours. Knowing that neither Plaxis nor CFD can resolve a soil-fluid coupled problem, the investigation imposes sheet pile displacements from Plaxis as input data for the CFD model. Then, it provides hydrodynamic pressures under seismic action, which fit theoretical Westergaard pressures if calculated using the acceleration at each moment of the earthquake. Thus, hydrodynamic pressures fluctuate during seismic action instead of remaining constant, as design recommendations propose. Additionally, these findings detect that hydrodynamic pressure contributes a 5% to the total load applied on sheet pile due to its instantaneous nature. These results are in line with other studies that use added masses methods for hydrodynamic pressures. Another important feature in sheet pile design is the assessment of the geotechnical overall stability. It uses pseudo-static analysis since the dynamic analysis cannot provide a safety calculation. Consequently, it estimates the seismic action. One of its relevant factors is the selection of the seismic reduction factor. A huge amount of studies discusses the importance of it but also about all its uncertainties. Moreover, current European standards do not propose a clear statement on that, and they recommend using a reduction factor equal to 1. This leads to conservative requirements when compared with more advanced methods. Under this situation, the study calibrates seismic reduction factor by fitting results from pseudo-static to dynamic analysis. The investigation concludes that pseudo-static analyses could reduce seismic action by 40-50%. These results are in line with some studies from Japanese and European working groups. In addition, it seems suitable to account for the flexibility of the sheet pile-soil system. Nevertheless, the calibrated reduction factor is subjected to particular conditions of each design case. Further research would contribute to specifying recommendations for selecting reduction factor values in the early stages of the design. In conclusion, sheet pile design still has chances for improving its design methodologies and approaches. Consequently, design could propose better seismic solutions thanks to advanced methods such as findings of this study.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, hydrodynamic pressures, pseudo-static analysis, quays, seismic design, steel sheet pile

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449 Flow Behavior of a ScCO₂-Stimulated Geothermal Reservoir under in-situ Stress and Temperature Conditions

Authors: B. L. Avanthi Isaka, P. G. Ranjith

Abstract:

The development of technically-sound enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) is identified as a viable solution for world growing energy demand with immense potential, low carbon dioxide emission and importantly, as an environmentally friendly option for renewable energy production. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO₂) as the working fluid in EGSs by replacing traditional water-based method is promising due to multiple advantages prevail in ScCO₂-injection for underground reservoir stimulation. The evolution of reservoir stimulation using ScCO₂ and the understanding of the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-stimulated geothermal reservoir is vital in applying ScCO₂-EGSs as a replacement for water-based EGSs. The study is therefore aimed to investigate the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-fractured rock medium at in-situ stress and temperature conditions. A series of permeability tests were conducted for ScCO₂ fractured Harcourt granite rock specimens at 90ºC, under varying confining pressures from 5–60 MPa using the high-pressure and high-temperature tri-axial set up which can simulate deep geological conditions. The permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens was compared with that of water-fractured rock specimens. The results show that the permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens is one order higher than that of water-fractured rock specimens and the permeability exhibits a non-linear reduction with increasing confining pressure due to the stress-induced fracture closure. Further, the enhanced permeability of the ScCO₂-induced fracture with multiple secondary branches was explained by exploring the CT images of the rock specimens. However, a single plain fracture was induced under water-based fracturing.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, fracture permeability, granite, enhanced geothermal systems

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448 Two Lessons Learnt in Defining Intersections and Interfaces in Numerical Modeling with Plaxis

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Somaye Sadeghian, Reza Dinarvand

Abstract:

This paper is going to discuss two issues encountered in using PLAXIS. Both issues were monitored during application of PLAXIS to estimate the excavation-induced displacement. Column Soil Mixing (CSM) was applied to stabilise the excavation. It was understood that the estimated excavation induced deformation at the top of the CSM blocks highly depends on the material type defining pavement material adjacent to the CSM blocks. Cohesive material for pavement will result in the unrealistic connection between pavement and CSM even by defining an interface element. To find the most realistic approach, the interface defined in three different manners (1) no interface elements were applied (2) a non-cohesive soil layer was defined between pavement and CSM block to represent the friction between these materials (3) built-in interface elements in PLAXIS was used to define the boundary between the pavement and the CSM block. The result showed that the option 2 would result in more realistic results. The second issue was in the modelling of the contact line between the CSM block and an inclined layer underneath. The analysis result showed that the excavation-induced deformation highly depends on how the PLAXIS user defines the contact area. It was understood that if the contact area had defined as a point in which CSM block had intersected the layer underneath the estimated lateral displacement of CSM block would be unrealistically lower than the model in which the contact area was defined as a line.

Keywords: PLAXIS, FEM, CSM, Excavation-Induced Deformation

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447 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach

Abstract:

This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: retrofitting, seismic, finite element, micropiles, elastic

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446 Geotechnical Characterization of Residual Soil for Deterministic Landslide Assessment

Authors: Vera Karla S. Caingles, Glen A. Lorenzo

Abstract:

Soil, as the main material of landslides, plays a vital role in landslide assessment. An efficient and accurate method of doing an assessment is significantly important to prevent damage of properties and loss of lives. The study has two phases: to establish an empirical correlation of the residual soil thickness with the slope angle and to investigate the geotechnical characteristics of residual soil. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to establish the slope map and to program sampling points for field investigation. Physical and index property tests were undertaken on the 20 soil samples obtained from the area with Pliocene-Pleistocene geology and different slope angle in Kibawe, Bukidnon. The regression analysis result shows that the best fitting model that can describe the soil thickness-slope angle relationship is an exponential function. The physical property results revealed that soils contain a high percentage of clay and silts ranges from 41% - 99.52%. Based on the index properties test results, the soil exhibits a high degree of plasticity and expansion but not collapsible. It is deemed that this compendium will serve as primary data for slope stability analysis and deterministic landslide assessment.

Keywords: collapsibility, correlation, expansiveness, landslide, plasticity

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