Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 700

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geotechnical and Geological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

700 Sainte Sophie Landfill: Field-Scale Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Wameed Alghazali, Shawn Kenny, Paul J. Van Geel


Settlement of municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills can be represented by mechanical settlement, which is instantaneous and time-dependent creep components, and biodegradation-induced settlement. Mechanical settlement is governed by the physical characteristics of MSW and the applied overburden pressure. Several research studies used oedometers and different size compression cells to evaluate the primary and mechanical creep compression indices/ratios. However, MSW is known for its heterogeneity, which means data obtained from laboratory testing are not necessary to be a good representation of the mechanical response observed in the field. Furthermore, most of the laboratory tests found in the literature were conducted on shredded samples of MSW to obtain specimens that are suitable for the testing setup. It is believed that shredding MSW samples changes the physical and mechanical properties of the waste. In this study, settlement field data was collected during the filling stage of Ste. Sophie landfill was used to estimate the primary and mechanical creep compression ratios. The field results from Ste. Sophie landfill indicated that both the primary and mechanical creep compression ratios of MSW are not constants but decrease with the increase in the applied vertical stress.

Keywords: mechanical creep compression ratio, municipal solid waste, primary compression ratio, stress level

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699 Identification of Deep Landslide on Erzurum-Turkey Highway by Geotechnical and Geophysical Methods and its Prevention

Authors: Neşe Işık, Şenol Altıok, Galip Devrim Eryılmaz, Aydın durukan, Hasan Özgür Daş


In this study, an active landslide zone affecting the road alignment on the Tortum-Uzundere (Erzurum/Turkey) highway was investigated. Due to the landslide movement, problems have occurred in the existing road pavement, which has caused both safety problems and reduced driving comfort in the operation of the road. In order to model the landslide, drilling, geophysical and inclinometer studies were carried out in the field within the scope of ground investigation. Laboratory tests were carried out on soil and rock samples obtained from the borings. When the drilling and geophysical studies were evaluated together, it was determined that the study area has a complex geological structure. In addition, according to the inclinometer results, the direction and speed of movement of the landslide mass were observed. In order to create an idealized geological profile, all field and laboratory studies were evaluated together and then the sliding surface of the landslide was determined by back analysis method. According to the findings obtained, it was determined that the landslide was massively large, and the movement occurred had a deep sliding surface. As a result of the numerical analyses, it was concluded that the Slope angle reduction is the most economical and environmentally friendly method for the control of the landslide mass.

Keywords: landslide, geotechnical methods, geophysics, monitoring, highway

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698 Improvement of Soft Clay Soil with Biopolymer

Authors: Majid Bagherinia


Lime and cement are frequently used as binders in the Deep Mixing Method (DMM) to improve soft clay soils. The most significant disadvantages of these materials are carbon dioxide emissions and the consumption of natural resources. In this study, three different biopolymers, guar gum, locust bean gum, and sodium alginate, were investigated for the improvement of soft clay using DMM. In the experimental study, the effects of the additive ratio and curing time on the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) of stabilized specimens were investigated. According to the results, the UCS values of the specimens increased as the additive ratio and curing time increased. The most effective additive was sodium alginate, and the highest strength was obtained after 28 days.

Keywords: deep mixing method, soft clays, ground improvement, biopolymers, unconfined compressive strength

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697 Numerical Investigation on Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall with Separated Relieving Platform

Authors: Mahmoud Roushdy, Mohamed El Naggar, Ahmed Yehia Abdelaziz


Anchored sheet pile has been used worldwide as front quay walls for decades. With the increase in vessel drafts and weights, those sheet pile walls need to be upgraded by increasing the depth of the dredging line in front of the wall. A system was recently used to increase the depth in front of the wall by installing a separated platform supported on a deep foundation (so-called Relieving Platform) behind the sheet pile wall. The platform is structurally separated from the front wall. This paper presents a numerical investigation utilizing finite element analysis on the behavior of separated relief platforms installed within existing anchored sheet pile quay walls. The investigation was done in two steps: a verification step followed by a parametric study. In the verification step, the numerical model was verified based on field measurements performed by others. The validated model was extended within the parametric study to a series of models with different backfill soils, separation gap width, and the number of pile rows supporting the platform. The results of the numerical investigation show that using stiff clay as backfill soil (neglecting consolidation) gives better performance for the front wall and the first pile row adjacent to sandy backfills. The degree of compaction of the sandy backfill slightly increases lateral deformations but reduces bending moment acting on pile rows, while the effect is minor on the front wall. In addition, the increase in the separation gap width gradually increases bending moments on the front wall regardless of the backfill soil type, while this effect is reversed on pile rows (gradually decreasing). Finally, the paper studies the possibility of reducing the number of pile rows along with the separation to take advantage of the positive separation effect on piles.

Keywords: anchored sheet pile, relieving platform, quay wall, gap separation

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696 Using Geo-Statistical Techniques and Machine Learning Algorithms to Model the Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Land Surface Temperature and its Relationship with Land Use Land Cover

Authors: Javed Mallick


In metropolitan areas, rapid changes in land use and land cover (LULC) have ecological and environmental consequences. Saudi Arabia's cities have experienced tremendous urban growth since the 1990s, resulting in urban heat islands, groundwater depletion, air pollution, loss of ecosystem services, and so on. From 1990 to 2020, this study examines the variance and heterogeneity in land surface temperature (LST) caused by LULC changes in Abha-Khamis Mushyet, Saudi Arabia. LULC was mapped using the support vector machine (SVM). The mono-window algorithm was used to calculate the land surface temperature (LST). To identify LST clusters, the local indicator of spatial associations (LISA) model was applied to spatiotemporal LST maps. In addition, the parallel coordinate (PCP) method was used to investigate the relationship between LST clusters and urban biophysical variables as a proxy for LULC. According to LULC maps, urban areas increased by more than 330% between 1990 and 2018. Between 1990 and 2018, built-up areas had an 83.6% transitional probability. Furthermore, between 1990 and 2020, vegetation and agricultural land were converted into built-up areas at a rate of 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively. Uneven LULC changes in built-up areas result in more LST hotspots. LST hotspots were associated with high NDBI but not NDWI or NDVI. This study could assist policymakers in developing mitigation strategies for urban heat islands

Keywords: land use land cover mapping, land surface temperature, support vector machine, LISA model, parallel coordinate plot

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695 Application of Remote Sensing and In-Situ Measurements for Discharge Monitoring in Large Rivers: Case of Pool Malebo in the Congo River Basin

Authors: Kechnit Djamel, Ammarri Abdelhadi, Raphael Tshimang, Mark Trrig


One of the most important aspects of monitoring rivers is navigation. The variation of discharge in the river generally produces a change in available draft for a vessel, particularly in the low flow season, which can impact the navigable water path, especially when the water depth is less than the normal one, which allows safe navigation for boats. The water depth is related to the bathymetry of the channel as well as the discharge. For a seasonal update of the navigation maps, a daily discharge value is required. Many novel approaches based on earth observation and remote sensing have been investigated for large rivers. However, it should be noted that most of these approaches are not currently able to directly estimate river discharge. This paper discusses the application of remote sensing tools using the analysis of the reflectance value of MODIS imagery and is combined with field measurements for the estimation of discharge. This approach is applied in the lower reach of the Congo River (Pool Malebo) for the period between 2019 and 2021. The correlation obtained between the observed discharge observed in the gauging station and the reflectance ratio time series is 0.81. In this context, a Discharge Reflectance Model (DRM) was developed to express discharge as a function of reflectance. This model introduces a non-contact method that allows discharge monitoring using earth observation. DRM was validated by field measurements using ADCP, in different sections on the Pool Malebo, over two different periods (dry and wet seasons), as well as by the observed discharge in the gauging station. The observed error between the estimated and measured discharge values ranges from 1 to 8% for the ADCP and from (1% to 11%) for the gauging station. The study of the uncertainties will give us the possibility to judge the robustness of the DRM.

Keywords: discharge monitoring, navigation, MODIS, empiric, ADCP, Congo River

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694 The Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Piles Installed in the Sand with Enlarged Bases

Authors: J. Omer, H. Haroglu


Base enlargement in piles was invented to enhance pile resistance in downward loading, but the contribution of an enlarged base to the lateral load resistance of a pile has not been fully exploited or understood. This paper presents a laboratory investigation of the lateral capacity and deformation response of small-scale steel piles with enlarged bases installed in dry sand. Static loading tests were performed on 24 model piles having different base-to-shaft diameter ratios. The piles were installed in a box filled with dry sand, and lateral loads were applied to the pile tops using a pulley system. The test piles had shaft diameters of 20 mm, 16 mm, and 10 mm; base diameters of 900 mm, 700 mm, and 500 mm. As a control, a pile without base enlargement was tested to allow comparisons with the enlarged base piles. Incremental maintained loads were applied until pile failure approached while recording pile head deflections with high-precision dial gauges. The results showed that the lateral capacity increased with an increase in base diameter, albeit by different percentages depending on the shaft diameters and embedment length in the sand. There was always an increase in lateral capacity with increasing embedment length. Also, it was observed that an enlarged pile base had deflected less at a given load when compared to the control pile. Therefore, the research demonstrated the benefits of lateral capacity and stability of enlarging a pile base.

Keywords: pile foundations, enlarged base, lateral loading

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693 Bracing Applications for Improving the Earthquake Performance of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Diyar Yousif Ali


Braced frames, besides other structural systems, such as shear walls or moment resisting frames, have been a valuable and effective technique to increase structures against seismic loads. In wind or seismic excitations, diagonal members react as truss web elements which would afford tension or compression stresses. This study proposes to consider the effect of bracing diagonal configuration on values of base shear and displacement of building. Two models were created, and nonlinear pushover analysis was implemented. Results show that bracing members enhance the lateral load performance of the Concentric Braced Frame (CBF) considerably. The purpose of this article is to study the nonlinear response of reinforced concrete structures which contain hollow pipe steel braces as the major structural elements against earthquake loads. A five-storey reinforced concrete structure was selected in this study; two different reinforced concrete frames were considered. The first system was an un-braced frame, while the last one was a braced frame with diagonal bracing. Analytical modelings of the bare frame and braced frame were realized by means of SAP 2000. The performances of all structures were evaluated using nonlinear static analyses. From these analyses, the base shear and displacements were compared. Results are plotted in diagrams and discussed extensively, and the results of the analyses showed that the braced frame was seemed to capable of more lateral load carrying and had a high value for stiffness and lower roof displacement in comparison with the bare frame.

Keywords: reinforced concrete structures, pushover analysis, base shear, steel bracing

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692 Geophysical Approach in the Geological Characterization of a Dam Site: Case of the Chebabta-Dam, Meskiana, Oum El-Bouaghi

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Djamel Boubaya, Chaffai Hicham


Meskiana Area is characterized by a semi-arid climate where the water supply for irrigation and industry is not sufficient as the priority goes for domestic use. To meet the increasing population growth and development, the authorities have considered building a new water retaining structure on some major temporary water streams. For this purpose Chebabta site on Oued Meskiana was chosen as the future dam site. It is large enough to store the desired volume of water. This study comes to investigate the conditions of the site and the adequacy of the ground as a foundation for the projected dam. The conditions of the site include the geological structure and mainly the presence of discontinuities in the formation on which the dam will be built, the nature of the lithologies under the foundation and the future lake, and the presence of any hazard. This site characterization is usually carried out using different methods in order to highlight any underground buried problematic structure. In this context, the different geophysical technics remain the most used ones. Three geophysical methods were used in the case of the Chebabta dam site, namely, electric survey, seismic refraction, and tomography. The choice of the technics and the location of the scan line was made on the basis of the available geological data. In this sense, profiles have been established on both banks of Oued Meskiana. The obtained results have allowed a better characterization of the geological structure, defining the limit between the surface cover and the bedrock, which is, in other words, the limit between the weathered zone and the bedrock. Their respective thicknesses were also determined by seismic refraction and electrical resistivity sounding. However, the tomography imaging technic has succeeded in positioning a fault structure passing through the right bank of the wadi.

Keywords: dam site, fault, geophysic, investigation, Meskiana

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691 Study for Establishing a Concept of Underground Mining in a Folded Deposit with Weathering

Authors: Chandan Pramanik, Bikramjit Chanda


Large metal mines operated with open-cast mining methods must transition to underground mining at the conclusion of the operation; however, this requires a period of a difficult time when production convergence due to interference between the two mining methods. A transition model with collaborative mining operations is presented and established in this work, based on the case of the South Kaliapani Underground Project, to address these technical issues of inadequate production security and other mining challenges during the transition phase and beyond. By integrating the technology of the small-scale Drift and Fill method and Highly productive Sub Level Open Stoping at deep section, this hybrid mining concept tries to eliminate major bottlenecks and offers an optimized production profile with the safe and sustainable operation. Considering every geo-mining aspect, this study offers a genuine and precise technical deliberation for the transition from open pit to underground mining.

Keywords: drift and fill, geo-mining aspect, sublevel open stoping, underground mining method

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690 Optimum Drilling States in Down-the-Hole Percussive Drilling: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Joao Victor Borges Dos Santos, Thomas Richard, Yevhen Kovalyshen


Down-the-hole (DTH) percussive drilling is an excavation method that is widely used in the mining industry due to its high efficiency in fragmenting hard rock formations. A DTH hammer system consists of a fluid driven (air or water) piston and a drill bit; the reciprocating movement of the piston transmits its kinetic energy to the drill bit by means of stress waves that propagate through the drill bit towards the rock formation. In the literature of percussive drilling, the existence of an optimum drilling state (Sweet Spot) is reported in some laboratory and field experimental studies. An optimum rate of penetration is achieved for a specific range of axial thrust (or weight-on-bit) beyond which the rate of penetration decreases. Several authors advance different explanations as possible root causes to the occurrence of the Sweet Spot, but a universal explanation or consensus does not exist yet. The experimental investigation in this work was initiated with drilling experiments conducted at a mining site. A full-scale drilling rig (equipped with a DTH hammer system) was instrumented with high precision sensors sampled at a very high sampling rate (kHz). Data was collected while two boreholes were being excavated, an in depth analysis of the recorded data confirmed that an optimum performance can be achieved for specific ranges of input thrust (weight-on-bit). The high sampling rate allowed to identify the bit penetration at each single impact (of the piston on the drill bit) as well as the impact frequency. These measurements provide a direct method to identify when the hammer does not fire, and drilling occurs without percussion, and the bit propagate the borehole by shearing the rock. The second stage of the experimental investigation was conducted in a laboratory environment with a custom-built equipment dubbed Woody. Woody allows the drilling of shallow holes few centimetres deep by successive discrete impacts from a piston. After each individual impact, the bit angular position is incremented by a fixed amount, the piston is moved back to its initial position at the top of the barrel, and the air pressure and thrust are set back to their pre-set values. The goal is to explore whether the observed optimum drilling state stems from the interaction between the drill bit and the rock (during impact) or governed by the overall system dynamics (between impacts). The experiments were conducted on samples of Calca Red, with a drill bit of 74 millimetres (outside diameter) and with weight-on-bit ranging from 0.3 kN to 3.7 kN. Results show that under the same piston impact energy and constant angular displacement of 15 degrees between impact, the average drill bit rate of penetration is independent of the weight-on-bit, which suggests that the sweet spot is not caused by intrinsic properties of the bit-rock interface.

Keywords: optimum drilling state, experimental investigation, field experiments, laboratory experiments, down-the-hole percussive drilling

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689 Experimental Study Of Impregnated Diamond Bit Wear During Sharpening

Authors: Rui Huang, Thomas Richard, Masood Mostofi


The lifetime of impregnated diamond bits and their drilling efficiency are in part governed by the bit wear conditions, not only the extent of the diamonds’ wear but also their exposure or protrusion out of the matrix bonding. As much as individual diamonds wear, the bonding matrix does also wear through two-body abrasion (direct matrix-rock contact) and three-body erosion (cuttings trapped in the space between rock and matrix). Although there is some work dedicated to the study of diamond bit wear, there is still a lack of understanding on how matrix erosion and diamond exposure relate to the bit drilling response and drilling efficiency, as well as no literature on the process that governs bit sharpening a procedure commonly implemented by drillers when the extent of diamond polishing yield extremely low rate of penetration. The aim of this research is (i) to derive a correlation between the wear state of the bit and the drilling performance but also (ii) to gain a better understanding of the process associated with tool sharpening. The research effort combines specific drilling experiments and precise mapping of the tool-cutting face (impregnated diamond bits and segments). Bit wear is produced by drilling through a rock sample at a fixed rate of penetration for a given period of time. Before and after each wear test, the bit drilling response and thus efficiency is mapped out using a tailored design experimental protocol. After each drilling test, the bit or segment cutting face is scanned with an optical microscope. The test results show that, under the fixed rate of penetration, diamond exposure increases with drilling distance but at a decreasing rate, up to a threshold exposure that corresponds to the optimum drilling condition for this feed rate. The data further shows that the threshold exposure scale with the rate of penetration up to a point where exposure reaches a maximum beyond which no more matrix can be eroded under normal drilling conditions. The second phase of this research focuses on the wear process referred as bit sharpening. Drillers rely on different approaches (increase feed rate or decrease flow rate) with the aim of tearing worn diamonds away from the bit matrix, wearing out some of the matrix, and thus exposing fresh sharp diamonds and recovering a higher rate of penetration. Although a common procedure, there is no rigorous methodology to sharpen the bit and avoid excessive wear or bit damage. This paper aims to gain some insight into the mechanisms that accompany bit sharpening by carefully tracking diamond fracturing, matrix wear, and erosion and how they relate to drilling parameters recorded while sharpening the tool. The results show that there exist optimal conditions (operating parameters and duration of the procedure) for sharpening that minimize overall bit wear and that the extent of bit sharpening can be monitored in real-time.

Keywords: bit sharpening, diamond exposure, drilling response, impregnated diamond bit, matrix erosion, wear rate

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688 Estimation of Rock Strength from Diamond Drilling

Authors: Hing Hao Chan, Thomas Richard, Masood Mostofi


The mining industry relies on an estimate of rock strength at several stages of a mine life cycle: mining (excavating, blasting, tunnelling) and processing (crushing and grinding), both very energy-intensive activities. An effective comminution design that can yield significant dividends often requires a reliable estimate of the material rock strength. Common laboratory tests such as rod, ball mill, and uniaxial compressive strength share common shortcomings such as time, sample preparation, bias in plug selection cost, repeatability, and sample amount to ensure reliable estimates. In this paper, the authors present a methodology to derive an estimate of the rock strength from drilling data recorded while coring with a diamond core head. The work presented in this paper builds on a phenomenological model of the bit-rock interface proposed by Franca et al. (2015) and is inspired by the now well-established use of the scratch test with PDC (Polycrystalline Diamond Compact) cutter to derive the rock uniaxial compressive strength. The first part of the paper introduces the phenomenological model of the bit-rock interface for a diamond core head that relates the forces acting on the drill bit (torque, axial thrust) to the bit kinematic variables (rate of penetration and angular velocity) and introduces the intrinsic specific energy or the energy required to drill a unit volume of rock for an ideally sharp drilling tool (meaning ideally sharp diamonds and no contact between the bit matrix and rock debris) that is found well correlated to the rock uniaxial compressive strength for PDC and roller cone bits. The second part describes the laboratory drill rig, the experimental procedure that is tailored to minimize the effect of diamond polishing over the duration of the experiments, and the step-by-step methodology to derive the intrinsic specific energy from the recorded data. The third section presents the results and shows that the intrinsic specific energy correlates well to the uniaxial compressive strength for the 11 tested rock materials (7 sedimentary and 4 igneous rocks). The last section discusses best drilling practices and a method to estimate the rock strength from field drilling data considering the compliance of the drill string and frictional losses along the borehole. The approach is illustrated with a case study from drilling data recorded while drilling an exploration well in Australia.

Keywords: bit-rock interaction, drilling experiment, impregnated diamond drilling, uniaxial compressive strength

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687 Debris' Effect on Bearing Capacity of Defective Piles in Sand

Authors: A. M. Nasr, W. R. Azzam, K. E. Ebeed


For bored piles, careful cleaning must be used to reduce the amount of material trapped in the drilled hole; otherwise, the debris' presence might cause the soft toe effect, which would affect the axial resistance. There isn't much comprehensive research on bored piles with debris. In order to investigate the behavior of a single pile, a pile composite foundation, a two pile group, a three pile group and a four pile group investigation conducts, forty-eight numerical tests in which the debris is simulated using foam rubber.1m pile diameter and 10m length with spacing 3D and depth of foundation 1m used in this study. It is found that the existence of debris causes a reduction of bearing capacity by 64.58% and 33.23% for single pile and pile composite foundation, respectively, 23.27% and 24.24% for the number of defective piles / total number of pile =1/2 and 1 respectively for two group pile, 10.23%, 19.42% and 28.47% for the number of defective piles / total number of pile =1/3,2/3 and 1 respectively for three group pile and, this reduction increase with the increase in a number of defective piles / a total number of piles and 7.1%, 13.32%,19.02% and 26.36 for the number of defective piles / total number of pile =1/4,2/4,3/4 and 1 respectively for four group pile and decreases with an increase of number of pile duo to interaction effect.

Keywords: debris, Foundation, defective, interaction, board pile

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686 Modelling of Pipe Jacked Twin Tunnels in a Very Soft Clay

Authors: Hojjat Mohammadi, Randall Divito, Gary J.E. Kramer


Tunnelling and pipe jacking in very soft soils (fat clays), even with an Earth Pressure Balance tunnel boring machine (EPBM), can cause large ground displacements. In this study, the short-term and long-term ground and tunnel response is predicted for twin, pipe-jacked EPBM 3 meter diameter tunnels with a narrow pillar width. Initial modelling indicated complete closure of the annulus gap at the tail shield onto the centrifugally cast, glass-fiber-reinforced, polymer mortar jacking pipe (FRP). Numerical modelling was employed to simulate the excavation and support installation sequence, examine the ground response during excavation, confirm the adequacy of the pillar width and check the structural adequacy of the installed pipe. In the numerical models, Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model with the effect of unloading was adopted for the fat clays, while for the bedrock layer, the generalized Hoek-Brown was employed. The numerical models considered explicit excavation sequences and different levels of ground convergence prior to support installation. The well-studied excavation sequences made the analysis possible for this study on a very soft clay, otherwise, obtaining the convergency in the numerical analysis would be impossible. The predicted results indicate that the ground displacements around the tunnel and its effect on the pipe would be acceptable despite predictions of large zones of plastic behaviour around the tunnels and within the entire pillar between them due to excavation-induced ground movements.

Keywords: finite element modeling (FEM), pipe-jacked tunneling, very soft clay, EPBM

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685 Groundwater Recharge Suitability Mapping Using Analytical Hierarchy Process Based-Approach

Authors: Aziza Barrek, Mohamed Haythem Msaddek, Ismail Chenini


Excessive groundwater pumping due to the increasing water demand, especially in the agricultural sector, causes groundwater scarcity. Groundwater recharge is the most important process that contributes to the water's durability. This paper is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process multicriteria analysis to establish a groundwater recharge susceptibility map. To delineate aquifer suitability for groundwater recharge, eight parameters were used: soil type, land cover, drainage density, lithology, NDVI, slope, transmissivity, and rainfall. The impact of each factor was weighted. This method was applied to the El Fahs plain shallow aquifer. Results suggest that 37% of the aquifer area has very good and good recharge suitability. The results have been validated by the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve. The accuracy of the prediction obtained was 89.3%.

Keywords: AHP, El Fahs aquifer, empirical formula, groundwater recharge zone, remote sensing, semi-arid region

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684 Innovations in the Lithium Chain Value

Authors: Fiúza A., Góis J. Leite M., Braga H., Lima A., Jorge P., Moutela P., Martins L., Futuro A.


Lepidolite is an important lithium mineral that, to the author’s best knowledge, has not been used to produce lithium hydroxide, necessary for energy conversion to electric vehicles. Alkaline leaching of lithium concentrates allows the establishment of a production diagram avoiding most of the environmental drawbacks that are associated with the usage of acid reagents. The tested processes involve a pretreatment by digestion at high temperatures with additives, followed by leaching at hot atmospheric pressure. The solutions obtained must be compatible with solutions from the leaching of spodumene concentrates, allowing the development of a common treatment diagram, an important accomplishment for the feasible exploitation of Portuguese resources. Statistical programming and interpretation techniques are used to minimize the laboratory effort required by conventional approaches and also allow phenomenological comprehension.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, tailings free process, ferroelectric electrolyte battery, life cycle assessment

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683 Geophysical Mapping of the Groundwater Aquifer System in Gode Area, Northeastern Hosanna, Ethiopia

Authors: Esubalew Yehualaw Melaku


In this study, two basic geophysical methods are applied for mapping the groundwater aquifer system in the Gode area along the Guder River, northeast of Hosanna town, near the western margin of the Central Main Ethiopian Rift. The main target of the study is to map the potential aquifer zone and investigate the groundwater potential for current and future development of the resource in the Gode area. The geophysical methods employed in this study include, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and magnetic survey techniques. Electrical sounding was used to examine and map the depth to the potential aquifer zone of the groundwater and its distribution over the area. On the other hand, a magnetic survey was used to delineate contact between lithologic units and geological structures. The 2D magnetic modeling and the geoelectric sections are used for the identification of weak zones, which control the groundwater flow and storage system. The geophysical survey comprises of twelve VES readings collected by using a Schlumberger array along six profile lines and more than four hundred (400) magnetic readings at about 10m station intervals along four profiles and 20m along three random profiles. The study result revealed that the potential aquifer in the area is obtained at a depth range from 45m to 92m. This is the response of the highly weathered/ fractured ignimbrite and pumice layer with sandy soil, which is the main water-bearing horizon. Overall, in the neighborhood of four VES points, VES- 2, VES- 3, VES-10, and VES-11, shows good water-bearing zones in the study area.

Keywords: vertical electrical sounding, magnetic survey, aquifer, groundwater potential

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682 The Effect of Potassium Hydroxide on Fine Soil Treated with Olivine

Authors: Abdelmaoula Mahamoud Tahir, Sedat Sert


The possibility of improving the shear strength of unsaturated clayey soil with the addition of olivine was investigated in this paper. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests (UU), under different cell pressures (namely: 100 kPa and 200 kPa), with varying percentages of olivine (10% and 20% by weight) and with one day, 28 days, and 56 days curing times, were performed to determine the shear strength of the soil. The increase in strength was observed as a function of the increase in olivine content. An olivine content of 25% was determined as the optimum value to achieve the targeted improvement for both cure times. A comparative study was also conducted between clay samples treated with only olivine and others in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH). Clay samples treated with olivine and activated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) had higher shear strength than non-activated olivine-treated samples. It was determined that the strength of the clay samples treated with only olivine did not increase over time and added resistance only with the high specific gravity of olivine. On the other hand, the samples activated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) added to the resistance with high specific gravity and the chemical bonds of olivine. Morphological and mineralogical analyzes were carried out in this study to see and analyze the chemical bonds formed after the reaction. The main components of this improvement were the formation of magnesium-aluminate-hydrate and magnesium-silicate-hydrate. Compared to older methods such as cement addition, these results show that in stabilizing clayey soils, olivine additive offers an energy-efficient alternative for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

Keywords: ground stabilization, clay, olivine additive, KOH, microstructure

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681 Physio-Thermal and Geochemical Behavior and Alteration of the Au Pathfinder Gangue Hydrothermal Quartz at the Kubi Gold Ore Deposits

Authors: Gabriel K. Nzulu, Lina Rostorm, Hans Högberg, Jun Liu, per Eklund, Lars Hultman, Martin Magnuson


Altered and gangue quartz in hydrothermal veins from the Kubi Gold deposit in Dunkwa on Offin in the central region of Ghana are investigated for possible Au associated pathfinder minerals and to provide understanding and increase the knowledge of the mineral hosting and alteration processes in quartz. X-ray diffraction, air annealing furnace, differential scanning calorimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have been applied on different quartz types outcropping from surface and bed rocks at the Kubi Gold Mining to reveal the material properties at different temperatures. From the diffraction results of the fresh and annealed quartz samples, we find that the samples contain pathfinder and the impurity minerals FeS₂, biotite, TiO₂, and magnetite. These minerals, under oxidation process between 574-1400 °C temperatures experienced hematite alterations and a transformation from α-quartz to β-quartz and further to cristobalite as observed from the calorimetry scans for hydrothermally exposed materials. The energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed elemental species of Fe, S, Mg, K, Al, Ti, Na, Si, O, and Ca contained in the samples and these are attributed to the impurity phase minerals observed in the diffraction. The findings also suggest that during the hydrothermal flow regime, impurity minerals and metals can be trapped by voids and faults. Under favorable temperature conditions the trapped minerals can be altered to change color at different depositional stages by oxidation and reduction processes leading to hematite alteration which is a useful pathfinder in mineral exploration.

Keywords: quartz, hydrothermal, minerals, hematite, x-ray diffraction, crystal-structure, defects

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680 Boundary Conditions for 2D Site Response Analysis in OpenSees

Authors: M. Eskandarighadi, CR. McGann


It is observed from past experiences of earthquakes that local site conditions can significantly affect the strong ground motion characteristicssuch as frequency content, amplitude, and duration of seismic waves. The most common method for investigating site response is one-dimensional seismic site response analysis. The infinite horizontal length of the model and the homogeneous characteristic of the soil are crucial assumptions of this method. One boundary condition that can be used in the sides is tying the sides horizontally for vertical 1D wave propagation. However, 1D analysis cannot account for the 2D nature of wave propagation in the condition where the soil profile is not fully horizontal or has heterogeneity within layers. Therefore, 2D seismic site response analysis can be used to take all of these limitations into account for a better understanding of local site conditions. Different types of boundary conditions can be appliedin 2D site response models, such as tied boundary condition, massive columns, and free-field boundary condition. The tied boundary condition has been used in 1D analysis, which is useful for 1D wave propagation. Employing two massive columns at the sides is another approach for capturing the 2D nature of wave propagation. Free-field boundary condition can simulate the free-field motion that would exist far from the domain of interest. The goal for free-field boundary condition is to minimize the unwanted reflection from sides. This research focuses on the comparison between these methods with examples and discusses the details and limitations of each of these boundary conditions.

Keywords: boundary condition, free-field, massive columns, opensees, site response analysis, wave propagation

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679 Implementation of Free-Field Boundary Condition for 2D Site Response Analysis in OpenSees

Authors: M. Eskandarighadi, CR. McGann


It is observed from past experiences of earthquakes that local site conditions can significantly affect the strong ground motion characteristics experience at the site. One-dimensional seismic site response analysis is the most common approach for investigating site response. This approach assumes that soil is homogeneous and infinitely extended in the horizontal direction. Therefore, tying side boundaries together is one way to model this behavior, as the wave passage is assumed to be only vertical. However, 1D analysis cannot capture the 2D nature of wave propagation, soil heterogeneity, and 2D soil profile with features such as inclined layer boundaries. In contrast, 2D seismic site response modeling can consider all of the mentioned factors to better understand local site effects on strong ground motions. 2D wave propagation and considering that the soil profile on the two sides of the model may not be identical clarifies the importance of a boundary condition on each side that can minimize the unwanted reflections from the edges of the model and input appropriate loading conditions. Ideally, the model size should be sufficiently large to minimize the wave reflection, however, due to computational limitations, increasing the model size is impractical in some cases. Another approach is to employ free-field boundary conditions that take into account the free-field motion that would exist far from the model domain and apply this to the sides of the model. This research focuses on implementing free-field boundary conditions in OpenSees for 2D site response analysisComparisons are made between 1D models and 2D models with various boundary conditions, and details and limitations of the developed free-field boundary modeling approach are discussed.

Keywords: boundary condition, free-field, opensees, site response analysis, wave propagation

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678 Amelioration of Stability and Rheological Properties of a Crude Oil-Based Drilling Mud

Authors: Hammadi Larbi, Bergane Cheikh


Drilling for oil is done through many mechanisms. The goal is first to dig deep and then, after arriving at the oil source, to simply suck it up. And for this, it is important to know the role of oil-based drilling muds, which had many benefits for the drilling tool and for drilling generally, and also and essentially to know the rheological behavior of the emulsion system in particular water-in-oil inverse emulsions (Water/crude oil). This work contributes to the improvement of the stability and rheological properties of crude oil-based drilling mud by organophilic clay. Experimental data from steady-state flow measurements of crude oil-based drilling mud are classically analyzed by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The effects of organophilic clay type VG69 are studied. Microscopic observation showed that the addition of quantities of organophilic clay type VG69 less than or equal to 3 g leads to the stability of inverse Water/Oil emulsions; on the other hand, for quantities greater than 3g, the emulsions are destabilized.

Keywords: drilling, organophilic clay, crude oil, stability

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677 Profitability Assessment of Granite Aggregate Production and the Development of a Profit Assessment Model

Authors: Melodi Mbuyi Mata, Blessing Olamide Taiwo, Afolabi Ayodele David


The purpose of this research is to create empirical models for assessing the profitability of granite aggregate production in Akure, Ondo state aggregate quarries. In addition, an artificial neural network (ANN) model and multivariate predicting models for granite profitability were developed in the study. A formal survey questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The data extracted from the case study mine for this study includes granite marketing operations, royalty, production costs, and mine production information. The following methods were used to achieve the goal of this study: descriptive statistics, MATLAB 2017, and SPSS16.0 software in analyzing and modeling the data collected from granite traders in the study areas. The ANN and Multi Variant Regression models' prediction accuracy was compared using a coefficient of determination (R²), Root mean square error (RMSE), and mean square error (MSE). Due to the high prediction error, the model evaluation indices revealed that the ANN model was suitable for predicting generated profit in a typical quarry. More quarries in Nigeria's southwest region and other geopolitical zones should be considered to improve ANN prediction accuracy.

Keywords: national development, granite, profitability assessment, ANN models

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676 Experimental Investigation on Correlation Between Permeability Variation and Sabkha Soil Salts Dissolution

Authors: Fahad A. Alotaibi


An increase in salt dissolution rate with continuous water flow is expected to lead to the progressive collapse of the soil structure. Evaluation of the relationship between soil salt dissolution and the variation of sabkha soil permeability in terms of type, rate, and quantity in order to assure construction safety in these environments. The current study investigates the relationship of soil permeability with the rate of dissolution of calcium (Ca2+), sulfate (SO4-2), chloride (CL−1), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+1) ions. Results revealed an increase in sabkha soil permeability with the rate of ions dissolution. This makes the efficiency of using a waterproofing stabilization agent in the reduction of sabkha salts dissolution the main criterion is selecting suitable stabilizing method.

Keywords: sabkha, permeability, salts, dissolution

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675 Biochar - A Multi-Beneficial and Cost-Effective Amendment to Clay Soil for Stormwater Runoff Treatment

Authors: Mohammad Khalid, Mariya Munir, Jacelyn Rice Boyaue


Highways are considered a major source of pollution to storm-water, and its runoff can introduce various contaminants, including nutrients, Indicator bacteria, heavy metals, chloride, and phosphorus compounds, which can have negative impacts on receiving waters. This study assessed the ability of biochar for contaminants removal and to improve the water holding capacity of soil biochar mixture. For this, ten commercially available biochar has been strategically selected. Lab scale batch testing was done at 3% and 6% by the weight of the soil to find the preliminary estimate of contaminants removal along with hydraulic conductivity and water retention capacity. Furthermore, from the above-conducted studies, six best performing candidate and an application rate of 6% has been selected for the column studies. Soil biochar mixture was filled in 7.62 cm assembled columns up to a fixed height of 76.2 cm based on hydraulic conductivity. A total of eight column experiments have been conducted for nutrient, heavy metal, and indicator bacteria analysis over a period of one year, which includes a drying as well as a deicing period. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was greatly improved, which is attributed to the high porosity of the biochar soil mixture. Initial data from the column testing shows that biochar may have the ability to significantly remove nutrients, indicator bacteria, and heavy metals. The overall study demonstrates that biochar could be efficiently applied with clay soil to improve the soil's hydraulic characteristics as well as remove the pollutants from the stormwater runoff.

Keywords: biochar, nutrients, indicator bacteria, storm-water treatment, sustainability

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674 Mechanical Properties of a Soil Stabilized With a Portland Cement

Authors: Ahmed Emad Ahmed, Mostafa El Abd, Ahmed Wakeb, Moahmmed Eissa


Soil modification and reinforcing aims to increase soil shear strength and stiffness. In this report, different amounts of cement were added to the soil to explore its effect on shear strength and penetration using 3 tests. The first test is proctor compaction test which was conducted to determine the optimal moisture content and maximum dry density. The second test was direct shear test which was conducted to measure shear strength of soil. The third experiment was California bearing ratio test which was done to measure the penetration in soil. Each test was done different amount of times using different amounts of cement. The results from every test show that cement improve soil shear strength properties and stiffness.

Keywords: soil stabilized, soil, mechanical properties of soil, soil stabilized with a portland cement

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673 Recovery of Local Materials in Pavements in Areas with an Arid Climate

Authors: Hocini Yousra, Medjnoun Amal, Khiatine Mohamed, Bahar Ramdane


The development of the regions of southern Algeria require the construction of numerous road, rail, and airport infrastructures. However, this development is very expensive given the very severe climatic conditions, the difficulty of reusing local materials, and the unavailability of water on the project sites; these regions are characterized by an arid or semi-arid climate, which means that water sources are very limited. The climatic conditions and the scarcity of water make soil compaction work very difficult and excessively expensive. These constraints related to the supply of water for irrigation of these construction sites make it necessary to examine the solution of compaction with low water content. This work studies the possibility of improving the compaction with a low water content of the soils of southern Algeria and this by using natural or recycled ecological materials. Local soils are first subjected to a series of laboratory characterization tests, then mixed with varying amounts of natural additives. The new materials are, in turn, subjected to road tests.

Keywords: compaction, low water content, sand, natural materials

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672 Effect of Compaction Energy on the Compaction of Soils with Low Water Content in the Semi-arid Region of Chlef

Authors: Obeida Aiche, Mohamed Khiatine, Medjnoun Amal, Ramdane Bahar


Soil compaction is one of the most challenging tasks in the construction of road embankments, railway platforms, and earth dams. Stability and durability are mainly related to the nature of the materials used and the type of soil in place. However, nature does not always offer the engineer materials with the right water content, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where obtaining the optimum Proctor water content requires the addition of considerable quantities of water. The current environmental context does not allow for the rational use of water, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, where it is preferable to preserve water resources for the benefit of the local population. Low water compaction can be an interesting approach as it promotes the reuse of earthworks materials in their dry or very dry state. Thanks to techniques in the field of soil compaction, such as vibratory compactors, which have made it possible to increase the compaction energy considerably, it is possible for some materials to obtain a satisfactory quality by compacting at low water contents or at least lower than the optimum determined by the Proctor test. This communication deals with the low water content compaction of soils in the semi-arid zone of the Chlef region in Algeria by increasing the compaction energy.

Keywords: compaction, soil, low water content, compaction energy

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671 Numerical Evaluation of the Degradation of Shear Modulus and Damping Evolution of Soils in the Eastern Region of Algiers Using Geophysical and Geotechnical Tests

Authors: Mohamed Khiatine, Ramdane Bahar


The research performed during the last years has revealed that the seismic response of the soilis significantly non linear and hysteresis to the deformationsitundergoes during earthquakes and notably during violent shaking. This nonlinear behavior of soils can be characterized by curves showing the evolution of shearmodulus and damping versus distortion. Also, in this context, geotechnical seismic engineering problems often require the characterization of dynamic soil properties over a wide range of deformation. This determination of dynamic soil properties is key to predict the seismic response of soils for important civil engineering structures. This communication discusses a numerical analysis method for evaluating the nonlinear dynamic properties of soils in Algeriausing the FLAC2D software and the database resulting from geophysical and geotechnical studies when laboratory dynamic tests are not available. The nonlinear model proposed by Ramberg-Osgood and limited by the Mohr-coulomb criterion is used.

Keywords: degradation, shear modulus, damping, ramberg-osgood, numerical analysis.

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