Abstracts | Geotechnical and Geological Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 816

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geotechnical and Geological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

816 Effect of Temperature on the Permeability and Time-Dependent Change in Thermal Volume of Bentonite Clay During the Heating-Cooling Cycle

Authors: Nilufar Chowdhury, Fereydoun Najafian Jazi, Omid Ghasemi-Fare


The thermal effect on soil properties induces significant variations in hydraulic conductivity, which is attributable to temperature-dependent transitions in soil properties. With the elevation of temperature, there can be a notable increase in intrinsic permeability due to the degeneration of bound water molecules into a free state facilitated by thermal energy input. Conversely, thermal consolidation may cause a reduction in intrinsic permeability as soil particles undergo densification. This thermal response of soil permeability exhibits pronounced heterogeneity across different soil types. Furthermore, this temperature-induced disruption of the bound water within clay matrices can enhance the mineral-to-mineral contact, initiating irreversible deformation within the clay structure. This indicates that when soil undergoes heating-cooling cycles, plastic strain can develop, which needs to be investigated for every soil type to understand the thermo-hydro mechanical behavior of clay properly. This research aims to study the effect of the heating-cooling cycle on the intrinsic permeability and time-dependent evaluation of thermal volume change of sodium Bentonite clay. A temperature-controlled triaxial permeameter cell is used in this study. The selected temperature is 20° C, 40° C, 40° C and 80° C. The hydraulic conductivity of Bentonite clay under 100 kPa confining stresses was measured. Hydraulic conductivity analysis was performed on a saturated sample for a void ratio e = 0.9, corresponding to a dry density of 1.2 Mg/m3. Different hydraulic gradients were applied between the top and bottom of the sample to obtain a measurable flow through the sample. The hydraulic gradient used for the experiment was 4000. The diameter and thickness of the sample are 101. 6 mm, and 25.4 mm, respectively. Both for heating and cooling, the hydraulic conductivity at each temperature is measured after the flow reaches the steady state condition to make sure the volume change due to thermal loading is stabilized. Thus, soil specimens were kept at a constant temperature during both the heating and cooling phases for at least 10-18 days to facilitate the equilibration of hydraulic transients. To assess the influence of temperature-induced volume changes of Bentonite clay, the evaluation of void ratio change during this time period has been monitored. It is observed that the intrinsic permeability increases by 30-40% during the heating cycle. The permeability during the cooling cycle is 10-12% lower compared to the permeability observed during the heating cycle at a particular temperature. This reduction in permeability implies a change in soil fabric due to the thermal effect. An initial increase followed by a rapid decrease in void ratio was observed, representing the occurrence of possible osmotic swelling phenomena followed by thermal consolidation. It has been observed that after a complete heating-cooling cycle, there is a significant change in the void ratio compared to the initial void ratio of the sample. The results obtained suggest that Bentonite clay’s microstructure can change subject to a complete heating-cooling process, which regulates macro behavior such as the permeability of Bentonite clay.

Keywords: bentonite, permeability, temperature, thermal volume change

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815 Sedimentological and Petrographical Studies on the Cored samples from Bentiu Formation Muglad Basin

Authors: Yousif M. Makeen


This study presents the results of the sedimentological and petrographical analyses on the cored samples from the Bentiu Formation. The cored intervals consist of thick beds of sandstone, which are sometimes intercalated with beds of fine-grained sandstone and, in a minor case, with a siltstone bed. Detailed sedimentological facies analysis revealed the presence of six facies types, which can be clarified in order of their great percentage occurrences as follows: (i) Massive sandstone, (ii) Planar cross-bedded sandstone, (iii) Trough cross-bedded sandstone, (iv) Fine laminated sandstone (v) Fine laminated siltstone and (vi) Horizontally parted sandstone. The petrographical analyses under the plane polarized microscope and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the sandstone lithofacies types that exist within the cored intervals allowed classifying these lithofacies into Kaolinitic Subfeldspathic Arenites. Among the detrital components, quartz grains are the most abundant (mainly monocrystalline quartz), followed by feldspars, micas, detrital and authigenic clays, and carbonaceous debris. However, traces of lithic fragments, iron oxides and heavy minerals were observed in some of the analyzed samples, where they occur in minor amounts. Kaolinite is present mainly as an authigenic component in most of the analyzed samples, while quartz overgrowths occur in variable amounts in most of the investigated samples. Carbonates (calcite & siderite) are present in considerable amounts. The grain roundness in most of the investigated sandstone samples ranges from well-rounded to round, and, in fewer samples, is sub-angular to angular. Most of the sandstone samples are moderately compacted and display point, concavo-convex and long grain contacts, whereas the sutured grain contacts, which reflect a higher degree of compaction, are relatively observed in lesser amounts, while the float grain contact has also been observed in minor quantity. Pore types in the analyzed samples are dominantly primary and secondary interparticle forms. Point-counted porosity values range from 19.6% to 30%. Average pore sizes are highly variable and range from 20 to 350 microns. Pore interconnectivity ranges from good to very good.

Keywords: sandstone, sedimentological facies, porosity, quartz overgrowths

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814 Influence of Loading Pattern and Shaft Rigidity on Laterally Loaded Helical Piles in Cohesion-Less Soil

Authors: Mohamed Hesham Hamdy Abdelmohsen, Ahmed Shawky Abdul Aziz, Mona Fawzy Al-Daghma


Helical piles are widely used as axially and laterally loaded deep foundations. Once they are required to resist bearing combined loads (BCLs), as axial compression and lateral thrust, different behaviour is expected, necessitating further investigation. The objective of the present article is to clarify the behaviour of a single helical pile of different shaft rigidity embedded in cohesion-less soil and subjected to simultaneous or successive loading patterns of BCLs. The study was first developed analytically and extended numerically. The numerical analysis was further verified through a laboratory experimental program on a set of helical pile models. The results indicate highly interactive effects of the studied parameters, but it is obviously confirmed that the pile performance increases with both the increase of shaft rigidity and the change of BCLs loading pattern from simultaneous to successive. However, it is noted that the increase of vertical load does not always enhance the lateral capacity but may cause a decrement in lateral capacity, as observed with helical piles of flexible shafts. This study provides insightful information for the design of helical piles in structures loaded by complex sequence of forces, wind turbines, and industrial shafts.

Keywords: helical pile, lateral loads, combined loads, cohesion-less soil, analytical, numerical

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813 Numerical Study Pile Installation Disturbance Zone Effects on Excess Pore Pressure Dissipation

Authors: Kang Liu, Meng Liu, Meng-Long Wu, Da-Chang Yue, Hong-Yi Pan


The soil setup is an important factor affecting pile bearing capacity; there are many factors that influence it, all of which are closely related to pile construction disturbances. During pile installation in soil, a significant amount of excess pore pressure is generated, creating disturbance zones around the pile. The dissipation rate of excess pore pressure is an important factor influencing the pile setup. The paper aims to examine how alterations in parameters within disturbance zones affect the dissipation of excess pore pressure. An axisymmetric FE model is used to simulate pile installation in clay, subsequently consolidation using Plaxis 3D. The influence of disturbed zone on setup is verified, by comparing the parametric studies in uniform field and non-uniform field. Three types of consolidation are employed: consolidation in three directions, vertical consolidation, horizontal consolidation. The results of the parametric study show that the permeability coefficient decreases, soil stiffness decreases, and reference pressure increases in the disturbance zone, resulting in an increase in the dissipation time of excess pore pressure and exhibiting a noticeable threshold phenomenon, which has been commonly overlooked in previous literature. The research in this paper suggests that significant thresholds occur when the coefficient of permeability decreases to half of the original site's value for three-directional and horizontal consolidation within the disturbed zone. Similarly, the threshold for vertical consolidation is observed when the coefficient of permeability decreases to one-fourth of the original site's value. Especially in pile setup research, consolidation is assumed to be horizontal; the study findings suggest that horizontal consolidation has experienced notable alterations as a result of the presence of disturbed zones. Furthermore, the selection of pile installation methods proves to be critical. A nonlinearity excess pore pressure formula is proposed based on cavity expansion theory, which includes the distribution of soil profile modulus with depth.

Keywords: pile setup, threshold value effect, installation effects, uniform field, non-uniform field

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812 Experience of Using Expanding Polyurethane Resin for Ground Improvement Under Existing Shallow Foundations on The Arabian Peninsula

Authors: Evgeny N. Zakharin, Bartosz Majewski


Foaming polyurethane is a ground improvement technology that is increasingly used for foundation stabilization with differential settlement and controlled foundation structure lifting. This technology differs from conventional mineral grout due to its injection composition, which provides high-pressure expansion quickly due to a chemical reaction. The technology has proven efficient in the typical geological conditions of the United Arab Emirates. An in-situ trial foundation load test has been proposed to objectively assess the deformative and load-bearing characteristics of the soil after injection. The article provides a detailed description of the experiment carried out in field conditions. Based on the practical experiment's results and its finite element modeling, the deformation modulus of the soil after treatment was determined, which was more than five times higher than the initial value.

Keywords: chemical grout, expanding polyurethane resin, foundation remediation, ground improvement

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811 The Mineralogy of Shales from the Pilbara and How Chemical Weathering Affects the Intact Strength

Authors: Arturo Maldonado


In the iron ore mining industry, the intact strength of rock units is defined using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS). This parameter is very important for the classification of shale materials, allowing the split between rock and cohesive soils based on the magnitude of UCS. For this research, it is assumed that UCS less than or equal to 1 MPa is representative of soils. Several researchers have anticipated that the magnitude of UCS reduces with weathering progression, also since UCS is a directional property, its magnitude depends upon the rock fabric orientation. Thus, the paper presents how the UCS of shales is affected by both weathering grade and bedding orientation. The mineralogy of shales has been defined using Hyper-spectral and chemical assays to define the mineral constituents of shale and other non-shale materials. Geological classification tools have been used to define distinct lithological types, and in this manner, the author uses mineralogical datasets to recognize and isolate shales from other rock types and develop tertiary plots for fresh and weathered shales. The mineralogical classification of shales has reduced the contamination of lithology types and facilitated the study of the physical factors affecting the intact strength of shales, like anisotropic strength due to bedding orientation. The analysis of mineralogical characteristics of shales is perhaps the most important contribution of this paper to other researchers who may wish to explore similar methods.

Keywords: rock mechanics, mineralogy, shales, weathering, anisotropy

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810 Geotechnical Challenges for the Use of Sand-sludge Mixtures in Covers for the Rehabilitation of Acid-Generating Mine Sites

Authors: Mamert Mbonimpa, Ousseynou Kanteye, Élysée Tshibangu Ngabu, Rachid Amrou, Abdelkabir Maqsoud, Tikou Belem


The management of mine wastes (waste rocks and tailings) containing sulphide minerals such as pyrite and pyrrhotite represents the main environmental challenge for the mining industry. Indeed, acid mine drainage (AMD) can be generated when these wastes are exposed to water and air. AMD is characterized by low pH and high concentrations of heavy metals, which are toxic to plants, animals, and humans. It affects the quality of the ecosystem through water and soil pollution. Different techniques involving soil materials can be used to control AMD generation, including impermeable covers (compacted clays) and oxygen barriers. The latter group includes covers with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), a multilayered cover that include the moisture retention layer playing the role of an oxygen barrier. Once AMD is produced at a mine site, it must be treated so that the final effluent at the mine site complies with regulations and can be discharged into the environment. Active neutralization with lime is one of the treatment methods used. This treatment produces sludge that is usually stored in sedimentation ponds. Other sludge management alternatives have been examined in recent years, including sludge co-disposal with tailings or waste rocks, disposal in underground mine excavations, and storage in technical landfill sites. Considering the ability of AMD neutralization sludge to maintain an alkaline to neutral pH for decades or even centuries, due to the excess alkalinity induced by residual lime within the sludge, valorization of sludge in specific applications could be an interesting management option. If done efficiently, the reuse of sludge could free up storage ponds and thus reduce the environmental impact. It should be noted that mixtures of sludge and soils could potentially constitute usable materials in CCBE for the rehabilitation of acid-generating mine sites, while sludge alone is not suitable for this purpose. The high sludge water content (up to 300%), even after sedimentation, can, however, constitute a geotechnical challenge. Adding lime to the mixtures can reduce the water content and improve the geotechnical properties. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the sludge content (30, 40 and 50%) in sand-sludge mixtures (SSM) on their hydrogeotechnical properties (compaction, shrinkage behaviour, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and water retention curve). The impact of lime addition (dosages from 2% to 6%) on the moisture content, dry density after compaction and saturated hydraulic conductivity of SSM was also investigated. Results showed that sludge adding to sand significantly improves the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention capacity, but the shrinkage increased with sludge content. The dry density after compaction of lime-treated SSM increases with the lime dosage but remains lower than the optimal dry density of the untreated mixtures. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of lime-treated SSM after 24 hours of cure decreases by 3 orders of magnitude. Considering the hydrogeotechnical properties obtained with these mixtures, it would be possible to design CCBE whose moisture retention layer is made of SSM. Physical laboratory models confirmed the performance of such CCBE.

Keywords: mine waste, AMD neutralization sludge, sand-sludge mixture, hydrogeotechnical properties, mine site reclamation, CCBE

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809 Climate Change and Extreme Weather: Understanding Interconnections and Implications

Authors: Johnstone Walubengo Wangusi


Climate change is undeniably altering the frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution of extreme weather events worldwide. In this paper, we explore the complex interconnections between climate change and extreme weather phenomena, drawing upon research from atmospheric science, geology, and climatology. We examine the underlying mechanisms driving these changes, the impacts on natural ecosystems and human societies, and strategies for adaptation and mitigation. By synthesizing insights from interdisciplinary research, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted relationship between climate change and extreme weather, informing efforts to address the challenges posed by a changing climate.

Keywords: climate change, extreme weather, atmospheric science, geology, climatology, impacts, adaptation, mitigation

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808 Geotechnical Engineering Solutions for Adaptation

Authors: Johnstone Walubengo Wangusi


Geotechnical engineering is a multidisciplinary field that encompasses the study of soil, rock, and groundwater properties and their interactions with civil engineering structures. This research paper provides an in-depth overview of geotechnical engineering, covering its fundamental principles, applications in civil infrastructure projects, and the challenges faced by practitioners in the field. Through a comprehensive examination of soil mechanics, foundation design, slope stability analysis, and geotechnical site investigation techniques, this paper aims to highlight the importance of geotechnical engineering in ensuring the safety, stability, and sustainability of infrastructure development. Additionally, it discusses emerging trends, innovative technologies, and future directions in geotechnical engineering research and practice.

Keywords: sustainable geotechnical engineering solutions, education and training for future generations geotechnical engineers, integration of geotechnical engineering and structural engineering, use of AI in geotechnical engineering modelling

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807 The Comparison of Joint Simulation and Estimation Methods for the Geometallurgical Modeling

Authors: Farzaneh Khorram


This paper endeavors to construct a block model to assess grinding energy consumption (CCE) and pinpoint blocks with the highest potential for energy usage during the grinding process within a specified region. Leveraging geostatistical techniques, particularly joint estimation, or simulation, based on geometallurgical data from various mineral processing stages, our objective is to forecast CCE across the study area. The dataset encompasses variables obtained from 2754 drill samples and a block model comprising 4680 blocks. The initial analysis encompassed exploratory data examination, variography, multivariate analysis, and the delineation of geological and structural units. Subsequent analysis involved the assessment of contacts between these units and the estimation of CCE via cokriging, considering its correlation with SPI. The selection of blocks exhibiting maximum CCE holds paramount importance for cost estimation, production planning, and risk mitigation. The study conducted exploratory data analysis on lithology, rock type, and failure variables, revealing seamless boundaries between geometallurgical units. Simulation methods, such as Plurigaussian and Turning band, demonstrated more realistic outcomes compared to cokriging, owing to the inherent characteristics of geometallurgical data and the limitations of kriging methods.

Keywords: geometallurgy, multivariate analysis, plurigaussian, turning band method, cokriging

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806 Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of High-Rise Structures in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Implications for Urban Resilience Along the East African Rift Margin

Authors: Birhanu Abera Kibret


The abstract highlights findings from a seismicity study conducted in the Ethiopian Rift Valley and adjacent cities, including Semera, Adama, and Hawasa, located in Afar and the Main Ethiopian Rift system. The region experiences high seismicity, characterized by small to moderate earthquakes situated in the mid-to-upper crust. Additionally, the capital city of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, situated in the rift margin, experiences seismic activity, with small to relatively moderate earthquakes observed to the east and southeast of the city, alongside the rift valley. These findings underscore the seismic vulnerability of the region, emphasizing the need for comprehensive seismic risk assessment and mitigation strategies to enhance resilience and preparedness.

Keywords: seismic hazard, seismicity, crustal structure, magmatic intrusion, partial meltung

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805 Prediction Study of a Corroded Pressure Vessel Using Evaluation Measurements and Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Ganbat Danaa, Chuluundorj Puntsag


The steel structures of the Oyu-Tolgoi mining Concentrator plant are corroded during operation, which raises doubts about the continued use of some important structures of the plant, which is one of the problems facing the plant's regular operation. As a part of the main operation of the plant, the bottom part of the pressure vessel, which plays an important role in the reliable operation of the concentrate filter-drying unit, was heavily corroded, so it was necessary to study by engineering calculations, modeling, and simulation using modern advanced engineering programs and methods. The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the corroded part of the pressure vessel can be used normally in the future using advanced engineering software and to predetermine the remaining life of the time of the pressure vessel based on engineering calculations. When the thickness of the bottom part of the pressure vessel was thinned by 0.5mm due to corrosion detected by non-destructive testing, finite element analysis using ANSYS WorkBench software was used to determine the mechanical stress, strain and safety factor in the wall and bottom of the pressure vessel operating under 2.2 MPa working pressure, made conclusions on whether it can be used in the future. According to the recommendations, by using sand-blast cleaning and anti-corrosion paint, the normal, continuous and reliable operation of the Concentrator plant can be ensured, such as ordering new pressure vessels and reducing the installation period. By completing this research work, it will be used as a benchmark for assessing the corrosion condition of steel parts of pressure vessels and other metallic and non-metallic structures operating under severe conditions of corrosion, static and dynamic loads, and other deformed steels to make analysis of the structures and make it possible to evaluate and control the integrity and reliable operation of the structures.

Keywords: corrosion, non-destructive testing, finite element analysis, safety factor, structural reliability

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804 Surveying Apps in Dam Excavation

Authors: Ali Mohammadi


Whenever there is a need to dig the ground, the presence of a surveyor is required to control the map. In projects such as dams and tunnels, these controls are more important because any mistakes can increase the cost. Also, time is great importance in These projects have and one of the ways to reduce the drilling time is to use techniques that can reduce the mapping time in these projects. Nowadays, with the existence of mobile phones, we can design apps that perform calculations and drawing for us on the mobile phone. Also, if we have a device that requires a computer to access its information, by designing an app, we can transfer its information to the mobile phone and use it, so we will not need to go to the office.

Keywords: app, tunnel, excavation, dam

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803 Seismic Performance of Highway Bridges with Partially Self-Centering Isolation Bearings against Near-Fault Ground Motions

Authors: Shengxin Yu


Earthquakes can cause varying degrees of damage to building and bridge structures. Traditional laminated natural rubber bearings (NRB) exhibit inadequate energy dissipation and restraint, particularly under near-fault ground motions, resulting in excessive displacements in the superstructure. This paper presents a composite natural rubber bearing (NFUD-NRB) incorporating two types of shape memory alloy (SMA) U-shaped dampers (UD). The bearing exhibits adjustable features, predominantly characterized by partial self-centering and multi-level energy dissipation, facilitated by nickel-titanium-based SMA (NiTi-SMA) and iron-based SMA (Fe-SMA) UDs. The hysteresis characteristics of NFUD-NRB can be tailored by manipulating the configuration of NiTi-SMA and Fe-SMA UDs. Firstly, the proposed bearing's geometric configuration and working principle are introduced. The rationality of the modeling strategy for the bearing is validated through existing experimental results. Parameterized numerical simulations are subsequently performed to investigate the partially self-centering behavior of NFUD-NRB. The findings indicate that NFUD-NRB can attain the anticipated nonlinear behavior and deliver adequate energy dissipation. Finally, the impact of NFUD-NRB on improving the seismic resilience of highway bridges is examined using the OpenSees software, with particular emphasis on the seismic performance of NFUD-NRB under near-fault ground motions. System-level analysis reveals that bridge systems equipped with NFUD-NRBs exhibit satisfactory residual deformations and higher energy dissipation than those equipped with traditional NRBs. Moreover, NFUD-NRB markedly mitigates the detrimental impacts of near-fault ground motions on the main structure of bridges.

Keywords: partially self-centering behavior, energy dissipation, natural rubber bearing, shape memory alloy, U-shaped damper, numerical investigation, near-fault ground motion

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802 Implementation of a Non-Poissonian Model in a Low-Seismicity Area

Authors: Ludivine Saint-Mard, Masato Nakajima, Gloria Senfaute


In areas with low to moderate seismicity, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis frequently uses a Poisson approach, which assumes independence in time and space of events to determine the annual probability of earthquake occurrence. Nevertheless, in countries with high seismic rate, such as Japan, it is frequently use non-poissonian model which assumes that next earthquake occurrence depends on the date of previous one. The objective of this paper is to apply a non-poissonian models in a region of low to moderate seismicity to get a feedback on the following questions: can we overcome the lack of data to determine some key parameters?, and can we deal with uncertainties to apply largely this methodology on an industrial context?. The Brownian-Passage-Time model was applied to a fault located in France and conclude that even if the lack of data can be overcome with some calculations, the amount of uncertainties and number of scenarios leads to a numerous branches in PSHA, making this method difficult to apply on a large scale of low to moderate seismicity areas and in an industrial context.

Keywords: probabilistic seismic hazard, non-poissonian model, earthquake occurrence, low seismicity

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801 Probabilistic Modeling of Post-Liquefaction Ground Deformation

Authors: Javad Sadoghi Yazdi, Robb Eric S. Moss


This paper utilizes a probabilistic liquefaction triggering method for modeling post-liquefaction ground deformation. This cone penetration test CPT-based liquefaction triggering is employed to estimate the factor of safety against liquefaction (FSL) and compute the maximum cyclic shear strain (γmax). The study identifies a maximum PL value of 90% across various relative densities, which challenges the decrease from 90% to 70% as relative density decreases. It reveals that PL ranges from 5% to 50% for volumetric strain (εvol) less than 1%, while for εvol values between 1% and 3.2%, PL spans from 50% to 90%. The application of the CPT-based simplified liquefaction triggering procedures has been employed in previous researches to estimate liquefaction ground-failure indices, such as the Liquefaction Potential Index (LPI) and Liquefaction Severity Number (LSN). However, several studies have been conducted to highlight the variability in liquefaction probability calculations, suggesting a more accurate depiction of liquefaction likelihood. Consequently, the utilization of these simplified methods may not offer practical efficiency. This paper further investigates the efficacy of various established liquefaction vulnerability parameters, including LPI and LSN, in explaining the observed liquefaction-induced damage within residential zones of Christchurch, New Zealand using results from CPT database.

Keywords: cone penetration test (CPT), liquefaction, postliquefaction, ground failure

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800 Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Geotechnical Properties of Soft Soil in Kathmandu Valley

Authors: Bal Deep Sharma, Suresh Ray Yadav


Local soils are often chosen due to their widespread availability and low cost. However, these soils typically have poor durability, which can lead to significant limitations in their use for construction. To address this issue, various soil stabilization techniques have been developed and used over the years. This study investigates the viability of employing the mineral polymerization (MIP) technique to stabilize black soils, intending to enhance their suitability for construction applications. This technique involves the microstructural transformation of certain clay minerals into solid and stable compounds exhibiting characteristics similar to hydroxy sodalite, feldspathoid, or zeolite. This transformation occurs through the action of an alkaline reactant at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. The soil sample was characterized using grain size distribution, Atterberg limit test, organic content test, and pH-value tests. The unconfined compressive strength of the soil specimens, prepared with varying percentages of sodium hydroxide as an additive and sand as a filler by weight, was determined at the optimum moisture content. The unconfined compressive strength of the specimens was tested under three different conditions: dry, wet, and cycling. The maximum unconfined compressive strengths were 77.568 kg/cm², 38.85 kg/cm², and 56.3 kg/cm² for the dry, wet, and cycling specimens, respectively, while the unconfined compressive strength of the untreated soil was 7.38 kg/cm². The minimum unconfined compressive strength of the wet and cycling specimens was greater than that of the untreated soil. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that these soils can be effectively used as construction material after treatment with sodium hydroxide.

Keywords: soil stabilization technique, soft soil treatment, sodium hydroxide, unconfined compressive strength

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799 Enhancements to the Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Hypoplastic Model for Unsaturated Soils

Authors: Shanujah Mathuranayagam, William Fuentes, Samanthika Liyanapathirana


This paper introduces an enhanced version of the coupled hydro-mechanical hypoplastic model. The model is able to simulate volumetric collapse upon wetting and incorporates suction effects on stiffness and strength. Its mechanical constitutive equation links Bishop’s effective stress with strain and suction, featuring a normal consolidation line (NCL) with a compression index (λ) presenting a non-linear dependency with the degree of saturation. The Bulk modulus has been modified to ensure that under rapid volumetric collapse, the stress state remains at the NCL. The coupled model comprises eighteen parameters, with nine for the hydraulic component and nine for the mechanical component. Hydraulic parameters are calibrated with the use of water retention curves (IWRC) across varied soil densities, while mechanical parameters undergo calibration using isotropic and triaxial tests on both unsaturated and saturated samples. The model's performance is analyzed through the back-calculation of two experimental studies: (i) wetting under different vertical stresses for Lower Cromer Till and (ii) isotropic loading and triaxial loading for undisturbed loess. The results confirm that the proposed model is able to predict the hydro-mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.

Keywords: hypoplastic model, volumetric collapse, normal consolidation line, compression index (λ), degree of saturation, soil suction

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798 Comparison of Methodologies to Compute the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Involving Faults and Associated Uncertainties

Authors: Aude Gounelle, Gloria Senfaute, Ludivine Saint-Mard, Thomas Chartier


The long-term deformation rates of faults are not fully captured by Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA). PSHA that use catalogues to develop area or smoothed-seismicity sources is limited by the data available to constraint future earthquakes activity rates. The integration of faults in PSHA can at least partially address the long-term deformation. However, careful treatment of fault sources is required, particularly, in low strain rate regions, where estimated seismic hazard levels are highly sensitive to assumptions concerning fault geometry, segmentation and slip rate. When integrating faults in PSHA various constraints on earthquake rates from geologic and seismologic data have to be satisfied. For low strain rate regions where such data is scarce it would be especially challenging. Faults in PSHA requires conversion of the geologic and seismologic data into fault geometries, slip rates and then into earthquake activity rates. Several approaches exist for translating slip rates into earthquake activity rates. In the most frequently used approach, the background earthquakes are handled using a truncated approach, in which earthquakes with a magnitude lower or equal to a threshold magnitude (Mw) occur in the background zone, with a rate defined by the rate in the earthquake catalogue. Although magnitudes higher than the threshold are located on the fault with a rate defined using the average slip rate of the fault. As high-lighted by several research, seismic events with magnitudes stronger than the selected magnitude threshold may potentially occur in the background and not only at the fault, especially in regions of slow tectonic deformation. It also has been known that several sections of a fault or several faults could rupture during a single fault-to-fault rupture. It is then essential to apply a consistent modelling procedure to allow for a large set of possible fault-to-fault ruptures to occur aleatory in the hazard model while reflecting the individual slip rate of each section of the fault. In 2019, a tool named SHERIFS (Seismic Hazard and Earthquake Rates in Fault Systems) was published. The tool is using a methodology to calculate the earthquake rates in a fault system where the slip-rate budget of each fault is conversed into rupture rates for all possible single faults and faultto-fault ruptures. The objective of this paper is to compare the SHERIFS method with one other frequently used model to analyse the impact on the seismic hazard and through sensibility studies better understand the influence of key parameters and assumptions. For this application, a simplified but realistic case study was selected, which is in an area of moderate to hight seismicity (South Est of France) and where the fault is supposed to have a low strain.

Keywords: deformation rates, faults, probabilistic seismic hazard, PSHA

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797 The Behavior of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Sand Loaded by Squair Footing

Authors: Dhiaadin Bahaadin Noory


This research involves the effect of both sizes of reinforced zone and the amount of polypropylene fiber reinforcement on the structural behavior of model-reinforced sand loaded by square footing. The ratio of the side of the square reinforced zone to the footing width (W/B) and the ratio of the square reinforced zone depth to footing width (H/B) has been varied from one to six and from one to three, respectively. The tests were carried out on a small-scale laboratory model in which uniform-graded sand was used as a fill material. It was placed in a highly dense state by hitting a thin wooden board placed on the sand surface with a hammer. The sand was reinforced with randomly oriented discrete fibrillated polypropylene fibers. The test results indicated a significant increase in the bearing capacity and stiffness of the subgrade and a modification of load–the settlement behavior of sand with the size of the reinforced zone and amount of fiber reinforcement. On the basis of the present test results, the optimal side width and depth of the reinforced zone were 4B and 2B, respectively, while the optimal percentage of fibers was 0.4%.

Keywords: square footing, polypropylene fibers, bearing capacity, stiffness, load settlement behavior, relative density

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796 Mechanical Properties and Crack Extension Mechanism of Rock Contained Blocks Under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Ruiyang Bi


Natural rock masses are cut into rock blocks of different shapes and sizes by intersecting joints. These rock blocks often determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this study, fine sandstone cube specimens were produced, and three intersecting joint cracks were cut inside the specimen. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted using mechanical tests and numerical simulation methods to study the mechanical properties and crack propagation mechanism of triangular blocks within the rock. During the test, the mechanical strength, acoustic emission characteristics and strain field evolution of the specimen were analyzed. Discrete element software was used to study the expansion of microcracks during the specimen failure process, and the crack types were divided. The simulation results show that as the inclination angles of the three joints increase simultaneously, the mechanical strength of the specimen first decreases and then increases, and the crack type is mainly shear. As the inclination angle of a single joint increases, the strength of the specimen gradually decreases. When the inclination angles of the two joints increase at the same time, the strength of the specimen gradually decreases. The research results show that the stability of the rock mass is affected by the joint inclination angle and the size of the cut blocks. The greater the joint dip and block size, the more significant the development of micro-cracks in the rock mass, and the worse the stability.

Keywords: rock joints, uniaxial compression, crack extension, discrete element simulation

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795 Parametric Study of Underground Opening Stability under Uncertainty Conditions

Authors: Aram Yakoby, Yossef H. Hatzor, Shmulik Pinkert


This work presents an applied engineering method for evaluating the stability of underground openings under conditions of uncertainty. The developed method is demonstrated by a comprehensive parametric study on a case of large-diameter vertical borehole stability analysis, with uncertainties regarding the in-situ stress distribution. To this aim, a safety factor analysis is performed for the stability of both supported and unsupported boreholes. In the analysis, we used analytic geomechanical calculations and advanced numerical modeling to evaluate the estimated stress field. In addition, the work presents the development of a boundary condition for the numerical model that fits the nature of the problem and yields excellent accuracy. The borehole stability analysis is studied in terms of (1) the stress ratio in the vertical and horizontal directions, (2) the mechanical properties and geometry of the support system, and (3) the parametric sensitivity. The method's results are studied in light of a real case study of an underground waste disposal site. The conclusions of this study focus on the developed method for capturing the parametric uncertainty, the definition of critical geological depths, the criteria for implementing structural support, and the effectiveness of further in-situ investigations.

Keywords: borehole stability, in-situ stress, parametric study, factor of safety

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794 Generalized Limit Equilibrium Solution for the Lateral Pile Capacity Problem

Authors: Tomer Gans-Or, Shmulik Pinkert


The determination of lateral pile capacity per unit length is a key aspect in geotechnical engineering. Traditional approaches for assessing piles lateral capacity in cohesive soils involve the application of upper-bound and lower-bound plasticity theorems. However, a comprehensive solution encompassing the entire spectrum of soil strength parameters, particularly in frictional soils with or without cohesion, is still lacking. This research introduces an innovative implementation of the slice method limit equilibrium solution for lateral capacity assessment. For any given numerical discretization of the soil's domain around the pile, the lateral capacity evaluation is based on mobilized strength concept. The critical failure geometry is then found by a unique optimization procedure which includes both factor of safety minimization and geometrical optimization. The robustness of this suggested methodology is that the solution is independent of any predefined assumptions. Validation of the solution is accomplished through a comparison with established plasticity solutions for cohesive soils. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the applicability of the limit equilibrium method to address unresolved cases related to frictional and cohesive-frictional soils. Beyond providing capacity values, the method enables the utilization of the mobilized strength concept to generate safety-factor distributions for scenarios representing pre-failure states.

Keywords: lateral pile capacity, slice method, limit equilibrium, mobilized strength

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793 Maintaining Experimental Consistency in Geomechanical Studies of Methane Hydrate Bearing Soils

Authors: Lior Rake, Shmulik Pinkert


Methane hydrate has been found in significant quantities in soils offshore within continental margins and in permafrost within arctic regions where low temperature and high pressure are present. The mechanical parameters for geotechnical engineering are commonly evaluated in geomechanical laboratories adapted to simulate the environmental conditions of methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS). Due to the complexity and high cost of natural MHBS sampling, most laboratory investigations are conducted on artificially formed samples. MHBS artificial samples can be formed using different hydrate formation methods in the laboratory, where methane gas and water are supplied into the soil pore space under the methane hydrate phase conditions. The most commonly used formation method is the excess gas method which is considered a relatively simple, time-saving, and repeatable testing method. However, there are several differences in the procedures and techniques used to produce the hydrate using the excess gas method. As a result of the difference between the test facilities and the experimental approaches that were carried out in previous studies, different measurement criteria and analyses were proposed for MHBS geomechanics. The lack of uniformity among the various experimental investigations may adversely impact the reliability of integrating different data sets for unified mechanical model development. In this work, we address some fundamental aspects relevant to reliable MHBS geomechanical investigations, such as hydrate homogeneity in the sample, the hydrate formation duration criterion, the hydrate-saturation evaluation method, and the effect of temperature measurement accuracy. Finally, a set of recommendations for repeatable and reliable MHBS formation will be suggested for future standardization of MHBS geomechanical investigation.

Keywords: experimental study, laboratory investigation, excess gas, hydrate formation, standardization, methane hydrate-bearing sediment

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792 Comparative Comparison (Cost-Benefit Analysis) of the Costs Caused by the Earthquake and Costs of Retrofitting Buildings in Iran

Authors: Iman Shabanzadeh


Earthquake is known as one of the most frequent natural hazards in Iran. Therefore, policy making to improve the strengthening of structures is one of the requirements of the approach to prevent and reduce the risk of the destructive effects of earthquakes. In order to choose the optimal policy in the face of earthquakes, this article tries to examine the cost of financial damages caused by earthquakes in the building sector and compare it with the costs of retrofitting. In this study, the results of adopting the scenario of "action after the earthquake" and the policy scenario of "strengthening structures before the earthquake" have been collected, calculated and finally analyzed by putting them together. Methodologically, data received from governorates and building retrofitting engineering companies have been used. The scope of the study is earthquakes occurred in the geographical area of Iran, and among them, eight earthquakes have been specifically studied: Miane, Ahar and Haris, Qator, Momor, Khorasan, Damghan and Shahroud, Gohran, Hormozgan and Ezgole. The main basis of the calculations is the data obtained from retrofitting companies regarding the cost per square meter of building retrofitting and the data of the governorate regarding the power of earthquake destruction, the realized costs for the reconstruction and construction of residential units. The estimated costs have been converted to the value of 2021 using the time value of money method to enable comparison and aggregation. The cost-benefit comparison of the two policies of action after the earthquake and retrofitting before the earthquake in the eight earthquakes investigated shows that the country has suffered five thousand billion Tomans of losses due to the lack of retrofitting of buildings against earthquakes. Based on the data of the Budget Law's of Iran, this figure was approximately twice the budget of the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development and five times the budget of the Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation in 2021. The results show that the policy of retrofitting structures before an earthquake is significantly more optimal than the competing scenario. The comparison of the two policy scenarios examined in this study shows that the policy of retrofitting buildings before an earthquake, on the one hand, prevents huge losses, and on the other hand, by increasing the number of earthquake-resistant houses, it reduces the amount of earthquake destruction. In addition to other positive effects of retrofitting, such as the reduction of mortality due to earthquake resistance of buildings and the reduction of other economic and social effects caused by earthquakes. These are things that can prove the cost-effectiveness of the policy scenario of "strengthening structures before earthquakes" in Iran.

Keywords: disaster economy, earthquake economy, cost-benefit analysis, resilience

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791 The Friction Of Oil Contaminated Granular Soils; Experimental Study

Authors: Miron A, Tadmor R, Pinkert S


Soil contamination is a pressing environmental concern, drawing considerable focus due to its adverse ecological and health outcomes, and the frequent occurrence of contamination incidents in recent years. The interaction between the oil pollutant and the host soil can alter the mechanical properties of the soil in a manner that can crucially affect engineering challenges associated with the stability of soil systems. The geotechnical investigation of contaminated soils has gained momentum since the Gulf War in the 1990s, when a massive amount of oil was spilled into the ocean. Over recent years, various types of soil contaminations have been studied to understand the impact of pollution type, uncovering the mechanical complexity that arises not just from the pollutant type but also from the properties of the host soil and the interplay between them. This complexity is associated with diametrically opposite effects in different soil types. For instance, while certain oils may enhance the frictional properties of cohesive soils, they can reduce the friction in granular soils. This striking difference can be attributed to the different mechanisms at play: physico-chemical interactions predominate in the former case, whereas lubrication effects are more significant in the latter. this study introduces an empirical law designed to quantify the mechanical effect of oil contamination in granular soils, factoring the properties of both the contaminating oil and the host soil. This law is achieved by comprehensive experimental research that spans a wide array of oil types and soils with unique configurations and morphologies. By integrating these diverse data points, our law facilitates accurate predictions of how oil contamination modifies the frictional characteristics of general granular soils.

Keywords: contaminated soils, lubrication, friction, granular media

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790 Statistical Variability of Soil Parameters within the Copper Belt Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Authors: Stephan P. Barkhuizen, Deon Greyling, Ryan J. Miller


The accurate determination of the engineering parameters of soil is necessary for the design of geotechnical structures, such as Tailings Storage Facilities. The shear strength and saturated permeability of soil and tailings samples obtained from 14 sites located in the copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been tested at six commercial soil laboratories in South Africa. This study compiles a database of the test results proved by the soil laboratories. The samples have been categorised into clay, silt, and sand, based on the Unified Soil Classification System, with tailings kept separate. The effective friction angle (Φ’) and cohesion (c’) were interpreted from the stress paths, in s’:t space, obtained from triaxial tests. The minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values for Φ’,c’, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (k) have been determined for the soil sample. The objective is to provide statistics of the measured values of the engineering properties for the TSF borrow material, foundation soils and tailings of this region.

Keywords: Democratic Republic of the Congo, laboratory test work, soil engineering parameter variation, tailings storage facilities

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789 Joint Simulation and Estimation for Geometallurgical Modeling of Crushing Consumption Energy in the Mineral Processing Plants

Authors: Farzaneh Khorram, Xavier Emery


In this paper, it is aimed to create a crushing consumption energy (CCE) block model and determine the blocks with the potential to have the maximum grinding process energy consumption for the study area. For this purpose, a joint estimate (co-kriging) and joint simulation (turning band method and plurigaussian methods) to predict the CCE based on its correlation with SAG power index (SPI), A×B, and ball mill bond work Index (BWI). The analysis shows that TBCOSIM and plurigaussian have the more realistic results compared to cokriging. It seems logical due to the nature of the data geometallurgical and the linearity of the kriging method and the smoothing effect of kriging.

Keywords: plurigaussian, turning band, cokriging, geometallurgy

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788 Understanding Surface Failures in Thick Asphalt Pavement: A 3-D Finite Element Model Analysis

Authors: Hana Gebremariam Liliso


This study investigates the factors contributing to the deterioration of thick asphalt pavements, such as rutting and cracking. We focus on the combined influence of traffic loads and pavement structure. This study uses a three-dimensional finite element model with a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion to analyze the stress levels near the pavement's surface under realistic conditions. Our model considers various factors, including tire-pavement contact stresses, asphalt properties, moving loads, and dynamic analysis. This research suggests that cracking tends to occur between dual tires. Some key discoveries include the risk of cracking increases as temperatures rise; surface cracking at high temperatures is associated with distortional deformation; using a uniform contact stress distribution underestimates the risk of failure compared to realistic three-dimensional tire contact stress, particularly at high temperatures; the risk of failure is higher near the surface when there is a negative temperature gradient in the asphalt layer; and debonding beneath the surface layer leads to increased shear stress and premature failure around the interface.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, surface failure, 3d finite element model, multiaxial stress states, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion

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787 Role of Fracturing, Brecciation and Calcite Veining in Fluids Flow and Permeability Enhancement in Low-Porosity Rock Masses: Case Study of Boulaaba Aptian Dolostones, Kasserine, Central Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Khali Zidi, Mohsen Henchiri, Walid Ben Ahmed


In the context of a hypogene hydrothermal travertine system, including low-porosity brittle bedrock and rock-mass permeability in Aptian dolostone of Boulaaba, Kasserine is enhanced through faulting and fracturing. This permeability enhancement related to the deformation modes along faults and fractures is likely to be in competition with permeability reduction when microcracks, fractures, and faults all become infilled with breccias and low-permeability hydrothermal precipitates. So that, fault continual or intermittent reactivation is probably necessary for them to keep their potential as structural high-permeability conduits. Dilational normal faults in strong mechanical stratigraphy associated with fault segments with dip changes are sites for porosity and permeability in groundwater infiltration and flow, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and also may be important sources of mineralization. The brecciation mechanism through dilational faulting and gravitational collapse originates according to hosting lithologies chaotic clast-supported breccia in strong lithologies such as sandstones, limestones, and dolostones, and matrix-supported cataclastic in weaker lithologies such as marls and shales. Breccias contribute to controlling fluid flow when the porosity is sealed either by low-permeability hydrothermal precipitates or by fine matrix materials. All these mechanisms of fault-related rock-mass permeability enhancement and reduction can be observed and analyzed in the region of Sidi Boulaaba, Kasserine, central Tunisia, where dilational normal faulting occurs in mechanical strong dolostone layering alternating with more weak marl and shale lithologies, has originated a variety of fault voids (fluid conduits) breccias (chaotic, crackle and mosaic breccias) and carbonate cement.

Keywords: travertine, Aptian dolostone, Boulaaba, fracturing

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