Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 529

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geotechnical and Geological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

529 Design Charts for Strip Footing on Untreated and Cement Treated Sand Mat over Underlying Natural Soft Clay

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, Sarwar Jahan M. Yasin

Abstract:

Shallow foundations on unimproved soft natural soils can undergo a high consolidation and secondary settlement. For low and medium rise building projects on such soil conditions, pile foundation may not be cost effective. In such cases, an alternative to pile foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a double layered improved soil system, including the upper layer is untreated or cement treated compacted sand, and underlying layer is natural soft clay. This system will reduce the settlement to allowable limit. The current research has been conducted with the settlement of a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5m width placed on the surface of a soil consisting of an untreated or cement treated sand layer overlying a bed of homogeneous soft clay. The settlement of the mentioned shallow foundation has been studied, considered both the cases with the thickness of the sand layer is thin to thick compared to the width of footing. The response of the clay layer is assumed as undrained for plastic loading stages and drained during consolidation stages. The response of the sand layer is drained during all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0. A natural clay deposit of 15m thickness and 18m width has been modeled using Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep Model, and upper improvement layer has been modeled using only Hardening Soil Model. The groundwater level is at the top level of the clay deposit that made the system fully saturated. Parametric study has been conducted to determine the effect of thickness, density, cementation of the sand mat and density, shear strength of the soft clay layer on the settlement of strip foundation under the uniformly distributed vertical load of varying value. A set of the chart has been established for designing shallow strip footing on the sand mat over thick, soft clay deposit through obtaining the particular thickness of sand mat for particular subsoil parameter to ensure no punching shear failure and no settlement beyond allowable level. Design guideline in the form of non-dimensional charts has been developed for footing pressure equivalent to medium-rise residential or commercial building foundation with strip footing on soft inorganic NC soil of Bangladesh having void ratio from 1.0 to 1.45.

Keywords: Ground improvement, soft clay, PLAXIS 2D, design charts, primary and secondary settlement, sand mat

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528 Bearing Behavior of a Hybrid Monopile Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Zicheng Wang

Abstract:

Offshore wind energy provides a huge potential for the expansion of renewable energies to the coastal countries. High demands are required concerning the shape and type of foundations for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) to find an economically, technically, and environmentally-friendly optimal solution. A promising foundation concept, i.e., the hybrid foundation system, which consists of a steel plate attached to the outer side of a hollow steel pipe pile. In this study, the bearing behaviour of large diameter foundation is analyzed using a 3-dimensional finite element (FE) model. Non-linear plastic soil behaviour is considered. The results of the numerical simulations are compared to highlight the priority of the hybrid foundation to the conventional monopile foundation.

Keywords: Numerical Simulations, mechanical parameters, hybrid foundation system, plastic soil behaviors

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527 Influence of Reinforcement Stiffness on the Performance of Back-to-Back Reinforced Earth Wall upon Rainwater Infiltration

Authors: Gopika Rajagopal, Sudheesh Thiyyakkandi

Abstract:

Back-to-back reinforced earth (RE) walls are extensively used in these days as bridge abutments and highway ramps, owing to their cost efficiency and ease of construction. High quality select fill is the most suitable backfill material due to its excellent engineering properties and constructability. However, industries are compelled to use low quality, locally available soil because of its ample availability on site. However, several failure cases of such walls are reported, especially subsequent to rainfall events. The stiffness of reinforcement is one of the major factors affecting the performance of RE walls. The present study focused on analyzing the effect of reinforcement stiffness on the performance of complete select fill, complete marginal fill, and hybrid-fill (i.e., combination of select and marginal fills) back-to-back RE walls, immediately after construction and upon rainwater infiltration through finite element modelling. A constant width to height (W/H) ratio of 3 and height (H) of 6 m was considered for the numerical analysis and the stiffness of reinforcement layers was varied from 500 kN/m to 10000 kN/m. Results showed that reinforcement stiffness had a noticeable influence on the response of RE wall, subsequent to construction as well as rainwater infiltration. Facing displacement was found to decrease and maximum reinforcement tension and factor of safety were observed to increase with increasing the stiffness of reinforcement. However, beyond a stiffness of 5000 kN/m, no significant reduction in facing displacement was observed. The behavior of fully marginal fill wall considered in this study was found to be reasonable even after rainwater infiltration when the high stiffness reinforcement layers are used.

Keywords: Finite Element Modelling, back-to-back reinforced earth wall, rainwater infiltration, reinforcement stiffness

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526 Human-Induced Vibration and Degree of Human Comfortability Analysis of Intersection Pedestrian Bridge

Authors: Yaowen Sheng, Jiuxian Liu

Abstract:

In order to analyze the pedestrian bridge dynamic characteristics and degree of comfortability, the finite element method and live load time history method is used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge. The example bridge’s dynamic characteristics and degree of human comfortability need to be analyzed. The project background is a three-way intersection. The intersection has three side blocks. An intersection bridge is designed to help people cross the streets. The finite element model of the bridge is established by the Midas/Civil software, and the analysis of the model is done. The strength, stiffness, and stability checks are also completed. Apart from the static analysis of the bridge, the dynamic analysis of the bridge is also completed to avoid the problems resulted from vibrations. The results show that the pedestrian bridge has different dynamic characteristics compared to other normal bridges. The degree of human comfortability satisfies the requirements of Chinese and British specifications. The live load time history method can be used to calculate the dynamic response of the bridge.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, pedestrian bridge, steel box girder, human-induced vibration, degree of human comfortability

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525 Landslide Vulnerability Assessment in Context with Indian Himalayan

Authors: Neha Gupta

Abstract:

Landslide vulnerability is considered as the crucial parameter for the assessment of landslide risk. The term vulnerability defined as the damage or degree of elements at risk of different dimensions, i.e., physical, social, economic, and environmental dimensions. Himalaya region is very prone to multi-hazard such as floods, forest fires, earthquakes, and landslides. With the increases in fatalities rates, loss of infrastructure, and economy due to landslide in the Himalaya region, leads to the assessment of vulnerability. In this study, a methodology to measure the combination of vulnerability dimension, i.e., social vulnerability, physical vulnerability, and environmental vulnerability in one framework. A combined result of these vulnerabilities has rarely been carried out. But no such approach was applied in the Indian Scenario. The methodology was applied in an area of east Sikkim Himalaya, India. The physical vulnerability comprises of building footprint layer extracted from remote sensing data and Google Earth imaginary. The social vulnerability was assessed by using population density based on land use. The land use map was derived from a high-resolution satellite image, and for environment vulnerability assessment NDVI, forest, agriculture land, distance from the river were assessed from remote sensing and DEM. The classes of social vulnerability, physical vulnerability, and environment vulnerability were normalized at the scale of 0 (no loss) to 1 (loss) to get the homogenous dataset. Then the Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) was used to assign individual weights to each dimension and then integrate it into one frame. The final vulnerability was further classified into four classes from very low to very high.

Keywords: Landslide, Social Vulnerability, multi-criteria analysis, MCA, physical vulnerability

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524 A Case Study on the Numerical-Probability Approach for Deep Excavation Analysis

Authors: Komeil Valipourian

Abstract:

Urban advances and the growing need for developing infrastructures has increased the importance of deep excavations. In this study, after the introducing probability analysis as an important issue, an attempt has been made to apply it for the deep excavation project of Bangkok’s Metro as a case study. For this, the numerical probability model has been developed based on the Finite Difference Method and Monte Carlo sampling approach. The results indicate that disregarding the issue of probability in this project will result in an inappropriate design of the retaining structure. Therefore, probabilistic redesign of the support is proposed and carried out as one of the applications of probability analysis. A 50% reduction in the flexural strength of the structure increases the failure probability just by 8% in the allowable range and helps improve economic conditions, while maintaining mechanical efficiency. With regard to the lack of efficient design in most deep excavations, by considering geometrical and geotechnical variability, an attempt was made to develop an optimum practical design standard for deep excavations based on failure probability. On this basis, a practical relationship is presented for estimating the maximum allowable horizontal displacement, which can help improve design conditions without developing the probability analysis.

Keywords: deep excavation, numerical probability modeling, allowable maximum displacement, finite difference method (FDM)

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523 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop

Authors: N. Reppas, Y. L. Gui, B. Wetenhall, C. T. Davie, J. Ma

Abstract:

A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.

Keywords: Rock Deformation, bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, elasto-plastic behavior

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522 Current Zonal Isolation Regulation and Standards: A Compare and Contrast Review in Plug and Abandonment

Authors: C. Teodoriu, Z. A. Al Marhoon, H. S. Al Ramis

Abstract:

Well-integrity is one of the major elements considered for drilling geothermal, oil, and gas wells. Well-integrity is minimizing the risk of unplanned fluid flow in the well bore throughout the well lifetime. Well integrity is maximized by applying technical concepts along with practical practices and strategic planning. These practices are usually governed by standardization and regulation entities. Practices during well construction can affect the integrity of the seal at the time of abandonment. On the other hand, achieving a perfect barrier system is impracticable due to the needed cost. This results in a needed balance between regulations requirements and practical applications. The guidelines are only effective when they are attainable in practical applications. Various governmental regulations and international standards have different guidelines on what constitutes high-quality isolation from unwanted flow. Each regulating or standardization body differ in requirements based on the abandonment objective. Some regulation account more for the environmental impact, water table contamination, and possible leaks. Other regulation might lean towards driving more economical benefits while achieving an acceptable isolation criteria. The research methodology used in this topic is derived from a literature review method combined with a compare and contrast analysis. The literature review on various zonal isolation regulations and standards has been conducted. A review includes guidelines from NORSOK (Norwegian governing entity), BSEE (USA offshore governing entity), API (American Petroleum Institute) combined with ISO (International Standardization Organization). The compare and contrast analysis is conducted by assessing the objective of each abandonment regulations and standardization. The current state of well barrier regulation is in balancing action. From one side of this balance, the environmental impact and complete zonal isolation is considered. The other side of the scale is practical application and associated cost. Some standards provide a fair amount of details concerning technical requirements and are often flexible with the needed associated cost. These guidelines cover environmental impact with laws that prevent major or disastrous environmental effects of improper sealing of wells. Usually these regulations are concerned with the near future of sealing rather than long-term. Consequently, applying these guidelines become more feasible from a cost point of view to the required plugging entities. On the other hand, other regulation have well integrity procedures and regulations that lean toward more restrictions environmentally with an increased associated cost requirements. The environmental impact is detailed and covered with its entirety, including medium to small environmental impact in barrier installing operations. Clear and precise attention to long-term leakage prevention is present in these regulations. The result of the compare and contrast analysis of the literature showed that there are various objectives that might tip the scale from one side of the balance (cost) to the other (sealing quality) especially in reference to zonal isolation. Furthermore, investing in initial well construction is a crucial part of ensuring safe final well abandonment. The safety and the cost saving at the end of the well life cycle is dependent upon a well-constructed isolation systems at the beginning of the life cycle. Long term studies on zonal isolation using various hydraulic or mechanical materials need to take place to further assess permanently abandoned wells to achieve the desired balance. Well drilling and isolation techniques will be more effective when they are operationally feasible and have reasonable associated cost to aid the local economy.

Keywords: gap analysis, plug and abandon, P&A regulation, P&A standards, international guidelines

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521 Geophysical Methods and Machine Learning Algorithms for Stuck Pipe Prediction and Avoidance

Authors: Ammar Alali, Mahmoud Abughaban

Abstract:

Cost reduction and drilling optimization is the goal of many drilling operators. Historically, stuck pipe incidents were a major segment of non-productive time (NPT) associated costs. Traditionally, stuck pipe problems are part of the operations and solved post-sticking. However, the real key to savings and success is in predicting the stuck pipe incidents and avoiding the conditions leading to its occurrences. Previous attempts in stuck-pipe predictions have neglected the local geology of the problem. The proposed predictive tool utilizes geophysical data processing techniques and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to predict drilling activities events in real-time using surface drilling data with minimum computational power. The method combines two types of analysis: (1) real-time prediction, and (2) cause analysis. Real-time prediction aggregates the input data, including historical drilling surface data, geological formation tops, and petrophysical data, from wells within the same field. The input data are then flattened per the geological formation and stacked per stuck-pipe incidents. The algorithm uses two physical methods (stacking and flattening) to filter any noise in the signature and create a robust pre-determined pilot that adheres to the local geology. Once the drilling operation starts, the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML) live surface data are fed into a matrix and aggregated in a similar frequency as the pre-determined signature. Then, the matrix is correlated with the pre-determined stuck-pipe signature for this field, in real-time. The correlation used is a machine learning Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) algorithm, which selects relevant features from the class and identifying redundant features. The correlation output is interpreted as a probability curve of stuck pipe incidents prediction in real-time. Once this probability passes a fixed-threshold defined by the user, the other component, cause analysis, alerts the user of the expected incident based on set pre-determined signatures. A set of recommendations will be provided to reduce the associated risk. The validation process involved feeding of historical drilling data as live-stream, mimicking actual drilling conditions, of an onshore oil field. Pre-determined signatures were created for three problematic geological formations in this field prior. Three wells were processed as case studies, and the stuck-pipe incidents were predicted successfully, with an accuracy of 76%. This accuracy of detection could have resulted in around 50% reduction in NPT, equivalent to 9% cost saving in comparison with offset wells. The prediction of stuck pipe problem requires a method to capture geological, geophysical and drilling data, and recognize the indicators of this issue at a field and geological formation level. This paper illustrates the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed cross-disciplinary approach in its ability to produce such signatures and predicting this NPT event.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Hazard Prediction, drilling optimization, stuck pipe

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520 Hybrid Data-Driven Drilling Rate of Penetration Optimization Scheme Guided by Geological Formation and Historical Data

Authors: Ammar Alali, Mahmoud Abughaban, William Contreras Otalvora

Abstract:

Optimizing the drilling process for cost and efficiency requires the optimization of the rate of penetration (ROP). ROP is the measurement of the speed at which the wellbore is created, in units of feet per hour. It is the primary indicator of measuring drilling efficiency. Maximization of the ROP can indicate fast and cost-efficient drilling operations; however, high ROPs may induce unintended events, which may lead to nonproductive time (NPT) and higher net costs. The proposed ROP optimization solution is a hybrid, data-driven system that aims to improve the drilling process, maximize the ROP, and minimize NPT. The system consists of two phases: (1) utilizing existing geological and drilling data to train the model prior, and (2) real-time adjustments of the controllable dynamic drilling parameters [weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), and pump flow rate (GPM)] that direct influence on the ROP. During the first phase of the system, geological and historical drilling data are aggregated. After, the top-rated wells, as a function of high instance ROP, are distinguished. Those wells are filtered based on NPT incidents, and a cross-plot is generated for the controllable dynamic drilling parameters per ROP value. Subsequently, the parameter values (WOB, GPM, RPM) are calculated as a conditioned mean based on physical distance, following Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation methodology. The first phase is concluded by producing a model of drilling best practices from the offset wells, prioritizing the optimum ROP value. This phase is performed before the commencing of drilling. Starting with the model produced in phase one, the second phase runs an automated drill-off test, delivering live adjustments in real-time. Those adjustments are made by directing the driller to deviate two of the controllable parameters (WOB and RPM) by a small percentage (0-5%), following the Constrained Random Search (CRS) methodology. These minor incremental variations will reveal new drilling conditions, not explored before through offset wells. The data is then consolidated into a heat-map, as a function of ROP. A more optimum ROP performance is identified through the heat-map and amended in the model. The validation process involved the selection of a planned well in an onshore oil field with hundreds of offset wells. The first phase model was built by utilizing the data points from the top-performing historical wells (20 wells). The model allows drillers to enhance decision-making by leveraging existing data and blending it with live data in real-time. An empirical relationship between controllable dynamic parameters and ROP was derived using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The adjustments resulted in improved ROP efficiency by over 20%, translating to at least 10% saving in drilling costs. The novelty of the proposed system lays is its ability to integrate historical data, calibrate based geological formations, and run real-time global optimization through CRS. Those factors position the system to work for any newly drilled well in a developing field event.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Geological Formations, drilling optimization, rate of penetration

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519 A Review on New Additives in Deep Soil Mixing Method

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Mousakhani

Abstract:

Considering the population growth and the needs of society, the improvement of problematic soils and the study of application of different improvement methods have been considered. One of these methods is deep soil mixing, which has been developed in the past decade, especially in soft soils, due to economic efficiency, simple implementation, and other benefits. The use of cement is criticized for its cost and the damaging environmental effects, so these factors lead us to use other additives along with cement in the deep soil mixing. Additives that are used today include fly ash, blast-furnace slag, glass powder, and potassium hydroxide. The present study provides a literature review on application of different additives in deep soil mixing so that the best additives can be introduced from strength, economic, environmental, and other perspectives. The results show that by replacing fly ash and slag with about 40 to 50% of cement, not only economic and environmental benefits but also a long-term strength comparable to cement would be achieved. The use of glass powder, especially in 3% mixing, results in desirable strength. In addition to the other benefits of these additives, potassium hydroxide can also be transported over longer distances, leading to wider soil improvement. Finally, this paper suggests further studies in the terms of using other additives, with different ratios, in different conditions and soils in the deep mixing method.

Keywords: fly ash, Ground improvement, Soil Stabilization, deep soil mix

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518 Numerical Analysis of Shallow Footing Rested on Geogrid Reinforced Sandy Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

The use of geosynthetic reinforcement within the footing soils is a very effective and useful method to avoid the construction of costly deep foundations. This study investigated the use of geosynthetics for soil improvement based on numerical modeling using FELA software. Pressure settlement behavior and bearing capacity ratio of foundation on geogrid reinforced sand is investigated and the effect of different parameters like as number of geogrid layers and vertical distance between elements in three different relative density soil is studied. The effects of geometrical parameters of reinforcement layers were studied for determining the optimal values to reach to maximum bearing capacity. The results indicated that the optimum range of the distance ratio between the reinforcement layers was achieved at 0.5 to 0.6 and after number of geogrid layers of 4, no significant effect on increasing the bearing capacity of footing on reinforced sandy with geogrid

Keywords: geogrid, reinforced sand, FELA software, distance ratio, number of geogrid layers

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517 Comparing the Effectiveness of the Crushing and Grinding Route of Comminution to That of the Mine to Mill Route in Terms of the Percentage of Middlings Present in Processed Lead-Zinc Ore Samples

Authors: Chinedu F. Anochie

Abstract:

The presence of gangue particles in recovered metal concentrates has been a serious challenge to ore dressing engineers. Middlings lower the quality of concentrates, and in most cases, drastically affect the smelter terms, owing to exorbitant amounts paid by Mineral Processing industries as treatment charge. Models which encourage optimization of liberation operations have been utilized in most ore beneficiation industries to reduce the presence of locked particles in valuable concentrates. Moreover, methods such as incorporation of regrind mills, scavenger, rougher and cleaner cells, to the milling and flotation plants has been widely employed to tackle these concerns, and to optimize the grade–recovery relationship of metal concentrates. This work compared the crushing and grinding method of liberation, to the mine to mill route, by evaluating the proportion of middlings present in selectively processed complex Pb-Zn ore samples. To establish the effect of size reduction operations on the percentage of locked particles present in recovered concentrates, two similar samples of complex Pb- Zn ores were processed. Following blasting operation, the first ore sample was ground directly in a ball mill (Mine to Mill Route of Comminution), while the other sample was manually crushed, and subsequently ground in the ball mill (Crushing and Grinding Route of Comminution). The two samples were separately sieved in a mesh to obtain the desired representative particle sizes. An equal amount of each sample that would be processed in the flotation circuit was then obtained with the aid of a weighing balance. These weighed fine particles were simultaneously processed in the flotation circuit using the selective flotation technique. Sodium cyanide, Methyl isobutyl carbinol, Sodium ethyl xanthate, Copper sulphate, Sodium hydroxide, Lime and Isopropyl xanthate, were the reagents used to effect differential flotation of the two ore samples. Analysis and calculations showed that the degree of liberation obtained for the ore sample which went through the conventional crushing and grinding route of comminution, was higher than that of the directly milled run off mine (ROM) ore. Similarly, the proportion of middlings obtained from the separated galena (PbS) and sphalerite (ZnS) concentrates, were lower for the crushed and ground ore sample. A concise data which proved that the mine to mill method of size reduction is not the most ideal technique for the recovery of quality metal concentrates has been established.

Keywords: comminution, middlings, degree of liberation, mine to mill

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516 Effect of Scalping on the Mechanical Behavior of Coarse Soils

Authors: Didier Marot, Nadine Ali Hassan, Ngoc Son Nguyen, Fateh Bendahmane

Abstract:

Coarse soils are natural materials often used as construction materials and characterized by the presence of elements whose diameters vary largely from a few microns up to several decimeters. The mechanical characterization of these soils using the classical laboratory devices is difficult to achieve due to the presence of large elements that are detrimental to the performance of tests. Hence, it is necessary to remove all these oversized particles by using a scalping or a substitution (scalping/replacement) method. The oversized particles are simply removed from the tested sample according to the scalping method, while they are replaced by an equal mass of smaller ones according to the substitution method. However, it is not clear yet how to choose the material for this replacement. The results of the experimental studies on the consequences of scalping on the shear strength of coarse soils are contradictory. Our work is aimed to better understand the effect of scalping techniques on the mechanical behavior of coarse soils, and then to define an experimental procedure that allows us to minimize the effect of scalping on the mechanical properties of coarse soils. For this purpose, several series of tests have been carried out using triaxial devices with different diameters Φ50 mm, Φ100 mm, Φ200 mm and Φ300 mm, allowing us to test samples of coarse soils within maximum diameters dmax of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm respectively. The ratio Φ/dmax = 10 is kept for all performed tests to respect experimental standards. A first series of tests were carried out on a coarse soil with a gap-graded grain size distribution with a maximum particle diameter of 10 mm. Then, it is scalped at a diameter of 5 mm by using the two methods mentioned above. We controlled the global void ratio such that it is the same for all the samples. Samples were compacted by the moist tamping to achieve the target void ratio and then saturated. Afterward, they were consolidated and then sheared under drained conditions with an effective confining pressure of 100 kPa. The results show that the scalping method leads to an over-estimation of the friction angle at the peak state of the original soil. Regarding the scalped/replaced samples, their friction angle depends greatly on the way where the size gradation of the replacement materials is selected. Complementary tests and an analysis of particle shapes have been performed to better interpreter these results. Moreover, this interpretation is endorsed by numerical simulations with the discrete element method. Other series of tests will be carried out by considering other grain size gradations and other materials. A particular attention will be paid on the effect of particle shapes of the fine and coarse fraction, and the effect of plastic fine fraction on the shear strength of scalped and scalped/replaced soils. This study will be extended to more widely graded materials by using larger triaxial devices (Φ200 mm and Φ300 mm).

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, replacement, coarse soils, scalping, triaxial devices

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515 Effect of Elastic Modulus Anisotropy on Helical Piles Behavior in Sandy Soil

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

Helical piles are being used extensively in engineering applications all over the world. There are insufficient studies on the helical piles' behavior in anisotropic soils. In this paper, numerical modeling was adopted to investigate the effect of elastic modulus anisotropy on helical pile behavior resting on anisotropic sand by using a finite element limit analysis. The load-displacement behavior of helical piles under compression and tension loads is investigated in different relative densities of soils, and the effect of the ratio of horizontal elastic modulus with respect to vertical elastic modulus (EH/EV) is evaluated. The obtained results illustrate that in sandy soils, the anisotropic ratio of elastic modulus (EH/EV) has notable effect on bearing capacity of helical piles in different relative density. Therefore, it may be recommended that the effect of anisotropic condition of soil elastic modulus should be considered in helical piles behavior.

Keywords: numerical modeling, bearing capacity, Helical Piles, soil anisotropy

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514 Reliability-Based Design of an Earth Slope Taking into Account Unsaturated Soil Properties

Authors: A. T. Siacara, A. T. Beck, M. M. Futai

Abstract:

This paper shows how accurately and efficiently reliability analyses of geotechnical installations can be performed by directly coupling geotechnical software with a reliability solver. An earth slope is used as the study object. The limit equilibrium method of Morgenstern-Price is used to calculate factors of safety and find the critical slip surface. The deterministic software package Seep/W and Slope/W is coupled with the StRAnD reliability software. Reliability indexes of critical probabilistic surfaces are evaluated by the first-order reliability methods (FORM). By means of sensitivity analysis, the effective cohesion (c') is found to be the most relevant uncertain geotechnical parameter for slope equilibrium. The slope was tested using different geometries, taking into account unsaturated soil properties. Finally, a critical slip surface, identified in terms of minimum factor of safety, is shown here not to be the critical surface in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, slope, seepage, Unsaturated

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513 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie

Abstract:

Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: Rock Mechanics, Carbon capture and storage, constitutive model, THM effects on rock

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512 Effect of Climate Change on Rainfall Induced Failures for Embankment Slopes in Timor-Leste

Authors: Kuo Chieh Chao, Thishani Amarathunga, Sangam Shrestha

Abstract:

Rainfall induced slope failures are one of the most damaging and disastrous natural hazards which occur frequently in the world. This type of sliding mainly occurs in the zone above the groundwater level in silty/sandy soils. When the rainwater begins to infiltrate into the vadose zone of the soil, the negative pore-water pressure tends to decrease and reduce the shear strength of soil material. Climate change has resulted in excessive and unpredictable rainfall in all around the world, resulting in landslides with dire consequences to human lives and infrastructure. Such problems could be overcome by examining in detail the causes for such slope failures and recommending effective repair plans for vulnerable locations by considering future climatic change. The selected area for this study is located in the road rehabilitation section from Maubara to Mota Ain road in Timor-Leste. Slope failures and cracks have occurred in 2013 and after repairs reoccurred again in 2017 subsequent to heavy rains. Both observed and future predicted climate data analyses were conducted to understand the severe precipitation conditions in past and future. Observed climate data were collected from NOAA global climate data portal. CORDEX data portal was used to collect Regional Climate Model (RCM) future predicted climate data. Both observed and RCM data were extracted to location-based data using ArcGIS Software. Linear scaling method was used for the bias correction of future data and bias corrected climate data were assigned to GeoStudio Software. Precipitations of wet seasons (December to March ) in 2007 to 2013 is higher than 2001-2006 period and it is more than nearly 40% higher precipitation than usual monthly average precipitation of 160mm.The results of seepage analyses which were carried out using SEEP/W model with observed climate, clearly demonstrated that the pore water pressure within the fill slope was significantly increased due to the increase of the infiltration during the wet season of 2013.One main Regional Climate Models (RCM) was analyzed in order to predict future climate variation under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs).In the projected period of 76 years ahead from 2014, shows that the amount of precipitation is considerably getting higher in the future in both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Critical pore water pressure conditions during 2014-2090 were used in order to recommend appropriate remediation methods. Results of slope stability analyses indicated that the factor of safety of the fill slopes was reduced from 1.226 to 0.793 during the dry season to wet season in 2013.Results of future slope stability which were obtained using SLOPE/W model for the RCP emissions scenarios depict that, the use of tieback anchors and geogrids in slope protection could be effective in increasing the stability of slopes to an acceptable level during the wet seasons. Moreover, methods and procedures like monitoring of slopes showing signs or susceptible for movement and installing surface protections could be used to increase the stability of slopes.

Keywords: Climate Change, Precipitation, unsaturated soil, seep/w, SLOPE/W

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511 The Effect of Zeolite on Sandy-Silt Soil Mechanical Properties

Authors: Shahryar Aftabi, Saeed Fathi, Mohammad H. Aminfar

Abstract:

It is well known that cemented sand is one of the best approaches for soil stabilization. In some cases, a blend of sand, cement and other pozzolan materials such as zeolite, nano-particles and fiber can be widely (commercially) available and be effectively used in soil stabilization, especially in road construction. In this research, we investigate the effects of CaO which is based on the geotechnical characteristics of zeolite composition with sandy silt soil. Zeolites have low amount of CaO in their structures, that is, varying from 3% to 10%, and by removing the cement paste, we want to investigate the effect of zeolite pozzolan without any activator on soil samples strength. In this research, experiments are concentrated on various weight percentages of zeolite in the soil to examine the effect of the zeolite on drainage shear strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) both with and without curing. The study also investigates their liquid limit and plastic limit behavior and makes a comparative result by using Feng's and Wroth-Wood's methods in fall cone (cone penetrometer) device; in the final the SEM images have been presented. The results show that by increasing the percentage of zeolite in without-curing samples, the fine zeolite particles increase some soil's strength, but in the curing-state we can see a relatively higher strength toward without-curing state, since the zeolites have no plastic behavior, the pozzolanic property of zeolites plays a much higher role than cementing properties. Indeed, it is better to combine zeolite particle with activator material such as cement or lime to gain better results.

Keywords: Zeolite, SEM, CBR, California bearing ratio, direct shear, fall-cone, sandy silt

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510 Evaluation of Cast-in-Situ Pile Condition Using Pile Integrity Test

Authors: Mohammad I. Hossain, Omar F. Hamim

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study on a pile integrity test for assessing the integrity of piles as well as a physical dimension (e.g., cross-sectional area, length), continuity, and consistency of the pile materials. The recent boom in the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh has given rise to the building of high-rise commercial and residential infrastructures. The advantage of the pile integrity test lies in the fact that it is possible to get an approximate indication regarding the quality of the sub-structure before commencing the construction of the super-structure. This paper aims at providing a classification of cast-in-situ piles based on characteristic reflectograms obtained using the Sonic Integrity Testing program for the sub-soil condition of Narayanganj, Bangladesh. The piles have been classified as 'Pile Type-1', 'Pile Type-2', 'Pile Type-3', 'Pile type-4', 'Pile Type-5' or 'Pile Type-6' from the visual observations of reflections from the generated stress waves by striking the pile head with a handheld hammer. With respect to construction quality and integrity, piles have been further classified into three distinct categories, i.e., satisfactory, may be satisfactory, and unsatisfactory.

Keywords: cast-in-situ piles, characteristic reflectograms, pile integrity test, sonic integrity testing program

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509 Effect of Elastic Modulus Varieties on Helical Pile Behavior in Sand

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

The compressive and tensile bearing capacity of helical piles in sand is investigated by means of numerical modeling. The analyses are carried out using two-dimensional finite-element software, Optum G2. The load–displacement behavior under compression and tension is compared in different relative densities for constant and various elastic modulus. The criterion used to find the ultimate axial load is the load corresponding to 5% of the helical diameter. The results show that relative density of sand plays an essential role in the response of ultimate capacities towards various condition. Increase in elastic modulus with depth is found to play a relatively more significant role to the increase in ultimate compressive load capacities, however tension bearing capacity decreases.

Keywords: relative density, Helical Piles, Optum G2, constant and various elastic modulus

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508 Flexural Behavior of Geocell Reinforced Subgrade with Demolition Waste as Infill Material

Authors: Mahima D, Sini T

Abstract:

The use of geocell in subgrade has been previously studied by various researchers in the past. It was observed that the infill material used could affect the performance of the geocell reinforced subgrade. So, the use of waste materials as infill in geocell reinforced subgrade may prove to be more effective, economical, and environment-friendly. The performance of demolition waste as an infill was studied using flexure testing, and we compared the results with that of the other infill materials; soil and sand. Flexural behaviour is very important to the geosynthetic application in pavements as it acts as a the geocell reinforcement acts as flexible layer embedded in pavements and leads to an improvement in stress distribution and reduction in stress on the soil subgrade. The flexural behaviour was determined using four-point bending tests and results were expressed in terms of modulus improvement factor (MIF) and load-deflection behaviour. The geocell reinforced subgrade with different infill materials was tested for flexural behaviour in a polywood-polywood three-layered beam model. The deflections of the three-layered model beam were measured for the corresponding load increments. Elastic modulus of the soil-geocell composite was calculated using closed-form solutions. Geocells were prepared from geonets with three different aspect ratios 0.45, 0.67, and 1. The demolition waste infilled geocell mattress with aspect ratio 0.67 showed improved flexural behavior with MIF of 2.67 followed by soil and sand. Owing to its improved flexural resistance as seen from the MIF and load-deflection behivour, crushed demolition waste can be effectively used as infill material for geocell reinforced subgrade, thereby reducing the difficulties in the management of demolition waste and improving the load distribution of weaker subgrade.

Keywords: Demolition Waste, flexural behavior, geocell, modulus improvement factor

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507 Review of Different Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Saleem Akhtar, BILAL SHOAIB, Munib Ahmad, Syed Romat Ali Shah, Shahan Sadiqui

Abstract:

Classification is a data mining technique, which is recognizedon Machine Learning (ML) algorithm. It is used to classifythe individual articlein a knownofinformation into a set of predefinemodules or group. Web mining is also a portion of that sympathetic of data mining methods. The main purpose of this paper to analysis and compare the performance of Naïve Bayse Algorithm, Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Artificial Neural Network (ANN)and Support Vector Machine (SVM). This paper consists of different ML algorithm and their advantages and disadvantages and also define research issues.

Keywords: Data Mining, Web mining, classification, ML Algorithms

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506 Ground Surface Temperature History Prediction Using Long-Short Term Memory Neural Network Architecture

Authors: Venkat S. Somayajula

Abstract:

Ground surface temperature history prediction model plays a vital role in determining standards for international nuclear waste management. International standards for borehole based nuclear waste disposal require paleoclimate cycle predictions on scale of a million forward years for the place of waste disposal. This research focuses on developing a paleoclimate cycle prediction model using Bayesian long-short term memory (LSTM) neural architecture operated on accumulated borehole temperature history data. Bayesian models have been previously used for paleoclimate cycle prediction based on Monte-Carlo weight method, but due to limitations pertaining model coupling with certain other prediction networks, Bayesian models in past couldn’t accommodate prediction cycle’s over 1000 years. LSTM has provided frontier to couple developed models with other prediction networks with ease. Paleoclimate cycle developed using this process will be trained on existing borehole data and then will be coupled to surface temperature history prediction networks which give endpoints for backpropagation of LSTM network and optimize the cycle of prediction for larger prediction time scales. Trained LSTM will be tested on past data for validation and then propagated for forward prediction of temperatures at borehole locations. This research will be beneficial for study pertaining to nuclear waste management, anthropological cycle predictions and geophysical features

Keywords: Bayesian Long-Short Term memory neural network, Borehole Temperature, Ground surface temperature history, Paleoclimate cycle

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505 Stability Analysis of Slopes during Pile Driving

Authors: Yeganeh Attari, Gudmund Reidar Eiksund, Hans Peter Jostad

Abstract:

In Geotechnical practice, there is no standard method recognized by the industry to account for the reduction of safety factor of a slope as an effect of soil displacement and pore pressure build-up during pile installation. Pile driving disturbs causes large strains and generates excess pore pressures in a zone that can extend many diameters from the installed pile, resulting in a decrease of the shear strength of the surrounding soil. This phenomenon may cause slope failure. Moreover, dissipation of excess pore pressure set-up may cause weakening of areas outside the volume of soil remoulded during installation. Because of complex interactions between changes in mean stress and shearing, it is challenging to predict installation induced pore pressure response. Furthermore, it is a complex task to follow the rate and path of pore pressure dissipation in order to analyze slope stability. In cohesive soils it is necessary to implement soil models that account for strain softening in the analysis. In the literature, several cases of slope failure due to pile driving activities have been reported, for instance, a landslide in Gothenburg that resulted in a slope failure destroying more than thirty houses and Rigaud landslide in Quebec which resulted in loss of life. Up to now, several methods have been suggested to predict the effect of pile driving on total and effective stress, pore pressure changes and their effect on soil strength. However, this is still not well understood or agreed upon. In Norway, general approaches applied by geotechnical engineers for this problem are based on old empirical methods with little accurate theoretical background. While the limitations of such methods are discussed, this paper attempts to capture the reduction in the factor of safety of a slope during pile driving, using coupled Finite Element analysis and cavity expansion method. This is demonstrated by analyzing a case of slope failure due to pile driving in Norway.

Keywords: Slope Failure, pile driving, excess pore pressure, cavity expansion method

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504 Liquefaction Potential Assessment Using Screw Driving Testing and Microtremor Data: A Case Study in the Philippines

Authors: Arturo Daag

Abstract:

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) is enhancing its liquefaction hazard map towards a detailed probabilistic approach using SDS and geophysical data. Target sites for liquefaction assessment are public schools in Metro Manila. Since target sites are in highly urbanized-setting, the objective of the project is to conduct both non-destructive geotechnical studies using Screw Driving Testing (SDFS) combined with geophysical data such as refraction microtremor array (ReMi), 3 component microtremor Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), and ground penetrating RADAR (GPR). Initial test data was conducted in liquefaction impacted areas from the Mw 6.1 earthquake in Central Luzon last April 22, 2019 Province of Pampanga. Numerous accounts of liquefaction events were documented areas underlain by quaternary alluvium and mostly covered by recent lahar deposits. SDS estimated values showed a good correlation to actual SPT values obtained from available borehole data. Thus, confirming that SDS can be an alternative tool for liquefaction assessment and more efficient in terms of cost and time compared to SPT and CPT. Conducting borehole may limit its access in highly urbanized areas. In order to extend or extrapolate the SPT borehole data, non-destructive geophysical equipment was used. A 3-component microtremor obtains a subsurface velocity model in 1-D seismic shear wave velocity of the upper 30 meters of the profile (Vs30). For the ReMi, 12 geophone array with 6 to 8-meter spacing surveys were conducted. Microtremor data were computed through the Factor of Safety, which is the quotient of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) and Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR). Complementary GPR was used to study the subsurface structure and used to inferred subsurface structures and groundwater conditions.

Keywords: Liquefaction, microtremor, ground penetrating radar, screw drive testing

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503 Behavior of Helical Piles as Foundation of Photovoltaic Panels in Tropical Soils

Authors: Andrea J. AlarcóN, Maxime Daulat, Raydel Lorenzo, Renato P. Da Cunha, Pierre Breul

Abstract:

Brazil has increased the use of renewable energy during the last years. Due to its sunshine and large surface area, photovoltaic panels founded in helical piles have been used to produce solar energy. Since Brazilian territory is mainly cover by highly porous structured tropical soils, when the helical piles are installed this structure is broken and its soil properties are modified. Considering the special characteristics of these soils, helical foundations behavior must be extensively studied. The first objective of this work is to determine the most suitable method to estimate the tensile capacity of helical piles in tropical soils. The second objective is to simulate the behavior of these piles in tropical soil. To obtain the rupture to assess load-displacement curves and the ultimate load, also a numerical modelling using Plaxis software was conducted. Lastly, the ultimate load and the load-displacements curves are compared with experimental values to validate the implemented model.

Keywords: Modelling, finite element, Helical Piles, Tropical Soil, Uplift Capacity

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502 Microthermometry of Carbonated Rocks of the Hondita-Lomagorda Formations, the Tiger Cave Sector, Municipality of Yaguara, Colombia

Authors: Camila Lozano-Vivas, Camila Quevedo-Villamil, Ingrid Munoz-Quijano, Diego Loaiza

Abstract:

Colombia's limited oil reserves make the finding of new fields of extraction or the potentiate of the existing ones a more important task to do every day; the exploration projects that allow to have a better knowledge of the oil basins are essential. The upper Magdalena Valley basin - VSM, whose reserves are limited, has been one of the first basins for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in Colombia. The Hondita and Lomagorda formations were deposited in the Late Cretaceous Middle Albian to the Coniacian and are characterized by being the hydrocarbon-generating rocks in the VSM basin oil system along with the Shale de Bambucá; therefore multiple studies have been made. In the oil industry, geochemical properties are used to understand the origin, migration, accumulation, and alteration of hydrocarbons and, in general, the evolution of the basin containing them. One of the most important parameters to understand this evolution is the formation temperature of the oil system. For this reason, a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions was carried out to recognize formation temperatures and to determine certain basic physicochemical variables, homogenization temperature, pressure, density and salinity of the fluid at the time of entrapment, providing evidence on the history of different events in different geological environments in the evolution of a sedimentary basin. Prior to this study, macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analyses of the samples collected in the field were performed. The results of the mentioned properties of the fluid inclusions in the different samples analyzed have salinities ranging from 20.22% to 26.37% eq. by weight NaCl, similar densities found in the ranges of 1.05 to 1.16 g/cc and an average homogenization temperature at 142.92°C, indicating that, at the time of their entanglement, the rock was in the window of generation of medium hydrocarbons –light with fragile characteristics of the rock that would make it useful to treat them as naturally fractured reservoirs.

Keywords: Salinity, fluid inclusions, homogenization temperature, microthermometry

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501 Long-Term Subcentimeter-Accuracy Landslide Monitoring Using a Cost-Effective Global Navigation Satellite System Rover Network: Case Study

Authors: Vincent Schlageter, Maroua Mestiri, Florian Denzinger, Hugo Raetzo, Michel Demierre

Abstract:

Precise landslide monitoring with differential global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is well known, but technical or economic reasons limit its application by geotechnical companies. This study demonstrates the reliability and the usefulness of Geomon (Infrasurvey Sàrl, Switzerland), a stand-alone and cost-effective rover network. The system permits deploying up to 15 rovers, plus one reference station for differential GNSS. A dedicated radio communication links all the modules to a base station, where an embedded computer automatically provides all the relative positions (L1 phase, open-source RTKLib software) and populates an Internet server. Each measure also contains information from an internal inclinometer, battery level, and position quality indices. Contrary to standard GNSS survey systems, which suffer from a limited number of beacons that must be placed in areas with good GSM signal, Geomon offers greater flexibility and permits a real overview of the whole landslide with good spatial resolution. Each module is powered with solar panels, ensuring autonomous long-term recordings. In this study, we have tested the system on several sites in the Swiss mountains, setting up to 7 rovers per site, for an 18 month-long survey. The aim was to assess the robustness and the accuracy of the system in different environmental conditions. In one case, we ran forced blind tests (vertical movements of a given amplitude) and compared various session parameters (duration from 10 to 90 minutes). Then the other cases were a survey of real landslides sites using fixed optimized parameters. Sub centimetric-accuracy with few outliers was obtained using the best parameters (session duration of 60 minutes, baseline 1 km or less), with the noise level on the horizontal component half that of the vertical one. The performance (percent of aborting solutions, outliers) was reduced with sessions shorter than 30 minutes. The environment also had a strong influence on the percent of aborting solutions (ambiguity search problem), due to multiple reflections or satellites obstructed by trees and mountains. The length of the baseline (distance reference-rover, single baseline processing) reduced the accuracy above 1 km but had no significant effect below this limit. In critical weather conditions, the system’s robustness was limited: snow, avalanche, and frost-covered some rovers, including the antenna and vertically oriented solar panels, leading to data interruption; and strong wind damaged a reference station. The possibility of changing the sessions’ parameters remotely was very useful. In conclusion, the rover network tested provided the foreseen sub-centimetric-accuracy while providing a dense spatial resolution landslide survey. The ease of implementation and the fully automatic long-term survey were timesaving. Performance strongly depends on surrounding conditions, but short pre-measures should allow moving a rover to a better final placement. The system offers a promising hazard mitigation technique. Improvements could include data post-processing for alerts and automatic modification of the duration and numbers of sessions based on battery level and rover displacement velocity.

Keywords: Network, GNSS, Long-term, Solar, Landslide, GSM, spatial resolution, sub-centimeter

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500 Investigate the Mechanical Effect of Different Root Analogue Models to Soil Strength

Authors: Asmaa Al Shafiee, Erdin Ibraim

Abstract:

Stabilizing slopes by using vegetation is considered as a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to the conventional methods. The main aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical effect of analogue root systems on the shear strength of different soil types. Three objectives were defined to achieve the main aim of this paper. Firstly, explore the effect of root architectural design to shear strength parameters. Secondly, study the effect of root area ratio (RAR) on the shear strength of two different soil types. Finally, to investigate how different kinds of soil can affect the behavior of the roots during shear failure. 3D printing tool was used to develop different analogue tap root models with different architectural designs. Direct shear tests were performed on Leighton Buzzard (LB) fraction B sand, which represents a coarse sand and Huston sand, which represent medium-coarse sand. All tests were done with the same relative density for both kinds of sand. The results of the direct shear test indicated that using plant roots will increase both friction angle and cohesion of soil. Additionally, different root designs affected differently the shear strength of the soil. Furthermore, the directly proportional relationship was found between root area ratio for the same root design and shear strength parameters of soil. Finally, the root area ratio effect should be combined with branches penetrating the shear plane to get the highest results.

Keywords: Slope Stabilization, Shear Strength, leighton buzzard sand, root area ratio, rooted soil

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