Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 610

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geotechnical and Geological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

610 Rapid Soil Classification Using Computer Vision with Electrical Resistivity and Soil Strength

Authors: Eugene Y. J. Aw, J. W. Koh, S. H. Chew, K. E. Chua, P. L. Goh, Grace H. B. Foo, M. L. Leong


This paper presents the evaluation of various soil testing methods such as the four-probe soil electrical resistivity method and cone penetration test (CPT) that can complement a newly developed novel rapid soil classification scheme using computer vision, to improve the accuracy and productivity of on-site classification of excavated soil. In Singapore, excavated soils from the local construction industry are transported to Staging Grounds (SGs) to be reused as fill material for land reclamation. Excavated soils are mainly categorized into two groups (“Good Earth” and “Soft Clay”) based on particle size distribution (PSD) and water content (w) from soil investigation reports and on-site visual survey, such that proper treatment and usage can be exercised. However, this process is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Thus, a rapid classification method is needed at the SGs. Four-probe soil electrical resistivity and CPT were evaluated for their feasibility as suitable additions to the computer vision system to further develop this innovative non-destructive and instantaneous classification method. The computer vision technique comprises soil image acquisition using an industrial-grade camera; image processing and analysis via calculation of Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) textural parameters; and decision-making using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). It was found from the previous study that the ANN model coupled with ρ can classify soils into “Good Earth” and “Soft Clay” in less than a minute, with an accuracy of 85% based on selected representative soil images. To further improve the technique, the following three items were targeted to be added onto the computer vision scheme: the apparent electrical resistivity of soil (ρ) measured using a set of four probes arranged in Wenner’s array, the soil strength measured using a modified mini cone penetrometer, and w measured using a set of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes. Laboratory proof-of-concept was conducted through a series of seven tests with three types of soils – “Good Earth”, “Soft Clay,” and a mix of the two. Validation was performed against the PSD and w of each soil type obtained from conventional laboratory tests. The results show that ρ, w and CPT measurements can be collectively analyzed to classify soils into “Good Earth” or “Soft Clay” and are feasible as complementing methods to the computer vision system.

Keywords: computer vision technique, cone penetration test, electrical resistivity, rapid and non-destructive, soil classification

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609 Geophysical Exploration of Aquifer Zones by (Ves) Method at Ayma-Kharagpur, District Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal

Authors: Mayank Sharma


Groundwater has been a matter of great concern in the past years due to the depletion in the water table. This has resulted from the over-exploitation of groundwater resources. Sub-surface exploration of groundwater is a great way to identify the groundwater potential of an area. Thus, in order to meet the water needs for irrigation in the study area, there was a need for a tube well to be installed. Therefore, a Geophysical investigation was carried out to find the most suitable point of drilling and sinking of tube well that encounters an aquifer. Hence, an electrical resistivity survey of geophysical exploration was used to know the aquifer zones of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method was employed to know the subsurface geology of the area. Seven vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array were carried out, having the maximum AB electrode separation of 700m at selected points in Ayma, Kharagpur-1 block of Paschim Midnapore district, West Bengal. The VES was done using an IGIS DDR3 Resistivity meter up to an approximate depth of 160-180m. The data was interpreted, processed and analyzed. Based on all the interpretations using the direct method, the geology of the area at the points of sounding was interpreted. It was established that two deeper clay-sand sections exist in the area at a depth of 50-70m (having resistivity range of 40-60ohm-m) and 70-160m (having resistivity range of 25-35ohm-m). These aquifers will provide a high yield of water which would be sufficient for the desired irrigation in the study area.

Keywords: VES method, Schlumberger method, electrical resistivity survey, geophysical exploration

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608 Deflection Behaviour of Retaining Wall with Pile for Pipeline on Slope of Soft Soil

Authors: Mutadi


Pipes laying on an unstable slope of soft soil are prone to movement. Pipelines that are buried in unstable slope areas will move due to lateral loads from soil movement, which can cause damage to the pipeline. A small-scale laboratory model of the reinforcement system of piles supported by retaining walls was conducted to investigate the effect of lateral load on the reinforcement. In this experiment, the lateral forces of 0.3 kN, 0.35 kN, and 0.4 kN and vertical force of 0.05 kN, 0.1 kN, and 0.15 kN were used. Lateral load from the electric jack is equipped with load cell and vertical load using the cement-steel box. To validate the experimental result, a finite element program named 2-D Plaxis was used. The experimental results showed that with an increase in lateral loading, the displacement of the reinforcement system increased. For a Vertical Load, 0.1 kN and versus a lateral load of 0.3 kN causes a horizontal displacement of 0.35 mm and an increase of 2.94% for loading of 0.35 kN and an increase of 8.82% for loading 0.4 kN. The pattern is the same in the finite element method analysis, where there was a 6.52% increase for 0.35 kN loading and an increase to 23.91 % for 0.4 kN loading. In the same Load, the Reinforcement System is reliable, as shown in Safety Factor on dry conditions were 3.3, 2.824 and 2.474, and on wet conditions were 2.98, 2.522 and 2.235.

Keywords: soft soil, deflection, wall, pipeline

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607 Probabilistic Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Isolated Footing using Monte Carlo Simulation



The allowable bearing capacity of foundation systems is determined by applying a factor of safety to the ultimate bearing capacity. Conventional ultimate bearing capacity calculations routines are based on deterministic input parameters where the nonuniformity and inhomogeneity of soil and site properties are not accounted for. Hence, the laws of mathematics like probability calculus and statistical analysis cannot be directly applied to foundation engineering. It’s assumed that the Factor of Safety, typically as high as 3.0, incorporates the uncertainty of the input parameters. This factor of safety is estimated based on subjective judgement rather than objective facts. It is an ambiguous term. Hence, a probabilistic analysis of the bearing capacity of an isolated footing on a clayey soil is carried out by using the Monte Carlo Simulation method. This simulated model was compared with the traditional discrete model. It was found out that the bearing capacity of soil was found higher for the simulated model compared with the discrete model. This was verified by doing the sensitivity analysis. As the number of simulations was increased, there was a significant % increase of the bearing capacity compared with discrete bearing capacity. The bearing capacity values obtained by simulation was found to follow a normal distribution. While using the traditional value of Factor of safety 3, the allowable bearing capacity had lower probability (0.03717) of occurring in the field compared to a higher probability (0.15866), while using the simulation derived factor of safety of 1.5. This means the traditional factor of safety is giving us bearing capacity that is less likely occurring/available in the field. This shows the subjective nature of factor of safety, and hence probability method is suggested to address the variability of the input parameters in bearing capacity equations.

Keywords: bearing capacity, factor of safety, isolated footing, montecarlo simulation

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606 Case Study; Drilled Shafts Installation in Difficult Site Conditions; Loose Sand and High Water Table

Authors: Anthony El Hachem, Hosam Salman


Selecting the most effective construction method for drilled shafts under the high phreatic surface can be a challenging task that requires effective communication between the design and construction teams. Slurry placement, temporary casing, and permanent casing are the three most commonly used installation techniques to ensure the stability of the drilled hole before casting the concrete. Each one of these methods has its implications on the installation and performance of the drilled piers. Drilled shafts were designed to support a fire wall for an Energy project in Central Texas. The subsurface consisted of interlayers of sands and clays of varying shear strengths. The design recommended that the shafts be installed with temporary casing or slurry displacement due to the anticipated groundwater seepage through granular soils. During the foundation construction, it was very difficult to maintain the stability of the hole, and the contractor requested to install the shafts using permanent casings. Therefore, the foundation design was modified to ensure that the cased shafts achieve the required load capacity. Effective and continuous communications between the owner, contractor and design team during field shaft installations to mitigate the unforeseen challenges helped the team to successfully complete the project.

Keywords: construction challenges, deep foundations, drilled shafts, loose sands underwater table, permanent casing

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605 3D Hybrid Multiphysics Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Flow Behavior of Emulsions in Structured Rectangular Microchannels

Authors: Luma Al-Tamimi, Hassan Farhat, Wessam Hasan


A three-dimensional (3D) hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model is developed to couple the effects of surfactant, temperature, interfacial tension, and contact angle. This 3D model is an extended scheme of a previously introduced two-dimensional (2D) hybrid lattice Boltzmann model. The 3D model is used to study the combined multi-physics effects on emulsion systems flowing in rectangular microchannels with and without confinements, where the suspended phase is made of droplets, plugs, or a mixture of both. The simulation results show that emulsion systems with plugs as the suspended phase are more efficient than with droplets, whereas mixed systems that form large plugs through coalescence have even greater efficiency. The 3D contact angle model generates matching results to those of the 2D model, which were validated with experiments. Furthermore, the effects of various confinements on adhering single drop systems are investigated for delineating their influence on the power required for transporting the suspended phase through the channel. It is shown that the deeper the constriction is, the lower the system efficiency. Increasing the surfactant concentration or fluid temperature in a channel with confinement carries a substantial positive effect on oil droplet transportation.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, thermal, contact angle, surfactants, high viscosity ratio, porous media

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604 Numerical Study of Partial Penetration of PVDs In Soft Clay Soils Treatment Along With Surcharge Preloading (Bangkok Airport Case Study)

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Pardsouie, Mehdi Mokhberi, Seyed Mohammad Ali Zomorodian, Seyed Alireza Nasehi


One of the challenging parts of every project, including prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs), is the determination of the depth of installation and its configuration. In this paper, Geostudio 2018 was used for modeling and verification of the full-scale test embankments (TS1, TS2, and TS3), which were constructed to study the effectiveness of PVDs for accelerating the consolidation and dissipation of the excess pore-pressures resulting from fill placement at Bangkok airport. Different depths and scenarios were modeled and the results were compared and analyzed. Since the ultimate goal is attaining pre-determined settlement, the settlement curve under soil embankment was used for the investigation of the results. It was shown that nearly in all cases, the same results and efficiency might be obtained by partial depth installation of PVDs instead of complete full constant length installation. However, it should be mentioned that because of distinct soil characteristics of clay soils and layers properties of any project, further investigation of full-scale test embankments and modeling is needed prior to finalizing the ultimate design by competent geotechnical consultants.

Keywords: partial penetration, surcharge preloading, excess pore water pressure, Bangkok test embankments

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603 Effects of Climate Change on Hydraulic Design Methods of Railway Infrastructures

Authors: Chiara Cesali


The effects of climate change are increasingly evident: increases in temperature (i.e. global warming), greater frequency of extreme weather events, i.e. storms, floods, which often affect transport infrastructures. Large-scale climatological models with long-term horizons (up to 2100) show the possibility of significant increases in precipitation in the future, according to the greenhouse gas emissions scenarios from IPCC. Consequently, the insufficiency of existing hydraulic works (i.e. bridges, culverts, drainage systems) may be more frequent, or those currently being designed may become insufficient in the future. Thus, the hydraulic design methods of transport infrastructure must begin to take into account the influence of climate change. To this purpose, criteria for applying to the hydraulic design of a railway infrastructure some of the approaches currently available for determining design rainfall intensity and/or peak discharge flow on the basis of possible climate change scenarios are defined and proposed in the paper. Some application cases are also described.

Keywords: climate change, hydraulic design, precipitation, railway

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602 Effect of Acid Activation of Vermiculite on Its Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Behaviors

Authors: Katarzyna Wal, Wojciech Stawiński, Piotr Rutkowski


The scientific community is paying more and more attention to the problem of air pollution. Carbon dioxide is classified as one of the most harmful gases. Its emissions are generated during fossil fuel burning, waste management, combustion and are responsible for global warming. Clay minerals constitute a group of promising materials to the role of adsorbents. They are composed of two types of phyllosilicate sheets: tetrahedral and octahedral, which formed 1:1 or 2:1 structures. Vermiculite isone of their best-known representative, which can be used as an adsorbent from water and gaseous phase. The aim of the presented work was carbon dioxide adsorption on vermiculite. Acid activated samples (W_NO3_x) were prepared by acid treatment with different concentrations of nitric acid (1, 2, 3, 4 mol L⁻¹). Vermiculite was subjected to modification in order to increase its porosity and adsorption properties. The prepared adsorbents were characterized using the BET specific surface area analysis, thermogravimetry (TG), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Applied modifications significantly increase the specific surface area from 78,21 m2 g⁻¹ for unmodified sample (W_REF) to 536 m2 g⁻¹ for W_NO3_4. Obtained results showed that acid treatment tunes the material’s functional properties by increasing the contact surface and generating more active sites in its structure. The adsorption performance in terms carbon dioxide adsorption capacities follows the order of W_REF (25.91 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3⁻¹ (38.54 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3_2 (44.03 mg g⁻¹) W_NO3_4 (67.51 mg g⁻¹) < W_NO3_3 (70.48 mg g⁻¹). Acid activation significantly improved carbon dioxide adsorption properties of modified samples compared to raw material. These results demonstrate that vermiculite-based samples have the potential for being used as effective CO₂ adsorbents. Furthermore, acid treatment is a promising technique for improving the adsorption properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: adsorption, adsorbent, clay minerals, air pollution, environment

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601 Seismic Reflection Highlights of New Miocene Deep Aquifers in Eastern Tunisia Basin (North Africa)

Authors: Mourad Bédir, Sami Khomsi, Hakim Gabtni, Hajer Azaiez, Ramzi Gharsalli, Riadh Chebbi


Eastern Tunisia is a semi-arid area; located in the northern Africa plate; southern Mediterranean side. It is facing water scarcity, overexploitation, and decreasing of water quality of phreatic water table. Water supply and storage will not respond to the demographic and economic growth and demand. In addition, only 5 109 m3 of rainwater from 35 109 m3 per year renewable rain water supply can be retained and remobilized. To remediate this water deficiency, researches had been focused to near new subsurface deep aquifers resources. Among them, Upper Miocene sandstone deposits of Béglia, Saouaf, and Somaa Formations. These sandstones are known for their proven Hydrogeologic and hydrocarbon reservoir characteristics in the Tunisian margin. They represent semi-confined to confined aquifers. This work is based on new integrated approaches of seismic stratigraphy, seismic tectonics, and hydrogeology, to highlight and characterize these reservoirs levels for aquifer exploitation in semi-arid area. As a result, five to six third order sequence deposits had been highlighted. They are composed of multi-layered extended sandstones reservoirs; separated by shales packages. These reservoir deposits represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences, which represent lowstand and highstand system tracts of these sequences. They constitute important strategic water resources volumes for the region.

Keywords: Tunisia, Hydrogeology, sandstones, basin, seismic, aquifers, modeling

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600 The Influence of Viscosifier Concentration on Rheological Properties of Invert Emulsion Mud

Authors: Suzan Ibrahim


Oil-based muds are the most regularly used rotary drilling methods in the oil and gas industry. However, they have a negative impact on the environment, which leads to restrictions of their application in many countries of the world. Consequently, looking for new eco-friendly alternative formulations of oil-based drilling fluids for the exploration of troublesome formations. As one of the developments of Novel formulation of environmentally friendly drilling fluids and investigation of the formulation for jatropha oil-based drilling fluid samples at different concentrations of viscosifiers such as low viscosity polyanionic cellulose (PAC- LV), high viscosity polyanionic cellulose (PAC-V) and local Egyptian bentonite. The oil-water ratio was taken as 70:30, which is beneficial in producing a low fluid loss. 15 drilling fluid samples were formulated different concentrations of bentonite, PAC- LV and PAC-V individually and their mud density, rheological properties, electrical stability and filtration loss properties were determined. The rheological performance showed at higher concentrations of viscosifier, the trend of viscosity increment of PAC performed in a similar way to bentonite. The best result of electrical stability by using the lowest concentration of viscosifier was achieved with PAC-V. The lowest fluid loss volumes were obtained by using the highest concentrations (4 g) of viscosifiers. Mud cake thickness of samples increased by using viscosifiers; however, a lower range was achieved compared to API specification. From the overall experiment, it can be concluded that as the concentrations of viscosifier increase, the viscosity trend increase in a similar way to both PAC-V and bentonite. But we must note that the PAC-V is a more environmentally friendly additive and a renewable resource, cheaper than bentonite and improves properties of eco-friendly OBMs well. It is a preferable choice for oil-based drilling fluids.

Keywords: invert emulsion mud, oil-based mud, rheological properties, viscosifier

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599 Settlement Prediction in Cape Flats Sands Using Shear Wave Velocity – Penetration Resistance Correlations

Authors: Nanine Fouche


The Cape Flats is a low-lying sand-covered expanse of approximately 460 square kilometres, situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town in the Western Cape of South Africa. The aeolian sands masking this area are often loose and compressible in the upper 1m to 1.5m of the surface, and there is a general exceedance of the maximum allowable settlement in these sands. The settlement of shallow foundations on Cape Flats sands is commonly predicted using the results of in-situ tests such as the SPT or DPSH due to the difficulty of retrieving undisturbed samples for laboratory testing. Varying degrees of accuracy and reliability are associated with these methods. More recently, shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles obtained from seismic testing, such as continuous surface wave tests (CSW), are being used for settlement prediction. Such predictions have the advantage of considering non-linear stress-strain behaviour of soil and the degradation of stiffness with increasing strain. CSW tests are rarely executed in the Cape Flats, whereas SPT’s are commonly performed. For this reason, and to facilitate better settlement predictions in Cape Flats sand, equations representing shear wave velocity (Vs) as a function of SPT blow count (N60) and vertical effective stress (v’) were generated by statistical regression of site investigation data. To reveal the most appropriate method of overburden correction, analyses were performed with a separate overburden term (Pa/σ’v) as well as using stress corrected shear wave velocity and SPT blow counts (correcting Vs. and N60 to Vs1and (N1)60respectively). Shear wave velocity profiles and SPT blow count data from three sites masked by Cape Flats sands were utilised to generate 80 Vs-SPT N data pairs for analysis. Investigated terrains included sites in the suburbs of Athlone, Muizenburg, and Atlantis, all underlain by windblown deposits comprising fine and medium sand with varying fines contents. Elastic settlement analysis was also undertaken for the Cape Flats sands, using a non-linear stepwise method based on small-strain stiffness estimates, which was obtained from the best Vs-N60 model and compared to settlement estimates using the general elastic solution with stiffness profiles determined using Stroud’s (1989) and Webb’s (1969) SPT N60-E transformation models. Stroud’s method considers strain level indirectly whereasWebb’smethod does not take account of the variation in elastic modulus with strain. The expression of Vs. in terms of N60 and Pa/σv’ derived from the Atlantis data set revealed the best fit with R2 = 0.83 and a standard error of 83.5m/s. Less accurate Vs-SPT N relations associated with the combined data set is presumably the result of inversion routines used in the analysis of the CSW results showcasing significant variation in relative density and stiffness with depth. The regression analyses revealed that the inclusion of a separate overburden term in the regression of Vs and N60, produces improved fits, as opposed to the stress corrected equations in which the R2 of the regression is notably lower. It is the correction of Vs and N60 to Vs1 and (N1)60 with empirical constants ‘n’ and ‘m’ prior to regression, that introduces bias with respect to overburden pressure. When comparing settlement prediction methods, both Stroud’s method (considering strain level indirectly) and the small strain stiffness method predict higher stiffnesses for medium dense and dense profiles than Webb’s method, which takes no account of strain level in the determination of soil stiffness. Webb’s method appears to be suitable for loose sands only. The Versak software appears to underestimate differences in settlement between square and strip footings of similar width. In conclusion, settlement analysis using small-strain stiffness data from the proposed Vs-N60 model for Cape Flats sands provides a way to take account of the non-linear stress-strain behaviour of the sands when calculating settlement.

Keywords: sands, settlement prediction, continuous surface wave test, small-strain stiffness, shear wave velocity, penetration resistance

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598 Investigation of Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction of Gravity Anchor Under Scour, and Anchor Transportation and Installation (T&I)

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam


The generation of electricity through wind power is one of the leading renewable energy generation methods. Due to abundant higher wind speeds far away from shore, the construction of offshore wind turbines began in the last decades. However, the installation of offshore foundation-based (monopiles) wind turbines in deep waters are often associated with technical and financial challenges. To overcome such challenges, the concept of floating wind turbines is expanded as the basis of the oil and gas industry. For such a floating system, stabilization in harsh conditions is a challenging task. For that, a robust heavy-weight gravity anchor is needed. Transportation of such anchor requires a heavy vessel that increases the cost. To lower the cost, the gravity anchor is designed with ballast chambers that allow the anchor to float while towing and filled with water when lowering to the planned seabed location. The presence of such a large structure may influence the flow field around it. The changes in the flow field include, formation of vortices, turbulence generation, waves or currents flow breaking and pressure differentials around the seabed sediment. These changes influence the installation process. Also, after installation and under operating conditions, the flow around the anchor may allow the local seabed sediment to be carried off and results in Scour (erosion). These are a threat to the structure's stability. In recent decades, rapid developments of research work and the knowledge of scouring on fixed structures (bridges and monopiles) in rivers and oceans have been carried out, and very limited research work on scouring around a bluff-shaped gravity anchor. The objective of this study involves the application of different numerical models to simulate the anchor towing under waves and calm water conditions. Anchor lowering involves the investigation of anchor movements at certain water depths under wave/current. The motions of anchor drift, heave, and pitch is of special focus. The further study involves anchor scour, where the anchor is installed in the seabed; the flow of underwater current around the anchor induces vortices mainly at the front and corners that develop soil erosion. The study of scouring on a submerged gravity anchor is an interesting research question since the flow not only passes around the anchor but also over the structure that forms different flow vortices. The achieved results and the numerical model will be a basis for the development of other designs and concepts for marine structures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model will build in OpenFOAM and other similar software.

Keywords: anchor lowering, anchor towing, gravity anchor, computational fluid dynamics, scour

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597 Mineralisation and Fluid Inclusions Studies of the Fluorite Deposit at Jebel Mecella, North Eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, Garnit Hechmi, David Banks


The Jebel Mecella F (Ba-Pb-Zn) ore deposits of the Zaghouan district are located in northeastern Tunisia, 60 km south of Tunis. The host rocks belong to the Ressas Formation of Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age and lower Cretaceous layers. Mineralisations occur as stratiform lenses and fracture fillings. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of fluorite, barite, sphalerite galena, and quartz. Primary fluid inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures ranging from 129 to 145°C final melting temperature range from -14.9 to -10.0, corresponding to salinities of 14.0 to 17.7 wt% NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusions in fluorite homogenize to the liquid phase between 116 and 160°C. The final ice melting temperature ranges from -23 to -15 °C, corresponding to salinities between 17 and 24 wt% NaCl equivalent. The LAICP-MS analyses of the fluid inclusions in fluorite show that these fluids are dominated by Na>K>Mg. Furthermore, the high K/Na values from fluid inclusions suggest the brine interacted with K-rich rocks in the basement or in siliciclastic sediments in the basins. The ore fluids in Jebel Mecella are highly saline and Na-K dominated with lower Mg concentrations, and come from the leaching of the dolomitic host rocks. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley-type mineralizing fluids.

Keywords: Jebel Mecella, fluid inclusions, micro thermometry, LA-ICP-MS

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596 Investigation of Extreme Gradient Boosting Model Prediction of Soil Strain-Shear Modulus

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Reza Bushehri


One of the principal parameters defining the clay soil dynamic response is the strain-shear modulus relation. Predicting the strain and, subsequently, shear modulus reduction of the soil is essential for performance analysis of structures exposed to earthquake and dynamic loadings. Many soil properties affect soil’s dynamic behavior. In order to capture those effects, in this study, a database containing 1193 data points consists of maximum shear modulus, strain, moisture content, initial void ratio, plastic limit, liquid limit, initial confining pressure resulting from dynamic laboratory testing of 21 clays is collected for predicting the shear modulus vs. strain curve of soil. A model based on an extreme gradient boosting technique is proposed. A tree-structured parzan estimator hyper-parameter tuning algorithm is utilized simultaneously to find the best hyper-parameters for the model. The performance of the model is compared to the existing empirical equations using the coefficient of correlation and root mean square error.

Keywords: XGBoost, hyper-parameter tuning, soil shear modulus, dynamic response

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595 Investigation of Shear Strength, and Dilative Behavior of Coarse-grained Samples Using Laboratory Test and Machine Learning Technique

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Seyed Armin Motahari Tabari


Coarse-grained soils are known and commonly used in a wide range of geotechnical projects, including high earth dams or embankments for their high shear strength. The most important engineering property of these soils is friction angle which represents the interlocking between soil particles and can be applied widely in designing and constructing these earth structures. Friction angle and dilative behavior of coarse-grained soils can be estimated from empirical correlations with in-situ testing and physical properties of the soil or measured directly in the laboratory performing direct shear or triaxial tests. Unfortunately, large-scale testing is difficult, challenging, and expensive and is not possible in most soil mechanic laboratories. So, it is common to remove the large particles and do the tests, which cannot be counted as an exact estimation of the parameters and behavior of the original soil. This paper describes a new methodology to simulate particles grading distribution of a well-graded gravel sample to a smaller scale sample as it can be tested in an ordinary direct shear apparatus to estimate the stress-strain behavior, friction angle, and dilative behavior of the original coarse-grained soil considering its confining pressure, and relative density using a machine learning method. A total number of 72 direct shear tests are performed in 6 different sizes, 3 different confining pressures, and 4 different relative densities. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) technique was used to develop an equation in order to predict shear strength and dilative behavior based on the size distribution of coarse-grained soil particles. Also, an uncertainty analysis was performed in order to examine the reliability of the proposed equation.

Keywords: MARS, coarse-grained soil, shear strength, uncertainty analysis

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594 Application of Model Tree in the Prediction of TBM Rate of Penetration with Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar


The rate of penetration is (RoP) one of the vital factors in the cost and time of tunnel boring projects; therefore, predicting it can lead to a substantial increase in the efficiency of the project. RoP is heavily dependent geological properties of the project site and TBM properties. In this study, 151-point data from Queen’s water tunnel is collected, which includes unconfined compression strength, peak slope index, angle with weak planes, and distance between planes of weaknesses. Since the size of the data is small, it was observed that it is imbalanced. To solve that problem synthetic minority oversampling technique is utilized. The model based on the model tree is proposed, where each leaf consists of a support vector machine model. Proposed model performance is then compared to existing empirical equations in the literature.

Keywords: Model tree, SMOTE, rate of penetration, TBM(tunnel boring machine), SVM

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593 A Hybrid Model Tree and Logistic Regression Model for Prediction of Soil Shear Strength in Clay

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Seyed Armin Motahari Tabari


Without a doubt, soil shear strength is the most important property of the soil. The majority of fatal and catastrophic geological accidents are related to shear strength failure of the soil. Therefore, its prediction is a matter of high importance. However, acquiring the shear strength is usually a cumbersome task that might need complicated laboratory testing. Therefore, prediction of it based on common and easy to get soil properties can simplify the projects substantially. In this paper, A hybrid model based on the classification and regression tree algorithm and logistic regression is proposed where each leaf of the tree is an independent regression model. A database of 189 points for clay soil, including Moisture content, liquid limit, plastic limit, clay content, and shear strength, is collected. The performance of the developed model compared to the existing models and equations using root mean squared error and coefficient of correlation.

Keywords: model tree, CART, logistic regression, soil shear strength

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592 Influence of Geologic and Geotechnical Dataset Resolution on Regional Liquefaction Assessment of the Lower Wairau Plains

Authors: Omer Altaf, Liam Wotherspoon, Rolando Orense


The Wairau Plains are located in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand, with alluvial deposits of fine-grained silts and sands combined with low-lying topography suggesting the presence of liquefiable deposits over significant portions of the region. Liquefaction manifestations were observed in past earthquakes, including the 1848 Marlborough and 1855 Wairarapa earthquakes, and more recently during the 2013 Lake Grassmere and 2016 Kaikōura earthquakes. Therefore, a good understanding of the deposits that may be susceptible to liquefaction is important for land use planning in the region and to allow developers and asset owners to appropriately address their risk. For this purpose, multiple approaches have been employed to develop regional-scale maps showing the liquefaction vulnerability categories for the region. After applying semi-qualitative criteria linked to geologic age and deposit type, the higher resolution surface mapping of geomorphologic characteristics encompassing the Wairau River and the Opaoa River was used for screening. A detailed basin geologic model developed for groundwater modelling was analysed to provide a higher level of resolution than the surface-geology based classification. This is used to identify the thickness of near-surface gravel deposits, providing an improved understanding of the presence or lack of potentially non-liquefiable crust deposits. This paper describes the methodology adopted for this project and focuses on the influence of geomorphic characteristics and analysis of the detailed geologic basin model on the liquefaction classification of the Lower Wairau Plains.

Keywords: liquefaction, earthquake, cone penetration test, mapping, liquefaction-induced damage

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591 Determination of Suction of Arid Region Soil Using Filter Paper Method

Authors: Bhavita S. Dave, Chandresh H. Solanki, Atul K. Desai


Soils of the Greater Himalayas mostly pertain to Leh & Ladakh, Lahaul & Sppiti, & high reaches to Uttarakhand. The moisture regime is aridic. The arid zone starts from Baralacha pass in Lahaul covers the entire Spiti valley in the district of Lahaul & Spiti, Himachal Pradesh of India. Here, the present study is an attempt to determine the suction value of soil collected from the arid zone of Spiti valley for different freezing-thawing cycles considering the climate ranges of Spiti valley. Suction is the basic and most important parameter which influences the behavior of unsaturated soil. It is essential to determine the suction value of an unsaturated soil before other tests like shear test, permeability. Basically, it is the negative pore water pressure in partially saturated soil measured in terms of the height of the water column. The filter paper method has been used for the study as an economical approach to evaluate suction. It is the only method from which both contact and non-contact suction can be deduced. In this study, soil specimens were subjected to 0, 1, 3, & 5 freezing-thawing (F-T) cycles for different degrees of saturation to have a wide range of suction and its soil freezing characteristic curves (SFCC) were formulated for all F-T cycles. The result data collected from the experiments have shown best-fitted values using Fredlund & Xing model for each SFCC.

Keywords: suction, arid region soil, soil freezing characteristic curve, freezing-thawing cycle

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590 Improvement of Sandy Clay Soils with the Addition of Rice Husk Ash and Expanded Polystyrene Beads

Authors: Alvaro Quino, Roger Trejo, Gary Duran, Jordy Viso


This article presents a study on the lightening and improvement of properties of soil extracted in the province of Talara in the department of Piura -Peru, to be used in filling in the construction of embankments for roads. This soft soil has a high percentage of elastic settlement and consolidation settlement. Currently, there are different methods that seek to mitigate the impact of this problem, which have achieved favorable results. As a contribution to these investigations, we propose the use of two lightening materials to be used in the filling of embankments; these materials are expanded polystyrene beads (EPS) and rice husk ash (RHA). Favorable results were obtained, such as a reduction of 14.34% of the volumetric weight, so the settlement will be reduced. In addition, it is observed that as the RHA dosage increases, the shear resistance increases. In this article, soil mechanics tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this method in lightening and improving properties for the soil under study.

Keywords: sandy clay soils, rice husk ash, expanded polystyrene, soft soils

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589 Larger Diameter 22 MM-PDC Cutter Greatly Improves Drilling Efficiency of PDC Bit

Authors: Fangyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao


With the increasing speed of oil and gas exploration, development and production at home and abroad, the demand for drilling speed up technology is becoming more and more critical to reduce the development cost. Highly efficient and personalized PDC bit is important equipment in the bottom hole assembly (BHA). Therefore, improving the rock-breaking efficiency of PDC bits will help reduce drilling time and drilling cost. Advances in PDC bit technology have resulted in a leapfrogging improvement in the rate of penetration (ROP) of PDC bits over roller cone bits in soft to medium-hard formations. Recently, with the development of PDC technology, the diameter of the PDC tooth can be further expanded. The maximum diameter of the PDC cutter used in this paper is 22 mm. According to the theoretical calculation, under the same depth of cut (DOC), the 22mm-PDC cutter increases the exposure of the cutter, and the increase of PDC cutter diameter helps to increase the cutting area of the PDC cutter. In order to evaluate the cutting performance of the 22 mm-PDC cutter and the existing commonly used cutters, the 16 mm, 19 mm and 22 mm PDC cutter was selected put on a vertical turret lathe (VTL) in the laboratory for cutting tests under different DOCs. The DOCs were 0.5mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm, 2.5 mm and 3 mm, respectively. The rock sample used in the experiment was limestone. Results of laboratory tests have shown the new 22 mm-PDC cutter technology greatly improved cutting efficiency. On the one hand, as the DOC increases, the mechanical specific energy (MSE) of all cutters decreases, which means that the cutting efficiency increases. On the other hand, under the same DOC condition, the larger the cutter diameter is, the larger the working area of the cutter is, which leads to higher the cutting efficiency. In view of the high performance of the 22 mm-PDC cutters, which was applied to carry out full-scale bit field experiments. The result shows that the bit with 22mm-PDC cutters achieves a breakthrough improvement of ROP than that with conventional 16mm and 19mm cutters in offset well drilling.

Keywords: polycrystalline diamond compact, 22 mm-PDC cutters, cutting efficiency, mechanical specific energy

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588 Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of Arch Dam Based on Response Surface Method

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong


Earthquake is one of the main loads threatening dam safety. Once the dam is damaged, it will bring huge losses of life and property to the country and people. Therefore, it is very important to research the seismic safety of the dam. Due to the complex foundation conditions, high fortification intensity, and high scientific and technological content, it is necessary to adopt reasonable methods to evaluate the seismic safety performance of concrete arch dams built and under construction in strong earthquake areas. Structural seismic vulnerability analysis can predict the probability of structural failure at all levels under different intensity earthquakes, which can provide a scientific basis for reasonable seismic safety evaluation and decision-making. In this paper, the response surface method (RSM) is applied to the seismic vulnerability analysis of arch dams, which improves the efficiency of vulnerability analysis. Based on the central composite test design method, the material-seismic intensity samples are established. The response surface model (RSM) with arch crown displacement as performance index is obtained by finite element (FE) calculation of the samples, and then the accuracy of the response surface model (RSM) is verified. To obtain the seismic vulnerability curves, the seismic intensity measure 𝑆𝑎(𝑇1) is chosen to be 0.1~1.2g, with an interval of 0.1g and a total of 12 intensity levels. For each seismic intensity level, the arch crown displacement corresponding to 100 sets of different material samples can be calculated by algebraic operation of the response surface model (RSM), which avoids 1200 times of nonlinear dynamic calculation of arch dam; thus, the efficiency of vulnerability analysis is improved greatly.

Keywords: high concrete arch dam, performance index, response surface method, seismic vulnerability analysis, vector-valued intensity measure

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587 A New Correlation Between SPT-N and SSPT-N values for Various Soil Types in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Abdull Halim


The Standard Penetration Test (SPT-N) is the most common in situ test for soil investigations. The Shearing Seismic Standard Penetration Test (SSPT-N), on the other hand, is a new method using shearing wave with propagation exponent equation between the shearing wave, Vs., and hardness, N values without any need for borehole data. Due to the fast and accurate results that can be obtained, the SSPT has found many applications such as in the field rectification buried pipe line, the acid tank settlement and foundation design analyses, and the quality control assessment. Many geotechnical regimes and properties have attempted to correlate both the SSPT and the SPT-N values. Various foundation design methods have been developed based on the outcomes of these tests. Hence, it is pertinent to correlate these tests so that either one of the test can be used in the absence of the other, especially for preliminary evaluation and design purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SSPT-N and SPT-N values for different types of cohesive soil in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected from four different sites, and the correlations were established between the hardness N values, principal stress-strain Mohr circle curve, cohesion, friction angle and vertical effective stress. A positive exponent relationship was found between the shearing wave, sVs., and the hardness N values of the soil. In general, the SSPT-N value was slightly lower than the SPT-N value due to the upper limit boundary of the soil layer.

Keywords: InsituSoil determination; shearing wave; hardness; correlation, SSPT-N, SPT-N

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586 Research of Seepage Field and Slope Stability Considering Heterogeneous Characteristics of Waste Piles: A Less Costly Way to Reduce High Leachate Levels and Avoid Accidents

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong, Gan Lei, Xu Liqun


Due to the characteristics of high-heap and large-volume, the complex layers of waste and the high-water level of leachate, environmental pollution, and slope instability are easily produced. It is therefore of great significance to research the heterogeneous seepage field and stability of landfills. This paper focuses on the heterogeneous characteristics of the landfill piles and analyzes the seepage field and slope stability of the landfill using statistical and numerical analysis methods. The calculated results are compared with the field measurement and literature research data to verify the reliability of the model, which may provide the basis for the design, safe, and eco-friendly operation of the landfill. The main innovations are as follows: (1) The saturated-unsaturated seepage equation of heterogeneous soil is derived theoretically. The heterogeneous landfill is regarded as composed of infinite layers of homogeneous waste, and a method for establishing the heterogeneous seepage model is proposed. Then the formation law of the stagnant water level of heterogeneous landfills is studied. It is found that the maximum stagnant water level of landfills is higher when considering the heterogeneous seepage characteristics, which harms the stability of landfills. (2) Considering the heterogeneity weight and strength characteristics of waste, a method of establishing a heterogeneous stability model is proposed, and it is extended to the three-dimensional stability study. It is found that the distribution of heterogeneous characteristics has a great influence on the stability of landfill slope. During the operation and management of the landfill, the reservoir bank should also be considered while considering the capacity of the landfill.

Keywords: heterogeneous characteristics, leachate levels, saturated-unsaturated seepage, seepage field, slope stability

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585 Q Slope Rock Mass Classification and Slope Stability Assessment Methodology Application in Steep Interbedded Sedimentary Rock Slopes for a Motorway Constructed North of Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Azariah Sosa, Carlos Renedo Sanchez


The development of a new motorway north of Auckland (New Zealand) includes steep rock cuts, from 63 up to 85 degrees, in an interbedded sandstone and siltstone rock mass of the geological unit Waitemata Group (Pakiri Formation), which shows sub-horizontal bedding planes, various sub-vertical joint sets, and a diverse weathering profile. In this kind of rock mass -that can be classified as a weak rock- the definition of the stable maximum geometry is not only governed by discontinuities and defects evident in the rock but is important to also consider the global stability of the rock slope, including (in the analysis) the rock mass characterisation, influence of the groundwater, the geological evolution, and the weathering processes. Depending on the weakness of the rock and the processes suffered, the global stability could, in fact, be a more restricting element than the potential instability of individual blocks through discontinuities. This paper discusses those elements that govern the stability of the rock slopes constructed in a rock formation with favourable bedding and distribution of discontinuities (horizontal and vertical) but with a weak behaviour in terms of global rock mass characterisation. In this context, classifications as Q-Slope and slope stability assessment methodology (SSAM) have been demonstrated as important tools which complement the assessment of the global stability together with the analytical tools related to the wedge-type failures and limit equilibrium methods. The paper focuses on the applicability of these two new empirical classifications to evaluate the slope stability in 18 already excavated rock slopes in the Pakiri formation through comparison between the predicted and observed stability issues and by reviewing the outcome of analytical methods (Rocscience slope stability software suite) compared against the expected stability determined from these rock classifications. This exercise will help validate such findings and correlations arising from the two empirical methods in order to adjust the methods to the nature of this specific kind of rock mass and provide a better understanding of the long-term stability of the slopes studied.

Keywords: Pakiri formation, Q-slope, rock slope stability, SSAM, weak rock

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584 Constitutive Model for Analysis of Long-Term Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Settlement

Authors: Irena Basaric Ikodinovic, Dragoslav Rakic, Mirjana Vukicevic, Sanja Jockovic, Jovana Jankovic Pantic


Large long-term settlement occurs at the municipal solid waste landfills over an extended period of time which may lead to breakage of the geomembrane, damage of the cover systems, other protective systems or facilities constructed on top of a landfill. Also, municipal solid waste is an extremely heterogeneous material and its properties vary over location and time within a landfill. These material characteristics require the formulation of a new constitutive model to predict the long-term settlement of municipal solid waste. The paper presents a new constitutive model which is formulated to describe the mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste. Model is based on Modified Cam Clay model and the critical state soil mechanics framework incorporating time-dependent components: mechanical creep and biodegradation of municipal solid waste. The formulated constitutive model is optimized and defined with eight input parameters: five Modified Cam Clay parameters, one parameter for mechanical creep and two parameters for biodegradation of municipal solid waste. Thereafter, the constitutive model is implemented in the software suite for finite element analysis (ABAQUS) and numerical analysis of the experimental landfill settlement is performed. The proposed model predicts the total settlement which is in good agreement with field measured settlement at the experimental landfill.

Keywords: constitutive model, finite element analysis, municipal solid waste, settlement

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583 Stability of a Natural Weak Rock Slope under Rapid Water Drawdowns: Interaction between Guadalfeo Viaduct and Rules Reservoir, Granada, Spain

Authors: Sonia Bautista Carrascosa, Carlos Renedo Sanchez


The effect of a rapid drawdown is a classical scenario to be considered in slope stability under submerged conditions. This situation arises when totally or partially submerged slopes experience a descent of the external water level and is a typical verification to be done in a dam engineering discipline, as reservoir water levels commonly fluctuate noticeably during seasons and due to operational reasons. Although the scenario is well known and predictable in general, site conditions can increase the complexity of its assessment and external factors are not always expected, can cause a reduction in the stability or even a failure in a slope under a rapid drawdown situation. The present paper describes and discusses the interaction between two different infrastructures, a dam and a highway, and the impact on the stability of a natural rock slope overlaid by the north abutment of a viaduct of the A-44 Highway due to the rapid drawdown of the Rules Dam, in the province of Granada (south of Spain). In the year 2011, with both infrastructures, the A-44 Highway and the Rules Dam already constructed, delivered and under operation, some movements start to be recorded in the approximation embankment and north abutment of the Guadalfeo Viaduct, included in the highway and developed to solve the crossing above the tail of the reservoir. The embankment and abutment were founded in a low-angle natural rock slope formed by grey graphic phyllites, distinctly weathered and intensely fractured, with pre-existing fault and weak planes. After the first filling of the reservoir, to a relative level of 243m, three consecutive drawdowns were recorded in the autumns 2010, 2011 and 2012, to relative levels of 234m, 232m and 225m. To understand the effect of these drawdowns in the weak rock mass strength and in its stability, a new geological model was developed, after reviewing all the available ground investigations, updating the geological mapping of the area and supplemented with an additional geotechnical and geophysical investigations survey. Together with all this information, rainfall and reservoir level evolution data have been reviewed in detail to incorporate into the monitoring interpretation. The analysis of the monitoring data and the new geological and geotechnical interpretation, supported by the use of limit equilibrium software Slide2, concludes that the movement follows the same direction as the schistosity of the phyllitic rock mass, coincident as well with the direction of the natural slope, indicating a deep-seated movement of the whole slope towards the reservoir. As part of these conclusions, the solutions considered to reinstate the highway infrastructure to the required FoS will be described, and the geomechanical characterization of these weak rocks discussed, together with the influence of water level variations, not only in the water pressure regime but in its geotechnical behavior, by the modification of the strength parameters and deformability.

Keywords: monitoring, rock slope stability, water drawdown, weak rock

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582 Compaction of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Jovana Jankovic Pantic, Dragoslav Rakic, Tina Djuric, Irena Basaric Ikodinovic, Snezana Bogdanovic


Regardless of the numerous activities undertaken to reduce municipal solid waste, its annual volumes continue to grow. In Serbia, the most common and the only one form of waste disposal is at municipal landfills with daily compaction and soil covering. Municipal waste compacting is one of the basic components of the disposal process. Well compacted waste takes up less volume and allows much safer storage. In order to better predict the behavior of municipal waste at landfills, it is necessary to define compaction parameters: the maximum dry unit weight and optimal moisture content. In current geotechnical practice, the most common method of determination compaction parameters is by the standard method (Proctor compaction test) used in soil mechanics, with an eventual reduction of compaction energy. Although this methodology is accepted in newer geotechnical scientific discipline "waste mechanics", different treatments of municipal waste at the landfill itself (including pretreatment), indicate the need to change this classical approach. The main reason for that is the simulation of the operation of compactors (hedgehogs) at the landfill. Therefore, during the research, various innovative solutions are introduced, such as changing the classic flat Proctor hammer, by adding spikes, whose function is, in addition to compaction, destruction and shredding of municipal waste. The paper presents the behavior of municipal waste for four synthetic waste samples with different waste compositions (Plandište landfill). The samples were tested in standard Proctor apparatus at the same compaction energy, but with two different hammers: standard flat hammer and hammer with spikes.

Keywords: compaction, hammer with spikes, landfill, municipal solid waste, proctor compaction test

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581 A Community Solution to Address Extensive Nitrate Contamination in the Lower Yakima Valley Aquifer

Authors: Melanie Redding


Historic widespread nitrate contamination of the Lower Yakima Valley aquifer in Washington State initiated a community-based effort to reduce nitrate concentrations to below-drinking water standards. This group commissioned studies on characterizing local nitrogen sources, deep soil assessments, drinking water, and assessing nitrate concentrations at the water table. Nitrate is the most prevalent groundwater contaminant with common sources from animal and human waste, fertilizers, plants and precipitation. It is challenging to address groundwater contamination when common sources, such as agriculture, on-site sewage systems, and animal production, are widespread. Remediation is not possible, so mitigation is essential. The Lower Yakima Valley is located over 175,000 acres, with a population of 56,000 residents. Approximately 25% of the population do not have access to safe, clean drinking water, and 20% of the population is at or below the poverty level. Agriculture is the primary economic land-use activity. Irrigated agriculture and livestock production make up the largest percentage of acreage and nitrogen load. Commodities include apples, grapes, hops, dairy, silage corn, triticale, alfalfa and cherries. These commodities are important to the economic viability of the residents of the Lower Yakima Valley, as well as Washington State. Mitigation of nitrate in groundwater is challenging. The goal is to ensure everyone has safe drinking water. There are no easy remedies due to the extensive and pervasiveness of the contamination. Monitoring at the water table indicates that 45% of the 30 spatially distributed monitoring wells exceeded the drinking water standard. This indicates that there are multiple sources that are impacting water quality. Washington State has several areas which have extensive groundwater nitrate contamination. The groundwater in these areas continues to degrade over time. However, the Lower Yakima Valley is being successful in addressing this health issue because of the following reasons: the community is engaged and committed; there is one common goal; there has been extensive public education and outreach to citizens; and generating credible data using sound scientific methods. Work in this area is continuing as an ambient groundwater monitoring network is established to assess the condition of the aquifer over time. Nitrate samples are being collected from 170 wells, spatially distributed across the aquifer. This research entails quarterly sampling for two years to characterize seasonal variability and then continue annually afterward. This assessment will provide the data to statistically determine trends in nitrate concentrations across the aquifer, over time. Thirty-three of these wells are monitoring wells that are screened across the aquifer. The water quality from these wells are indicative of activities at the land surface. Additional work is being conducted to identify land use management practices that are effective in limiting nitrate migration through the soil column. Tracking nitrate in the soil column every season is an important component of bridging land-use practices with the fate and transport of nitrate through the subsurface. Patience, tenacity, and the ability to think outside the box are essential for dealing with widespread nitrate contamination of groundwater.

Keywords: community, groundwater, monitoring, nitrate

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