Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2560

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Chemical and Molecular Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2560 Copper Complexe Derivative of Chalcone: Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Properties and XRD/Hirschfeld Surface

Authors: Salima Tabti, Amel Djedouani., Djouhra Aggoun, Ismail Warad


The reaction of copper (II) with 4-hydroxy-3-[(2E)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-enoyl]-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (HL) lead to a distinct complexe: Cu(L)₂(DMF)₂. The crystal structure of the Cu(L)₂(DMF)₂ complex has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The Cu(II) lying on an inversion centre is coordinated to six oxygen atoms forming an octahedral elongated. Additionally, the electrochemical behavior of the metal complexe was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode (GC) in CH₃CN solution, showing the quasi-reversible redox process ascribed to the reduction of the Mᴵᴵ/M ᴵ couple. The X-ray single crystal structure data of the complex was matched excellently with the optimized monomer structure of the desired compound; Hirschfeld surface analysis supported the packed crystal lattice 3D network intermolecular forces.

Keywords: chalcones, cyclic voltametry, X-ray, Hirschfeld surface

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2559 Elaboration of Sustainable Luminescence Material Based on Rare Earth Complexes for Solar Energy Conversion

Authors: Othmane Essahili, Mohamed Ilsouk, Carine Duhayon, Omar Moudam


Due to their excellent and promising properties, a great deal of attention has recently been devoted to luminescent materials, particularly those utilizing rare earth elements. These materials play an essential role in low-cost energy conversion technology applications, such as luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). They also have potential applications in Agri-PV systems and smart building windows. Luminescent materials based on europium (III) complexes are known for their high luminescence efficiency, long fluorescence lifetimes, and sharp emission bands. However, they present certain drawbacks related to their limited absorption capacity due to the forbidden 4f-4f electronic transitions. To address these drawbacks, using β-diketonate ligands as sensitizers appears as a promising solution to enhance luminescence intensity through the antenna effect, where the ligand's excited energy is transferred to the europium ions. In this study, we synthesized β-diketonate-based europium complexes with phenanthroline derivatives, modified with various methyl groups, to examine their effects on the complexes' stability in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films. Our findings reveal that these complexes exhibit remarkable red emission and high photoluminescence quantum yield. Stability tests under different conditions for 1200 hours showed that complexes with a higher number of methyl substitutions offer improved photoluminescent stability and resistance to degradation, particularly in outdoor settings. This research underscores the potential of chemically tuned phenanthroline ligands in developing stable, efficient luminescent materials for future optoelectronic devices, including efficient and durable LSCs.

Keywords: luminescent materials, photochemistry, luminescent solar concentrators, β-diketonate-based europium complexes

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2558 Assessing the Material Determinants of Cavity Polariton Relaxation using Angle-Resolved Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy

Authors: Elizabeth O. Odewale, Sachithra T. Wanasinghe, Aaron S. Rury


Cavity polaritons form when molecular excitons strongly couple to photons in carefully constructed optical cavities. These polaritons, which are hybrid light-matter states possessing a unique combination of photonic and excitonic properties, present the opportunity to manipulate the properties of various semiconductor materials. The systematic manipulation of materials through polariton formation could potentially improve the functionalities of many optoelectronic devices such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, photon-based quantum computers, and solar cells. However, the prospects of leveraging polariton formation for novel devices and device operation depend on more complete connections between the properties of molecular chromophores, and the hybrid light-matter states they form, which remains an outstanding scientific goal. Specifically, for most optoelectronic applications, it is paramount to understand how polariton formation affects the spectra of light absorbed by molecules coupled strongly to cavity photons. An essential feature of a polariton state is its dispersive energy, which occurs due to the enhanced spatial delocalization of the polaritons relative to bare molecules. To leverage the spatial delocalization of cavity polaritons, angle-resolved photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy was employed in characterizing light emission from the polaritonic states. Using lasers of appropriate energies, the polariton branches were resonantly excited to understand how molecular light absorption changes under different strong light-matter coupling conditions. Since an excited state has a finite lifetime, the photon absorbed by the polariton decays non-radiatively into lower-lying molecular states, from which radiative relaxation to the ground state occurs. The resulting fluorescence is collected across several angles of excitation incidence. By modeling the behavior of the light emission observed from the lower-lying molecular state and combining this result with the output of angle-resolved transmission measurements, inferences are drawn about how the behavior of molecules changes when they form polaritons. These results show how the intrinsic properties of molecules, such as the excitonic lifetime, affect the rate at which the polaritonic states relax. While it is true that the lifetime of the photon mediates the rate of relaxation in a cavity, the results from this study provide evidence that the lifetime of the molecular exciton also limits the rate of polariton relaxation.

Keywords: flourescece, molecules in cavityies, optical cavity, photoluminescence excitation, spectroscopy, strong coupling

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2557 A Project in the Framework “Nextgenerationeu”: Sustainable Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution - SERGIO

Authors: Patrizia Frontera, Anastasia Macario, Simona Crispi, Angela Malara, Pierantonio De Luca, Stefano Trocino


The exploration of solar energy for the photoelectrochemical splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen has been extensively researched as a means of generating sustainable H₂ fuel. However, despite these efforts, commercialization of this technology has not yet materialized. Presently, the primary impediments to commercialization include low solar-to-hydrogen efficiency (2-3% in PEC with an active area of up to 10-15 cm²), the utilization of costly and critical raw materials (e.g., BiVO₄), and energy losses during the separation of H₂ from O₂ and H₂O vapours in the output stream. The SERGIO partners have identified an advanced approach to fabricate photoelectrode materials, coupled with an appropriate scientific direction to achieve cost-effective solar-driven H₂ production in a tandem photoelectrochemical cell. This project is designed to reach Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 4 by validating the technology in the laboratory using a cell with an active area of up to 10 cm², boasting a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 5%, and ensuring acceptable hydrogen purity (99.99%). Our objectives include breakthroughs in cost efficiency, conversion efficiency, and H₂ purity.

Keywords: photoelectrolysis, green hydrogen, photoelectrochemical cell, semiconductors

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2556 Carbon Nanofibers as the Favorite Conducting Additive for Mn₃O₄ Catalysts for Oxygen Reactions in Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery

Authors: Augustus K. Lebechi, Kenneth I. Ozoemena


Rechargeable zinc-air batteries (RZABs) have been described as one of the most viable next-generation ‘beyond-the-lithium-ion’ battery technologies with great potential for renewable energy storage. It is safe, with a high specific energy density (1086 Wh/kg), environmentally benign, and low-cost, especially in resource-limited African countries. For widespread commercialization, the sluggish oxygen reaction kinetics pose a major challenge that impedes the reversibility of the system. Hence, there is a need for low-cost and highly active bifunctional electrocatalysts. Manganese oxide catalysts on carbon conducting additives remain the best couple for the realization of such low-cost RZABs. In this work, hausmannite Mn₃O₄ nanoparticles were synthesized through the annealing method from commercial electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized via the electrospinning process with subsequent carbonization. Both Mn₃O₄ catalysts and the carbon conducting additives (MWCNT and CNF) were thoroughly characterized using X-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Composite electrocatalysts (Mn₃O₄/CNT and Mn₃O₄/CNF) were investigated for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline medium. Using the established electrocatalytic modalities for evaluating the electrocatalytic performance of materials (including double layer, electrochemical active surface area, roughness factor, specific current density, and catalytic stability), CNFs proved to be the most efficient conducting additive material for the Mn₃O₄ catalyst. From the DFT calculations, the higher performance of the CNFs over the MWCNTs is related to the ability of the CNFs to allow for a more favorable distribution of the d-electrons of the manganese (Mn) and enhanced synergistic effect with Mn₃O₄ for weaker adsorption energies of the oxygen intermediates (O*, OH* and OOH*). In a proof-of-concept, Mn₃O₄/CNF was investigated as the air cathode for rechargeable zinc-air battery (RZAB) in a micro-3D-printed cell configuration. The RZAB showed good performance in terms of open circuit voltage (1.77 V), maximum power density (177.5 mW cm-2), areal-discharge energy and cycling stability comparable to Pt/C (20 wt%) + IrO2. The findings here provide fresh physicochemical perspectives on the future design and utility of CNFs for developing manganese-based RZABs.

Keywords: bifunctional electrocatalyst, oxygen evolution reaction, oxygen reduction reactions, rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

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2555 An Approach for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide via Polymerized Ionic Liquids

Authors: Ghassan Mohammad Alalawi, Abobakr Khidir Ziyada, Abdulmajeed Khan


A potential alternative or next-generation CO₂-selective separation medium that has lately been suggested is ionic liquids (ILs). It is more facile to "tune" the solubility and selectivity of CO₂ in ILs compared to organic solvents via modification of the cation and/or anion structures. Compared to ionic liquids at ambient temperature, polymerized ionic liquids exhibited increased CO₂ sorption capacities and accelerated sorption/desorption rates. This research aims to investigate the correlation between the CO₂ sorption rate and capacity of poly ionic liquids (pILs) and the chemical structure of these substances. The dependency of sorption on the ion conductivity of the pILs' cations and anions is one of the theories we offered to explain the attraction between CO₂ and pILs. This assumption was supported by the Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulations results, which demonstrated that CO₂ molecules are localized around both cations and anions and that their sorption depends on the cations' and anions' ion conductivities. Polymerized ionic liquids are synthesized to investigate the impact of substituent alkyl chain length, cation, and anion on CO₂ sorption rate and capacity. Three stages are involved in synthesizing the pILs under study: first, trialkyl amine and vinyl benzyl chloride are directly quaternized to obtain the required cation. Next, anion exchange is performed, and finally, the obtained IL is polymerized to form the desired product (pILs). The synthesized pILs' structures were confirmed using elemental analysis and NMR. The synthesized pILs are characterized by examining their structure topology, chloride content, density, and thermal stability using SEM, ion chromatography (using a Metrohm Model 761 Compact IC apparatus), ultrapycnometer, and TGA. As determined by the CO₂ sorption results using a magnetic suspension balance (MSB) apparatus, the sorption capacity of pILs is dependent on the cation and anion ion conductivities. The anion's size also influences the CO₂ sorption rate and capacity. It was discovered that adding water to pILs caused a dramatic, systematic enlargement of pILs resulting in a significant increase in their capacity to absorb CO₂ under identical conditions, contingent on the type of gas, gas flow, applied gas pressure, and water content of the pILs. Along with its capacity to increase surface area through expansion, water also possesses highly high ion conductivity for cations and anions, enhancing its ability to absorb CO₂.

Keywords: polymerized ionic liquids, carbon dioxide, swelling, characterization

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2554 Effect of Electropolymerization Method in the Charge Transfer Properties and Photoactivity of Polyaniline Photoelectrodes

Authors: Alberto Enrique Molina Lozano, María Teresa Cortés Montañez


Polyaniline (PANI) photoelectrodes were electrochemically synthesized through electrodeposition employing three techniques: chronoamperometry (CA), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and potential pulse (PP) methods. The substrate used for electrodeposition was a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with dimensions of 2.5 cm x 1.3 cm. Subsequently, structural and optical characterization was conducted utilizing Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, respectively. The FTIR analysis revealed variations in the molar ratio of benzenoid to quinonoid rings within the PANI polymer matrix, indicative of differing oxidation states arising from the distinct electropolymerization methodologies employed. In the optical characterization, differences in the energy band gap (Eg) values and positions of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were observed, attributable to variations in doping levels and structural irregularities introduced during the electropolymerization procedures. To assess the charge transfer properties of the PANI photoelectrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments were carried out within a 0.1 M sodium sulfate (Na₂SO₄) electrolyte. The results displayed a substantial decrease in charge transfer resistance with the PANI coatings compared to uncoated substrates, with PANI obtained through cyclic voltammetry (CV) presenting the lowest charge transfer resistance, contrasting PANI obtained via chronoamperometry (CA) and potential pulses (PP). Subsequently, the photoactive response of the PANI photoelectrodes was measured through linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry. The photoelectrochemical measurements revealed a discernible photoactivity in all PANI-coated electrodes. However, PANI electropolymerized through CV displayed the highest photocurrent. Interestingly, PANI derived from chronoamperometry (CA) exhibited the highest degree of stable photocurrent over an extended temporal interval.

Keywords: PANI, photocurrent, photoresponse, charge separation, recombination

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2553 Intelligent Chemistry Approach to Improvement of Oxygenates Analytical Method in Light Hydrocarbon by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography - FID and MS

Authors: Ahmed Aboforn


Butene-1 product is consider effectively raw material in Polyethylene production, however Oxygenates impurities existing will be effected ethylene/butene-1 copolymers synthesized through titanium-magnesium-supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Laterally, Petrochemical industries are challenge against poor quality of Butene-1 and other C4 mix – feedstock that reflected on business impact and production losing. In addition, propylene product suffering from contamination by oxygenates components and causing for lose production and plant upset of Polypropylene process plants. However, Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) innovative analytical methodology is a chromatography technique used to separate complex samples, as mixing different functional group as Hydrocarbon and oxygenates compounds and have similar retention factors, by running the eluent through two or more columns instead of the customary single column. This analytical study striving to enhance the quality of Oxygenates analytical method, as monitoring the concentration of oxygenates with accurate and precise analytical method by utilizing multidimensional GC supported by Backflush technique and Flame Ionization Detector, which have high performance separation of hydrocarbon and Oxygenates; also improving the minimum detection limits (MDL) to detect the concentration <1.0 ppm. However different types of oxygenates as (Alcohols, Aldehyde, Ketones, Ester and Ether) may be determined in other Hydrocarbon streams asC3, C4-mix, until C12 mixture, supported by liquid injection auto-sampler.

Keywords: analytical chemistry, gas chromatography, petrochemicals, oxygenates

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2552 Comprehensive Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) for Quantitative Assessment of Caffeic Acid in Phenolic Extracts from Olive Mill Wastewater

Authors: Layla El Gaini, Majdouline Belaqziz, Meriem Outaki, Mariam Minhaj


In this study, it introduce and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) specifically designed for the accurate quantification of caffeic acid in phenolic extracts obtained from olive mill wastewater. The separation process of caffeic acid was effectively achieved through the use of an Acclaim Polar Advantage column (5µm, 250x4.6mm). A meticulous multi-step gradient mobile phase was employed, comprising water acidified with phosphoric acid (pH 2.3) and acetonitrile, to ensure optimal separation. The diode-array detection was adeptly conducted within the UV–VIS spectrum, spanning a range of 200–800 nm, which facilitated precise analytical results. The method underwent comprehensive validation, addressing several essential analytical parameters, including specificity, repeatability, linearity, as well as the limits of detection and quantification, alongside measurement uncertainty. The generated linear standard curves displayed high correlation coefficients, underscoring the method's efficacy and consistency. This validated approach is not only robust but also demonstrates exceptional reliability for the focused analysis of caffeic acid within the intricate matrices of wastewater, thus offering significant potential for applications in environmental and analytical chemistry.

Keywords: high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD), caffeic acid analysis, olive mill wastewater phenolics, analytical method validation

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2551 Inclusion Complexes of Some Imidazoline Drugs with Cucurbit[N]Uril (N=7,8): Preparation, Characterization and Theoretical Calculations

Authors: Fakhreldin O. Suliman, Alia H. Al-Battashi


This work explored the interaction of three different imidazoline drugs, naphazoline nitrate (NPH), oxymetazoline hydrochloride (OXY) and xylometazoline hydrochloride (XYL) with two different synthesized cucurbit[n]urils CB[n], cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and cucuribit[8]uril (CB[8]). Three binary inclusion complexes have been investigated in solution and in the solid state. The solid complexes were obtained by lyophilization, whereas the physical mixtures of guests and hosts at a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 were obtained for each drug. 1HNMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to study the complexes prepared in aqueous media. The lyophilized solid complexes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). MS, FT-IR and PXRD experimental results established in this work reveal that NPH, OXY and XYL molecules form stable inclusion complexes with the two hosts. The TGA and DSC confirmed the enhancement of the thermal stability of each drug and the production of a thermally stable solid complex. The 1HNMR has shown that the protons of the guests faced shifting in ppm and broadening of their peaks upon the formation of inclusion complexes with the selected CB[n]. The aromatic protons of the guest exhibited the highest changes in the chemical shifts and shape of the NMR peaks, suggesting their inclusion into the cavity of the CB[n]. The diffusion coefficients (D), developed from the diffusion-controlled NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) measurements, for the complexation of the selected imidazoline drugs with CB[7] and CB[8], were decreased in the presence of hosts compared to the free guests indicating the formation of the guest-host adduct. Furthermore, we conducted molecular dynamic simulations and quantum mechanics calculations on these complexes. The results of the theoretical study corroborate the experimental findings and have also shed light on the mechanism of inclusion of the guests into the two hosts. This study generates initial data for potential drug delivery or drug formulation systems for these three selected imidazoline drug compounds based on their inclusion into the CB[n] cavities.

Keywords: cucurbit[n]urils, imidazoline, inclusion complexes, molecular dynamics, DFT calculations, mass spectrometry

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2550 MIL-88b(Fe)-MOF Grafted Carbon Dot Nanocomposites as Effective Photocatalysts for Fenton-Like Photodegradation of Amphotericin B and Naproxen Under Visible Light Irradiation

Authors: Payam Hayati, Fateme Firoozbakht, Gholamhassan Azimi, Shahram Tangestaninejad


The synthesis of a photocatalytic adsorbent involved the integration of carbon dots (CD) into a metal-organic framework (MOF) of MIL-88B(Fe) using the solvothermal technique. Characterization of the resulting CD@MIL-88B(Fe) was conducted using various analytical methods, including X-ray-based microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV–Vis, FT-IR, DRS, TGA, and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The adsorbent demonstrated significant photocatalytic activity, achieving up to 92% and 90% removal of amphotericin B (AmB) and naproxen (Nap) from aqueous solutions under visible light, with an RSD value of around 5%. The study explored the factors influencing the degradation of pharmaceuticals and determined the optimal conditions for the process, including pH values of 3 and 4 for AmB and Nap, a photocatalyst concentration of 0.2 g L-1, and an H2O2 concentration ranging from 40 to 50 mM. Reactive oxidative species such as ⋅OH and ⋅O2 were identified through the examination of different scavengers. Additionally, the adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies revealed that the synthesized photocatalyst functions as an effective adsorbent, with maximum adsorption capacities of 42.5 and 121.5 mg g-1 for AmB and Nap, while also serving as a photocatalytic agent for removal purposes.

Keywords: fenton-like degradation, metal-organic frameworks, heterogenous photocatalysts, naproxen

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2549 Insights Into Serotonin-Receptor Binding and Stability via Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Key Residues for Electrostatic Interactions and Signal Transduction

Authors: Arunima Verma, Padmabati Mondal


Serotonin-receptor binding plays a key role in several neurological and biological processes, including mood, sleep, hunger, cognition, learning, and memory. In this article, we performed molecular dynamics simulation to examine the key residues that play an essential role in the binding of serotonin to the G-protein-coupled 5-HT₁ᴮ receptor (5-HT₁ᴮ R) via electrostatic interactions. An end-point free energy calculation method (MM-PBSA) determines the stability of the 5-HT1B R due to serotonin binding. The single-point mutation of the polar or charged amino acid residues (Asp129, Thr134) on the binding sites and the calculation of binding free energy validate the importance of these residues in the stability of the serotonin-receptor complex. Principal component analysis indicates the serotonin-bound 5-HT1BR is more stabilized than the apo-receptor in terms of dynamical changes. The difference dynamic cross-correlations map shows the correlation between the transmembrane and mini-Go, which indicates signal transduction happening between mini-Go and the receptor. Allosteric communication reveals the key nodes for signal transduction in 5-HT1BR. These results provide useful insights into the signal transduction pathways and mutagenesis study to regulate the functionality of the complex. The developed protocols can be applied to study local non-covalent interactions and long-range allosteric communications in any protein-ligand system for computer-aided drug design.

Keywords: allostery, CADD, MD simulations, MM-PBSA

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2548 La₀.₈Ba₀.₂FeO₃ Perovskite as an Additive in the Three-Way Catalyst (TWCs) for Reduction of PGMs Loading

Authors: Mahshid Davoodpoor, Zahra Shamohammadi Ghahsareh, Saeid Razfar, Alaleh Dabbaghi


Nowadays, air pollution has become a topic of great concern all over the world. One of the main sources of air pollution is automobile exhaust gas, which introduces a large number of toxic gases, including CO, unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), NOx, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), into the air. The application of three-way catalysts (TWCs) is still the most effective strategy to mitigate the emission of these pollutants. Due to the stringent environmental regulations which continuously become stricter, studies on the TWCs are ongoing despite several years of research and development. This arises from the washcoat complexity and the several numbers of parameters involved in the redox reactions. The main objectives of these studies are the optimization of washcoat formulation and the investigation of different coating modes. Perovskite (ABO₃), as a promising class of materials, has unique features that make it versatile to use as an alternative to commonly mixed oxides in washcoats. High catalytic activity for oxidation reactions and its relatively high oxygen storage capacity are important properties of perovskites in catalytic applications. Herein, La₀.₈Ba₀.₂FeO₃ perovskite material was synthesized using the co-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, ICP, and BET analysis. The effect of synthesis conditions, including B site metal (Fe and Co), metal precursor concentration, and dopant (Ba), were examined on the phase purity of the products. The selected perovskite sample was used as one of the components in the TWC formulation to evaluate its catalytic performance through Light-off, oxygen storage capacity, and emission analysis. Results showed a remarkable increment in oxygen storage capacity and also revealed that T50 and emission of CO, HC, and NOx reduced in the presence of perovskite structure which approves the enhancement of catalytic performance for the new washcoat formulation. This study shows the brilliant future of advanced oxide structures in the TWCs.

Keywords: Perovskite, three-way catalyst, PGMs, PGMs reduction

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2547 Nutritional Importance and Functional Properties of Baobab Leaves

Authors: Khadijat Ayanpeju Abdulsalam, Bolanle Mary Olawoye, Paul Babatunde Ayoola


The potential of Baobab leaves is understudied and not yet fully documented. The purpose of this work is to highlight the important nutritional value and practical qualities of baobab leaves. In this research, proximate analysis was studied to determine the macronutrient quantitative analysis in baobab leaves. Studies were also conducted on other characteristics, such as moisture content, which is significant to the food business since it affects food quality, preservation, and resistance to deterioration. Dietary fiber, which was also studied, has important health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels by lowering low-density lipoprotein or "bad" cholesterol. It functions as an anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agent, lowering the likelihood of haemorrhoids developing. Additionally, increasing face bulk and short-chain fatty acid synthesis improves gastrointestinal health and overall wellness. Baobab leaves had a moisture content of 6.4%, fat of 16.1%, ash of 3.2%, protein of 18.7%, carbohydrate 57.2% and crude fiber of 4.1%. The minerals determined in the sample of baobab leaves are Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, P, and Zn with Potassium (347.6±0.70) as the most abundant mineral while Zn (9.31±0.60) is the least abundant. The functional properties studied include pH, gelation temperature, bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foaming property, emulsifying property, and stability and swelling capacity, which are 8.72, 29, 0.39, 138, 98.20, 0.80, 72.80, and 73.50 respectively. The Fourier Transform InfraRed absorption spectra show bands like C=O, C-Cl and N-H. Baobab leaves are edible, nutritious, and non-toxic, as the mineral contents are within the required range.

Keywords: dietary fibre, proximate analysis, macronutrients, minerals, baobab leaves, frequency range

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2546 Iron and/or Titanium Containing Microporous Silico-Alumino-Phosphates as a Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production by Water Splitting

Authors: I. Ben Kaddour, S. Larbaoui


Since their first synthesis, the Silicoaluminophosphates materials have proved their efficiency as a good adsorbent and catalyst in several environmental and energetic applications. In this work, the photocatalytic hydrogen production from water splitting reactions has been conducted under visible radiations in the presence of a series of iron and/or titanium-containing microporous silico-alumino-phosphates materials synthesized by hydrothermal method, using triethylamine as an organic structuring agent to obtain the AFI structure type. These photo-catalysts were then characterized by various physicochemical methods to determine their structural, textural and morphological properties such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X rays microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption measurements, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS), and X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the analysis revealed that these materials have significant photocatalytic properties. The hydrogen production process has been followed by photoelectrochemical characterization (PEC). The results showed that hydrogen is the only gas produced, and the reaction takes place in the conduction band where water is reduced to hydrogen. The electron recombination has also been avoided, as holes are entrapped using hole scavengers. In addition, these catalysts have been shown to remain stable during reuse for up to five cycles.

Keywords: photocatalysis, SAPO-5, hydrothermal synthesis, hydrogen production

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2545 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Metalloporphyrins: Role of Central Metal Ion

Authors: Belete B. Beyene, Ayenew M. Mihirteu, Misganaw T. Ayana, Amogne W. Yibeltal


Modification of synthetic porphyrins is one of the promising strategies in an attempt to get molecules with desired properties and applications. Here in, we report synthesis, photophysical characterization and antibacterial activity of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis-(4- methoxy carbonyl phenyl) porphyrin M(II); where M = Co, Fe, Ni, Zn. Metallation of the ligand was confirmed by using UV–Vis spectroscopy and ESI-Ms measurement, in which the number of Q bands in absorption spectra of the ligand decreased from four to one or two as a result of metal insertion to the porphyrin core. The antibacterial activity study of the complexes toward two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (s. pyogenes)) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae)) bacteria by disc diffusion method showed a promising inhibitory activity. The complexes exhibited highest activities at highest concentration and were better than the activity of free base ligand, the salts, and blank solution. This could be explained on the basis of Overton's concept of cell permeability and Tweed's Chelation theory. An increased lipo-solubility enhances the penetration of the complexes into the lipid membrane and interferes with the normal activities of the bacteria. Our study, therefore, showed that the growth inhibitory effect of these metalloporphyrins is generally in order of ZnTPPCOOMe > NiTPPCOOMe > CoTPPCOOMe> FeTPPCOOMe, which may be attributed to the better lipophilicity and binding of the complex with the cellular components.

Keywords: porphyrins, metalloporphyrins, spectral property, antibacterial activity, synthesis

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2544 Explanation of the Electron Transfer Mechanism from β-Carotene to N-Pentyl Peroxyl Radical by Density Functional Theory Method

Authors: E. Esra Kasapbaşı, Büşra Yıldırım


Weak oxidizing radicals, such as alkyl peroxyl derivatives, react with carotenoids through hydrogen atom transfer to form neutral carotenoid radicals. Using the DFT method, it has been observed that s-cis-β-carotene is more stable than all-transforms. In the context of this study, an attempt is made to explain the reaction mechanism of the isomers of β-carotene, which exhibits antioxidant properties, with n-pentyl peroxide, one of the alkyl peroxyl molecules, using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The cis and transforms of β-carotene are used in the study to determine which form is more reactive. For this purpose, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) charges of all optimized structures are calculated, and electron transfer is determined by examining electron transitions between Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO). Additionally, the radical character and reaction mechanism of β-carotene in a radical environment are attempted to be explained based on the calculations. The theoretical inclination of whether β-carotene in cis or transforms is more active in reaction is also discussed. All these calculations are performed in the gas phase using the Integral Equation Formalism Polarizable Continuum Model IEFPCM method with dichloromethane as the solvent.

Keywords: β-carotene, n-pentyl peroxyl radical, DFT, TD-DFT

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2543 Influence of the Coarse-Graining Method on a DEM-CFD Simulation of a Pilot-Scale Gas Fluidized Bed

Authors: Theo Ndereyimana, Yann Dufresne, Micael Boulet, Stephane Moreau


The DEM (Discrete Element Method) is used a lot in the industry to simulate large-scale flows of particles; for instance, in a fluidized bed, it allows to predict of the trajectory of every particle. One of the main limits of the DEM is the computational time. The CGM (Coarse-Graining Method) has been developed to tackle this issue. The goal is to increase the size of the particle and, by this means, decrease the number of particles. The method leads to a reduction of the collision frequency due to the reduction of the number of particles. Multiple characteristics of the particle movement and the fluid flow - when there is a coupling between DEM and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The main characteristic that is impacted is the energy dissipation of the system, to regain the dissipation, an ADM (Additional Dissipative Mechanism) can be added to the model. The objective of this current work is to observe the influence of the choice of the ADM and the factor of coarse-graining on the numerical results. These results will be compared with experimental results of a fluidized bed and with a numerical model of the same fluidized bed without using the CGM. The numerical model is one of a 3D cylindrical fluidized bed with 9.6M Geldart B-type particles in a bubbling regime.

Keywords: additive dissipative mechanism, coarse-graining, discrete element method, fluidized bed

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2542 The Effect of Online Analyzer Malfunction on the Performance of Sulfur Recovery Unit and Providing a Temporary Solution to Reduce the Emission Rate

Authors: Hamid Reza Mahdipoor, Mehdi Bahrami, Mohammad Bodaghi, Seyed Ali Akbar Mansoori


Nowadays, with stricter limitations to reduce emissions, considerable penalties are imposed if pollution limits are exceeded. Therefore, refineries, along with focusing on improving the quality of their products, are also focused on producing products with the least environmental impact. The duty of the sulfur recovery unit (SRU) is to convert H₂S gas coming from the upstream units to elemental sulfur and minimize the burning of sulfur compounds to SO₂. The Claus process is a common process for converting H₂S to sulfur, including a reaction furnace followed by catalytic reactors and sulfur condensers. In addition to a Claus section, SRUs usually consist of a tail gas treatment (TGT) section to decrease the concentration of SO₂ in the flue gas below the emission limits. To operate an SRU properly, the flow rate of combustion air to the reaction furnace must be adjusted so that the Claus reaction is performed according to stoichiometry. Accurate control of the air demand leads to an optimum recovery of sulfur during the flow and composition fluctuations in the acid gas feed. Therefore, the major control system in the SRU is the air demand control loop, which includes a feed-forward control system based on predetermined feed flow rates and a feed-back control system based on the signal from the tail gas online analyzer. The use of online analyzers requires compliance with the installation and operation instructions. Unfortunately, most of these analyzers in Iran are out of service for different reasons, like the low importance of environmental issues and a lack of access to after-sales services due to sanctions. In this paper, an SRU in Iran was simulated and calibrated using industrial experimental data. Afterward, the effect of the malfunction of the online analyzer on the performance of SRU was investigated using the calibrated simulation. The results showed that an increase in the SO₂ concentration in the tail gas led to an increase in the temperature of the reduction reactor in the TGT section. This increase in temperature caused the failure of TGT and increased the concentration of SO₂ from 750 ppm to 35,000 ppm. In addition, the lack of a control system for the adjustment of the combustion air caused further increases in SO₂ emissions. In some processes, the major variable cannot be controlled directly due to difficulty in measurement or a long delay in the sampling system. In these cases, a secondary variable, which can be measured more easily, is considered to be controlled. With the correct selection of this variable, the main variable is also controlled along with the secondary variable. This strategy for controlling a process system is referred to as inferential control" and is considered in this paper. Therefore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the sensitivity of other measurable parameters to input disturbances. The results revealed that the output temperature of the first Claus reactor could be used for inferential control of the combustion air. Applying this method to the operation led to maximizing the sulfur recovery in the Claus section.

Keywords: sulfur recovery, online analyzer, inferential control, SO₂ emission

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2541 Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Heavy Metals Pollution of Dietary Vegetables in Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Fawad Ali


Toxic heavy metal contamination has a negative impact on soil quality which ultimately pollutes the agriculture system. In the current work, we analyzed uptake of various heavy metals by dietary vegetables grown in wastewater irrigated areas of Swabi city. The samples of soil and vegetables were analyzed for heavy metals viz Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. High levels of metals were found in wastewater irrigated soil and vegetables in the study area. Especially the concentrations of Pb and Cd in the dietary vegetable crossed the permissible level of World Health Organization. Substantial positive correlation was found among the soil and vegetable contamination. Transfer factor for some metals including Cr, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cd and Cu was greater than 0.5 which shows enhanced accumulation of these metals due to contamination by domestic discharges and industrial effluents. Linear regression analysis indicated significant correlation of heavy metals viz Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in vegetables with concentration in soil of 0.964 at P≤0.001. Abelmoschus esculentus indicated Health Risk Index (HRI) of Pb >1 in adults and children. The source identification analysis carried out by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) showed that ground water and soil were being polluted by the trace metals coming out from industries and domestic wastes. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) divided metals into two clusters for wastewater and soil but into five clusters for soil of control area. PCA extracted two factors for wastewater, each contributing 61.086 % and 16.229 % of the total 77.315 % variance. PCA extracted two factors, for soil samples, having total variance of 79.912 % factor 1 and factor 2 contributed 63.889 % and 16.023 % of the total variance. PCA for sub soil extracted two factors with a total variance of 76.136 % factor 1 being 61.768 % and factor 2 being 14.368 %of the total variance. High pollution load index for vegetables in the study area due to metal polluted soil has opened a study area for proper legislation to protect further contamination of vegetables. This work would further reveal serious health risks to human population of the study area.

Keywords: health risk, vegetables, wastewater, atomic absorption sepctrophotometer

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2540 Improving the Aqueous Solubility of Taxol through Altering XLOGP3

Authors: Arianna Zhu, Thomas Bakupog


Taxol (generic name paclitaxel) is an antineoplastic drug used to treat breast, lung, and ovarian cancer. It performs exceptionally well against a wide variety of tumors, including B16 melanoma, L1210 and P388 leukemias, MX-1 mammary tumors, and CX-1 colon tumor xenografts. However, despite taxol’s efficacy in antitumor activity, its aqueous solubility is extremely poor, decreasing its bioavailability and making it difficult for the body to absorb. The objective of this study is to improve the solubility of taxol, thus increasing the bioavailability of the drug in preventing cancer. By modifying the structure of taxol, four novel taxol derivatives were created with improved solubilities. Two of the derivatives were given an additional hydrogen donor and acceptor and thus showed a pronounced positive change in solubility. The results of this work solve the issue of taxol’s inadequate solubility and show potential in increasing the absorption of the drug.

Keywords: Taxol, Solubility, improving bioavailability, logP

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2539 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Olive Leaf Extract: Application in the Colorimetric Detection of Fe+3 Ions

Authors: Nasibeh Azizi Khereshki


Olive leaf (OL) extract as a green reductant agent was utilized for the biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for the first time in this study, and then its performance was evaluated for colorimetric detection of Fe3+ in different media. Some analytical methods were used to characterize the nanosensor. The effective sensing parameters were optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) application. Then, the prepared material's applicability in antibacterial and optical chemical sensing for naked-eye detection of Fe3+ ions in aqueous solutions were evaluated. Furthermore, OL-Ag NPs-loaded paper strips were successfully applied to the colorimetric visualization of Fe3+. The colorimetric probe based on OL-AgNPs illustrated excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards Fe3+ ions, with LOD and LOQ of 0.81 μM and 2.7 μM, respectively. In addition, the developed method was applied to detect Fe3+ ions in real water samples and validated with a 95% confidence level against a reference spectroscopic method.

Keywords: Ag NPs, colorimetric detection, Fe(III) ions, green synthesis, olive leaves

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2538 Computational Characterization of Electronic Charge Transfer in Interfacial Phospholipid-Water Layers

Authors: Samira Baghbanbari, A. B. P. Lever, Payam S. Shabestari, Donald Weaver


Existing signal transmission models, although undoubtedly useful, have proven insufficient to explain the full complexity of information transfer within the central nervous system. The development of transformative models will necessitate a more comprehensive understanding of neuronal lipid membrane electrophysiology. Pursuant to this goal, the role of highly organized interfacial phospholipid-water layers emerges as a promising case study. A series of phospholipids in neural-glial gap junction interfaces as well as cholesterol molecules have been computationally modelled using high-performance density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Subsequent 'charge decomposition analysis' calculations have revealed a net transfer of charge from phospholipid orbitals through the organized interfacial water layer before ultimately finding its way to cholesterol acceptor molecules. The specific pathway of charge transfer from phospholipid via water layers towards cholesterol has been mapped in detail. Cholesterol is an essential membrane component that is overrepresented in neuronal membranes as compared to other mammalian cells; given this relative abundance, its apparent role as an electronic acceptor may prove to be a relevant factor in further signal transmission studies of the central nervous system. The timescales over which this electronic charge transfer occurs have also been evaluated by utilizing a system design that systematically increases the number of water molecules separating lipids and cholesterol. Memory loss through hydrogen-bonded networks in water can occur at femtosecond timescales, whereas existing action potential-based models are limited to micro or nanosecond scales. As such, the development of future models that attempt to explain faster timescale signal transmission in the central nervous system may benefit from our work, which provides additional information regarding fast timescale energy transfer mechanisms occurring through interfacial water. The study possesses a dataset that includes six distinct phospholipids and a collection of cholesterol. Ten optimized geometric characteristics (features) were employed to conduct binary classification through an artificial neural network (ANN), differentiating cholesterol from the various phospholipids. This stems from our understanding that all lipids within the first group function as electronic charge donors, while cholesterol serves as an electronic charge acceptor.

Keywords: charge transfer, signal transmission, phospholipids, water layers, ANN

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2537 Photo-Degradation of a Pharmaceutical Product in the Presence of a Catalyst Supported on a Silicoaluminophosphate Solid

Authors: I. Ben Kaddour, S. Larbaoui


Since their first synthesis in 1984, silicoaluminophosphates have proven their effectiveness as a good adsorbent and catalyst in several environmental and energy applications. In this work, the photocatalytic reaction of the photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical product in water was carried out in the presence of a series of materials based on titanium oxide, anatase phase, supported on the microporous framework of the SAPO4-5 at different levels, under ultraviolet light. These photo-catalysts were characterized by different physicochemical analysis methods in order to determine their structural, textural, and morphological properties, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), microscopy scanning electronics (SEM), nitrogen adsorption measurements, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS). In this study, liquid chromatography coupled with spectroscopy of mass (LC-MS) was used to determine the nature of the intermediate products formed during the photocatalytic degradation of DCF.

Keywords: photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, SAPO-5, diclofenac

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2536 Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Oxide Inverse Opals: A Tailorable Platform for Unprecedented Photocatalytic Performance

Authors: Hamsasew Hankebo Lemago, Dóra Hessz, Zoltán Erdélyi, Imre Miklós Szilágyi


Metal oxide inverse opals are a unique class of photocatalysts with a hierarchical structure that mimics the natural opal gemstone. They are composed of a network of interconnected pores, which provides a large surface area and efficient pathways for the transport of light and reactants. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a versatile technique for the synthesis of high-precision metal oxide thin films, including inverse opals. ALD allows for precise control over the thickness, composition, and morphology of the synthesized films, making it an ideal technique for the fabrication of photocatalysts with tailored properties. In this study, we report the synthesis of TiO2, ZnO, and Al2O3 inverse opal photocatalysts using thermal or plasma-enhanced ALD. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using a variety of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), ellipsometry, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results showed that the ALD-synthesized metal oxide inverse opals had a highly ordered structure and a tunable pore size. The PL spectroscopy results showed low recombination rates of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, while the ellipsometry and UV-visible spectroscopy results showed tunable optical properties and band gap energies. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the ALD-synthesized metal oxide inverse opals exhibited high photocatalytic activity, even under visible light irradiation. The composites photocatalysts showed even higher activity than the individual metal oxide inverse opals. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composites can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the different metal oxides. For example, Al2O3 can act as a charge carrier scavenger, which can reduce the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The ALD-synthesized metal oxide inverse opals and their composites are promising photocatalysts for a variety of applications, such as wastewater treatment, air purification, and energy production. For example, they can be used to remove organic pollutants from wastewater, decompose harmful gases in the air, and produce hydrogen fuel from water.

Keywords: ALD, metal oxide inverse opals, composites, photocatalysis

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2535 Atomic Layer Deposition Of Metal Oxide Inverse Opals: A Promising Strategy For Photocatalytic Applications

Authors: Hamsasew Hankebo Lemago, Dóra Hessz, Tamás Igricz, Zoltán Erdélyi, , Imre Miklós Szilágyi


Metal oxide inverse opals are a promising class of photocatalysts with a unique hierarchical structure. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a versatile technique for the synthesis of high-precision metal oxide thin films, including inverse opals. In this study, we report the synthesis of TiO₂, ZnO, and Al₂O₃ inverse opal and their composites photocatalysts using thermal or plasma-enhanced ALD. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized using a variety of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), ellipsometry, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results showed that the ALD-synthesized metal oxide inverse opals had a highly ordered structure and a tunable pore size. The PL spectroscopy results showed low recombination rates of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, while the ellipsometry and UV-visible spectroscopy results showed tunable optical properties and band gap energies. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the ALD-synthesized metal oxide inverse opals exhibited high photocatalytic activity, even under visible light irradiation. The composites photocatalysts showed even higher activity than the individual metal oxide inverse opals. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composites can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the different metal oxides. For example, Al₂O₃ can act as a charge carrier scavenger, which can reduce the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The ALD-synthesized metal oxide inverse opals and their composites are promising photocatalysts for a variety of applications, such as wastewater treatment, air purification, and energy production. The ALD-synthesized metal oxide inverse opals and their composites are promising photocatalysts for a variety of applications, such as wastewater treatment, air purification, and energy production.

Keywords: ALD, metal oxide inverse opals, photocatalysis, composites

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2534 Carbon Supported Silver Nanostructures for Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Reduction

Authors: Sonali Panigrahy, Manjunatha K., Sudip Barman


Electrocatalytic reduction methods hold significant promise in addressing the urgent need to mitigate excessive greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO₂). A highly effective catalyst is essential for achieving the conversion of CO₂ into valuable products due to the complex, multi-electron, and multi-product nature of the CO₂ reduction process. The electrochemical reduction of CO₂, driven by renewable energy sources, presents a valuable opportunity for simultaneously reducing CO₂ emissions while generating valuable chemicals and fuels, with syngas being a noteworthy product. Silver-based electrodes have been the focus of extensive research due to their low overpotential and remarkable selectivity in promoting the generation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO₂RR). In this study, we delve into the synthesis of carbon-supported silver nanoparticles (Ag/C), which serve as efficient electrocatalysts for the reduction of CO₂. The as-prepared catalyst, Ag/C, is not only cost-effective but also highly proficient in facilitating the conversion of CO₂ and H₂O into syngas, which is a customizable mixture of hydrogen (H₂) and carbon monoxide (CO). The highest faradic efficiency for the production of CO on Ag/C was calculated to be 56.4% at -1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. The maximum partial current density for the generation of CO was determined to be -9.4 mA cm-2 at a potential of -1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl. This research demonstrates the potential of Ag/C as an electrocatalyst to enable the sustainable production of syngas, contributing to the reduction of CO₂ emissions and the synthesis of valuable chemical precursors and fuels.

Keywords: CO₂, carbon monooxide, electrochemical, silver

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2533 Bio-Guided of Active New Alkaloids from Alstonia Brassi Toxicity Antitumour Activity in Silico and Molecular Modeling

Authors: Mesbah Khaled, Bouraoui Ouissal, Benkiniouar Rachid, Belkhiri Lotfi


Alstonia, which are tropical plants with a wide geographical distribution, have been divided into different sections by different authors based on previous studies of several species within the genus. Monachino divides Alstonia into 5 sections, while Pichon divides it into 3 sections. Several plants belonging to this genus, such as Alstonia brassii, have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat ailments such as fever, malaria and dysentery]. Previous studies focusing on the chemical composition of these plants have successfully identified indol alkaloids with cytotoxic, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The newly discovered monomers are structurally similar to the backbones of picralin, affinisin and macrolin. On the other hand, all recently isolated dimeric compounds have a macrolin moiety. In this study, a computational analysis was performed on a series of novel molecules, including both monomeric and dimeric compounds with different structural frameworks. This investigation represents the first computational study of these molecules using an in silico approach incorporating 2D-QSAR data. The analysis involved various computational techniques, including 2D-QSAR modelling, molecular docking studies and subsequent validation by molecular dynamics simulation and assessment of ADMET properties. The chemical composition was identified by 1D and 2D NMR. Eight new alkaloids were isolated, 5 monomers and 3 dimers. In this section, we focus on the biological activity of 4 new alkaloids belonging to two different skeletons, the affinisine skeleton.

Keywords: affinisine, talcarpine, macroline, cytotoxicity, alkaloids

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2532 Benzene Sulfonamide Derivatives: Synthesis, Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Studies, Anti-proliferative Activity, and Docking Simulation with Theoretical Investigation

Authors: Asmaa M. Fahim


In this elucidation, we synthesized different heterocyclic compounds attached to Benzene sulfonamide moiety via (E)-N-(4-(3-(4-bromophenyl)acryloyl)phenyl)-4-methyl benzene sulfonamide which is obtained from Nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-methylbenzene sulfonyl chloride and 1-(4-aminophenyl)ethan-1-one in pyridine to get N-(4-acetyl phenyl)-4-methyl benzenesulfonamide which reacted 4-bromobenzal dehyde undergoes aldol condensation in NaOH to afford the corresponding chalchone 4. Moreover, the reactivity of chalchone 4 showed several active methylene derivatives utilized the pressurized microwave irradiation as a green energy resource. Chalcone 4 was allowed to react with ethyl cyanoacetate and acetylacetone, respectively, at 70 °C with pressure under microwave reaction condition to afford the 5-cyano-6-oxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-2-yl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide 6 and N-(4'-acetyl-4''-bromo-5'-oxo-2',3',4',5'-tetrahydro-[1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-4-yl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide 8 derivatives. Moreover, the reactivity of this sulphonamide chalchone with NH2NH2 in EtOH and acetic acid, which gave 2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-4-yl)-4-methyl benzenesulfonamide, 1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methyl and reactivity with NH2OH.HCl gave isoxazol-3-yl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide derivatives. The synthesized compounds were screened for their ADME properties and directed to antitumor activity on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and MCF-7 breast cancer and exhibited excellent behavior against standard drugs; these results were confirmed through molecular simulations with different proteins. Additionally, the Density Functional Theory analysis of optimized structures investigated their physical descriptors, FMO, ESP and MEP, which correlated with biological evaluation.

Keywords: synthesis, green chemistry, antitumor activity, DFT study

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2531 Treatment and Characterization of Cadmium Metal From Textile Factory Wastewater by Electrochemical Process Using Aluminum Plate Electrode

Authors: Dessie Tibebe, Yeshifana Ayenew, Marye Mulugeta, Yezbie Kassa, Zerubabel Moges, Dereje Yenealem, Tarekegn Fentie, Agmas Amare, Hailu Sheferaw Ayele


Electrochemical treatment technology is a technique used for wastewater treatment due to its ability to eliminate impurities that are not easily removed by chemical processes. The objective of the study is the treatment and characterization of textile wastewater by an electrochemical process. The results obtained at various operational parameters indicated that at 20 minutes of electrochemical process at ( pH =7), initial concentration 10 mg/L, current density 37.5 mA/cm², voltage 9 v and temperature 25⁰C the highest removal efficiency was achieved. The kinetics of removal of selected metal by electrochemical treatment has been successfully described by the first-order rate equation. The results of microscopic techniques using SEM for the scarified electrode before treatment were uniform and smooth, but after the electrochemical process, the morphology was completely changed. This is due to the detection of the adsorbed aluminum hydroxide coming from adsorption of the conducting electrolyte, chemicals used in the experiments, alloying and the scrap impurities of the anode and cathode. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis broad bands at 3450 cm-¹ representing O-H functional groups, while the presence of H-O-H and Al-H groups are indicated by the bands at 2850-2750 cm-¹ and 1099 representing C-H functional groups.

Keywords: electrochemical, treatment, textile wastewater, kinetics, removal efficiency

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