Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 301

Search results for: segmentation

151 An Effective Method of Head Lamp and Tail Lamp Recognition for Night Time Vehicle Detection

Authors: Hyun-Koo Kim, Sagong Kuk, MinKwan Kim, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective method for detecting vehicles in front of the camera-assisted car during nighttime driving. The proposed method detects vehicles based on detecting vehicle headlights and taillights using techniques of image segmentation and clustering. First, to effectively extract spotlight of interest, a segmentation process based on automatic multi-level threshold method is applied on the road-scene images. Second, to spatial clustering vehicle of detecting lamps, a grouping process based on light tracking and locating vehicle lighting patterns. For simulation, we are implemented through Da-vinci 7437 DSP board with near infrared mono-camera and tested it in the urban and rural roads. Through the test, classification performances are above 97% of true positive rate evaluated on real-time environment. Our method also has good performance in the case of clear, fog and rain weather.

Keywords: Assistance Driving System, Multi-level Threshold Method, Near Infrared Mono Camera, Nighttime Vehicle Detection.

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150 A Similarity Function for Global Quality Assessment of Retinal Vessel Segmentations

Authors: Arturo Aquino, Manuel Emilio Gegundez, Jose Manuel Bravo, Diego Marin

Abstract:

Retinal vascularity assessment plays an important role in diagnosis of ophthalmic pathologies. The employment of digital images for this purpose makes possible a computerized approach and has motivated development of many methods for automated vascular tree segmentation. Metrics based on contingency tables for binary classification have been widely used for evaluating performance of these algorithms and, concretely, the accuracy has been mostly used as measure of global performance in this topic. However, this metric shows very poor matching with human perception as well as other notable deficiencies. Here, a new similarity function for measuring quality of retinal vessel segmentations is proposed. This similarity function is based on characterizing the vascular tree as a connected structure with a measurable area and length. Tests made indicate that this new approach shows better behaviour than the current one does. Generalizing, this concept of measuring descriptive properties may be used for designing functions for measuring more successfully segmentation quality of other complex structures.

Keywords: Retinal vessel segmentation, quality assessment, performanceevaluation, similarity function.

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149 OCIRS: An Ontology-based Chinese Idioms Retrieval System

Authors: Hu Haibo, Tu Chunmei, Fu Chunlei, Fu Li, Mao Fan, Ma Yuan

Abstract:

Chinese Idioms are a type of traditional Chinese idiomatic expressions with specific meanings and stereotypes structure which are widely used in classical Chinese and are still common in vernacular written and spoken Chinese today. Currently, Chinese Idioms are retrieved in glossary with key character or key word in morphology or pronunciation index that can not meet the need of searching semantically. OCIRS is proposed to search the desired idiom in the case of users only knowing its meaning without any key character or key word. The user-s request in a sentence or phrase will be grammatically analyzed in advance by word segmentation, key word extraction and semantic similarity computation, thus can be mapped to the idiom domain ontology which is constructed to provide ample semantic relations and to facilitate description logics-based reasoning for idiom retrieval. The experimental evaluation shows that OCIRS realizes the function of searching idioms via semantics, obtaining preliminary achievement as requested by the users.

Keywords: Chinese idiom, idiom retrieval, semantic searching, ontology, semantics similarity.

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148 Stock Market Integration Measurement: Investigation of Malaysia and Singapore Stock Markets

Authors: B. K. Yeoh, Z. Arsad, C. W. Hooy

Abstract:

This paper tests the level of market integration between Malaysia and Singapore stock markets with the world market. Kalman Filter (KF) methodology is used on the International Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) and the pricing errors estimated within the framework of ICAPM are used as a measure of market integration or segmentation. The advantage of the KF technique is that it allows for time-varying coefficients in estimating ICAPM and hence able to capture the varying degree of market integration. Empirical results show clear evidence of varying degree of market integration for both case of Malaysia and Singapore. Furthermore, the results show that the changes in the level of market integration are found to coincide with certain economic events that have taken placed. The findings certainly provide evidence on the practicability of the KF technique to estimate stock markets integration. In the comparison between Malaysia and Singapore stock market, the result shows that the trends of the market integration indices for Malaysia and Singapore look similar through time but the magnitude is notably different with the Malaysia stock market showing greater degree of market integration. Finally, significant evidence of varying degree of market integration shows the inappropriate use of OLS in estimating the level of market integration.

Keywords: ICAPM, Kalman filter, stock market integration.

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147 Image Segmentation Using the K-means Algorithm for Texture Features

Authors: Wan-Ting Lin, Chuen-Horng Lin, Tsung-Ho Wu, Yung-Kuan Chan

Abstract:

This study aims to segment objects using the K-means algorithm for texture features. Firstly, the algorithm transforms color images into gray images. This paper describes a novel technique for the extraction of texture features in an image. Then, in a group of similar features, objects and backgrounds are differentiated by using the K-means algorithm. Finally, this paper proposes a new object segmentation algorithm using the morphological technique. The experiments described include the segmentation of single and multiple objects featured in this paper. The region of an object can be accurately segmented out. The results can help to perform image retrieval and analyze features of an object, as are shown in this paper.

Keywords: k-mean, multiple objects, segmentation, texturefeatures.

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146 One-Class Support Vector Machines for Aerial Images Segmentation

Authors: Chih-Hung Wu, Chih-Chin Lai, Chun-Yen Chen, Yan-He Chen

Abstract:

Interpretation of aerial images is an important task in various applications. Image segmentation can be viewed as the essential step for extracting information from aerial images. Among many developed segmentation methods, the technique of clustering has been extensively investigated and used. However, determining the number of clusters in an image is inherently a difficult problem, especially when a priori information on the aerial image is unavailable. This study proposes a support vector machine approach for clustering aerial images. Three cluster validity indices, distance-based index, Davies-Bouldin index, and Xie-Beni index, are utilized as quantitative measures of the quality of clustering results. Comparisons on the effectiveness of these indices and various parameters settings on the proposed methods are conducted. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Aerial imaging, image segmentation, machine learning, support vector machine, cluster validity index

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145 Object Identification with Color, Texture, and Object-Correlation in CBIR System

Authors: Awais Adnan, Muhammad Nawaz, Sajid Anwar, Tamleek Ali, Muhammad Ali

Abstract:

Needs of an efficient information retrieval in recent years in increased more then ever because of the frequent use of digital information in our life. We see a lot of work in the area of textual information but in multimedia information, we cannot find much progress. In text based information, new technology of data mining and data marts are now in working that were started from the basic concept of database some where in 1960. In image search and especially in image identification, computerized system at very initial stages. Even in the area of image search we cannot see much progress as in the case of text based search techniques. One main reason for this is the wide spread roots of image search where many area like artificial intelligence, statistics, image processing, pattern recognition play their role. Even human psychology and perception and cultural diversity also have their share for the design of a good and efficient image recognition and retrieval system. A new object based search technique is presented in this paper where object in the image are identified on the basis of their geometrical shapes and other features like color and texture where object-co-relation augments this search process. To be more focused on objects identification, simple images are selected for the work to reduce the role of segmentation in overall process however same technique can also be applied for other images.

Keywords: Object correlation, Geometrical shape, Color, texture, features, contents.

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144 Automated Thickness Measurement of Retinal Blood Vessels for Implementation of Clinical Decision Support Systems in Diagnostic Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: S.Jerald Jeba Kumar, M.Madheswaran

Abstract:

The structure of retinal vessels is a prominent feature, that reveals information on the state of disease that are reflected in the form of measurable abnormalities in thickness and colour. Vascular structures of retina, for implementation of clinical diabetic retinopathy decision making system is presented in this paper. Retinal Vascular structure is with thin blood vessel, whose accuracy is highly dependent upon the vessel segmentation. In this paper the blood vessel thickness is automatically detected using preprocessing techniques and vessel segmentation algorithm. First the capture image is binarized to get the blood vessel structure clearly, then it is skeletonised to get the overall structure of all the terminal and branching nodes of the blood vessels. By identifying the terminal node and the branching points automatically, the main and branching blood vessel thickness is estimated. Results are presented and compared with those provided by clinical classification on 50 vessels collected from Bejan Singh Eye hospital..

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Binarization, SegmentationClinical Decision Support Systems.

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143 A Novel Approach towards Segmentation of Breast Tumors from Screening Mammograms for Efficient Decision Support System

Authors: M.Suganthi, M.Madheswaran

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach to finding a priori interesting regions in mammograms. In order to delineate those regions of interest (ROI-s) in mammograms, which appear to be prominent, a topographic representation called the iso-level contour map consisting of iso-level contours at multiple intensity levels and region segmentation based-thresholding have been proposed. The simulation results indicate that the computed boundary gives the detection rate of 99.5% accuracy.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Mammogram, and Segmentation.

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142 Hardware Centric Machine Vision for High Precision Center of Gravity Calculation

Authors: Xin Cheng, Benny Thörnberg, Abdul Waheed Malik, Najeem Lawal

Abstract:

We present a hardware oriented method for real-time measurements of object-s position in video. The targeted application area is light spots used as references for robotic navigation. Different algorithms for dynamic thresholding are explored in combination with component labeling and Center Of Gravity (COG) for highest possible precision versus Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). This method was developed with a low hardware cost in focus having only one convolution operation required for preprocessing of data.

Keywords: Dynamic thresholding, segmentation, position measurement, sub-pixel precision, center of gravity.

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141 On the Performance of Information Criteria in Latent Segment Models

Authors: Jaime R. S. Fonseca

Abstract:

Nevertheless the widespread application of finite mixture models in segmentation, finite mixture model selection is still an important issue. In fact, the selection of an adequate number of segments is a key issue in deriving latent segments structures and it is desirable that the selection criteria used for this end are effective. In order to select among several information criteria, which may support the selection of the correct number of segments we conduct a simulation study. In particular, this study is intended to determine which information criteria are more appropriate for mixture model selection when considering data sets with only categorical segmentation base variables. The generation of mixtures of multinomial data supports the proposed analysis. As a result, we establish a relationship between the level of measurement of segmentation variables and some (eleven) information criteria-s performance. The criterion AIC3 shows better performance (it indicates the correct number of the simulated segments- structure more often) when referring to mixtures of multinomial segmentation base variables.

Keywords: Quantitative Methods, Multivariate Data Analysis, Clustering, Finite Mixture Models, Information Theoretical Criteria, Simulation experiments.

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140 MTSSM - A Framework for Multi-Track Segmentation of Symbolic Music

Authors: Brigitte Rafael, Stefan M. Oertl

Abstract:

Music segmentation is a key issue in music information retrieval (MIR) as it provides an insight into the internal structure of a composition. Structural information about a composition can improve several tasks related to MIR such as searching and browsing large music collections, visualizing musical structure, lyric alignment, and music summarization. The authors of this paper present the MTSSM framework, a twolayer framework for the multi-track segmentation of symbolic music. The strength of this framework lies in the combination of existing methods for local track segmentation and the application of global structure information spanning via multiple tracks. The first layer of the MTSSM uses various string matching techniques to detect the best candidate segmentations for each track of a multi-track composition independently. The second layer combines all single track results and determines the best segmentation for each track in respect to the global structure of the composition.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Music Information Retrieval, Machine Learning.

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139 Color Image Segmentation using Adaptive Spatial Gaussian Mixture Model

Authors: M.Sujaritha, S. Annadurai

Abstract:

An adaptive spatial Gaussian mixture model is proposed for clustering based color image segmentation. A new clustering objective function which incorporates the spatial information is introduced in the Bayesian framework. The weighting parameter for controlling the importance of spatial information is made adaptive to the image content to augment the smoothness towards piecewisehomogeneous region and diminish the edge-blurring effect and hence the name adaptive spatial finite mixture model. The proposed approach is compared with the spatially variant finite mixture model for pixel labeling. The experimental results with synthetic and Berkeley dataset demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in improving the segmentation and it can be employed in different practical image content understanding applications.

Keywords: Adaptive; Spatial, Mixture model, Segmentation, Color.

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138 Edge Segmentation of Satellite Image using Phase Congruency Model

Authors: Ahmed Zaafouri, Mounir Sayadi, Farhat Fnaiech

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method for edge segmentation of satellite images based on 2-D Phase Congruency (PC) model. The proposed approach is composed by two steps: The contextual non linear smoothing algorithm (CNLS) is used to smooth the input images. Then, the 2D stretched Gabor filter (S-G filter) based on proposed angular variation is developed in order to avoid the multiple responses in the previous work. An assessment of our proposed method performance is provided in terms of accuracy of satellite image edge segmentation. The proposed method is compared with others known approaches.

Keywords: Edge segmentation, Phase congruency model, Satellite images, Stretched Gabor filter

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137 Automated Optic Disc Detection in Retinal Images of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy and Risk of Macular Edema

Authors: Arturo Aquino, Manuel Emilio Gegundez, Diego Marin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new automated methodology to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically in retinal images from patients with risk of being affected by Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Macular Edema (ME) is presented. The detection procedure comprises two independent methodologies. On one hand, a location methodology obtains a pixel that belongs to the OD using image contrast analysis and structure filtering techniques and, on the other hand, a boundary segmentation methodology estimates a circular approximation of the OD boundary by applying mathematical morphology, edge detection techniques and the Circular Hough Transform. The methodologies were tested on a set of 1200 images composed of 229 retinographies from patients affected by DR with risk of ME, 431 with DR and no risk of ME and 540 images of healthy retinas. The location methodology obtained 98.83% success rate, whereas the OD boundary segmentation methodology obtained good circular OD boundary approximation in 94.58% of cases. The average computational time measured over the total set was 1.67 seconds for OD location and 5.78 seconds for OD boundary segmentation.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, optic disc, automated detection, automated segmentation.

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136 Real Time Detection, Tracking and Recognition of Medication Intake

Authors: H. H. Huynh, J. Meunier, J.Sequeira, M.Daniel

Abstract:

In this paper, the detection and tracking of face, mouth, hands and medication bottles in the context of medication intake monitoring with a camera is presented. This is aimed at recognizing medication intake for elderly in their home setting to avoid an inappropriate use. Background subtraction is used to isolate moving objects, and then, skin and bottle segmentations are done in the RGB normalized color space. We use a minimum displacement distance criterion to track skin color regions and the R/G ratio to detect the mouth. The color-labeled medication bottles are simply tracked based on the color space distance to their mean color vector. For the recognition of medication intake, we propose a three-level hierarchal approach, which uses activity-patterns to recognize the normal medication intake activity. The proposed method was tested with three persons, with different medication intake scenarios, and gave an overall precision of over 98%.

Keywords: Activity recognition, background subtraction, tracking, medication intake, video surveillance

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135 Skin Lesion Segmentation Using Color Channel Optimization and Clustering-based Histogram Thresholding

Authors: Rahil Garnavi, Mohammad Aldeen, M. Emre Celebi, Alauddin Bhuiyan, Constantinos Dolianitis, George Varigos

Abstract:

Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards the automated analysis of malignant melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes an automatic segmentation algorithm based on color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, a process which is able to determine the optimal color channel for detecting the borders in dermoscopy images. The algorithm is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images. A comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm, applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. By performing ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is demonstrated that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels, resulting in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-of-theart skin lesion segmentation methods.

Keywords: Border detection, Color space analysis, Dermoscopy, Histogram thresholding, Melanoma, Segmentation.

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134 Hand Gesture Recognition Based on Combined Features Extraction

Authors: Mahmoud Elmezain, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

Hand gesture is an active area of research in the vision community, mainly for the purpose of sign language recognition and Human Computer Interaction. In this paper, we propose a system to recognize alphabet characters (A-Z) and numbers (0-9) in real-time from stereo color image sequences using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Our system is based on three main stages; automatic segmentation and preprocessing of the hand regions, feature extraction and classification. In automatic segmentation and preprocessing stage, color and 3D depth map are used to detect hands where the hand trajectory will take place in further step using Mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter. In the feature extraction stage, 3D combined features of location, orientation and velocity with respected to Cartesian systems are used. And then, k-means clustering is employed for HMMs codeword. The final stage so-called classification, Baum- Welch algorithm is used to do a full train for HMMs parameters. The gesture of alphabets and numbers is recognized using Left-Right Banded model in conjunction with Viterbi algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that, our system can successfully recognize hand gestures with 98.33% recognition rate.

Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Computer Vision & Image Processing, Pattern Recognition.

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133 A New Approach for Image Segmentation using Pillar-Kmeans Algorithm

Authors: Ali Ridho Barakbah, Yasushi Kiyoki

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for image segmentation by applying Pillar-Kmeans algorithm. This segmentation process includes a new mechanism for clustering the elements of high-resolution images in order to improve precision and reduce computation time. The system applies K-means clustering to the image segmentation after optimized by Pillar Algorithm. The Pillar algorithm considers the pillars- placement which should be located as far as possible from each other to withstand against the pressure distribution of a roof, as identical to the number of centroids amongst the data distribution. This algorithm is able to optimize the K-means clustering for image segmentation in aspects of precision and computation time. It designates the initial centroids- positions by calculating the accumulated distance metric between each data point and all previous centroids, and then selects data points which have the maximum distance as new initial centroids. This algorithm distributes all initial centroids according to the maximum accumulated distance metric. This paper evaluates the proposed approach for image segmentation by comparing with K-means and Gaussian Mixture Model algorithm and involving RGB, HSV, HSL and CIELAB color spaces. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of our approach to improve the segmentation quality in aspects of precision and computational time.

Keywords: Image segmentation, K-means clustering, Pillaralgorithm, color spaces.

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132 Extracting Human Body based on Background Estimation in Modified HLS Color Space

Authors: Jang-Hee Yoo, Doosung Hwang, Jong-Wook Han, Ki-Young Moon

Abstract:

The ability to recognize humans and their activities by computer vision is a very important task, with many potential application. Study of human motion analysis is related to several research areas of computer vision such as the motion capture, detection, tracking and segmentation of people. In this paper, we describe a segmentation method for extracting human body contour in modified HLS color space. To estimate a background, the modified HLS color space is proposed, and the background features are estimated by using the HLS color components. Here, the large amount of human dataset, which was collected from DV cameras, is pre-processed. The human body and its contour is successfully extracted from the image sequences.

Keywords: Background Subtraction, Human Silhouette Extraction, HLS Color Space, and Object Segmentation

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131 Probabilistic Center Voting Method for Subsequent Object Tracking and Segmentation

Authors: Suryanto, Hyo-Kak Kim, Sang-Hee Park, Dae-Hwan Kim, Sung-Jea Ko

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm for object tracking in video sequence. In order to represent the object to be tracked, we propose a spatial color histogram model which encodes both the color distribution and spatial information. The object tracking from frame to frame is accomplished via center voting and back projection method. The center voting method has every pixel in the new frame to cast a vote on whereabouts the object center is. The back projection method segments the object from the background. The segmented foreground provides information on object size and orientation, omitting the need to estimate them separately. We do not put any assumption on camera motion; the proposed algorithm works equally well for object tracking in both static and moving camera videos.

Keywords: center voting, back projection, object tracking, size adaptation, non-stationary camera tracking.

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130 Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory for Image Segmentation: Application in Cells Images

Authors: S. Ben Chaabane, M. Sayadi, F. Fnaiech, E. Brassart

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new knowledge model using the Dempster-Shafer-s evidence theory for image segmentation and fusion. The proposed method is composed essentially of two steps. First, mass distributions in Dempster-Shafer theory are obtained from the membership degrees of each pixel covering the three image components (R, G and B). Each membership-s degree is determined by applying Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering to the gray levels of the three images. Second, the fusion process consists in defining three discernment frames which are associated with the three images to be fused, and then combining them to form a new frame of discernment. The strategy used to define mass distributions in the combined framework is discussed in detail. The proposed fusion method is illustrated in the context of image segmentation. Experimental investigations and comparative studies with the other previous methods are carried out showing thus the robustness and superiority of the proposed method in terms of image segmentation.

Keywords: Fuzzy C-means, Color image, data fusion, Dempster-Shafer's evidence theory

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129 An Optimal Unsupervised Satellite image Segmentation Approach Based on Pearson System and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization

Authors: Ahmed Rekik, Mourad Zribi, Ahmed Ben Hamida, Mohamed Benjelloun

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimal and unsupervised satellite image segmentation approach based on Pearson system and k-Means Clustering Algorithm Initialization. Such method could be considered as original by the fact that it utilised K-Means clustering algorithm for an optimal initialisation of image class number on one hand and it exploited Pearson system for an optimal statistical distributions- affectation of each considered class on the other hand. Satellite image exploitation requires the use of different approaches, especially those founded on the unsupervised statistical segmentation principle. Such approaches necessitate definition of several parameters like image class number, class variables- estimation and generalised mixture distributions. Use of statistical images- attributes assured convincing and promoting results under the condition of having an optimal initialisation step with appropriated statistical distributions- affectation. Pearson system associated with a k-means clustering algorithm and Stochastic Expectation-Maximization 'SEM' algorithm could be adapted to such problem. For each image-s class, Pearson system attributes one distribution type according to different parameters and especially the Skewness 'β1' and the kurtosis 'β2'. The different adapted algorithms, K-Means clustering algorithm, SEM algorithm and Pearson system algorithm, are then applied to satellite image segmentation problem. Efficiency of those combined algorithms was firstly validated with the Mean Quadratic Error 'MQE' evaluation, and secondly with visual inspection along several comparisons of these unsupervised images- segmentation.

Keywords: Unsupervised classification, Pearson system, Satellite image, Segmentation.

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128 Automatic Segmentation of Thigh Magnetic Resonance Images

Authors: Lorena Urricelqui, Armando Malanda, Arantxa Villanueva

Abstract:

Purpose: To develop a method for automatic segmentation of adipose and muscular tissue in thighs from magnetic resonance images. Materials and methods: Thirty obese women were scanned on a Siemens Impact Expert 1T resonance machine. 1500 images were finally used in the tests. The developed segmentation method is a recursive and multilevel process that makes use of several concepts such as shaped histograms, adaptative thresholding and connectivity. The segmentation process was implemented in Matlab and operates without the need of any user interaction. The whole set of images were segmented with the developed method. An expert radiologist segmented the same set of images following a manual procedure with the aid of the SliceOmatic software (Tomovision). These constituted our 'goal standard'. Results: The number of coincidental pixels of the automatic and manual segmentation procedures was measured. The average results were above 90 % of success in most of the images. Conclusions: The proposed approach allows effective automatic segmentation of MRIs from thighs, comparable to expert manual performance.

Keywords: Segmentation, thigh, magnetic resonance image, fat, muscle.

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127 Adaptive Skin Segmentation Using Color Distance Map

Authors: Mohammad Shoyaib, M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud, Oksam Chae

Abstract:

In this paper an effective approach for segmenting human skin regions in images taken at different environment is proposed. The proposed method uses a color distance map that is flexible enough to reliably detect the skin regions even if the illumination conditions of the image vary. Local image conditions is also focused, which help the technique to adaptively detect differently illuminated skin regions of an image. Moreover, usage of local information also helps the skin detection process to get rid of picking up much noisy pixels.

Keywords: Color Distance map, Reference skin color, Regiongrowing, Skin segmentation.

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126 3D Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Level-Sets Method and Meshes Simplification from Volumetric MR Images

Authors: K. Aloui, M. S. Naceur

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to provide an efficient tool for delineating brain tumors in three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. To achieve this goal, we use basically a level-sets approach to delineating three-dimensional brain tumors. Then we introduce a compression plan of 3D brain structures based for the meshes simplification, adapted for time to the specific needs of the telemedicine and to the capacities restricted by network communication. We present here the main stages of our system, and preliminary results which are very encouraging for clinical practice.

Keywords: Medical imaging, level-sets, compression, meshess implification, telemedicine.

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125 A New Method for Image Classification Based on Multi-level Neural Networks

Authors: Samy Sadek, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis, Usama Sayed

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a supervised method for color image classification based on a multilevel sigmoidal neural network (MSNN) model. In this method, images are classified into five categories, i.e., “Car", “Building", “Mountain", “Farm" and “Coast". This classification is performed without any segmentation processes. To verify the learning capabilities of the proposed method, we compare our MSNN model with the traditional Sigmoidal Neural Network (SNN) model. Results of comparison have shown that the MSNN model performs better than the traditional SNN model in the context of training run time and classification rate. Both color moments and multi-level wavelets decomposition technique are used to extract features from images. The proposed method has been tested on a variety of real and synthetic images.

Keywords: Image classification, multi-level neural networks, feature extraction, wavelets decomposition.

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124 3D Anisotropic Diffusion for Liver Segmentation

Authors: Wan Nural Jawahir Wan Yussof, Hans Burkhardt

Abstract:

Liver segmentation is the first significant process for liver diagnosis of the Computed Tomography. It segments the liver structure from other abdominal organs. Sophisticated filtering techniques are indispensable for a proper segmentation. In this paper, we employ a 3D anisotropic diffusion as a preprocessing step. While removing image noise, this technique preserve the significant parts of the image, typically edges, lines or other details that are important for the interpretation of the image. The segmentation task is done by using thresholding with automatic threshold values selection and finally the false liver region is eliminated using 3D connected component. The result shows that by employing the 3D anisotropic filtering, better liver segmentation results could be achieved eventhough simple segmentation technique is used.

Keywords: 3D Anisotropic Diffusion, non-linear filtering, CT Liver.

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123 Automatic Segmentation of Lung Areas in Magnetic Resonance Images

Authors: Alireza Osareh, Bita Shadgar

Abstract:

Segmenting the lungs in medical images is a challenging and important task for many applications. In particular, automatic segmentation of lung cavities from multiple magnetic resonance (MR) images is very useful for oncological applications such as radiotherapy treatment planning. However, distinguishing of the lung areas is not trivial due to largely changing lung shapes, low contrast and poorly defined boundaries. In this paper, we address lung segmentation problem from pulmonary magnetic resonance images and propose an automated method based on a robust regionaided geometric snake with a modified diffused region force into the standard geometric model definition. The extra region force gives the snake a global complementary view of the lung boundary information within the image which along with the local gradient flow, helps detect fuzzy boundaries. The proposed method has been successful in segmenting the lungs in every slice of 30 magnetic resonance images with 80 consecutive slices in each image. We present results by comparing our automatic method to manually segmented lung cavities provided by an expert radiologist and with those of previous works, showing encouraging results and high robustness of our approach.

Keywords: Active contours, breast cancer, fuzzy c-means segmentation, treatment planning.

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122 A Method for Iris Recognition Based on 1D Coiflet Wavelet

Authors: Agus Harjoko, Sri Hartati, Henry Dwiyasa

Abstract:

There have been numerous implementations of security system using biometric, especially for identification and verification cases. An example of pattern used in biometric is the iris pattern in human eye. The iris pattern is considered unique for each person. The use of iris pattern poses problems in encoding the human iris. In this research, an efficient iris recognition method is proposed. In the proposed method the iris segmentation is based on the observation that the pupil has lower intensity than the iris, and the iris has lower intensity than the sclera. By detecting the boundary between the pupil and the iris and the boundary between the iris and the sclera, the iris area can be separated from pupil and sclera. A step is taken to reduce the effect of eyelashes and specular reflection of pupil. Then the four levels Coiflet wavelet transform is applied to the extracted iris image. The modified Hamming distance is employed to measure the similarity between two irises. This research yields the identification success rate of 84.25% for the CASIA version 1.0 database. The method gives an accuracy of 77.78% for the left eyes of MMU 1 database and 86.67% for the right eyes. The time required for the encoding process, from the segmentation until the iris code is generated, is 0.7096 seconds. These results show that the accuracy and speed of the method is better than many other methods.

Keywords: Biometric, iris recognition, wavelet transform.

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