{"title":"Packing Theory for Natural and Crushed Aggregate to Obtain the Best Mix of Aggregate: Research and Development","authors":"Mohammed H. Mohammed, Mats Emborg, Roland Pusch, Sven Knutsson","volume":67,"journal":"International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering","pagesStart":479,"pagesEnd":486,"ISSN":"1307-6892","URL":"https:\/\/publications.waset.org\/pdf\/793","abstract":"Concrete performance is strongly affected by the\r\nparticle packing degree since it determines the distribution of the\r\ncementitious component and the interaction of mineral particles. By\r\nusing packing theory designers will be able to select optimal\r\naggregate materials for preparing concrete with low cement content,\r\nwhich is beneficial from the point of cost. Optimum particle packing\r\nimplies minimizing porosity and thereby reducing the amount of\r\ncement paste needed to fill the voids between the aggregate particles,\r\ntaking also the rheology of the concrete into consideration. For\r\nreaching good fluidity superplasticizers are required. The results from\r\npilot tests at Lule\u00e5 University of Technology (LTU) show various\r\nforms of the proposed theoretical models, and the empirical approach\r\ntaken in the study seems to provide a safer basis for developing new,\r\nimproved packing models.","references":"[1] K. Senthil V., S. Manu, \"Particle packing theories and their application\r\nin concrete mixture proportioning: A review\" The Indian Concrete\r\nJournal, Sep. 2003, pp 1324-1331.\r\n[2] F. De Larrard, Concrete mixture proportioning. A Scientific Approach,\r\nE & FN Spon, 1999.\r\n[3] P. Goltermann, V. Johansen, L. Palb\u251c\u00ffl, \"Packing of aggregates: An\r\nalternative tool to determine the optimal aggregate mix\" in ACI\r\nMaterials Journal, Vol. 94, No. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1997, pp 435-443.\r\n[4] P. J. Andersen, V. Johansen, \"Particle packing and concrete properties\"\r\nMaterials Science of Concrete II, J. Sknlny and S. Mindess, (edited),\r\nthe American Ceramic Society, Inc., Westerville, Ohio. 1991, pp. 111-\r\n146.\r\n[5] N. Kristoffer, Packing theory for crushed aggregates in concrete.\r\nDiploma work thesis, ETSEIB, Betongindustri AB, Lule\u251c\u00d1 University of\r\nTechnology, 2005, 72 pp.\r\n[6] M. Glavind, E. J. Pedersen, \"Packing Calculations Applied for Concrete\r\nMix Design\" Proceedings Creating with Concrete, University of\r\nDundee, May 1999, pp. 1-10.\r\n[7] T. Stovall, F. De Larrard, M. Buil,\" Linear packing density model of\r\ngrain mixtures\" in Powder Technology, Vol.48, Sep. 1986,pp. 1-12.\r\n[8] M. Glavind, S. G. Olsen, \"Packing calculations and concrete mix\r\ndesign\" The Nordic Concrete Federation, No. 2, Copenhagen, Danish\r\nTechnological Institute, 1993, pp. 21-34.\r\n[9] Teknologisk Institut, the Danish Technological Institute,\r\nhttp:\/\/www.danishtechnology.dk\/\r\n[10] C. Pade, L. N. Thrane, M. Kaasgaard,\"4C-Packing: User-s manual\"\r\nConcrete Centre, Danish Technological Institute, Feb. 2009, PP 2-24.\r\n[11] U. Sofia, \"Performance based concrete mix-design\" Doctoral thesis,\r\nLule\u251c\u00d1 University of Technology, 2008.","publisher":"World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology","index":"Open Science Index 67, 2012"}