Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1262

Search results for: Yanbo Long

1232 Business Buyers’ Expectations in Buyer-Seller Encounters

Authors: Pia I. Hautamäki

Abstract:

Selling has changed. Selling has taken on aspects of relationship marketing and sales force play a critical role in developing long-term relationships between buyers and sellers which is seen to serve the company’s targets and create success for a long run. The purpose of this study was to examine what really matters in buyer-seller encounters and determine what expectations business buyers have. We studied 17 business buyers by a qualitative interview. We found that buyers appreciate encounters where the salesperson face the buyer as a way he or she is as a person, map the real needs to improve buyers’ business and build up cooperation for long-term relationship. This study show that personality matters are a key elements when satisfying business buyers’ expectations.

Keywords: Business-to-Business, Business buyer-seller encounters, Business buyer, Expectations, Perceived similarity, Personal selling, Personality types.

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1231 Characteristics of the Long-Term Regional Tourism Development in Georgia

Authors: Valeri Arghutashvili, Mari Gogochuri

Abstract:

Tourism industry development is one of the key priorities in Georgia, as it has positive influence on economic activities. Its contribution is very important for the different regions, as well as for the national economy. Benefits of the tourism industry include new jobs, service development, and increasing tax revenues, etc. The main aim of this research is to review and analyze the potential of the Georgian tourism industry with its long-term strategy and current challenges. To plan activities in a long-term development, it is required to evaluate several factors on the regional and on the national level. Factors include activities, transportation, services, lodging facilities, infrastructure and institutions. The major research contributions are practical estimates about regional tourism development which plays an important role in the integration process with global markets.

Keywords: Regional tourism, tourism industry, tourism in Georgia, tourism benefits.

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1230 How the Decrease of Collagen or Mineral Affect the Fracture in the Turkey Long Bones

Authors: P. Vosynek, T. Návrat, M. Peč, J. Pořízka, P. Diviš

Abstract:

Bone properties and response behavior after static or dynamic activation (loading) are still interesting topics in many fields of the science especially in the biomechanical problems such as bone loss of astronauts in space, osteoporosis, bone remodeling after fracture or remodeling after surgery (endoprosthesis and implants) and in osteointegration. This contribution deals with the relation between physiological, demineralized and deproteinized state of the turkey long bone – tibia. Three methods for comparison were used: 1) densitometry, 2) three point bending and 3) frequency analysis. The main goal of this work was to describe the decrease of the protein (collagen) or mineral of the bone with relation to the fracture in three point bending. The comparison is linked to the problem of different bone mechanical behavior in physiological and osteoporotic state.

Keywords: Bone properties, long bone, osteoporosis, response behavior.

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1229 Growth, Population, Exports and Wagner's Law: A Case Study of Pakistan (1972-2007)

Authors: T. Hussain, A. Iqbal, M. W. Siddiqi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the validity of Wagner-s law and relationship between economic growth, population and export for Pakistan. The ARDL Bounds cointegration and ECM are utilized for long and short run equilibrium for the period of 1972-2007. Population has considerable role in an economy and exports are the main source to raise the GDP. With the increase in GDP, the government expenditures may or may not increase. The empirical results indicate that the Wagner-s Law does hold, as economic growth is significantly and positively correlated with government expenditures. However, population and exports have also significant and positive impact on government expenditures both in short and long run. The significant and negative coefficient of error correction term in ECM indicates that after a shock, the long rum equilibrium will again converge towards equilibrium about 70.82 percent within a year.

Keywords: ARDL Cointegration, Growth, Pakistan, Wagner's law.

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1228 The Long Run Relationship between Exports and Imports in South Africa: Evidence from Cointegration Analysis

Authors: Sagaren Pillay

Abstract:

This study empirically examines the long run equilibrium relationship between South Africa’s exports and imports using quarterly data from 1985 to 2012. The theoretical framework used for the study is based on Johansen’s Maximum Likelihood cointegration technique which tests for both the existence and number of cointegration vectors that exists. The study finds that both the series are integrated of order one and are cointegrated. A statistically significant cointegrating relationship is found to exist between exports and imports. The study models this unique linear and lagged relationship using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The findings of the study confirm the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship between exports and imports.

Keywords: Cointegration lagged, linear, maximum likelihood, vector error correction model.

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1227 Long-Term Durability of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement

Authors: Jun Hee Lee, Young Kyu Kim, Seong Jae Hong, Chamroeun Chhorn, Seung Woo Lee

Abstract:

Roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP), an environmental friendly pavement of which load carry capacity benefitted from both hydration and aggregate interlock from roller compacting, demonstrated a superb structural performance for a relatively small amount of water and cement content. Even though an excellent structural performance can be secured, it is required to investigate roller-compacted concrete (RCC) under environmental loading and its long-term durability under critical conditions. In order to secure long-term durability, an appropriate internal air-void structure is required for this concrete. In this study, a method for improving the long-term durability of RCCP is suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and corresponding durability of RCC. The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of air content, air voids, and air-spacing factors in RCC that experiences changes in terms of type of air-entraining agent and its usage amount. This test is conducted according to the testing criteria in ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. It was found that the freezing-thawing and scaling resistances of RCC without any chemical admixture was quite low. Interestingly, an improvement of freezing-thawing and scaling resistances was observed for RCC with appropriate the air entraining (AE) agent content; Relative dynamic elastic modulus was found to be more than 80% for those mixtures. In RCC with AE agent mixtures, large amount of air was distributed within a range of 2% to 3%, and an air void spacing factor ranging between 200 and 300 μm (close to 250 μm, recommended by PCA) was secured. The long-term durability of RCC has a direct relationship with air-void spacing factor, and thus it can only be secured by ensuring the air void spacing factor through the inclusion of the AE in the mixture.

Keywords: RCCP, durability, air spacing factor, surface scaling resistance test, freezing and thawing resistance test.

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1226 Long-term Flexural Behavior of HSC Beams

Authors: Andreea Muntean, Cornelia Măgureanu

Abstract:

This article presents the analysis of experimental values regarding cracking pattern, specific strains and deformability for reinforced high strength concrete beams. The beams have the concrete class C80/95 and a longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 2.01%, respectively 3.39%. The elements were subjected to flexure under static short-term and long-term loading. The experimental values are compared with calculation values using the design relationships according to Eurocode 2.

Keywords: High strength concrete, beams, flexure.

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1225 Blood Lactate, Heart Rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Collegiate Sprint, Middle Distance, and Long Distance Runners after 400 and 1600 Meter Runs

Authors: Taylor J. Canfield, Kathe A. Gabel

Abstract:

The aim of this studywas toinvestigate the effect ofrunning classification (sprint, middle, and long distance)and two distances on blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) Borg scale ratings in collegiate athletes. On different days, runners (n = 15) ran 400m and 1600m at a five min mile pace, followed by a two min 6mph jog, and a two min 3mph walk as part of the cool down. BLa, HR, and RPE were taken at baseline, post-run, plus 2 and 4 min recovery times. The middle and long distance runners exhibited lower BLa concentrations than sprint runners after two min of recovery post 400 m runs, immediately after, and two and four min recovery periods post 1600 m runs. When compared to sprint runners, distance runners may have exhibited the ability to clear BLa more quickly, particularly after running 1600 m.

Keywords: Blood lactate, HR, RPE, running.

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1224 Disclosing the Relationship among CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Bilateral Trade between Singapore and Malaysia: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: H. A. Bekhet, T. Yasmin

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship among CO2 per capita emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and bilateral trade between Singapore and Malaysia for the 1970-2011 period. ARDL model and Granger causality tests are employed for the analysis.  Results of bound F-statistics suggest that long-run  relationship exists between CO2 per capita (PCO2) and its determinants. The EKC hypothesis is not supported in Malaysia. Carbon emissions are mainly determined by energy consumption in the short and long run. While, exports to Singapore is a significant variable in explaining PCO2 emissions in Malaysia in long-run. Furthermore, we find a unidirectional causal relationship running from economic growth to PCO2 emissions.

Keywords: ADRL Bound Test, Bilateral trade, CO2 emission, Environmental Kuznets Curve, Energy consumption, Malaysia.

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1223 Scenarios for a Sustainable Energy Supply Results of a Case Study for Austria

Authors: Petra Wächter

Abstract:

A comprehensive discussion of feasible strategies for sustainable energy supply is urgently needed to achieve a turnaround of the current energy situation. The necessary fundamentals required for the development of a long term energy vision are lacking to a great extent due to the absence of reasonable long term scenarios that fulfill the requirements of climate protection and sustainable energy use. The contribution of the study is based on a search for sustainable energy paths in the long run for Austria. The analysis makes use of secondary data predominantly. The measures developed to avoid CO2 emissions and other ecological risk factors vary to a great extent among all economic sectors. This is shown by the calculation of CO2 cost of abatement curves. In this study it is demonstrated that the most effective technical measures with the lowest CO2 abatement costs yield solutions to the current energy problems. Various scenarios are presented concerning the question how the technological and environmental options for a sustainable energy system for Austria could look like in the long run. It is shown how sustainable energy can be supplied even with today-s technological knowledge and options available. The scenarios developed include an evaluation of the economic costs and ecological impacts. The results are not only applicable to Austria but demonstrate feasible and cost efficient ways towards a sustainable future.

Keywords: Cost of CO2 Abatement, Energy Economics, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Sustainable Energy and Development.

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1222 Slug Initiation Evaluation in Long Horizontal Channels Experimentally

Authors: P. Adibi, M. R. Ansari, S. Jafari, B. Habibpour, E. Salimi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of gas and liquid superficial inlet velocities and for the first time the effect of liquid holdup on slug initiation position are studied experimentally. Empirical correlations are also presented based on the obtained results. The tests are conducted for three liquid holdups in a long horizontal channel with dimensions of 5cm10cm and 36m length. Usl and Usg rated as to 0.11m/s to 0.56m/s and 1.88m/s to 13m/s, respectively. The obtained results show that as αl=0.25, slug initiation position is increasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. During αl=0.50, slug initiation position is almost constant. For αl=0.75, slug initiation position is decreasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. In the case of equal void fraction of phases, generated slugs are weakly (low pressure). However, for the unequal void fraction of phases strong slugs (high pressure) are formed.

Keywords: Liquid holdup, Long horizontal channel, Slug initiation position, Superficial inlet velocity.

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1221 Long-Term Study for the Effect of Ovariectomy on Rat Bone - Use of In-Vivo Micro-CT -

Authors: Dae Gon Woo, Chang Yong Ko, Tae Woo Lee, Han Sung Kim, Beob Yi Lee

Abstract:

In the present study, changes of morphology and mechanical characteristics in the lumbar vertebrae of the ovariectomised (OVX) rat were investigated. In previous researches, there were many studies about morphology like volume fraction and trabecular thickness based on Micro - Computed Tomography (Micro - CT). However, detecting and tracking long-term changes in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae for the OVX rat were few. For this study, one female Sprague-Dawley rat was used: an OVX rat. The 4th Lumbar of the OVX rat was subjected to in-vivo micro-CT. Detecting and tracking long-term changes could be investigated in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae for an OVX rat using in-vivo micro-CT. An OVX rat was scanned at week 0 (just before surgery), at week 4, at week 8, week 16, week 22 and week 56 after surgery. Finite element (FE) analysis was used to investigate mechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae for an OVX rat. When the OVX rat (at week 56) was compared with the OVX rat (at week 0), volume fraction was decreased by 80% and effective modulus was decreased by 75%.

Keywords: OVX rats, Trabecular bone, In-vivo Micro-CT, FE analysis

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1220 Exploring Elder Care in Different Settings in West Bengal: A Psycho-Social Study of Private Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care Facilities

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharyya, Suhita C. Chatterjee

Abstract:

West Bengal, one of the most rapidly ageing states in India, has inadequate structure for elder care. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve elder care which involves focusing on different care settings where the elderly exists, like - Homes, Hospitals and Long-Term Care facilities (e.g. - Old Age Homes, Hospices). The study explores various elder care settings, with the intention to develop an understanding about them, and thereby generate comprehensive information about the entire spectrum of elder care in Kolkata. Empirical data are collected from the elderly and their caregivers in different settings. The tools for data collection are narratives, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, along with field observations. Mixed method design is adopted to analyze the complexities of elder care in different set ups. The major challenges of elder care in private Homes are: architecturally inadequate housing conditions, paucity of financial support and scarcity of skilled caregivers. While the key factors preventing the Hospital and Long-Term Care Facilities from providing elder care services are inadequate policies and set governmental standards for elder care for the hospitalized elderly in various departments of the Hospital and the elderly residing in different kinds of Long Term Care Facilities. The limitations in each care setting results in considerable neglect and abuse of the elderly. The major challenges in elder care in West Bengal are lack of continuum between different care settings/ peripheral location of private Homes within public health framework and inadequate state Palliative policy- including narcotic regulations. The study suggests remedial measures to improve the capacity to deliver elder care in different settings.

Keywords: Elder care settings, family caregiver, home care, geriatric hospital care, long term care facility.

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1219 Utility of Range of Motion Measurements on Classification of Athletes

Authors: Dhiraj Dolai, Rupayan Bhattacharya

Abstract:

In this study, a comparison of Range Of Motion (ROM) of middle and long-distance runners and swimmers has been made. The mobility of the various joints is essential for the quick movement of any sportsman. Knowledge of a ROM helps in preventing injuries, in repeating the movement, and in generating speed and power. ROM varies among individuals, and it is influenced by factors such as gender, age, and whether the motion is performed actively or passively. ROM for running and swimming, both performed with due consideration on speed, plays an important role. The time of generation of speed and mobility of the particular joints are very important for both kinds of athletes. The difficulties that happen during running and swimming in the direction of motion is changed. In this study, data were collected for a total of 102 subjects divided into three groups: control group (22), middle and long-distance runners (40), and swimmers (40), and their ages are between 12 to 18 years. The swimmers have higher ROM in shoulder joint flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movement. Middle and long-distance runners have significantly greater ROM from Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with a 5.82 mean difference. Swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Control Group in the left shoulder joint flexion with 24.84 mean difference and swimmers have significantly higher ROM from the Middle and Long distance runners in left shoulder flexion with 19.02 mean difference. The picture will be clear after a more detailed investigation.

Keywords: Range of motion, runners, swimmers, significance.

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1218 An Improved Greedy Routing Algorithm for Grid using Pheromone-Based Landmarks

Authors: Lada-On Lertsuwanakul, Herwig Unger

Abstract:

This paper objects to extend Jon Kleinberg-s research. He introduced the structure of small-world in a grid and shows with a greedy algorithm using only local information able to find route between source and target in delivery time O(log2n). His fundamental model for distributed system uses a two-dimensional grid with longrange random links added between any two node u and v with a probability proportional to distance d(u,v)-2. We propose with an additional information of the long link nearby, we can find the shorter path. We apply the ant colony system as a messenger distributed their pheromone, the long-link details, in surrounding area. The subsequence forwarding decision has more option to move to, select among local neighbors or send to node has long link closer to its target. Our experiment results sustain our approach, the average routing time by Color Pheromone faster than greedy method.

Keywords: Routing algorithm, Small-World network, Ant Colony Optimization, and Peer-to-peer System.

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1217 Stochastic Modeling and Combined Spatial Pattern Analysis of Epidemic Spreading

Authors: S. Chadsuthi, W. Triampo, C. Modchang, P. Kanthang, D. Triampo, N. Nuttavut

Abstract:

We present analysis of spatial patterns of generic disease spread simulated by a stochastic long-range correlation SIR model, where individuals can be infected at long distance in a power law distribution. We integrated various tools, namely perimeter, circularity, fractal dimension, and aggregation index to characterize and investigate spatial pattern formations. Our primary goal was to understand for a given model of interest which tool has an advantage over the other and to what extent. We found that perimeter and circularity give information only for a case of strong correlation– while the fractal dimension and aggregation index exhibit the growth rule of pattern formation, depending on the degree of the correlation exponent (β). The aggregation index method used as an alternative method to describe the degree of pathogenic ratio (α). This study may provide a useful approach to characterize and analyze the pattern formation of epidemic spreading

Keywords: spatial pattern epidemics, aggregation index, fractaldimension, stochastic, long-rang epidemics

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1216 Leaching of Mineral Nitrogen and Phosphate from Rhizosphere Soil Stressed by Drought and Intensive Rainfall

Authors: J. Elbl, J. K. Friedel, J. Záhora, L. Plošek, A. Kintl, J. Přichystalová, J. Hynšt, L. Dostálová, K. Zákoutská

Abstract:

This work presents the first results from the long-term experiment, which is focused on the impact of intensive rainfall and long period of drought on microbial activities in soil. Fifteen lysimeters were prepared in the area of our interest. This area is a protection zone of underground source of drinking water. These lysimeters were filed with topsoil and subsoil collected in this area and divided into two groups. These groups differ in fertilization and amount of water received during the growing season. Amount of microbial biomass and leaching of mineral nitrogen and phosphates were chosen as main indicators of microbial activities in soil. Content of mineral nitrogen and phosphates was measured in soil solution, which was collected from each lysimeters. Amount of microbial biomass was determined in soil samples that were taken from the lysimeters before and after the long period of drought and intensive rainfall.

Keywords: Mineral nitrogen, Phosphates, Microbial activities, Drought, Precipitation.

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1215 Automatic Musical Genre Classification Using Divergence and Average Information Measures

Authors: Hassan Ezzaidi, Jean Rouat

Abstract:

Recently many research has been conducted to retrieve pertinent parameters and adequate models for automatic music genre classification. In this paper, two measures based upon information theory concepts are investigated for mapping the features space to decision space. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used as a baseline and reference system. Various strategies are proposed for training and testing sessions with matched or mismatched conditions, long training and long testing, long training and short testing. For all experiments, the file sections used for testing are never been used during training. With matched conditions all examined measures yield the best and similar scores (almost 100%). With mismatched conditions, the proposed measures yield better scores than the GMM baseline system, especially for the short testing case. It is also observed that the average discrimination information measure is most appropriate for music category classifications and on the other hand the divergence measure is more suitable for music subcategory classifications.

Keywords: Audio feature, information measures, music genre.

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1214 Effect of Drought Stress on Nitrogen Components in Corn

Authors: Masoud Rafiee, Fatemeh Abdipoor, Hosain Lari

Abstract:

An attempt was made to study of nitrogen components response of corn (Zea mays L.) to drought stress. A farm research was done in RCBD as split-plot with four replications in Khorramabad, west Iran. Drought stress levels as irrigation regimes after 75 (control), 100, and 120 (stress) mm cumulative evaporation were in main plots, and four seed corn varieties include 500 (medium maturity), 647, 700, and 704 (long maturity) were as subplots. Soluble protein, nitrate and proline amino acid were measured in shoot and root at flowering stage, and grain yield was measured in harvesting stage. As the drought progressed, the amount of nitrate and proline followed an increasing trend, but soluble protein decreased in shoot and root. The highest amount of nitrate and proline was observed in longer maturity varieties than shorter ones, but decrease yield of long maturity varieties was higher than medium maturity varieties in drought condition, because of long duration of stress.

Keywords: Nitrate, Proline, Soluble protein, Yield

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1213 Small Sample Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Long-Memory Parameter

Authors: Josu Arteche, Jesus Orbe

Abstract:

The log periodogram regression is widely used in empirical applications because of its simplicity, since only a least squares regression is required to estimate the memory parameter, d, its good asymptotic properties and its robustness to misspecification of the short term behavior of the series. However, the asymptotic distribution is a poor approximation of the (unknown) finite sample distribution if the sample size is small. Here the finite sample performance of different nonparametric residual bootstrap procedures is analyzed when applied to construct confidence intervals. In particular, in addition to the basic residual bootstrap, the local and block bootstrap that might adequately replicate the structure that may arise in the errors of the regression are considered when the series shows weak dependence in addition to the long memory component. Bias correcting bootstrap to adjust the bias caused by that structure is also considered. Finally, the performance of the bootstrap in log periodogram regression based confidence intervals is assessed in different type of models and how its performance changes as sample size increases.

Keywords: bootstrap, confidence interval, log periodogram regression, long memory.

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1212 Efficient Large Numbers Karatsuba-Ofman Multiplier Designs for Embedded Systems

Authors: M.Machhout, M.Zeghid, W.El hadj youssef, B.Bouallegue, A.Baganne, R.Tourki

Abstract:

Long number multiplications (n ≥ 128-bit) are a primitive in most cryptosystems. They can be performed better by using Karatsuba-Ofman technique. This algorithm is easy to parallelize on workstation network and on distributed memory, and it-s known as the practical method of choice. Multiplying long numbers using Karatsuba-Ofman algorithm is fast but is highly recursive. In this paper, we propose different designs of implementing Karatsuba-Ofman multiplier. A mixture of sequential and combinational system design techniques involving pipelining is applied to our proposed designs. Multiplying large numbers can be adapted flexibly to time, area and power criteria. Computationally and occupation constrained in embedded systems such as: smart cards, mobile phones..., multiplication of finite field elements can be achieved more efficiently. The proposed designs are compared to other existing techniques. Mathematical models (Area (n), Delay (n)) of our proposed designs are also elaborated and evaluated on different FPGAs devices.

Keywords: finite field, Karatsuba-Ofman, long numbers, multiplication, mathematical model, recursivity.

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1211 Thread Lift: Classification, Technique, and How to Approach to the Patient

Authors: Panprapa Yongtrakul, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pakjira Siriphan

Abstract:

Background: The thread lift technique has become popular because it is less invasive, requires a shorter operation, less downtime, and results in fewer postoperative complications. The advantage of the technique is that the thread can be inserted under the skin without the need for long incisions. Currently, there are a lot of thread lift techniques with respect to the specific types of thread used on specific areas, such as the mid-face, lower face, or neck area. Objective: To review the thread lift technique for specific areas according to type of thread, patient selection, and how to match the most appropriate to the patient. Materials and Methods: A literature review technique was conducted by searching PubMed and MEDLINE, then compiled and summarized. Result: We have divided our protocols into two sections: Protocols for short suture, and protocols for long suture techniques. We also created 3D pictures for each technique to enhance understanding and application in a clinical setting. Conclusion: There are advantages and disadvantages to short suture and long suture techniques. The best outcome for each patient depends on appropriate patient selection and determining the most suitable technique for the defect and area of patient concern.

Keywords: Thread lift, thread lift method, thread lift technique, thread lift procedure, threading.

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1210 Long Term Stability of an Experimental Insulated-Model Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond

Authors: N. W. K. Jayatissa, R. Attalage, Prabath Hewageegana, P. A. A. Perera, M. A. Punyasena

Abstract:

Per capita energy usage in any country is exponentially increasing with their development. As a result, the country’s dependence on the fossil fuels for energy generation is also increasing tremendously creating economic and environmental concerns. Tropical countries receive considerable amount of solar radiation throughout the year, use of solar energy with different energy storage and conversion methodologies is a viable solution to minimize the ever increasing demand for the depleting fossil fuels. Salinity gradient solar pond is one such solar energy application. This paper reports the characteristics and performance of a thermally insulated, experimental salinity-gradient solar pond, built at the premises of the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Particular stress is given to the behavior of the evolution of the three layer structure exist at the stable state of a salinity gradient solar pond over a long period of time, under different environmental conditions. The operational procedures required to maintain the long term thermal stability are also reported in this article.

Keywords: Salt-gradient, solar pond, solar radiation, renewable energy.

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1209 Memory Types in Hemodialysis Patients: A Study Based on Hemodialysis Duration, Zahedan, South East of Iran

Authors: B. Sabayan, A. Alidadi, S. Ebrahimi, N. M. Bakhshani

Abstract:

Neuropsychological problems are more common in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term HD on memory types of HD patients. To assess the different type of memory, we used memory parts of the Persian Papers and Pencil Cognitive assessment package (PCAP) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R). Our study included 80 HD patients of whom 39 had less than six months of HD and 41 patients and another group which had a history of HD more than six months. The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old and 27.5% of them were female. The scores of patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had lower score in anterograde, explicit, visual, recall and recognition memory (5.44±1.07, 9.49±3.472, 22.805±6.6913, 5.59±10.435, 11.02±3.190 score) than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, where the median time was 3 to 5 months (P<0.01). The regression result shows that, by increasing the HD duration, all memory types are reduced (R2=0.600, P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that HD patients who were under HD for a long time had significantly lower scores in the different types of memory. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

Keywords: Hemodialysis patients, duration of hemodialysis, memory types, Zahedan.

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1208 Long-Term Simulation of Digestive Sound Signals by CEPSTRAL Technique

Authors: Einalou Z., Najafi Z., Maghooli K. Zandi Y, Sheibeigi A

Abstract:

In this study, an investigation over digestive diseases has been done in which the sound acts as a detector medium. Pursue to the preprocessing the extracted signal in cepstrum domain is registered. After classification of digestive diseases, the system selects random samples based on their features and generates the interest nonstationary, long-term signals via inverse transform in cepstral domain which is presented in digital and sonic form as the output. This structure is updatable or on the other word, by receiving a new signal the corresponding disease classification is updated in the feature domain.

Keywords: Cepstrum, databank, digestive disease, acousticsignal.

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1207 Emergency Response Plan Establishment and Computerization through the Analysis of the Disasters Occurring on Long-Span Bridges by Type

Authors: Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park, Dooyong Cho, Jinwoong Choi

Abstract:

In this paper, a strategy for long-span bridge disaster response was developed, divided into risk analysis, business impact analysis, and emergency response plan. At the risk analysis stage, the critical risk was estimated. The critical risk was “car accident."The critical process by critical-risk classification was assessed at the business impact analysis stage. The critical process was the task related to the road conditions and traffic safety. Based on the results of the precedent analysis, an emergency response plan was established. By making the order of the standard operating procedures clear, an effective plan for dealing with disaster was formulated. Finally, a prototype software was developed based on the research findings. This study laid the foundation of an information-technology-based disaster response guideline and is significant in that it computerized the disaster response plan to improve the plan-s accessibility.

Keywords: Emergency response; Long-span bridge; Disaster management; Standard operating procedure; Ubiquitous.

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1206 Enhanced Economic Evaluation – Approach for a Holistic Evaluation of Factory Planning Variants

Authors: Candy P. Schulze, Michael Brieke, Prof. Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

The building of a factory can be a strategic investment owing to its long service life. An evaluation that only focuses, for example, on payments for the building, the technical equipment of the factory, and the personnel for the enterprise is – considering the complexity of the system factory – not sufficient for this long-term view. The success of an investment is secured, among other things, by the attainment of nonmonetary goals, too, like transformability. Such aspects are not considered in traditional investment calculations like the net present value method. This paper closes this gap with the enhanced economic evaluation (EWR) for factory planning. The procedure and the first results of an application in a project are presented.

Keywords: economic efficiency, holistic evaluation, factory planning

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1205 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Sung-yong Choi, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Creep, Lean concrete, Pavement, Fiber reinforced concrete, Base.

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1204 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Woo-Tai Jung, Sung-Yong Choi, Young-Hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Creep, Lean concrete, Pavement, Fiber reinforced concrete, Base.

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1203 Buckling Performance of Irregular Section Cold-Formed Steel Columns under Axially Concentric Loading

Authors: Chayanon Hansapinyo

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental investigation and finite element analysis on buckling behavior of irregular section coldformed steel columns under axially concentric loading. For the experimental study, four different sections of columns were tested to investigate effect of stiffening and width-to-thickness ratio on buckling behavior. For each of the section, three lengths of 230, 950 and 1900 mm. were studied representing short, intermediate long and long columns, respectively. Then, nonlinear finite element analyses of the tested columns were performed. The comparisons in terms of load-deformation response and buckling mode show good agreement and hence the FEM models were validated. Parametric study of stiffening element and thickness of 1.0, 1.15, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0 mm. was analyzed. The test results showed that stiffening effect pays a large contribution to prevent distortional mode. The increase in wall thickness enhanced buckling stress beyond the yielding strength in short and intermediate columns, but not for the long columns.

Keywords: Buckling behavior, Irregular section, Cold-formed steel, Concentric loading.

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