Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2609

Search results for: Negative Poisson’s Ratio

2519 Negative Temperature Dependence of a Gravity - A Reality

Authors: Alexander L. Dmitriev, Sophia A. Bulgakova

Abstract:

Temperature dependence of force of gravitation is one of the fundamental problems of physics. This problem has got special value in connection with that the general theory of relativity, supposing the weakest positive influence of a body temperature on its weight, actually rejects an opportunity of measurement of negative influence of temperature on gravity in laboratory conditions. Really, the recognition of negative temperature dependence of gravitation, for example, means basic impossibility of achievement of a singularity («a black hole») at a gravitational collapse. Laboratory experiments with exact weighing the heated up metal samples, indicating negative influence temperatures of bodies on their physical weight are described. Influence of mistakes of measurements is analyzed. Calculations of distribution of temperature in volume of the bar, agreed with experimental data of time dependence of weight of samples are executed. The physical substantiation of negative temperature dependence of weight of the bodies, based on correlation of acceleration at thermal movement of micro-particles of a body and its absolute temperature, are given.

Keywords: Gravitation, temperature, weight.

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2518 First Principles Study of Structural and Elastic Properties of BaWO4 Scheelite Phase Structure under Pressure

Authors: A. Benmakhlouf, A. Bentabet

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigated the athermal pressure behavior of the structural and elastic properties of scheelite BaWO4 phase up to 7 GPa using the ab initio pseudo-potential method. The calculated lattice parameters pressure relation have been compared with the experimental values and found to be in good agreement with these results. Moreover, we present for the first time the investigation of the elastic properties of this compound using the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). It is shown that this phase is mechanically stable up to 7 GPa after analyzing the calculated elastic constants. Other relevant quantities such as bulk modulus, pressure derivative of bulk modulus, shear modulus; Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, anisotropy factors, Debye temperature and sound velocity have been calculated. The obtained results, which are reported for the first time to the best of the author’s knowledge, can facilitate assessment of possible applications of the title material.

Keywords: Pseudo-potential method, pressure, structural and elastic properties, scheelite BaWO4 phase.

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2517 A Computational Study into the Effect of Design Parameters on Ignition Timing and Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine in Internal Combustion Engines Fuelled with Isooctane

Authors: Fridhi Hadia, Soua Wadhah, Hidouri Ammar, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

In order to understand the auto-ignition process in a HCCI engine better, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the inlet pressure, and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the ignition delays and emission characteristics were studied. The inlet temperature was changed from 400 K to 460 K (in step of 15 K), the inlet pressure from 0.9 to 3 atm, while the compression ratio varied from 15 to 23. The fuel that was investigated is isooctane. The inlet temperature, the inlet pressure, and the compression ratio appeared to decrease the ignition delays, with the inlet pressure having the least influence and the compression ratio the most. The effect of these parameters on emissions’ characteristics were also investigated. Results indicate that increasing the compression ratio results in increasing the concentration of all the species.

Keywords: Compression Ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, HCCI engine, isooctane.

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2516 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to find the effect of load ratio on probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack size and to confirm the good probability distribution in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: Load ratio, fatigue crack propagation life, Magnesium alloys, probability distribution.

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2515 Acid Fuchsin Dye Based PMMA Film for Holographic Investigations

Authors: G. Vinitha, A. Ramalingam

Abstract:

In view of a possible application in optical data storage devices, diffraction grating efficiency of an organic dye, Acid Fuchsin doped in PMMA matrix was studied under excitation with CW diode pumped Nd: YAG laser at 532 nm. The open aperture Zscan of dye doped polymer displayed saturable absorption and the closed aperture Z-scan of the samples exhibited negative nonlinearity. The diffraction efficiency of the grating is the ratio of the intensity of the first order diffracted power to the incident read beam power. The dye doped polymer films were found to be good media for recording. It is observed that the formation of gratings strongly depend on the concentration of dye in the polymer film, the intensity ratios of the writing beams and the angle between the writing beams. It has been found that efficient writing can be made at an angle of 20o and when the intensity ratio of the writing beams is unity.

Keywords: Diffraction efficiency, Nonlinear Optical material, saturable absorption, Surface-relief-gratings.

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2514 A New Bound on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based On Bipartite Graphs of Larger Girth

Authors: Hui-Chuan Lu

Abstract:

In a perfect secret-sharing scheme, a dealer distributes a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of the participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The access structure of the scheme refers to the collection of all qualified subsets. In a graph-based access structures, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme realizing a given access structure is the ratio of the average length of the shares given to the participants to the length of the secret. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing an access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. We study the optimal average information ratio of the access structures based on bipartite graphs. Based on some previous results, we give a bound on the optimal average information ratio for all bipartite graphs of girth at least six. This bound is the best possible for some classes of bipartite graphs using our approach.

Keywords: Secret-sharing scheme, average information ratio, star covering, deduction, core cluster.

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2513 The Implicit Methods for the Study of Tolerance

Authors: M. Bambulyakа

Abstract:

Tolerance is a tool for achieving a social cohesion, particularly, among individuals and groups with different values. The aim is to study the characteristics of the ethnic tolerance, the inhabitants of Latvia. The ethnic tolerance is taught as a set of conscious and unconscious orientations of the individual in social interaction and inter-ethnic communication. It uses the tools of empirical studies of the ethnic tolerance which allows to identify the explicitly and implicitly levels of the emotional component of Latvia's residents. Explicit measurements were made using the techniques of self-report which revealed the index of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of the participants. The implicit component was studied using methods based on the effect of the emotional priming. During the processing of the results, there were calculated indicators of the positive and negative implicit attitudes towards members of their own and other ethnicity as well as the explicit parameters of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of Latvia-s residents. The implicit measurements of the ratio of neighboring ethnic groups against each other showed a mutual negative attitude whereas the explicit measurements indicate a neutral attitude. The data obtained contribute to a further study of the ethnic tolerance of Latvia's residents.

Keywords: ethnic tolerance, implicit measure, priming, ethnic attitudes

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2512 On Cross-Ratio in some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes

Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We show that a collineation of M(A) preserve cross-ratio. Also, we obtain some results about harmonic points.

Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation, cross-ratio, harmonic points.

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2511 Effect of Single Overload Ratio and Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this investigation variation of cyclic loading effect on fatigue crack growth is the studied. This study is performed on 2024 T351 and 7050-T74 aluminum alloys, used in aeronautical structures. The propagation model used in this study is NASGRO model. In constant amplitude loading (CA), effect of stress ratio has been investigated. Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate were affected by this factor. Results showed an increasing in fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) with increasing stress ratio. Variable amplitude loading (VAL) can take many forms i.e. with a single overload, overload band… etc. The shape of these loads affects strongly the fracture life and FCGRs. The application of a single overload (ORL) decrease the FCGR and increase the delay crack length caused by the formation of a larger plastic zone compared to the plastic zone due without VAL. The fatigue behavior of the both material under single overload has been compared.

Keywords: Fatigue crack growth, overload ratio, stress ratio, generalized willenborg model, retardation, Al-alloys.

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2510 Rail-To-Rail Output Op-Amp Design with Negative Miller Capacitance Compensation

Authors: Muhaned Zaidi, Ian Grout, Abu Khari bin A’ain

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-stage op-amp design is considered using both Miller and negative Miller compensation techniques. The first op-amp design uses Miller compensation around the second amplification stage, whilst the second op-amp design uses negative Miller compensation around the first stage and Miller compensation around the second amplification stage. The aims of this work were to compare the gain and phase margins obtained using the different compensation techniques and identify the ability to choose either compensation technique based on a particular set of design requirements. The two op-amp designs created are based on the same two-stage rail-to-rail output CMOS op-amp architecture where the first stage of the op-amp consists of differential input and cascode circuits, and the second stage is a class AB amplifier. The op-amps have been designed using a 0.35mm CMOS fabrication process.

Keywords: Op-amp, rail-to-rail output, Miller compensation, negative Miller capacitance.

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2509 Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer

Authors: P. K. Nagarajan, P. Sivashanmugam

Abstract:

Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evaluation analysis has been made and found that the performance ratio increases with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing twist ration with the maximum for the twist ratio 2.93. Also, the performance ratio of more than one indicates that the type of twist inserts can be used effectively for heat transfer augmentation.

Keywords: Heat transfer augmentation, right-left helical screw inserts with spacer, Twist ratio, Heat Transfer

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2508 Development of All-male Fingerlings by Heat Treatment and the Genetic Mechanism of Heat Induced Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.)

Authors: P. O. Angienda, B. O. Aketch, E. N. Waindi

Abstract:

Juvenile Nile tilapia subjected to heat treatment at temperatures ranging from 260C to 370C showed positive correlation (P<0.01) between treatment temperatures and resultant sex ratios, while, survival rate of the fry showed a negative correlation against temperature (P<0.01). The optimal temperature for both sex shift towards males and survival rates was 36±0.5°C, producing male percentage of 86.31 and a fry survival of 65.25. To determine the genetic basis of temperature sex-determination in Nile tilapia, we employed three microsatellite markers (Abur36, Abur100 and UNH846). Abur36 predicted the sex of 95% of the heat induced individuals, suggesting that the locus influence sex ratio and its interaction with temperature result in male biased sex ratio. This locus could turn out to be the major sex determining gene operating in Nile tilapia. These markers could be used in marker-assisted selection to select genotypes that give a higher percentage of males for commercial production.

Keywords: Heat treatment, Microsatellite, Nile tilapia, sex-determination.

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2507 Upper Bound of the Generalize p-Value for the Behrens-Fisher Problem with a Known Ratio of Variances

Authors: Rada Somkhuean, Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the Behrens-Fisher problem when a ratio of variance is known. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

Keywords: Generalized p-value, hypothesis testing, ratio of variances, upper bound.

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2506 Ownership, Management Responsibility and Corporate Performance of the Listed Firms in Kazakhstan

Authors: Gulnara Moldasheva

Abstract:

The research explores the relationship between management responsibility and corporate governance of listed companies in Kazakhstan. This research employs firm level data of selected listed non-financial firms and firm level data “operational” financial sector, consisted from banking sector, insurance companies and accumulated pension funds using multivariate regression analysis under fixed effect model approach. Ownership structure includes institutional ownership, managerial ownership and private investor’s ownership. Management responsibility of the firm is expressed by the decision of the firm on amount of leverage. Results of the cross sectional panel study for non-financial firms showed that only institutional shareholding is significantly negatively correlated with debt to equity ratio. Findings from “operational” financial sector show that leverage is significantly affected only by the CEO/Chair duality and the size of financial institutions, and insignificantly affected by ownership structure. Also, the findings show, that there is a significant negative relationship between profitability and the debt to equity ratio for non-financial firms, which is consistent with pecking order theory. Generally, the found results suggest that corporate governance and a management responsibility play important role in corporate performance of listed firms in Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Corporate governance, corporate performance, debt to equity ratio, ownership.

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2505 Study of Photonic Crystal Band Gap and Hexagonal Microcavity Based on Elliptical Shaped Holes

Authors: A. Benmerkhi, A. Bounouioua, M. Bouchemat, T. Bouchemat

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a numerical optical properties of a triangular periodic lattice of elliptical air holes. We report the influence of the ratio (semi-major axis length of elliptical hole to the filling ratio) on the photonic band gap. Then by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm, the resonant wavelength of the point defect microcavities in a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) shifts towards the low wavelengths with significantly increased filing ratio. It can be noted that the Q factor is gradually changed to higher when the filling ratio increases. It is due to an increase in reflectivity of the PC mirror. Also we theoretically investigate the H1 cavity, where the value of semi-major axis (Rx) of the six holes surrounding the cavity are fixed at 0.5a and the Rx of the two edge air holes are fixed at the optimum value of 0.52a. The highest Q factor of 4.1359 × 106 is achieved at the resonant mode located at λ = 1.4970 µm.

Keywords: Photonic crystal, microcavity, filling ratio, elliptical holes.

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2504 Comparison of Stochastic Point Process Models of Rainfall in Singapore

Authors: Y. Lu, X. S. Qin

Abstract:

Extensive rainfall disaggregation approaches have been developed and applied in climate change impact studies such as flood risk assessment and urban storm water management.In this study, five rainfall models that were capable ofdisaggregating daily rainfall data into hourly one were investigated for the rainfall record in theChangi Airport, Singapore. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the temporal characteristics of hourly rainfall in Singapore, and (ii) to evaluate the performance of variousdisaggregation models. The used models included: (i) Rectangular pulse Poisson model (RPPM), (ii) Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular pulse model (BLRPM), (iii) Bartlett-Lewis model with 2 cell types (BL2C), (iv) Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular with cell depth distribution dependent on duration (BLRD), and (v) Neyman-Scott Rectangular pulse model (NSRPM). All of these models werefitted using hourly rainfall data ranging from 1980 to 2005 (which was obtained from Changimeteorological station).The study results indicated that the weight scheme of inversely proportional variance could deliver more accurateoutputs for fitting rainfall patterns in tropical areas, and BLRPM performedrelatively better than other disaggregation models.

Keywords: Rainfall disaggregation, statistical properties, poisson processed, Bartlett-Lewis model, Neyman-Scott model.

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2503 An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence

Authors: Sewon Kim, Chang Yeop Lee, Minjun Kwon

Abstract:

This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace, and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, the strategy of combustion control method is proposed using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists, and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.

Keywords: Flame chemiluminescence, photo diode, equivalence ratio, combustion control.

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2502 A Study on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based On Bipartite Graphs

Authors: Hui-Chuan Lu

Abstract:

A perfect secret-sharing scheme is a method to distribute a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The collection of all qualified subsets is called the access structure of the perfect secret-sharing scheme. In a graph-based access structure, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme  realizing the access structure based on G is defined as AR = (Pv2V (G) H(v))/(|V (G)|H(s)), where s is the secret and v is the share of v, both are random variables from  and H is the Shannon entropy. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing a given access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. Most known results about the optimal average information ratio give upper bounds or lower bounds on it. In this present structures based on bipartite graphs and determine the exact values of the optimal average information ratio of some infinite classes of them.

Keywords: secret-sharing scheme, average information ratio, star covering, core sequence.

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2501 Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Soluble Transferrin Receptor-Ferritin Index Tests in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Obaid, Bilal Wajid, Nauman Haider, Muhammad Zafrullah

Abstract:

In this research article, a comprehensive analysis is performed to compare the diagnostic performance of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/log ferritin index tests in the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD). The analysis is performed for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index using a set of 11 studies. The overall odds ratios for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index were 36.79 and 119.32 respectively, using 95% confidence interval. The relative sensitivity, specificity. positive likelihood ratio (LR) and negative LR values for sTfR in relation to sTfR/log ferritin index were 81% vs 85%, 84% vs 93%, 6.31 vs 13.95 and 0.18 vs 0.14 respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves are also plotted for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index. The area under SROC curves for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index was found to be 0.9296 and 0.9825 respectively. Although both tests are useful, the sTfR/log ferritin index seems to be more effective when compared with sTfR.

Keywords: Anemia, sTfR, iron deficiency, ferritin, odds ratio, sensitivity.

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2500 Numerical Analysis on the Performance of Heatsink with Microchannels

Authors: Jer-Huan Jang, Han-Chieh Chiu, Wei-Chung Yeih, Jia-Jui Yang, Chien-Sheng Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical simulation is used to investigate the thermal performance of liquid cooling heatsink with microchannels due to geometric arrangement. Commercial software ICEPAK is utilized for the analysis. The considered parameters include aspect ratio, porosity and the length and height of microchannel. The aspect ratio varies from 3 to 16 and the length of microchannel is 10mm, 14mm, and 18mm. The height of microchannel is 2mm, 3mm and 4mm. It is found short channel have better thermal efficiency than long channel at 490Pa. No matter the length of channel the best aspect ratio is 4. It is also noted that pressure difference at 2940Pa the best aspect ratio from 4 to 8, it means pressure difference affect aspect ratio, effective thermal resistance at low pressure difference but lower effective thermal resistance at high pressure difference.

Keywords: thermal resistance, liquid cooling, microchannels, numerical analysis, pressure difference

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2499 A Water Reuse System in Wetland Paddy Supports the Growing Industrial Water Needs

Authors: Yu-Chuan Chang, Chen Shi-Kai

Abstract:

A water reuse system in wetland paddy was simulated to supply water for industrial in this paper. A two-tank model was employed to represent the return flow of the wetland paddy.Historical data were performed for parameter estimation and model verification. With parameters estimated from the data, the model was then used to simulate a reasonable return flow rate from the wetland paddy. The simulation results show that the return flow ratio was 11.56% in the first crop season and 35.66% in the second crop season individually; the difference may result from the heavy rainfall in the second crop season. Under the existent pond with surplus active capacity, the water reuse ratio was 17.14%, and the water supplementary ratio was 21.56%. However, the pattern of rainfall, the active capacity of the pond, and the rate of water treatment limit the volume of reuse water. Increasing the irrigation water, dredging the depth of pond before rainy season and enlarging the scale of module are help to develop water reuse system to support for the industrial water use around wetland paddy.

Keywords: Return flow, water reuse, wetland paddy, return flow ratio (RR), water reuse ratio (WRR), water supplementary ratio(WSR)

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2498 A Simulation Study of E-Glass Reinforced Polyurethane Footbed and Investigation of Parameters Effecting Elastic Behaviour of Footbed Material

Authors: Berkay Ergene, Çağın Bolat

Abstract:

In this study, we mainly focused on a simulation study regarding composite footbed in order to contribute to shoe industry. As a footbed, e-glass fiber reinforced polyurethane was determined since polyurethane based materials are already used for footbed in shoe manufacturing frequently. Flat, elliptical and rectangular grooved shoe soles were modeled and analyzed separately as TPU, 10% glass fiber reinforced, 30% glass fiber reinforced and 50% glass fiber reinforced materials according to their properties under three point bending and compression situations to determine the relationship between model, material type and mechanical behaviours of composite model. ANSYS 14.0 APDL mechanical structural module is utilized in all simulations and analyzed stress and strain distributions for different footbed models and materials. Furthermore, materials constants like young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson ratio and density of the composites were calculated theoretically by using composite mixture rule and interpreted for mechanical aspects.

Keywords: Composite, elastic behaviour, footbed, simulation.

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2497 Role of Viscosity Ratio in Liquid-Liquid Jets under Radial Electric Field

Authors: Siddharth Gadkari, Rochish Thaokar

Abstract:

The effect of viscosity ratio (λ, defined as viscosity of surrounding medium/viscosity of fluid jet) on stability of axisymmetric (m=0) and asymmetric (m=1) modes of perturbation on a liquid-liquid jet in presence of radial electric field (E0 ), is studied using linear stability analysis. The viscosity ratio is shown to have a damping effect on both the modes of perturbation. However the effect was found more pronounced for the m=1 mode as compared to m=1 mode. Investigating the effect of both E0 and λ simultaneously, an operating diagram is generated, which clearly shows the regions of dominance of the two modes for a range of electric field and viscosity ratio values.

Keywords: liquid-liquid jet, axisymmetric perturbation, asymmetric perturbation, radial electric field

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2496 Two-dimensional Analytical Drain Current Model for Multilayered-Gate Material Engineered Trapezoidal Recessed Channel(MLGME-TRC) MOSFET: a Novel Design

Authors: Priyanka Malik A, Rishu Chaujar B, Mridula Gupta C, R.S. Gupta D

Abstract:

In this paper, for the first time, a two-dimensional (2D) analytical drain current model for sub-100 nm multi-layered gate material engineered trapezoidal recessed channel (MLGMETRC) MOSFET: a novel design is presented and investigated using ATLAS and DEVEDIT device simulators, to mitigate the large gate leakages and increased standby power consumption that arise due to continued scaling of SiO2-based gate dielectrics. The twodimensional (2D) analytical model based on solution of Poisson-s equation in cylindrical coordinates, utilizing the cylindrical approximation, has been developed which evaluate the surface potential, electric field, drain current, switching metric: ION/IOFF ratio and transconductance for the proposed design. A good agreement between the model predictions and device simulation results is obtained, verifying the accuracy of the proposed analytical model.

Keywords: ATLAS, DEVEDIT, NJD, MLGME- TRCMOSFET.

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2495 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of a Gas Turbine Unit at Various Ambient Conditions

Authors: Idris A. Elfeituri

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of a 285 MW gas turbine unit using the exergy concept. Based on the available exergy balance models developed, a computer program has been constructed to investigate the performance of the power plant under varying ambient temperature and relative humidity conditions. The variations of ambient temperature range from zero to 50 ºC and the relative humidity ranges from zero to 100%, while the unit load kept constant at 100% of the design load. The exergy destruction ratio and exergy efficiency are determined for each component and for the entire plant. The results show a moderate increase in the total exergy destruction ratio of the plant from 62.05% to 65.20%, while the overall exergy efficiency decrease from 38.2% to 34.8% as the ambient temperature increases from zero to 50 ºC at all relative humidity values. Furthermore, an increase of 1 ºC in ambient temperature leads to 0.063% increase in the total exergy destruction ratio and 0.07% decrease in the overall exergy efficiency. The relative humidity has a remarkable influence at higher ambient temperature values on the exergy destruction ratio of combustion chamber and on exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas but almost no effect on the total exergy destruction ratio and overall exergy efficiency. At 50 ºC ambient temperature, the exergy destruction ratio of the combustion chamber increases from 30% to 52% while the exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas decreases from 28% to 8% as the relative humidity increases from zero to 100%. In addition, exergy analysis reveals that the combustion chamber and exhaust gas are the main source of irreversibility in the gas turbine unit. It is also identified that the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio are considerably dependent on the variations in the ambient air temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, the incorporation of the existing gas turbine plant with inlet air cooling and humidifier technologies should be considered seriously.

Keywords: Destruction, exergy, gas turbine, irreversibility, performance.

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2494 Periodicity for a Semi–Ratio–Dependent Predator–Prey System with Delays on Time Scales

Authors: Kejun Zhuang

Abstract:

In this paper, the semi–ratio–dependent predator-prey system with nonmonotonic functional response on time scales is investigated. By using the coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for existence of periodic solutions are obtained.

Keywords: Semi–ratio–dependent, predator–prey system, coincidence degree, time scales.

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2493 Generalized Maximal Ratio Combining as a Supra-optimal Receiver Diversity Scheme

Authors: Jean-Pierre Dubois, Rania Minkara, Rafic Ayoubi

Abstract:

Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) is considered the most complex combining technique as it requires channel coefficients estimation. It results in the lowest bit error rate (BER) compared to all other combining techniques. However the BER starts to deteriorate as errors are introduced in the channel coefficients estimation. A novel combining technique, termed Generalized Maximal Ratio Combining (GMRC) with a polynomial kernel, yields an identical BER as MRC with perfect channel estimation and a lower BER in the presence of channel estimation errors. We show that GMRC outperforms the optimal MRC scheme in general and we hereinafter introduce it to the scientific community as a new “supraoptimal" algorithm. Since diversity combining is especially effective in small femto- and pico-cells, internet-associated wireless peripheral systems are to benefit most from GMRC. As a result, many spinoff applications can be made to IP-based 4th generation networks.

Keywords: Bit error rate, femto-internet cells, generalized maximal ratio combining, signal-to-scattering noise ratio.

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2492 Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methanol over Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst

Authors: S. F. H. Tasfy, N. A. M. Zabidi, M. S. Shaharun

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is highly thermochemical stable molecules where it is very difficult to activate the molecule and achieve higher catalytic conversion into alcohols or other hydrocarbon compounds. In this paper, series of the bimetallic Cu/ZnO-based catalyst supported by SBA-15 were systematically prepared via impregnation technique with different Cu: Zn ratio for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed desorption, reduction, oxidation and pulse chemisorption (TPDRO), and surface area determination was also performed. All catalysts were tested with respect to the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol in microactivity fixed-bed reactor at 250oC, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3. The results demonstrate that the catalytic structure, activity, and methanol selectivity was strongly affected by the ratio between Cu: Zn, Where higher catalytic activity of 14 % and methanol selectivity of 92 % was obtained over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst with Cu:Zn ratio of 7:3 wt. %. Comparing with the single catalyst, the synergetic between Cu and Zn provides additional active sites to adsorb more H2 and CO2 and accelerate the CO2 conversion, resulting in higher methanol production under mild reaction conditions.

Keywords: Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, methanol synthesis, Cu/ZnO-based catalyst, mesoporous silica (SBA-15), and metal ratio.

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2491 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari

Abstract:

Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: Rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis.

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2490 Adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Prepared from Cashew Nut Shells

Authors: S. Tangjuank, N. Insuk , J. Tontrakoon , V. Udeye

Abstract:

Cashew nut shells were converted into activated carbon powders using KOH activation plus CO2 gasification at 1027 K. The increase both of impregnation ratio and activation time, there was swiftly the development of mesoporous structure with increasing of mesopore volume ratio from 20-28% and 27-45% for activated carbon with ratio of KOH per char equal to 1 and 4, respectively. Activated carbon derived from KOH/char ratio equal to 1 and CO2 gasification time from 20 to 150 minutes were exhibited the BET surface area increasing from 222 to 627 m2.g-1. And those were derived from KOH/char ratio of 4 with activation time from 20 to 150 minutes exhibited high BET surface area from 682 to 1026 m2.g-1. The adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion was investigated. This adsorbent exhibited excellent adsorption for Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion. Maximum adsorption presented at 99.61% at pH 6.5 and 98.87% at optimum conditions. The experimental data was calculated from Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions was found to be 28.90 m2.g-1 and 14.29 m2.g-1, respectively.

Keywords: Activated carbon, cashew nut shell, heavy metals, adsorption.

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