Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30517
Individualistic and Social Moral Concerns in Hawthorne’s Novels

Authors: Mohsen Mahmoud Rowshanzamir


In all his novels, Hawthorne, the American writer, created settings in which his moral concerns could be presented through the actions of his characters. He illustrated his concern over the moral fall of man in the nineteenth century obsession for technological advancement. In “The Blithedale Romance” and “The House of Seven Gable” quite vividly, he pictured individualistic moral vices as the result of outside forces which caused social immorality. “The Marble Faun”, in its own turn, has the same type of social moral concerns to present: the story of nineteenth century modern man and his individualistic moral issues which lead to his social moral fall. He depicted the dominant themes of individualistic moral vices which all lead to social alienation and rejection. He showed hypocrisy and evil intentions as leading to social immoral atmosphere.

Keywords: Individuals, sin, American literature, immorality, social moral concerns

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3525


[1] J. Crowley, Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Critical Heritage. New York: Rutledge, 2003.
[2] L. Person, The Cambridge Introduction to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
[3] N. Baym, Thwarted Nature: Nathaniel Hawthorne as Feminist. In Fritz Fleischmann, ed., American Novelists Revisited: Essays in Feminist Criticism. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1982.
[4] J. Idol and B. Jones, Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Contemporary Reviews. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
[5] K. Lystra, Searching the Heart: Women, Men, and Romantic Love in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
[6] S. Wright Bird, Critical companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne. New York: Facts on File Inc, 2007.
[7] A. Turner, Nathaniel Hawthorne: An Introduction and Interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc, 1961.
[8] N. Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter. A Norton Critical Edition, edited by Sculley Bradley et al. New York: W. W. Norton, 1962.
[9] B. Bourn Bryan, Reexamining Nathaniel (sic) Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. Microsoft Internet Explorer. Online.
[10] T. Dibble, The Scarlet Letter Notes. Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliff Notes Inc., 1988.
[11] A. Fider, Moral and Ethical Issues in The Scarlet Letter. U.S.A. 24th International Faith and Learning Seminar. 1999.
[12] H. James Henry, Hawthorne. New York: Cornell University Press, 1963.
[13] H. Gorman, The Absolved, The Redeemed, and the Dammed: A Triangle. The Scarlet Letter. A Norton Critical Edition, edited by Sculley Bradley et al. New York: W. W. Norton and Co, 1962.
[14] F. Crews, The Sins of the Fathers: Hawthorne's Psychological Themes. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.
[15] N. Hawthorne, The House of Seven Gables. New York: Dodo Press, 2001.
[16] H. Bloom, Nathaniel Hawthorne. New York: Chelsea House, 2007.
[17] C. Castiglia, The Marvelous Queer Interiors of The House of the Seven Gables, The Cambridge Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne, ed. Millington: 2007.
[18] B. Michelson, Hawthorne's House of Three Stories. The New England Quarterly Vol. 57, No. 2. 1984.
[19] H. Hoeltje, Inward Sky. The Mind and Heart of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Durham: N.C. Duke University Press, 1962.
[20] G. Beauchamp, Hawthorne and the Universal Reformers. New York: Utopian Studies, 2002.
[21] B. Wineapple, Hawthorne, A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.
[22] N. Arvin, Hawthorne. New York: Russel and Russel, 1961.
[23] R. Folge. Hawthorne’s Fiction. The Light & the Dark. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952. University Press, 1994.
[24] M. Roy, Hawthorne’s Tragic Vision. Austin: U of Texas Press, 1957.
[25] G. Lathrop, A Study of Hawthorne. Austin: Indypublish, 2006.
[26] J. Alkana, The Social Self: Hawthorne, Howells, William James, and Nineteenth-Century Psychology. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1997.
[27] R. Millington, Cambridge Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne. UK: Cambridge University Pres., 2004.
[28] M. Budick, Emily as Quoted in Millington, Richard. Cambridge Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
[29] H. Gordon, Secrets and Sympathy: Forms of Disclosure in Hawthorne’s Novels. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.
[30] R. Steward, Hawthorne: A Biography. 1948. Reprint. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon, 2000.
[31] M. Bell, New essays on Hawthorne's major tales. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
[32] H. Waggoner, The Presence of Hawthorne. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1979.
[33] N. Hawthorne Nathaniel. The Marble Faun. A Norton Critical Edition, edited by Sculley Bradley et al. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1962.
[34] N. Hawthorne. The Marble Faun. A Norton Critical Edition, edited by Sculley Bradley et al. New York. W. W. Norton and Co. 1962. P. 163.