Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31584
Factors Associated with Mammography Screening Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study of Egyptian Women

Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Naglaa Fathy Youssef, Nadia Abdel Latif Hassan, Rasha Wesam Abdel Rahman


Breast cancer is considered as a substantial health concern and practicing mammography screening [MS] is important in minimizing its related morbidity. So it is essential to have a better understanding of breast cancer screening behaviors of women and factors that influence utilization of them. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that are linked to MS behaviors among the Egyptian women. A cross-sectional descriptive design was carried out to provide a snapshot of the factors that are linked to MS behaviors. A convenience sample of 311 women was utilized and all eligible participants admitted to the Women Imaging Unit who are 40 years of age or above, coming for mammography assessment, not pregnant or breast feeding and who accepted to participate in the study were included. A structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers and contains three parts; Socio-demographic data; Motivating factors associated with MS; and association between MS and model of behavior change. The analyzed data indicated that most of the participated women (66.6%) belonged to the age group of 40- 49.A high proportion of participants (58.1%) of group having previous MS influenced by their neighbors to practice MS, whereas 32.7 % in group not having previous MS were influenced by family members which indicated significant differences (P <0.05). Doctors and media shown to be the least influence of others to practice MS. Women with intention to have a future mammogram had higher OR (1.404) for practicing MS compared with women with no intention. Further studies are needed to examine the relation between Transtheoretical Model [TTM] and practicing MS.

Keywords: Breast cancer, mammography, screening behaviors.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1830


[1] D.S. Salem, R.M. Kamal, M.H. Helal, S.T. Hamed, N.A. Abdelrazek, N.H. Said, I. Adel, S.A. Maksoud, S. Mansour, H.A. Aboulmagd, & A.S. Selim. Women health outreach program: A new experience for all Egyptian women. Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 313-322.2008.
[2] M. Paul. Factors that influence the uptake of breast cancer screening among women of reproductive age in Mosocho division, Kisii central district, Kenya. Published Master thesis. School of Public Health, Kenyatta University. Available from: http://irlibrary.
[3] I.A. El-Attar. Cancer databases in the Arab World. Ethnicity and disease. vol.15, no.1, pp.3-4. 2005.
[4] G.M. Ismail, A.A. Abdel-Hamid, A. G. Abdel-Naby. Assessment of factors that hinder early detection of breast cancer among females at Cairo University Hospital. World Applied Sciences Journal. Vol. 23, no.1, pp.99-108. 2013.
[5] W. L. Wang, S. Hsu, J. H. Wang, L. Huang & W. L. Hsu. Survey of breast cancer mammography screening behaviors in Eastern Taiwan based on a health belief women. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences.vol.30, no.1, pp. 422-427.2014.
[6] S.S. Yarbrough, C.J. Braden. Utility of health belief as a guide for explaining or predicting breast cancer screening behaviors. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol.33, no.5, pp. 677-688. 2001.
[7] N. Canbulat & O. Uzun. Health belief and breast cancer screening behaviors among female health workers in Turkey. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. vol.12, no.1, pp.148-156.2008.
[8] S. Muller, W. Stern, P. Stoll, J. Kaiser & C. Claussen. Mammography and mammary ultrasonography: Which examination sequence is preferable? Vol.167, no.4, pp. 348-354.1997.
[9] S Feig. Comparison of costa and benefits of breast cancer screening with mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. vol., no.38, pp.179-196. 2011.
[10] K. Hanson, P. Montgomery, D. Bakker & M. Conlon. Factors influencing mammography participation in Canada: An integrative review of the literature. Current Oncology.vol.16, pp.65-75.2009.
[11] P. S. Sinicrope, T.A. Brockman, C.A. Pattern, M. H. Frost, R. A. Vierkant & L.R. Petersen. Factors associated with breast cancer prevention communication between mothers and daughters. Journal of Women Health. vol. 17, no. 1, pp.17-23. 2008.
[12] K. Kamposioras, D. Mauri, P. Alevizaki, G. Ferentinos, V. Karampoiki, & P. Kouiroukidou. Cancer screening in Greek. Guidelines awareness and prescription behavior among Hellinic physician. European Journal of international Medicine.vol.19, no. 6, pp.452-460. 2008.
[13] L. Nekhlyudov, D. Ross-Degnan & S.W. Fletcher. Beliefs and expectation of women under 50 years old regarding screening mammography: A qualitative study. Journal of General International Medicine.vol.18, no. 3, pp.182-189. 2003.
[14] A Kaltsa, A Holloway & K Cox. Factors that influence mammography screening behavior: A qualitative study of Greek women`s experiences. European Journal of oncology Nursing.vol.17, no.1, pp. 292-301.2013.
[15] S. Mishra, B. Deforge, B. Barnet, S. Ntiri & Grant L. Social Determinants of breast cancer screening in urban primary practice: A community –engaged formative study.vol.25, no. 5, pp. 429-438. 2012.
[16] E. Simou, E. Foundoulakis, G. Kourlaba & N. Maniadakis. Factors associated with the use of preventive services by women in Greece. European Journal of public Health.vol.21, no. 4, pp.512-519. 2010.
[17] A.R. Jemal, E. Siegel, T. Ward, J. Murry, M. XU & J. Thun. Cancer statistics.CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. vol.57, no.1, pp.43-66. 2007.
[18] F. Boxwal, A. Bridgemohan, D. Griffith & A. Soliman.Factors associated with breast cancer screening in Asian Indian Women in Metro-Detroit. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health. vol.12, no. 4, pp. 534-543. 2010.
[19] M. Aboserea, M. Abdelwaged & W. Wafik. Early detection of breast cancer among females at Fakous district, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. Life Science Journal.vol.8, no.1, pp. 196-203.2011.
[20] S Secginli, N. O. Nahcivan. Factors associated with breast cancer screening behaviors in a sample of Turkish women: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies. vol. 43, no.1, pp. 161- 171.2006.
[21] L. Spencer, F. Pagell & T Adams. Applying the transtheoretical model to cancer screening behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior. vol.29, no1, pp.36-56.2005.
[22] W. Rakowski, C.A. Dube &M.G. Goldstein. Considerations for extending the transtheoretical model of behavior change to screening mammography. Health Education Research Theory and practice. vol.11, no.1, pp.77-96. 1996 a.
[23] K. Parahoo. Using research principles, process and issues. 2nd ed. China: Palgrave Macmillan. 2006.
[24] K. Gerrish & A. Lacey. The research process in nursing. 6th ed.UK: Wiley Blackwell publishing.2010.
[25] B. Anderson, S. Braun, S. Lim, R. Smith, S. Taplin & D. Thomas. Early detection of breast cancer in countries with limited resources. The Breast Journal.vol.9, no.2, pp.51-59.2003.
[26] W. Wang, S. Hsu, J. Wang, L. Huang &W. Hsu. Survey of breast cancer mammography screening behaviors in Eastern Taiwan based on a health belief model. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. vol. 30 no.1, pp. 422-427.2014.
[27] X. Su, G. Ma, B. Seals, Y. Tan & A. Hausman. Breast cancer early detection among Chinese women in the Philadelphia area. vol.15, no.5, pp.507-519. 2006.
[28] H. Lee, J. Kim & H. Han. Do cultural factors predict mammography behavior among Korean immigrants in USA? Journal of Advanced Nursing. vol., 65no.1, pp.2574-2584. 2009.
[29] C. Jananie, A. Perera, P. Vimukthini, P. Dakshitha, M. Wickra, & D Ishan. Predictors in breast cancer screening behaviors of South Asian women. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology. Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd doi:10.1111/ajco.12168.2014.
[30] B. Mikhail & W. Petro-Nustas. Transcultural adaptation of Champion`s health belief model scales. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. vol.33, no.2, pp.159-165.2001.
[31] S. Orhan & F. Cetinkaya. Opinions and behaviors of older women about breast cancer in the area of Nuh Naci Yazgan Health Center.vol.12, no.3 pp.11-16.2003.
[32] K. Lee, H. Lim & S. Park. Factors associated with use of breast cancer screening services by women aged greater than or equal to 40 years in Korea: The third Korea national health and nutrition examination survey 2005.BMS Cancer.vol.10,no. 1,p.144.2010.
[33] C. Lerman, B. Rimer, B. Trock, A. Balshem &P. Engstrom. Factors associated with repeat adherence to breast cancer. Preventive Medicine. vol. 19, no.3, pp. 279-290.1990.
[34] H. Meissner, R. Smith, B. Rimer, K. Wilson, W. Rakowski, S. Vernon, & P. Briss. Promoting Cancer Screening: Learning from experience. Cancer. vol.101, no. 5, pp.1107-1117.2004.
[35] H. Achat, G. Close & R. Taylor. Who has regular mammogram? Effects of Knowledge, beliefs, socioeconomic status, and health-related factors. Preventive Medicine.vol.41, no.1, pp.312-320. 2005.
[36] M. Bare, J. Montes, R. Florensa, M. Sentis & L. Donoso. Factors related to non-participation in a population based breast cancer screening programme. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. vol. 12, no.6, pp.487-494.2003.
[37] C. Chan, S. Ho, S. Chan, Y. Yip, F. Wong & Cheng F. Factors affecting uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening among premenopausal women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medical Journal.vol.8, no.5, pp.334- 341.2002.
[38] H. Juon, Y. Seo &M. Kim. Breast and cervical cancer screening among Korean American elderly women. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. vol.6, no.4, pp.228-235.2002.
[39] S. Secginli &N. Nahcivan. Factors associated with breast cancer screening behaviors in a sample of Turkish women: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies. vol. 43, no. 1, pp.161- 171.2006.
[40] N. Urban, G. Anderson & S. Peacock. Mammography screening: How important is cost as a barrier to use. American Journal of Public Health.vol.84, no. 1, pp.50-55.1994.
[41] J. Allen, G. Sorensen, A. Stoddard, G. Colditz &K. Peterson. Intention to have a mammogram in the future among women who have underused mammography in the past. Journal of Health Education and Behavior. vol. 25, no.4, pp.474-488. 1998.
[42] A. Kaltsa, A. Holloway & K. Cox. Factors that influence mammography screening behaviors: A qualitative study of Greek women's experiences. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. vol.17, no.1, pp.292-301. 2013.
[43] L. Suarez, A. Ramirez, R. Villarreal, J. Marti, A. McAlister & G. Talavera. Social Networks and cancer screening in four US Hispanic groups. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. vol. 19, no.1, pp.47- 52.2000.
[44] B. Husaini, D. Sherkat, R. Bragg, R. Levine, J. Emerson & C. Mentes. Predictors of breast cancer screening in a panel study of African American women. Journal of Women's Health.vol. 34, no.3, pp.35- 51.2001.
[45] A. Surbone, C. Ritossa & A. Spagnolo. Evolution of truth telling attitudes and practices in Italy. Critical Reviews in Oncology/ Hematology. vol.52, no.3, pp.165-172. 2004.
[46] P. Brown. Trusting in the news NHS: Instrumental versus communicative action. Journal of Sociology of Health and Illness. Vol.30, no.3, pp.349-363. 2008.
[47] T. Frazier & P. Gummings. Motivational factors for participation in breast cancer screening. Journal of Cancer Education.vol.5, no.1, pp.51- 54. 1990.
[48] M. Bazargan, S Bazargan, J. Calderon, B. Husaini & R. Baker. Mammography screening and breast self-examination among minority women in public housing projects: The impact of physician recommendation. Oncology Nursing Forum.vol.31,no.2,pp.305-311. 2004.
[49] Y. Han, R. Williams &R. Harrison. Breast cancer screening knowledge, attitude, and practices among Korean American women. Oncology Nursing Forum.vol.27, pp.1585-1591.2000.
[50] R. Pasick, J Barker, R Otero, N. Burke, G. Joseph &C. Guerra. Intention subjective norms, and cancer screening in the context of relational culture. Journal of Health Education and Behavior. Vol.36, no.5, pp. 91- 110. 2009.