Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 244

Search results for: Impulse turbines

244 SPH Method used for Flow Predictions at a Turgo Impulse Turbine: Comparison with Fluent

Authors: Phoevos K. Koukouvinis, John S. Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris E. Papantonis

Abstract:

This work is an attempt to use the standard Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics methodology for the simulation of the complex unsteady, free-surface flow in a rotating Turgo impulse water turbine. A comparison of two different geometries was conducted. The SPH method due to its mesh-less nature is capable of capturing the flow features appearing in the turbine, without diffusion at the water/air interface. Furthermore results are compared with a commercial CFD package (Fluent®) and the SPH algorithm proves to be capable of providing similar results, in much less time than the mesh based CFD program. A parametric study was also performed regarding the turbine inlet angle.

Keywords: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Mesh-lessmethods, Impulse turbines, Turgo turbine.

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243 An Improved Switching Median filter for Uniformly Distributed Impulse Noise Removal

Authors: Rajoo Pandey

Abstract:

The performance of an image filtering system depends on its ability to detect the presence of noisy pixels in the image. Most of the impulse detection schemes assume the presence of salt and pepper noise in the images and do not work satisfactorily in case of uniformly distributed impulse noise. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented to improve the performance of switching median filter in detection of uniformly distributed impulse noise. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by the results obtained from computer simulations on various images.

Keywords: Switching median filter, Impulse noise, Imagefiltering, Impulse detection.

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242 A Discrete Filtering Algorithm for Impulse Wave Parameter Estimation

Authors: Khaled M. EL-Naggar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for estimating the mean curve of impulse voltage waveforms that are recorded during impulse tests. In practice, these waveforms are distorted by noise, oscillations and overshoot. The problem is formulated as an estimation problem. Estimation of the current signal parameters is achieved using a fast and accurate technique. The method is based on discrete dynamic filtering algorithm (DDF). The main advantage of the proposed technique is its ability in producing the estimates in a very short time and at a very high degree of accuracy. The algorithm uses sets of digital samples of the recorded impulse waveform. The proposed technique has been tested using simulated data of practical waveforms. Effects of number of samples and data window size are studied. Results are reported and discussed.

Keywords: Digital Filtering, Estimation, Impulse wave, Stochastic filtering.

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241 A Novel Impulse Detector for Filtering of Highly Corrupted Images

Authors: Umesh Ghanekar

Abstract:

As the performance of the filtering system depends upon the accuracy of the noise detection scheme, in this paper, we present a new scheme for impulse noise detection based on two levels of decision. In this scheme in the first stage we coarsely identify the corrupted pixels and in the second stage we finally decide whether the pixel under consideration is really corrupt or not. The efficacy of the proposed filter has been confirmed by extensive simulations.

Keywords: Impulse detection, noise removal, image filtering.

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240 The Sublimation Energy of Metal versus Temperature and Pressure and its Influence on Blow-off Impulse

Authors: Wenhui Tang, Daorong Wang, Xia Huang, Xianwen Ran

Abstract:

Based on the thermodynamic theory, the dependence of sublimation energy of metal on temperature and pressure is discussed, and the results indicate that the sublimation energy decreases linearly with the increase of temperature and pressure. Combined with this result, the blow-off impulse of aluminum induced by pulsed X-ray is simulated by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The numerical results show that, while the change of sublimation energy with temperature and pressure is considered, the blow-off impulse of aluminum is larger than the case that the sublimation energy is assumed to be a constant.

Keywords: sublimation energy, blow-off impulse, pulsed X-ray, SPH method.

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239 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh

Abstract:

The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: Wind energy, Power curve, Capacity factor, Annual energy production.

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238 Review of Various Designs and Development in Hydropower Turbines

Authors: F. Behrouzi, A. Maimun, M. Nakisa

Abstract:

The growth of population, rising fossil fuel prices (limited and decreasing day by day), pollution problem due to use of fossil fuels and increasing electrical demand are important factors that encourage the use of green and renewable energy technologies. Among the different renewable energy technologies, hydro power generation (large and small scale) is the prime choice in terms of contribution to the world's electricity generation by using water current turbines. Currently, researchers mainly focused on design and development of different kind of turbines to capture hydropower to generate electricity as clean and reliable energy. This paper is a review of the status of research on water current turbines carried out to generate electricity from hydrokinetic energy especially in places where there is no electricity, but there is access to flowing water.

Keywords: Turbines, Renewable Energy, Hydropower.

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237 Forecast of the Small Wind Turbines Sales with Replacement Purchases and with or without Account of Price Changes

Authors: V. Churkin, M. Lopatin

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to estimate the US small wind turbines market potential and forecast the small wind turbines sales in the US. The forecasting method is based on the application of the Bass model and the generalized Bass model of innovations diffusion under replacement purchases. In the work an exponential distribution is used for modeling of replacement purchases. Only one parameter of such distribution is determined by average lifetime of small wind turbines. The identification of the model parameters is based on nonlinear regression analysis on the basis of the annual sales statistics which has been published by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) since 2001 up to 2012. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) without account of price changes is 57080 (confidence interval from 49294 to 64866 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 62402 (confidence interval from 54154 to 70648 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 90,7%, while in the second - 91,8%. The effect of the wind turbines price changes on their sales was estimated using generalized Bass model. This required a price forecast. To do this, the polynomial regression function, which is based on the Berkeley Lab statistics, was used. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) in that case is 42542 (confidence interval from 32863 to 52221 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 47426 (confidence interval from 36092 to 58760 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 95,3%, while in the second – 95,3%.

Keywords: Bass model, generalized Bass model, replacement purchases, sales forecasting of innovations, statistics of sales of small wind turbines in the United States.

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236 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka

Abstract:

Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: Moral impulse, responsibility, shadow factories, the other.

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235 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Authors: Zong Chen, Li Zhang

Abstract:

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, Edgepreserving

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234 Time Effective Structural Frequency Response Testing with Oblique Impact

Authors: Khoo Shin Yee, Lian Yee Cheng, Ong Zhi Chao, Zubaidah Ismail, Siamak Noroozi

Abstract:

Structural frequency response testing is accurate in identifying the dynamic characteristic of a machinery structure. In practical perspective, conventional structural frequency response testing such as experimental modal analysis with impulse technique (also known as “impulse testing”) has limitation especially on its long acquisition time. The high acquisition time is mainly due to the redundancy procedure where the engineer has to repeatedly perform the test in 3 directions, namely the axial-, horizontal- and vertical-axis, in order to comprehensively define the dynamic behavior of a 3D structure. This is unfavorable to numerous industries where the downtime cost is high. This study proposes to reduce the testing time by using oblique impact. Theoretically, a single oblique impact can induce significant vibration responses and vibration modes in all the 3 directions. Hence, the acquisition time with the implementation of the oblique impulse technique can be reduced by a factor of three (i.e. for a 3D dynamic system). This study initiates an experimental investigation of impulse testing with oblique excitation. A motor-driven test rig has been used for the testing purpose. Its dynamic characteristic has been identified using the impulse testing with the conventional normal impact and the proposed oblique impact respectively. The results show that the proposed oblique impulse testing is able to obtain all the desired natural frequencies in all 3 directions and thus providing a feasible solution for a fast and time effective way of conducting the impulse testing.

Keywords: Frequency response function, impact testing, modal analysis, oblique angle, oblique impact.

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233 Wiener Filter as an Optimal MMSE Interpolator

Authors: Tsai-Sheng Kao

Abstract:

The ideal sinc filter, ignoring the noise statistics, is often applied for generating an arbitrary sample of a bandlimited signal by using the uniformly sampled data. In this article, an optimal interpolator is proposed; it reaches a minimum mean square error (MMSE) at its output in the presence of noise. The resulting interpolator is thus a Wiener filter, and both the optimal infinite impulse response (IIR) and finite impulse response (FIR) filters are presented. The mean square errors (MSE-s) for the interpolator of different length impulse responses are obtained by computer simulations; it shows that the MSE-s of the proposed interpolators with a reasonable length are improved about 0.4 dB under flat power spectra in noisy environment with signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) equal 10 dB. As expected, the results also demonstrate the improvements for the MSE-s with various fractional delays of the optimal interpolator against the ideal sinc filter under a fixed length impulse response.

Keywords: Interpolator, minimum mean square error, Wiener filter.

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232 Impulse Response Shortening for Discrete Multitone Transceivers using Convex Optimization Approach

Authors: Ejaz Khan, Conor Heneghan

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new criterion for solving the problem of channel shortening in multi-carrier systems. In a discrete multitone receiver, a time-domain equalizer (TEQ) reduces intersymbol interference (ISI) by shortening the effective duration of the channel impulse response. Minimum mean square error (MMSE) method for TEQ does not give satisfactory results. In [1] a new criterion for partially equalizing severe ISI channels to reduce the cyclic prefix overhead of the discrete multitone transceiver (DMT), assuming a fixed transmission bandwidth, is introduced. Due to specific constrained (unit morm constraint on the target impulse response (TIR)) in their method, the freedom to choose optimum vector (TIR) is reduced. Better results can be obtained by avoiding the unit norm constraint on the target impulse response (TIR). In this paper we change the cost function proposed in [1] to the cost function of determining the maximum of a determinant subject to linear matrix inequality (LMI) and quadratic constraint and solve the resulting optimization problem. Usefulness of the proposed method is shown with the help of simulations.

Keywords: Equalizer, target impulse response, convex optimization, matrix inequality.

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231 Influence of Wind Induced Fatigue Damage in the Reliability of Wind Turbines

Authors: Emilio A. Berny-Brandt, Sonia E. Ruiz

Abstract:

Steel tubular towers serving as support structures for large wind turbines are subjected to several hundred million stress cycles caused by the turbulent nature of the wind. This causes highcycle fatigue, which could govern the design of the tower. Maintaining the support structure after the wind turbines reach its typical 20-year design life has become a common practice; however, quantifying the changes in the reliability on the tower is not usual. In this paper the effect of fatigue damage in the wind turbine structure is studied whit the use of fracture mechanics, and a method to estimate the reliability over time of the structure is proposed. A representative wind turbine located in Oaxaca, Mexico is then studied. It is found that the system reliability is significantly affected by the accumulation of fatigue damage. 

Keywords: Crack growth, fatigue, Monte Carlo simulation, structural reliability, wind turbines

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230 Low Voltage Ride through Capability Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

Authors: Sherif O. Zain Elabideen, Ahmed A. Helal, Ibrahim F. El-Arabawy

Abstract:

Due to the drastic increase of the wind turbines installed capacity; the grid codes are increasing the restrictions aiming to treat the wind turbines like other conventional sources sooner. In this paper, an intensive review has been presented for different techniques used to add low voltage ride through capability to Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine. A system model with 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine is constructed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to explore the effectiveness of the reviewed techniques.

Keywords: DFIG, grid side converters, low voltage ride through, wind turbine.

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229 Load Discontinuity in Shock Response and Its Remedies

Authors: Shuenn-Yih Chang, Chiu-Li Huang

Abstract:

It has been shown that a load discontinuity at the end of an impulse will result in an extra impulse and hence an extra amplitude distortion if a step-by-step integration method is employed to yield the shock response. In order to overcome this difficulty, three remedies are proposed to reduce the extra amplitude distortion. The first remedy is to solve the momentum equation of motion instead of the force equation of motion in the step-by-step solution of the shock response, where an external momentum is used in the solution of the momentum equation of motion. Since the external momentum is a resultant of the time integration of external force, the problem of load discontinuity will automatically disappear. The second remedy is to perform a single small time step immediately upon termination of the applied impulse while the other time steps can still be conducted by using the time step determined from general considerations. This is because that the extra impulse caused by a load discontinuity at the end of an impulse is almost linearly proportional to the step size. Finally, the third remedy is to use the average value of the two different values at the integration point of the load discontinuity to replace the use of one of them for loading input. The basic motivation of this remedy originates from the concept of no loading input error associated with the integration point of load discontinuity. The feasibility of the three remedies are analytically explained and numerically illustrated.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, load discontinuity, shock response, step-by-step integration

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228 Numerical Simulation of Multiple Arrays Arrangement of Micro Hydro Power Turbines

Authors: M. A. At-Tasneem, N. T. Rao, T. M. Y. S. Tuan Ya, M. S. Idris, M. Ammar

Abstract:

River flow over micro hydro power (MHP) turbines of multiple arrays arrangement is simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software to obtain the flow characteristics. In this paper, CFD software is used to simulate the water flow over MHP turbines as they are placed in a river. Multiple arrays arrangement of MHP turbines lead to generate large amount of power. In this study, a river model is created and simulated in CFD software to obtain the water flow characteristic. The process then continued by simulating different types of arrays arrangement in the river model. A MHP turbine model consists of a turbine outer body and static propeller blade in it. Five types of arrangements are used which are parallel, series, triangular, square and rhombus with different spacing sizes. The velocity profiles on each MHP turbines are identified at the mouth of each turbine bodies. This study is required to obtain the arrangement with increasing spacing sizes that can produce highest power density through the water flow variation.

Keywords: Micro hydro power, CFD, arrays arrangement, spacing sizes, velocity profile, power.

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227 Scheduling Maintenance Actions for Gas Turbines Aircraft Engines

Authors: Anis Gharbi

Abstract:

This paper considers the problem of scheduling maintenance actions for identical aircraft gas turbine engines. Each one of the turbines consists of parts which frequently require replacement. A finite inventory of spare parts is available and all parts are ready for replacement at any time. The inventory consists of both new and refurbished parts. Hence, these parts have different field lives. The goal is to find a replacement part sequencing that maximizes the time that the aircraft will keep functioning before the inventory is replenished. The problem is formulated as an identical parallel machine scheduling problem where the minimum completion time has to be maximized. Two models have been developed. The first one is an optimization model which is based on a 0-1 linear programming formulation, while the second one is an approximate procedure which consists in decomposing the problem into several two-machine subproblems. Each subproblem is optimally solved using the first model. Both models have been implemented using Lingo and have been tested on two sets of randomly generated data with up to 150 parts and 10 turbines. Experimental results show that the optimization model is able to solve only instances with no more than 4 turbines, while the decomposition procedure often provides near-optimal solutions within a maximum CPU time of 3 seconds.

Keywords: Aircraft turbines, Scheduling, Identical parallel machines, 0-1 linear programming, Heuristic.

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226 Experimental Study on the Hysteresis Properties in Operation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Ching-Huei Lin, Yao-Pang Hsu, M. Z. Dosaev, Yu. D. Selyutskii, L. A. Klimina

Abstract:

Hysteresis phenomenon has been observed in the operations of both horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines (HAWTs and VAWTs). In this study, wind tunnel experiments were applied to investigate the characters of hysteresis phenomena between the angular speed and the external resistance of electrical loading during the operation of a Darrieus type VAWT. Data of output voltage, output current, angular speed of wind turbine under different wind speeds are measured and analyzed. Results show that the range of external resistance changes with the wind speed. The range decreases as the wind speed increases following an exponential decay form. Experiments also indicate that the maximum output power of wind turbines is always inside the range where hysteresis happened. These results provide an important reference to the design of output control system of wind turbines.

Keywords: Hysteresis phenomenon, Angular speed, Range ofexternal resistance

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225 Numerical Experiments for the Purpose of Studying Space-Time Evolution of Various Forms of Pulse Signals in the Collisional Cold Plasma

Authors: N. Kh. Gomidze, I. N. Jabnidze, K. A. Makharadze

Abstract:

The influence of inhomogeneities of plasma and statistical characteristics on the propagation of signal is very actual in wireless communication systems. While propagating in the media, the deformation and evaluation of the signal in time and space take place and on the receiver we get a deformed signal. The present article is dedicated to studying the space-time evolution of rectangular, sinusoidal, exponential and bi-exponential impulses via numerical experiment in the collisional, cold plasma. The presented method is not based on the Fourier-presentation of the signal. Analytically, we have received the general image depicting the space-time evolution of the radio impulse amplitude that gives an opportunity to analyze the concrete results in the case of primary impulse.

Keywords: Collisional, cold plasma, rectangular pulse signal, impulse envelope.

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224 Investigation of the Effect of Impulse Voltage to Flashover by Using Water Jet

Authors: Harun Gülan, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu, Mehmet Cebeci

Abstract:

The main function of the insulators used in high voltage (HV) transmission lines is to insulate the energized conductor from the pole and hence from the ground. However, when the insulators fail to perform this insulation function due to various effects, failures occur. The deterioration of the insulation results either from breakdown or surface flashover. The surface flashover is caused by the layer of pollution that forms conductivity on the surface of the insulator, such as salt, carbonaceous compounds, rain, moisture, fog, dew, industrial pollution and desert dust. The source of the majority of failures and interruptions in HV lines is surface flashover. This threatens the continuity of supply and causes significant economic losses. Pollution flashover in HV insulators is still a serious problem that has not been fully resolved. In this study, a water jet test system has been established in order to investigate the behavior of insulators under dirty conditions and to determine their flashover performance. Flashover behavior of the insulators is examined by applying impulse voltages in the test system. This study aims to investigate the insulator behaviour under high impulse voltages. For this purpose, a water jet test system was installed and experimental results were obtained over a real system and analyzed. By using the water jet test system instead of the actual insulator, the damage to the insulator as a result of the flashover that would occur under impulse voltage was prevented. The results of the test system performed an important role in determining the insulator behavior and provided predictability.

Keywords: Insulator, pollution flashover, high impulse voltage, water jet model.

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223 Modeling and Control of Direct Driven PMSG for Ultra Large Wind Turbines

Authors: Ahmed M. Hemeida, Wael A. Farag, Osama A. Mahgoub

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing an integrated reliable and sophisticated model for ultra large wind turbines And to study the performance and analysis of vector control on large wind turbines. With the advance of power electronics technology, direct driven multi-pole radial flux PMSG (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) has proven to be a good choice for wind turbines manufacturers. To study the wind energy conversion systems, it is important to develop a wind turbine simulator that is able to produce realistic and validated conditions that occur in real ultra MW wind turbines. Three different packages are used to simulate this model, namely, Turbsim, FAST and Simulink. Turbsim is a Full field wind simulator developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The wind turbine mechanical parts are modeled by FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) code which is also developed by NREL. Simulink is used to model the PMSG, full scale back to back IGBT converters, and the grid.

Keywords: FAST, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator(PMSG), TurbSim, Vector Control and Pitch Control

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222 Aerodynamic Models for the Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs)

Authors: T. Brahimi, F. Saeed, I. Paraschivoiu

Abstract:

This paper details the progress made in the development of the different state-of-the-art aerodynamic tools for the analysis of vertical axis wind turbines including the flow simulation around the blade, viscous flow, stochastic wind, and dynamic stall effects. The paper highlights the capabilities of the developed wind turbine aerodynamic codes over the last thirty years which are currently being used in North America and Europe by Sandia Laboratories, FloWind, IMST Marseilles, and Hydro-Quebec among others. The aerodynamic codes developed at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada, represent valuable tools for simulating the flow around wind turbines including secondary effects. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental data have shown good agreement. The strength of the aerodynamic codes based on Double-Multiple Stream tube model (DMS) lies in its simplicity, accuracy, and ability to analyze secondary effects that interfere with wind turbine aerodynamic calculations.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wind turbines, VAWT, CARDAAV, Darrieus, dynamic stall.

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221 Supremacy of Differential Evolution Algorithm in Designing Multiplier-Less Low-Pass FIR Filter

Authors: Abhijit Chandra, Sudipta Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

In this communication, we have made an attempt to design multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of various mutation strategies of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Impulse response coefficient of the designed FIR filter has been represented as sums or differences of powers of two. Performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated in terms of its frequency response and associated hardware cost. Supremacy of our approach has been substantiated by comparing our result with many of the existing multiplier-less filter design algorithms of recent interest. It has also been demonstrated that DE-optimized filter outperforms Genetic Algorithm (GA) based design by a large margin.  Hardware efficiency of our algorithm has further been validated by implementing those filters on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip.

Keywords: Convergence speed, Differential Evolution (DE), error histogram, finite impulse response (FIR) filter, total power of two (TPT), zero-valued filter coefficient (ZFC).

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220 Availability Analysis of a Power Plant by Computer Simulation

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

Reliability and availability of power stations are extremely important in order to achieve a required level of power generation. In particular, in the hot desert climate of Kuwait, reliable power generation is extremely important because of cooling requirements at temperatures exceeding 50-centigrade degrees. In this paper, a particular power plant, named Sabiya Power Plant, which has 8 steam turbines and 13 gas turbine stations, has been studied in detail; extensive data are collected; and availability of station units are determined. Furthermore, a simulation model is developed and used to analyze the effects of different maintenance policies on availability of these stations. The results show that significant improvements can be achieved in power plant availabilities if appropriate maintenance policies are implemented.

Keywords: Power plants, steam turbines, gas turbines, maintenance, availability, simulation.

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219 A Retrospective of Wind Turbine Architectural Integration in the Built Environment

Authors: Stefano Degrassi, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

Since the European renewable energy directives set the target for 22.1% of electricity generation to be supplied by 2010 [1], there has been increased interest in using green technologies also within the urban enviroment. The most commonly considered installations are solar thermal and solar photovoltaics. Nevertheless, as observed by Bahaj et al. [2], small scale turbines can reduce the built enviroment related CO2 emissions. Thus, in the last few years, an increasing number of manufacturers have developed small wind turbines specifically designed for the built enviroment. The present work focuses on the integration into architectural systems of such installations and presents a survey of successful case studies.

Keywords: Wind turbines, architectural integration, wind resources, urban areas, built enviroment, renewable technologies.

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218 Impact of Metallic Furniture on UWB Channel Statistical Characteristics by BER

Authors: Yu-Shuai Chen , Chien-Ching Chiu , Chung-Hsin Huang, Chien-Hung Chen

Abstract:

The bit error rate (BER) performance for ultra-wide band (UWB) indoor communication with impact of metallic furniture is investigated. The impulse responses of different indoor environments for any transmitter and receiver location are computed by shooting and bouncing ray/image and inverse Fourier transform techniques. By using the impulse responses of these multipath channels, the BER performance for binary pulse amplitude modulation (BPAM) impulse radio UWB communication system are calculated. Numerical results have shown that the multi-path effect by the metallic cabinets is an important factor for BER performance. Also the outage probability for the UWB multipath environment with metallic cabinets is more serious (about 18%) than with wooden cabinets. Finally, it is worth noting that in these cases the present work provides not only comparative information but also quantitative information on the performance reduction.

Keywords: UWB, multipath, outage probability.

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217 Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya

Authors: Farag Ahwide, Souhel Bousheha

Abstract:

A technical assessment has been made of electricity generation, considering wind turbines ranging between Vestas (V80-2.0 MW and V112-3.0 MW) and the air density is equal to 1.225 Kg/m3, at different towns in Libya. Wind speed might have been measured each 3 hours during 10 m stature at a time for 10 quite sometime between 2000 Furthermore 2009, these towns which are spotted on the bank from claiming Mediterranean ocean also how in the desert, which need aid Derna 1, Derna 2, Shahat, Benghazi, Ajdabya, Sirte, Misurata, Tripoli-Airport, Al-Zawya, Al-Kofra, Sabha, Nalut. The work presented long term "wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations at these sites. Wind power density with different heights has been studied. Excel sheet program was used to calculate the values of wind power density and the values of wind speed frequency for the stations; their seasonally values have been estimated. Limit variable with rated wind pace to 10 different wind turbines need to be been estimated, which is used to focus those required yearly vitality yield of a wind vitality change framework (WECS), acknowledging wind turbines extending between 600 kW and 3000 kW).

Keywords: Energy yield, wind turbines, wind speed, wind power density.

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216 Different Approaches for the Design of IFIR Compaction Filter

Authors: Sheeba V.S, Elizabeth Elias

Abstract:

Optimization of filter banks based on the knowledge of input statistics has been of interest for a long time. Finite impulse response (FIR) Compaction filters are used in the design of optimal signal adapted orthonormal FIR filter banks. In this paper we discuss three different approaches for the design of interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) compaction filters. In the first method, the magnitude squared response satisfies Nyquist constraint approximately. In the second and third methods Nyquist constraint is exactly satisfied. These methods yield FIR compaction filters whose response is comparable with that of the existing methods. At the same time, IFIR filters enjoy significant saving in the number of multipliers and can be implemented efficiently. Since eigenfilter approach is used here, the method is less complex. Design of IFIR filters in the least square sense is presented.

Keywords: Principal Component Filter Bank, InterpolatedFinite Impulse Response filter, Orthonormal Filter Bank, Eigen Filter.

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215 Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise

Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider both the Gaussian and mixed Gaussian-impulse noise to test the robustness of the filter. Image enhancement and restoration results using the proposed Volterra filter are found to be superior to those obtained with standard linear and nonlinear filters.

Keywords: Gaussian noise, Image enhancement, Imagerestoration, Linear filters, Nonlinear filters, Volterra series.

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