Search results for: Fonseca C. R. B.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Fonseca C. R. B.

15 Ads on Social Issues: A Tool for Improving Critical Thinking Skills in a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Fonseca Jully, Chia Maribel, Rodríguez Ilba

Abstract:

This paper is a qualitative research report. A group of students form a public university in a small town in Colombia participated in this study which aimed at describing to what extend the use of social ads, published on the internet, helped to develop their critical thinking skills. Students’ productions, field notes, video recordings and direct observation were the instruments and techniques used by the researches in order to gather the data which was analyzed under the principles of grounded theory and triangulation. The implementation of social ads into the classroom evidenced a noticeable improvement in students’ ability to interpret and argue social issues, as well as, their self-improvement in oral and written production in English, as a foreign language.

Keywords: Ads, critical argumentation, critical thinking, social issues.

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14 Additional Considerations on a Sequential Life Testing Approach using a Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, R. Rocha

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Weibull sampling distribution. The minimum life will be considered equal to zero. We will again provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new type of a low alloy-high strength steel product. To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Underlying Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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13 Collective Oscillations in a Magnetized Plasma Subjected to a Radiation Field

Authors: Daniel Santos, Bruno Ribeiro, Marco Amato, Antonio Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation

Keywords: Collective oscillations, External fields, Dispersion relation.

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12 Plaque Formation of Toxoplasma gondii in Vero Cells using Carboxymethylcellulose

Authors: L. Fonseca-Géigel, M. Alvarez, G. García, R. Cox, L. Morier, L. Fonte, M. G. Guzmán

Abstract:

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite capable of infecting all nucleated cells in a diverse array of species. Toxoplasma plaque assay have been described using Bacto Agar. Because of its experimental advantages carboxymethyl cellulose overlay, medium viscosity was choosing and the aim of this work was to develop alternative method for formation of T. gondii plaques. Tachyzoites were inoculated onto monolayers of Vero cells and cultured at 37° C under 5 % CO2. The cultures were followed up by microscopy inspection. Small plaques were visible by naphtol blue stain 4 days after infection. Larger plaques could be observed by day 10 of culture. The carboxymethyl cellulose is a cheap reagent and the methodology is easier, faster than assays under agar overlay. This is the first description of the carboxymethyl cellulose overlay use for obtaining the formation of T. gondii plaques and may be useful in consequent obtaining tachyzoites for detailed studies.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cell culture, Plaque assay, Toxoplasma gondii.

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11 Further Thoughtson a Sequential Life Testing Approach Using an Inverse Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, G. P. Azevedo, D. R. Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Inverse Weibull sampling distribution. The location parameter or minimum life will be considered equal to zero. Once again we will provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new electronic component. There is little information available about the possible values the parameters of the corresponding Inverse Weibull underlying sampling distribution could have.To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Inverse Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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10 Model of Transhipment and Routing Applied to the Cargo Sector in Small and Medium Enterprises of Bogotá, Colombia

Authors: Oscar Javier Herrera Ochoa, Ivan Dario Romero Fonseca

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of a model for planning the distribution logistics operation. The significance of this work relies on the applicability of this fact to the analysis of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of dry freight in Bogotá. Two stages constitute this implementation: the first one is the place where optimal planning is achieved through a hybrid model developed with mixed integer programming, which considers the transhipment operation based on a combined load allocation model as a classic transshipment model; the second one is the specific routing of that operation through the heuristics of Clark and Wright. As a result, an integral model is obtained to carry out the step by step planning of the distribution of dry freight for SMEs in Bogotá. In this manner, optimum assignments are established by utilizing transshipment centers with that purpose of determining the specific routing based on the shortest distance traveled.

Keywords: Transshipment model, mixed integer programming, saving algorithm, dry freight transportation.

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9 Appling Eyring-s Accelerated Life Testing Model to “Times to Breakdown“ of Insulating Fluid: A Combined Approach of an Accelerated and a Sequential Life Testing

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, D. Kipper

Abstract:

In this paper, the test purpose will be to assess whether or not the accelerated model proposed by Eyring will be able to translate results for the shape and scale parameters of an underlying Weibull model, obtained under two accelerating using conditions, to expected normal using condition results for these parameters. The product being analyzed is a new type of insulate fluid, and the accelerating factor is the voltage stresses applied to the fluid at two different levels (30KV and 40KV). The normal operating voltage is 25KV. In this case, it was possible to test the insulate fluid at normal voltage using condition. Both results for the two parameters of the Weibull model, obtained under normal using condition and translated from accelerated using conditions to normal conditions, will be compared to each other to assess the accuracy of the Eyring model when the accelerating factor is only the voltage stress.

Keywords: Eyring Accelerated Model, Sequential Life Testing, Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution, Voltage Stresses.

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8 On the Performance of Information Criteria in Latent Segment Models

Authors: Jaime R. S. Fonseca

Abstract:

Nevertheless the widespread application of finite mixture models in segmentation, finite mixture model selection is still an important issue. In fact, the selection of an adequate number of segments is a key issue in deriving latent segments structures and it is desirable that the selection criteria used for this end are effective. In order to select among several information criteria, which may support the selection of the correct number of segments we conduct a simulation study. In particular, this study is intended to determine which information criteria are more appropriate for mixture model selection when considering data sets with only categorical segmentation base variables. The generation of mixtures of multinomial data supports the proposed analysis. As a result, we establish a relationship between the level of measurement of segmentation variables and some (eleven) information criteria-s performance. The criterion AIC3 shows better performance (it indicates the correct number of the simulated segments- structure more often) when referring to mixtures of multinomial segmentation base variables.

Keywords: Quantitative Methods, Multivariate Data Analysis, Clustering, Finite Mixture Models, Information Theoretical Criteria, Simulation experiments.

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7 An Application for Risk of Crime Prediction Using Machine Learning

Authors: Luis Fonseca, Filipe Cabral Pinto, Susana Sargento

Abstract:

The increase of the world population, especially in large urban centers, has resulted in new challenges particularly with the control and optimization of public safety. Thus, in the present work, a solution is proposed for the prediction of criminal occurrences in a city based on historical data of incidents and demographic information. The entire research and implementation will be presented start with the data collection from its original source, the treatment and transformations applied to them, choice and the evaluation and implementation of the Machine Learning model up to the application layer. Classification models will be implemented to predict criminal risk for a given time interval and location. Machine Learning algorithms such as Random Forest, Neural Networks, K-Nearest Neighbors and Logistic Regression will be used to predict occurrences, and their performance will be compared according to the data processing and transformation used. The results show that the use of Machine Learning techniques helps to anticipate criminal occurrences, which contributed to the reinforcement of public security. Finally, the models were implemented on a platform that will provide an API to enable other entities to make requests for predictions in real-time. An application will also be presented where it is possible to show criminal predictions visually.

Keywords: Crime prediction, machine learning, public safety, smart city.

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6 A Combined Approach of a Sequential Life Testing and an Accelerated Life Testing Applied to a Low-Alloy High Strength Steel Component

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, G. P. Azevedo

Abstract:

Sometimes the amount of time available for testing could be considerably less than the expected lifetime of the component. To overcome such a problem, there is the accelerated life-testing alternative aimed at forcing components to fail by testing them at much higher-than-intended application conditions. These models are known as acceleration models. One possible way to translate test results obtained under accelerated conditions to normal using conditions could be through the application of the “Maxwell Distribution Law.” In this paper we will apply a combined approach of a sequential life testing and an accelerated life testing to a low alloy high-strength steel component used in the construction of overpasses in Brazil. The underlying sampling distribution will be three-parameter Inverse Weibull model. To estimate the three parameters of the Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. We will be assuming a linear acceleration condition. To evaluate the accuracy (significance) of the parameter values obtained under normal conditions for the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will apply to the expected normal failure times a sequential life testing using a truncation mechanism. An example will illustrate the application of this procedure.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Accelerated Life Testing, Underlying Three-Parameter Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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5 Thermography Evaluation on Facial Temperature Recovery after Elastic Gum

Authors: A. Dionísio, L. Roseiro, J. Fonseca, P. Nicolau

Abstract:

Thermography is a non-radiating and contact-free technology which can be used to monitor skin temperature. The efficiency and safety of thermography technology make it a useful tool for detecting and locating thermal changes in skin surface, characterized by increases or decreases in temperature. This work intends to be a contribution for the use of thermography as a methodology for evaluation of skin temperature in the context of orofacial biomechanics. The study aims to identify the oscillations of skin temperature in the left and right hemiface regions of the masseter muscle, during and after thermal stimulus, and estimate the time required to restore the initial temperature after the application of the stimulus. Using a FLIR T430sc camera, a data acquisition protocol was followed with a group of eight volunteers, aged between 22 and 27 years. The tests were performed in a controlled environment with the volunteers in a comfortably static position. The thermal stimulus involves the use of an ice volume with controlled size and contact surface. The skin surface temperature was recorded in two distinct situations, namely without further stimulus and with the additions of a stimulus obtained by a chewing gum. The data obtained were treated using FLIR Research IR Max software. The time required to recover the initial temperature ranged from 20 to 52 minutes when no stimulus was added and varied between 8 and 26 minutes with the chewing gum stimulus. These results show that recovery is faster with the addition of the stimulus and may guide clinicians regarding the pre and post-operative times with ice therapy, in the presence or absence of mechanical stimulus that increases muscle functions (e.g. phonetics or mastication).

Keywords: Thermography, orofacial biomechanics, skin temperature, ice therapy.

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4 Use of Corn Stover for the Production of 2G Bioethanol, Enzymes and Xylitol under a Biorefinery Concept

Authors: Astorga-Trejo Rebeca, Fonseca-Peralta Héctor Manuel, Beltrán-Arredondo Laura Ivonne, Castro-Martínez Claudia

Abstract:

The use of biomass as feedstock for the production of fuels and other chemicals of interest is an ever growing accepted option in the way to the development of biorefinery complexes. In the Mexican state of Sinaloa, a significant amount of residues from corn crops are produced every year, most of which can be converted to bioethanol and other products through biotechnological conversion using yeast and other microorganisms. Therefore, the objective of this work was to take advantage of corn stover and evaluate its potential as a substrate for the production of second generation bioethanol (2G), enzymes and xylitol. To produce bioethanol 2G, an acid-alkaline pretreatment was carried out prior to saccharification and fermentation. The microorganisms used for the production of enzymes, as well as for the production of xylitol, were isolated and characterized in our work group. Statistical analysis was performed using Design Expert version 11.0. The results showed that it is possible to obtain 2G bioethanol employing corn stover as a carbon source and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ItVer01 and Candida intermedia CBE002 with yields of 0.42 g and 0.31 g, respectively. It was also shown that C. intermedia has the ability to produce xylitol with a good yield (0.46 g/g). On the other hand, qualitative and quantitative studies showed that the native strains of Fusarium equiseti (0.4 IU/mL - xylanase), Bacillus velezensis (1.2 IU/mL – xylanase and 0.4 UI/mL - amylase) and Penicillium funiculosum (1.5 IU/mL - cellulases) have the capacity to produce xylanases, amylases or cellulases using corn stover as raw material. This study allowed us to demonstrate that it is possible to use corn stover as a carbon source, a low-cost raw material with high availability in our country, to obtain bioproducts of industrial interest, using processes that are more environmentally friendly and sustainable. It is necessary to continue the optimization of each bioprocess.

Keywords: Biomass, corn stover, biorefinery, bioethanol 2G, enzymes, xylitol.

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3 The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance’s Evaluation

Authors: Péricles Maia Andrade, Temístocles Damasceno Silva, Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

Abstract:

The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the Cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, Balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance and Dynamic Balance. The methodology used Fonseca’s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a brazilian public primary’s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance’s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.

Keywords: Psychomotricity, balance, mountain biking, education.

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2 Suicide Conceptualization in Adolescents through Semantic Networks

Authors: K. P. Valdés García, E. I. Rodríguez Fonseca, L. G. Juárez Cantú

Abstract:

Suicide is a global, multidimensional and dynamic problem of mental health, which requires a constant study for its understanding and prevention. When research of this phenomenon is done, it is necessary to consider the different characteristics it may have because of the individual and sociocultural variables, the importance of this consideration is related to the generation of effective treatments and interventions. Adolescents are a vulnerable population due to the characteristics of the development stage. The investigation was carried out with the objective of identifying and describing the conceptualization of adolescents of suicide, and in this process, we find possible differences between men and women. The study was carried out in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. The sample was composed of 418 volunteer students aged between 11 and 18 years. The ethical aspects of the research were reviewed and considered in all the processes of the investigation with the participants, their parents and the schools to which they belonged, psychological attention was offered to the participants and preventive workshops were carried in the educational institutions. Natural semantic networks were the instrument used, since this hybrid method allows to find and analyze the social concept of a phenomenon; in this case, the word suicide was used as an evocative stimulus and participants were asked to evoke at least five words and a maximum 10 that they thought were related to suicide, and then hierarchize them according to the closeness with the construct. The subsequent analysis was carried with Excel, yielding the semantic weights, affective loads and the distances between each of the semantic fields established according to the words reported by the subjects. The results showed similarities in the conceptualization of suicide in adolescents, men and women. Seven semantic fields were generated; the words were related in the discourse analysis: 1) death, 2) possible triggering factors, 3) associated moods, 4) methods used to carry it out, 5) psychological symptomatology that could affect, 6) words associated with a rejection of suicide, and finally, 7) specific objects to carry it out. One of the necessary aspects to consider in the investigations of complex issues such as suicide is to have a diversity of instruments and techniques that adjust to the characteristics of the population and that allow to understand the phenomena from the social constructs and not only theoretical. The constant study of suicide is a pressing need, the loss of a life from emotional difficulties that can be solved through psychiatry and psychological methods requires governments and professionals to pay attention and work with the risk population.

Keywords: Adolescents, semantic networks, speech analysis, suicide.

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1 Fetal and Infant Mortality in Botucatu City, São Paulo State, Brazil: Evaluation of Maternal - Infant Health Care

Authors: Noda L. M., Salvador I. C, C. M. L. G. Parada, Fonseca C. R. B.

Abstract:

In Brazil, neonatal mortality rate is considered incompatible with the country development conditions, and has been a Public Health concern. Reduction in infant mortality rates has also been part of the Millennium Development Goals, a commitment made by countries, members of the Organization of United Nations (OUN), including Brazil. Fetal mortality rate is considered a highly sensitive indicator of health care quality. Suitable actions, such as good quality and access to health services may contribute positively towards reduction in these fetal and neonatal rates. With appropriate antenatal follow-up and health care during gestation and delivery, some death causes could be reduced or even prevented by means of early diagnosis and intervention, as well as changes in risk factors and interventions. Objectives: To study the quality of maternal and infant health care based on fetal and neonatal mortality, as well as the possible actions to prevent those deaths in Botucatu (Brazil). Methods: Classification of prevention according to the International Classification of Diseases and the modified Wigglesworth´s classification. In order to evaluate adequacy, indicators of quality of antenatal and delivery care were established by the authors. Results: Considering fetal deaths, 56.7% of them occurred before delivery, which reveals possible shortcomings in antenatal care, and 38.2% of them were a result of intra- labor changes, which could be prevented or reduced by adequate obstetric management. These findings were different from those in the group of early neonatal deaths which were also studied. Adequacy of health services showed that antenatal and childbirth care was appropriate for 24% and 33.3% of pregnant women, respectively, which corroborates the results of prevention. These results revealed that shortcomings in obstetric and antenatal care could be the causes of deaths in the study. Early and late neonatal deaths have similar characteristics: 76% could be prevented or reduced mainly by adequate newborn care (52.9%) and adequate health care for gestational women (11.7%). When adequacy of care was evaluated, childbirth and newborn care was adequate in 25.8% and antenatal care was adequate in 16.1%. In conclusion, direct relationship was found between adequacy and quality of care rendered to pregnant women and newborns, and fetal and infant mortality. Moreover, our findings highlight that deaths could be prevented by an adequate obstetric and neonatal management.

Keywords: Fetal Mortality, Infant Mortality, Maternal-Child Health Services, Program Evaluation.

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