Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: E. I. Rodríguez Fonseca

73 Application of Hermite-Rodriguez Functions to Pulse Shaping Analog Filter Design

Authors: Mohd Amaluddin Yusoff

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the design of pulse shaping filter using orthogonal Hermite-Rodriguez basis functions. The pulse shaping filter design problem has been formulated and solved as a quadratic programming problem with linear inequality constraints. Compared with the existing approaches reported in the literature, the use of Hermite-Rodriguez functions offers an effective alternative to solve the constrained filter synthesis problem. This is demonstrated through a numerical example which is concerned with the design of an equalization filter for a digital transmission channel.

Keywords: channel equalization filter, Hermite-Rodriguez, pulseshaping filter, quadratic programming.

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72 Ads on Social Issues: A Tool for Improving Critical Thinking Skills in a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Fonseca Jully, Chia Maribel, Rodríguez Ilba

Abstract:

This paper is a qualitative research report. A group of students form a public university in a small town in Colombia participated in this study which aimed at describing to what extend the use of social ads, published on the internet, helped to develop their critical thinking skills. Students’ productions, field notes, video recordings and direct observation were the instruments and techniques used by the researches in order to gather the data which was analyzed under the principles of grounded theory and triangulation. The implementation of social ads into the classroom evidenced a noticeable improvement in students’ ability to interpret and argue social issues, as well as, their self-improvement in oral and written production in English, as a foreign language.

Keywords: Ads, critical argumentation, critical thinking, social issues.

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71 Throughput Optimization on Wireless Networks by Increasing the Maximum Transmission Unit

Authors: Edward Guillén, Stephanne Rodríguez, Jhordany Rodríguez

Abstract:

Throughput enhancement can be achieved with two main approaches. The first one is by the increase of transmission rate and the second one is reducing the control traffic. This paper focuses on how the throughput can be enhanced by increasing Maximum Transmission Unit -MTU. Transmission of larger packets can cause a throughput improvement by reducing IP overhead. Analysis results are obtained by a mathematical model and simulation tools with a main focus on wireless channels.

Keywords: 802.11, Maximum Transfer Unit, throughput enhancement, wireless networks.

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70 A New Muscle Architecture Model with Non-Uniform Distribution of Muscle Fiber Types

Authors: Javier Navallas, Armando Malanda, Luis Gila, Javier Rodriguez, Ignacio Rodriguez

Abstract:

According to previous studies, some muscles present a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of its muscle fiber types and motor unit types. However, available muscle models only deal with muscles with homogeneous distributions. In this paper, a new architecture muscle model is proposed to permit the construction of non-uniform distributions of muscle fibers within the muscle cross section. The idea behind is the use of a motor unit placement algorithm that controls the spatial overlapping of the motor unit territories of each motor unit type. Results show the capabilities of the new algorithm to reproduce arbitrary muscle fiber type distributions.

Keywords: muscle model, muscle architecture, motor unit, EMG simulation.

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69 Suicide Conceptualization in Adolescents through Semantic Networks

Authors: K. P. Valdés García, E. I. Rodríguez Fonseca, L. G. Juárez Cantú

Abstract:

Suicide is a global, multidimensional and dynamic problem of mental health, which requires a constant study for its understanding and prevention. When research of this phenomenon is done, it is necessary to consider the different characteristics it may have because of the individual and sociocultural variables, the importance of this consideration is related to the generation of effective treatments and interventions. Adolescents are a vulnerable population due to the characteristics of the development stage. The investigation was carried out with the objective of identifying and describing the conceptualization of adolescents of suicide, and in this process, we find possible differences between men and women. The study was carried out in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. The sample was composed of 418 volunteer students aged between 11 and 18 years. The ethical aspects of the research were reviewed and considered in all the processes of the investigation with the participants, their parents and the schools to which they belonged, psychological attention was offered to the participants and preventive workshops were carried in the educational institutions. Natural semantic networks were the instrument used, since this hybrid method allows to find and analyze the social concept of a phenomenon; in this case, the word suicide was used as an evocative stimulus and participants were asked to evoke at least five words and a maximum 10 that they thought were related to suicide, and then hierarchize them according to the closeness with the construct. The subsequent analysis was carried with Excel, yielding the semantic weights, affective loads and the distances between each of the semantic fields established according to the words reported by the subjects. The results showed similarities in the conceptualization of suicide in adolescents, men and women. Seven semantic fields were generated; the words were related in the discourse analysis: 1) death, 2) possible triggering factors, 3) associated moods, 4) methods used to carry it out, 5) psychological symptomatology that could affect, 6) words associated with a rejection of suicide, and finally, 7) specific objects to carry it out. One of the necessary aspects to consider in the investigations of complex issues such as suicide is to have a diversity of instruments and techniques that adjust to the characteristics of the population and that allow to understand the phenomena from the social constructs and not only theoretical. The constant study of suicide is a pressing need, the loss of a life from emotional difficulties that can be solved through psychiatry and psychological methods requires governments and professionals to pay attention and work with the risk population.

Keywords: Adolescents, semantic networks, speech analysis, suicide.

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68 Additional Considerations on a Sequential Life Testing Approach using a Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, R. Rocha

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Weibull sampling distribution. The minimum life will be considered equal to zero. We will again provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new type of a low alloy-high strength steel product. To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Underlying Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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67 Learning Block Memories with Metric Networks

Authors: Mario Gonzalez, David Dominguez, Francisco B. Rodriguez

Abstract:

An attractor neural network on the small-world topology is studied. A learning pattern is presented to the network, then a stimulus carrying local information is applied to the neurons and the retrieval of block-like structure is investigated. A synaptic noise decreases the memory capability. The change of stability from local to global attractors is shown to depend on the long-range character of the network connectivity.

Keywords: Hebbian learning, image recognition, small world, spatial information.

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66 First-Principles Investigation of the Structural and Electronic Properties of Mg1-xBixO

Authors: G. P. Abdel Rahim, M. María Guadalupe Moreno Armenta, Jairo Arbey Rodriguez

Abstract:

We investigated the structure and electronic properties of the compound Mg1-xBixO with varying concentrations of 0, ¼, ½, and ¾ x bismuth in the the cesium chloride (CsCl), zinc-blende (ZnS), nickel arsenide (NiAs) NaCl (rock-salt) and WZ (wurtzite) phases. We calculated. The calculations were performed using the first-principles pseudo-potential method within the framework of spin density functional theory (DFT).

Keywords: DFT, Mg1-xBixO, pseudo-potential, rock-salt and wurtzite.

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65 Fuzzy Scan Method to Detect Clusters

Authors: Laureano Rodríguez, Gladys Casas, Ricardo Grau, Yailen Martínez

Abstract:

The classical temporal scan statistic is often used to identify disease clusters. In recent years, this method has become as a very popular technique and its field of application has been notably increased. Many bioinformatic problems have been solved with this technique. In this paper a new scan fuzzy method is proposed. The behaviors of classic and fuzzy scan techniques are studied with simulated data. ROC curves are calculated, being demonstrated the superiority of the fuzzy scan technique.

Keywords: Scan statistic, fuzzy scan, simulating study

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64 Selection and Design of an Axial Flow Fan

Authors: D. Almazo, C. Rodríguez, M. Toledo

Abstract:

This work presents a methodology for the selection and design of propeller oriented to the experimental verification of theoretical results. The problem of propeller selection and design usually present itself in the following manner: a certain air volume and static pressure are required for a certain system. Once the necessity of fan design on a theoretical basis has been recognized, it is possible to determinate the dimensions for a fan unit so that it will perform in accordance with a certain set of specifications. The same procedures in this work then can be applied in other propeller selection.

Keywords: airfoil, axial flow, blade, fan, hub, mathematical algorithm, propeller design, simulation, wheel.

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63 Collective Oscillations in a Magnetized Plasma Subjected to a Radiation Field

Authors: Daniel Santos, Bruno Ribeiro, Marco Amato, Antonio Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation

Keywords: Collective oscillations, External fields, Dispersion relation.

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62 ISTER (Immune System - Tumor Efficiency Rate): An Important Key for Planning in Radiotherapic Facilities

Authors: O. Sotolongo-Grau, D. Rodriguez-Perez, J. A. Santos-Miranda, M. M. Desco, O. Sotolongo-Costa, J. C. Antoranz

Abstract:

The use of the oncologic index ISTER allows for a more effective planning of the radiotherapic facilities in the hospitals. Any change in the radiotherapy treatment, due to unexpected stops, may be adapted by recalculating the doses to the new treatment duration while keeping the optimal prognosis. The results obtained in a simulation model on millions of patients allow the definition of optimal success probability algorithms.

Keywords: Mathematical model, radiation oncology, dynamical systems applications.

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61 Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, H. Cervantes-De Ávila, J. A. Michel-Macarty, C. Cruz-Hernández, A. Arellano-Delgado, R. Carmona-Rodríguez

Abstract:

In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interest case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulate by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.

Keywords: Synchronization, chaotic laser, network.

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60 Plaque Formation of Toxoplasma gondii in Vero Cells using Carboxymethylcellulose

Authors: L. Fonseca-Géigel, M. Alvarez, G. García, R. Cox, L. Morier, L. Fonte, M. G. Guzmán

Abstract:

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite capable of infecting all nucleated cells in a diverse array of species. Toxoplasma plaque assay have been described using Bacto Agar. Because of its experimental advantages carboxymethyl cellulose overlay, medium viscosity was choosing and the aim of this work was to develop alternative method for formation of T. gondii plaques. Tachyzoites were inoculated onto monolayers of Vero cells and cultured at 37° C under 5 % CO2. The cultures were followed up by microscopy inspection. Small plaques were visible by naphtol blue stain 4 days after infection. Larger plaques could be observed by day 10 of culture. The carboxymethyl cellulose is a cheap reagent and the methodology is easier, faster than assays under agar overlay. This is the first description of the carboxymethyl cellulose overlay use for obtaining the formation of T. gondii plaques and may be useful in consequent obtaining tachyzoites for detailed studies.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cell culture, Plaque assay, Toxoplasma gondii.

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59 Secret Communications Using Synchronized Sixth-Order Chuas's Circuits

Authors: López-Gutiérrez R.M., Rodríguez-Orozco E., Cruz-Hernández C., Inzunza-González E., Posadas-Castillo C., García-Guerrero E.E., Cardoza-Avendaño L.

Abstract:

In this paper, we use Generalized Hamiltonian systems approach to synchronize a modified sixth-order Chua's circuit, which generates hyperchaotic dynamics. Synchronization is obtained between the master and slave dynamics with the slave being given by an observer. We apply this approach to transmit private information (analog and binary), while the encoding remains potentially secure.

Keywords: Hyperchaos synchronization, sixth-order Chua's circuit, observers, simulation, secure communication.

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58 Further Thoughtson a Sequential Life Testing Approach Using an Inverse Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, G. P. Azevedo, D. R. Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Inverse Weibull sampling distribution. The location parameter or minimum life will be considered equal to zero. Once again we will provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new electronic component. There is little information available about the possible values the parameters of the corresponding Inverse Weibull underlying sampling distribution could have.To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Inverse Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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57 Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico

Authors: Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez

Abstract:

The causality between energy consumption and economic growth has been an important issue in the economic literature. This paper studies the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Mexico for the period of 1971-2011. In so doing, unit root and causality tests are applied. The results show that energy consumption and economic growth series are stationary and there is also a causality relationship running from economic growth to electricity consumption. Therefore, any energy conservation policy would have little or no impact at all on economic growth in México.

Keywords: Causality, economic growth, electricity consumption, Mexico.

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56 Economic Development, Environmental Conflicts and Citizen Participation in Latin America

Authors: Luis F. Beltrán Morales, Felipe García-Rodríguez, Daniel LLuch Cota, German Ponce Díaz, Victor Sevilla Unda

Abstract:

Environmental conflicts produced by economic development and natural resources exploitation, are discussed. Main causes of conflicts in developing countries were shown to arise from geographically external investments, inefficiency of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the lack of communication between government and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs). Citizen participation can only intervene during late stages of the EIA, which is considered as one of the main shortcomings in satisfying demands of local people.

Keywords: Economic Development, Environmental Conflicts, Citizen Participation, NGOs.

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55 Model of Transhipment and Routing Applied to the Cargo Sector in Small and Medium Enterprises of Bogotá, Colombia

Authors: Oscar Javier Herrera Ochoa, Ivan Dario Romero Fonseca

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of a model for planning the distribution logistics operation. The significance of this work relies on the applicability of this fact to the analysis of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of dry freight in Bogotá. Two stages constitute this implementation: the first one is the place where optimal planning is achieved through a hybrid model developed with mixed integer programming, which considers the transhipment operation based on a combined load allocation model as a classic transshipment model; the second one is the specific routing of that operation through the heuristics of Clark and Wright. As a result, an integral model is obtained to carry out the step by step planning of the distribution of dry freight for SMEs in Bogotá. In this manner, optimum assignments are established by utilizing transshipment centers with that purpose of determining the specific routing based on the shortest distance traveled.

Keywords: Transshipment model, mixed integer programming, saving algorithm, dry freight transportation.

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54 Appling Eyring-s Accelerated Life Testing Model to “Times to Breakdown“ of Insulating Fluid: A Combined Approach of an Accelerated and a Sequential Life Testing

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, D. Kipper

Abstract:

In this paper, the test purpose will be to assess whether or not the accelerated model proposed by Eyring will be able to translate results for the shape and scale parameters of an underlying Weibull model, obtained under two accelerating using conditions, to expected normal using condition results for these parameters. The product being analyzed is a new type of insulate fluid, and the accelerating factor is the voltage stresses applied to the fluid at two different levels (30KV and 40KV). The normal operating voltage is 25KV. In this case, it was possible to test the insulate fluid at normal voltage using condition. Both results for the two parameters of the Weibull model, obtained under normal using condition and translated from accelerated using conditions to normal conditions, will be compared to each other to assess the accuracy of the Eyring model when the accelerating factor is only the voltage stress.

Keywords: Eyring Accelerated Model, Sequential Life Testing, Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution, Voltage Stresses.

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53 On the Performance of Information Criteria in Latent Segment Models

Authors: Jaime R. S. Fonseca

Abstract:

Nevertheless the widespread application of finite mixture models in segmentation, finite mixture model selection is still an important issue. In fact, the selection of an adequate number of segments is a key issue in deriving latent segments structures and it is desirable that the selection criteria used for this end are effective. In order to select among several information criteria, which may support the selection of the correct number of segments we conduct a simulation study. In particular, this study is intended to determine which information criteria are more appropriate for mixture model selection when considering data sets with only categorical segmentation base variables. The generation of mixtures of multinomial data supports the proposed analysis. As a result, we establish a relationship between the level of measurement of segmentation variables and some (eleven) information criteria-s performance. The criterion AIC3 shows better performance (it indicates the correct number of the simulated segments- structure more often) when referring to mixtures of multinomial segmentation base variables.

Keywords: Quantitative Methods, Multivariate Data Analysis, Clustering, Finite Mixture Models, Information Theoretical Criteria, Simulation experiments.

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52 Block Activity in Metric Neural Networks

Authors: Mario Gonzalez, David Dominguez, Francisco B. Rodriguez

Abstract:

The model of neural networks on the small-world topology, with metric (local and random connectivity) is investigated. The synaptic weights are random, driving the network towards a chaotic state for the neural activity. An ordered macroscopic neuron state is induced by a bias in the network connections. When the connections are mainly local, the network emulates a block-like structure. It is found that the topology and the bias compete to influence the network to evolve into a global or a block activity ordering, according to the initial conditions.

Keywords: Block attractor, random interaction, small world, spin glass.

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51 Judges System for Classifiers Specialization

Authors: Abdel Rodríguez, Isis Bonet, Ricardo Grau, María M. García

Abstract:

In this paper we designed and implemented a new ensemble of classifiers based on a sequence of classifiers which were specialized in regions of the training dataset where errors of its trained homologous are concentrated. In order to separate this regions, and to determine the aptitude of each classifier to properly respond to a new case, it was used another set of classifiers built hierarchically. We explored a selection based variant to combine the base classifiers. We validated this model with different base classifiers using 37 training datasets. It was carried out a statistical comparison of these models with the well known Bagging and Boosting, obtaining significantly superior results with the hierarchical ensemble using Multilayer Perceptron as base classifier. Therefore, we demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed ensemble, as well as its applicability to general problems.

Keywords: classifiers, delegation, ensemble

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50 Design and Manufacturing of a Propeller for Axial-Flow Fan

Authors: D. Almazo, M. Toledo, C. Rodríguez

Abstract:

This work presents a methodology for the design and manufacture of propellers oriented to the experimental verification of theoretical results based on the combined model. The design process begins by using algorithms in Matlab which output data contain the coordinates of the points that define the blade airfoils, in this case the NACA 6512 airfoil was used. The modeling for the propeller blade was made in NX7, through the imported files in Matlab and with the help of surfaces. Later, the hub and the clamps were also modeled. Finally, NX 7 also made possible to create post-processed files to the required machine. It is possible to find the block of numbers with G & M codes about the type of driver on the machine. The file extension is .ptp. These files made possible to manufacture the blade, and the hub of the propeller.

Keywords: Airfoil, CAM, manufacturing, mathematical algorithm, numeric control, propeller design, simulation.

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49 Model Inversion of a Two Degrees of Freedom Linearized PUMA from Bicausal Bond Graphs

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Ignacio Rodríguez- A., Dunia Nuñez-P

Abstract:

A bond graph model of a two degrees of freedom PUMA is described. System inversion gives the system input required to generate a given system output. In order to get the system inversion of the PUMA manipulator, a linearization of the nonlinear bond graph is obtained. Hence, the bicausality of the linearized bond graph of the PUMA manipulator is applied. Thus, the bicausal bond graph provides a systematic way of generating the equations of the system inversion. Simulation results to verify the calculated input for a given output are shown.

Keywords: Bond graph, system inversion, bicausality, PUMA manipulator

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48 A New Predictor of Coding Regions in Genomic Sequences using a Combination of Different Approaches

Authors: Aníbal Rodríguez Fuentes, Juan V. Lorenzo Ginori, Ricardo Grau Ábalo

Abstract:

Identifying protein coding regions in DNA sequences is a basic step in the location of genes. Several approaches based on signal processing tools have been applied to solve this problem, trying to achieve more accurate predictions. This paper presents a new predictor that improves the efficacy of three techniques that use the Fourier Transform to predict coding regions, and that could be computed using an algorithm that reduces the computation load. Some ideas about the combination of the predictor with other methods are discussed. ROC curves are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed predictor, based on the computation of 25 DNA sequences from three different organisms.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Coding region prediction, Computational load reduction, Digital Signal Processing, Fourier Transform.

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47 An Application for Risk of Crime Prediction Using Machine Learning

Authors: Luis Fonseca, Filipe Cabral Pinto, Susana Sargento

Abstract:

The increase of the world population, especially in large urban centers, has resulted in new challenges particularly with the control and optimization of public safety. Thus, in the present work, a solution is proposed for the prediction of criminal occurrences in a city based on historical data of incidents and demographic information. The entire research and implementation will be presented start with the data collection from its original source, the treatment and transformations applied to them, choice and the evaluation and implementation of the Machine Learning model up to the application layer. Classification models will be implemented to predict criminal risk for a given time interval and location. Machine Learning algorithms such as Random Forest, Neural Networks, K-Nearest Neighbors and Logistic Regression will be used to predict occurrences, and their performance will be compared according to the data processing and transformation used. The results show that the use of Machine Learning techniques helps to anticipate criminal occurrences, which contributed to the reinforcement of public security. Finally, the models were implemented on a platform that will provide an API to enable other entities to make requests for predictions in real-time. An application will also be presented where it is possible to show criminal predictions visually.

Keywords: Crime prediction, machine learning, public safety, smart city.

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46 Evaluating Performance of an Anomaly Detection Module with Artificial Neural Network Implementation

Authors: Edward Guillén, Jhordany Rodriguez, Rafael Páez

Abstract:

Anomaly detection techniques have been focused on two main components: data extraction and selection and the second one is the analysis performed over the obtained data. The goal of this paper is to analyze the influence that each of these components has over the system performance by evaluating detection over network scenarios with different setups. The independent variables are as follows: the number of system inputs, the way the inputs are codified and the complexity of the analysis techniques. For the analysis, some approaches of artificial neural networks are implemented with different number of layers. The obtained results show the influence that each of these variables has in the system performance.

Keywords: Network Intrusion Detection, Machine learning, Artificial Neural Network.

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45 Recycling Poultry Feathers for Pb Removal from Wastewater: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

Authors: G. de la Rosa, H. E. Reynel-Avila, A. Bonilla-Petriciolet, I. Cano-Rodríguez, C. Velasco-Santos, and A. L. Martínez-Hernández

Abstract:

Chicken feathers were used as biosorbent for Pb removal from aqueous solution. In this paper, the kinetics and equilibrium studies at several pH, temperature, and metal concentration values are reported. For tested conditions, the Pb sorption capacity of this poultry waste ranged from 0.8 to 8.3 mg/g. Optimal conditions for Pb removal by chicken feathers have been identified. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations were used to analyze the experimental data. In addition, the sorption isotherms were fitted to classical Langmuir and Freundlich models. Finally, thermodynamic parameters for the sorption process have been determined. In summary, the results showed that chicken feathers are an alternative and promising sorbent for the treatment of effluents polluted by Pb ions.

Keywords: Sorption, chicken feathers, Pb, water treatment.

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44 Hopfield Network as Associative Memory with Multiple Reference Points

Authors: Domingo López-Rodríguez, Enrique Mérida-Casermeiro, Juan M. Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato

Abstract:

Hopfield model of associative memory is studied in this work. In particular, two main problems that it possesses: the apparition of spurious patterns in the learning phase, implying the well-known effect of storing the opposite pattern, and the problem of its reduced capacity, meaning that it is not possible to store a great amount of patterns without increasing the error probability in the retrieving phase. In this paper, a method to avoid spurious patterns is presented and studied, and an explanation of the previously mentioned effect is given. Another technique to increase the capacity of a network is proposed here, based on the idea of using several reference points when storing patterns. It is studied in depth, and an explicit formula for the capacity of the network with this technique is provided.

Keywords: Associative memory, Hopfield network, network capacity, spurious patterns.

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