Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Energy reduction

7 Applicability of Overhangs for Energy Saving in Existing High-Rise Housing in Different Climates

Authors: Qiong He, S. Thomas Ng

Abstract:

Upgrading the thermal performance of building envelope of existing residential buildings is an effective way to reduce heat gain or heat loss. Overhang device is a common solution for building envelope improvement as it can cut down solar heat gain and thereby can reduce the energy used for space cooling in summer time. Despite that, overhang can increase the demand for indoor heating in winter due to its function of lowering the solar heat gain. Obviously, overhang has different impacts on energy use in different climatic zones which have different energy demand. To evaluate the impact of overhang device on building energy performance under different climates of China, an energy analysis model is built up in a computer-based simulation program known as DesignBuilder based on the data of a typical high-rise residential building. The energy simulation results show that single overhang is able to cut down around 5% of the energy consumption of the case building in the stand-alone situation or about 2% when the building is surrounded by other buildings in regions which predominantly rely on space cooling though it has no contribution to energy reduction in cold region. In regions with cold summer and cold winter, adding overhang over windows can cut down around 4% and 1.8% energy use with and without adjoining buildings, respectively. The results indicate that overhang might not an effective shading device to reduce the energy consumption in the mixed climate or cold regions.

Keywords: Overhang, energy analysis, computer-based simulation, high-rise residential building, mutual shading, climate.

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6 Feasibility Study on the Use of HEMS for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Residential Buildings

Authors: K. C. Rajan, H. B. Rijal, Kazui Yoshida, Masanori Shukuya

Abstract:

The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.

Keywords: Energy reduction, thermal comfort, HEMS market, thermal environment.

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5 Computational Modeling of Combustion Wave in Nanoscale Thermite Reaction

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim

Abstract:

Nanoscale thermites such as the composite mixture of nano-sized aluminum and molybdenum trioxide powders possess several technical advantages such as much higher reaction rate and shorter ignition delay, when compared to the conventional energetic formulations made of micron-sized metal and oxidizer particles. In this study, the self-propagation of combustion wave in compacted pellets of nanoscale thermite composites is modeled and computationally investigated by utilizing the activation energy reduction of aluminum particles due to nanoscale particle sizes. The present computational model predicts the speed of combustion wave propagation which is good agreement with the corresponding experiments of thermite reaction. Also, several characteristics of thermite reaction in nanoscale composites are discussed including the ignition delay and combustion wave structures.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Thermite reaction, Combustion wave, Numerical modeling.

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4 Sustainable and Ecological Designs of the Built Environment

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Alexander Mudiwakure

Abstract:

This paper reviews designs of the built environment from a sustainability perspective, emphasizing their importance in achieving ecological and sustainable economic objectives. The built environment has traditionally resulted in loss of biodiversity, extinction of some species, climate change, excessive water use, land degradation, space depletion, waste accumulation, energy consumption and environmental pollution. Materials used like plastics, metals, bricks, concrete, cement, natural aggregates, glass and plaster have wreaked havoc on the earth´s resources, since they have high levels of embodied energy hence not sustainable. Additional resources are consumed during use and disposal phases. Proposed designs for sustainability solutions include: ecological sanitation and eco-efficiency systems that ensure social, economic, environmental and technical sustainability. Renewable materials and energy systems, passive cooling and heating systems and material and energy reduction, reuse and recycling can improve the sector. These ideas are intended to inform the field of ecological design of the built environment.

Keywords: Ecological and sustainability designs, environmental degradation, ecological sanitation, energy use efficiency.

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3 Optimal Space Vector Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor based on Nonrecursive Riccati Equation

Authors: Marian Gaiceanu, Emil Rosu

Abstract:

In this paper the optimal control strategy for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) based drive system is presented. The designed full optimal control is available for speed operating range up to base speed. The optimal voltage space-vector assures input energy reduction and stator loss minimization, maintaining the output energy in the same limits with the conventional PMSM electrical drive. The optimal control with three components is based on the energetically criteria and it is applicable in numerical version, being a nonrecursive solution. The simulation results confirm the increased efficiency of the optimal PMSM drive. The properties of the optimal voltage space vector are shown.

Keywords: Matlab/Simulink, optimal control, permanent magnet synchronous motor, Riccati equation, space vector PWM

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2 Product Ecodesign Approaches in ISO 14001 Certified Companies

Authors: Gregor Radonjič, Aleksandra P. Korda, Damijan Krajnc

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is the promotion of product ecodesign measures as a result of adopting ISO 14001 certification in manufacturing companies in the Republic of Slovenia. Companies gave the most of their product development attention to waste and energy reduction during manufacturing process and reduction of material consumption per unit of product. Regarding the importance of different ecodesign criteria reduction of material consumption per unit of product was reported as the most important criterion. Less attention is paid to endof- life issues considering recycling or packaging. Most manufacturing enterprises considered ISO 14001 standard as a very useful tool or at least a useful tool helping them to accelerate and establish product ecodesign activities. Two most frequently considered ecodesign drivers are increased competitive advantage and legal requirements and two most important barriers are high development costs and insufficient market demand.

Keywords: ecodesign, environmental management system, ISO 14001, products

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1 Analysis of CNT Bundle and its Comparison with Copper for FPGAs Interconnects

Authors: Kureshi Abdul Kadir, Mohd. Hasan

Abstract:

Each new semiconductor technology node brings smaller transistors and wires. Although this makes transistors faster, wires get slower. In nano-scale regime, the standard copper (Cu) interconnect will become a major hurdle for FPGA interconnect due to their high resistivity and electromigration. This paper presents the comprehensive evaluation of mixed CNT bundle interconnects and investigates their prospects as energy efficient and high speed interconnect for future FPGA routing architecture. All HSPICE simulations are carried out at operating frequency of 1GHz and it is found that mixed CNT bundle implemented in FPGAs as interconnect can potentially provide a substantial delay and energy reduction over traditional interconnects at 32nm process technology.

Keywords: CMOS, Copper Interconnect, Mixed CNT Bundle Interconnect, FPGAs.

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