Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2215

Search results for: Global warming counter measure

2215 Counter-Policies by Industrial Countries to Tackle Global Warming, from Perspective of the Kyoto Protocol

Authors: Yau-Ting, Sung, Hsueh-Chih, Chen, Hui-Peng, Hsiung, Hsun-Tsum, Huang

Abstract:

In accordance with environmental impacts contended in Kyoto Protocol, the study aims to explore the different administrative and non-administrative measurements that industrial countries, such as America, German, Japan, Korea, Holland and British take to face with the increasing Global Warming phenomena. By large, these measurements consist of versatile dimensions, including of education and advocating, economical instruments, research developments and instances, restricted instruments, voluntary contacts, exchangeable permit for carbon-release and public investments. The results of discussion for the study are as follows: both economical impacts as well as reformations for nations that are affected via Kyoto Protocol, and human testifying for variables of global surroundings in the age of Kyoto Protocol.

Keywords: Global warming, Kyoto protocol.

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2214 Evidence of Climate Change (Global Warming) and Temperature Increases in Arctic Areas

Authors: Eric Kojo Wu Aikins

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the debate on the proximate causes of climate change. Also, it discusses the impact of the global temperature increases since the beginning of the twentieth century and the effectiveness of climate change models in isolating the primary cause (anthropogenic influences or natural variability in temperature) of the observed temperature increases that occurred within this period. The paper argues that if climate scientist and policymakers ignore the anthropogenic influence (greenhouse gases) on global warming on the pretense of lack of agreement among various climate models and their inability to account for all the necessary factors of global warming at all levels the current efforts of greenhouse emissions control and global warming as a whole could be exacerbated.

Keywords: Anthropogenic Effects, Arctic, Climate Change, Natural Variability.

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2213 A Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of desert sand

Authors: Y. F. Yang, B. T. Wang, J. J. Fan, J. Yin

Abstract:

The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.

Keywords: global warming, desert sand, extended surface, heat exchange, thermodynamics

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2212 Effects of Global Warming on Climate Change in Udon Thani Province in the Period in 60 Surrounding Years (A.D.1951-2010)

Authors: T. Santiboon

Abstract:

This research were investigated, determined, and analyzed of the climate characteristically change in the provincial Udon Thani in the period of 60 surrounding years from 1951 to 2010 A.D. that it-s transferred to effects of climatologically data for determining global warming. Statistically significant were not found for the 60 years- data (R2<0.81). Statistically significant were found after adapted data followed as the Sun Spot cycle in 11 year periods, at the level 0.001 (R2= 1.00). These results indicate the Udon Thani-s weather are affected change; temperatures and evaporation were increased, but rainfall and number days of rainfall, cyclone storm, wind speed, and humidity, forest assessment were decreased. The effects of thermal energy from the sun radiation energy and human activities that they-re followed as the sunspot cycle are able to be predicted from the last to the future of the uniformitarian-s the climate change and global warming effect of the world.

Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Udon Thani Province Weather

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2211 Consideration Factors of Moving to a New Destination for Coastland Residents Under Global Warming

Authors: Ya-Fen Lee, Yun-Yao Chi, Cing-Hong Hung

Abstract:

Because of the global warming and the rising sea level, residents living in southwestern coastland, Taiwan are faced with the submerged land and may move to higher elevation area. It is desirable to discuss the key consideration factor for selecting the migration location under five dimensions of ಯ security”, “health”, “convenience”, “comfort” and “socio-economic” based on the document reviews. This paper uses the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and the questionnaire survey. The analysis results show that the convenience is the most key factor for residents in Taiwan. 

Keywords: Global warming, migration, structural equation modelling, questionnaire survey.

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2210 Impacts of Global Warming on the World Food Market According to SRES Scenarios

Authors: J. Furuya, S. Kobayashi, S. D. Meyer

Abstract:

This research examines possible effects of climatic change focusing on global warming and its impacts on world agricultural product markets, by using a world food model developed to consider climate changes. GDP and population for each scenario were constructed by IPCC and climate data for each scenario was reported by the Hadley Center and are used in this research to consider results in different contexts. Production and consumption of primary agriculture crops of the world for each socio-economic scenario are obtained and investigated by using the modified world food model. Simulation results show that crop production in some countries or regions will have different trends depending on the context. These alternative contexts depend on the rate of GDP growth, population, temperature, and rainfall. Results suggest that the development of environment friendly technologies lead to more consumption of food in many developing countries. Relationships among environmental policy, clean energy development, and poverty elimination warrant further investigation.

Keywords: Global warming, SRES scenarios, World food model.

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2209 Effect of Zeolite on the Decomposition Resistance of Organic Matter in Tropical Soils under Global Warming

Authors: Mai Thanh Truc, Masao Yoshida

Abstract:

Global temperature had increased by about 0.5oC over the past century, increasing temperature leads to a loss or a decrease of soil organic matter (SOM). Whereas soil organic matter in many tropical soils is less stable than that of temperate soils, and it will be easily affected by climate change. Therefore, conservation of soil organic matter is urgent issue nowadays. This paper presents the effect of different doses (5%, 15%) of Ca-type zeolite in conjunction with organic manure, applied to soil samples from Philippines, Paraguay and Japan, on the decomposition resistance of soil organic matter under high temperature. Results showed that a remain or slightly increase the C/N ratio of soil. There are an increase in percent of humic acid (PQ) that extracted with Na4P2O7. A decrease of percent of free humus (fH) after incubation was determined. A larger the relative color intensity (RF) value and a lower the color coefficient (6logK) value following increasing zeolite rates leading to a higher degrees of humification. The increase in the aromatic condensation of humic acid (HA) after incubation, as indicates by the decrease of H/C and O/C ratios of HA. This finding indicates that the use of zeolite could be beneficial with respect to SOM conservation under global warming condition.

Keywords: Global warming, Humic substances, Soil organicmatter, Zeolite.

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2208 Investigating Ultra Violet (UV) Strength against Different Level of Altitude using New Environmental Data Management System

Authors: M. Amir Abas, M. Dahlui

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation results of UV measurement at different level of altitudes and the development of a new portable instrument for measuring UV. The rapid growth of industrial sectors in developing countries including Malaysia, brings not only income to the nation, but also causes pollution in various forms. Air pollution is one of the significant contributors to global warming by depleting the Ozone layer, which would reduce the filtration of UV rays. Long duration of exposure to high to UV rays has many devastating health effects to mankind directly or indirectly through destruction of the natural resources. This study aimed to show correlation between UV and altitudes which indirectly can help predict Ozone depletion. An instrument had been designed to measure and monitors the level of UV. The instrument comprises of two main blocks namely data logger and Graphic User Interface (GUI). Three sensors were used in the data logger to detect changes in the temperature, humidity and ultraviolet. The system has undergone experimental measurement to capture data at two different conditions; industrial area and high attitude area. The performance of the instrument showed consistency in the data captured and the results of the experiment drew a significantly high reading of UV at high altitudes.

Keywords: Ozone Layer, Monitoring, Global Warming, Measurement, Ultraviolet

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2207 The Evaluation of Costs and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Using Technologies for Energy from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Futoshi Kakuta, Takashi Ishida

Abstract:

Sewage sludge is a biomass resource that can create a solid fuel and electricity. Utilizing sewage sludge as a renewable energy can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases. In Japan, the "National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization" and the “Priority Plan for Social Infrastructure Development" were approved at cabinet meetings in December 2010 and August 2012, respectively, to promote the energy utilization of sewage sludge. This study investigated costs and greenhouse gas emission in different sewage sludge treatments with technologies for energy from sewage sludge. Expenses were estimated based on capital costs and O&M costs including energy consumption of solid fuel plants and biogas power generation plants for sewage sludge. Results showed that the cost of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was 8% lower than landfill disposal. The greenhouse gas emission of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was also 6,390t as CO2 smaller than landfill disposal. Biogas power generation reduced the electricity of a wastewater treatment plant by 30% and the cost by 5%.

Keywords: Global warming counter measure, energy technology, solid fuel production, biogas.

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2206 Vulnerabilities of IEEE 802.11i Wireless LAN CCMP Protocol

Authors: M. Junaid , Muid Mufti, M. Umar Ilyas

Abstract:

IEEE has recently incorporated CCMP protocol to provide robust security to IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. It is found that CCMP has been designed with a weak nonce construction and transmission mechanism, which leads to the exposure of initial counter value. This weak construction of nonce renders the protocol vulnerable to attacks by intruders. This paper presents how the initial counter can be pre-computed by the intruder. This vulnerability of counter block value leads to pre-computation attack on the counter mode encryption of CCMP. The failure of the counter mode will result in the collapse of the whole security mechanism of 802.11 WLAN.

Keywords: Information Security, Cryptography, IEEE 802.11i, Computer security, Wireless LAN

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2205 The Investigation of Green Roof and White Roof Cooling Potential on Single Storey Residential Building in the Malaysian Climate

Authors: Asmat Ismail, Muna Hanim Abdul Samad, Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The phenomenon of global warming or climate change has led to many environmental issues including higher atmospheric temperatures, intense precipitation, increased greenhouse gaseous emissions and increased indoor discomfort. Studies have shown that bringing nature to the roof such as constructing green roof and implementing high-reflective roof may give positive impact in mitigating the effects of global warming and in increasing thermal comfort sensation inside buildings. However, no study has been conducted to compare both types of passive roof treatments in Malaysia in order to increase thermal comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of green roof and white painted roof as passive roof treatment in improving indoor comfort of Malaysian homes. This study uses an experimental approach in which the measurements of temperatures are conducted on the case study building. The measurements of outdoor and indoor environments were conducted on the flat roof with two different types of roof treatment that are green roof and white roof. The measurement of existing black bare roof was also conducted to act as a control for this study.

Keywords: global warming, green roof, white painted roof, indoor temperature reduction.

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2204 Climate Change Effect from Black Carbon Emission: Open Burning of Corn Residues in Thailand

Authors: Kanittha Kanokkanjana, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

This study focuses on emission of black carbon (BC) from field open burning of corn residues. Real-time BC concentration was measured by Micro Aethalometer from field burning and simulated open burning in a chamber (SOC) experiments. The average concentration of BC was 1.18±0.47 mg/m3 in the field and 0.89±0.63 mg/m3 in the SOC. The deduced emission factor from field experiments was 0.50±0.20 gBC/kgdm, and 0.56±0.33 gBC/kgdm from SOC experiment, which are in good agreement with other studies. In 2007, the total burned area of corn crop was 8,000 ha, resulting in an emission load of BC 20 ton corresponding to 44.5 million kg CO2 equivalent. Therefore, the control of open burning in corn field represents a significant global warming reduction option.

Keywords: Black carbon, corn field residues, global warming, mitigation option

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2203 On the Existence and Global Attractivity of Solutions of a Functional Integral Equation

Authors: Asadollah Aghajani, Yaghoub Jalilian

Abstract:

Using the concept of measure of noncompactness, we present some results concerning the existence, uniform local attractivity and global attractivity of solutions for a functional integral equation. Our results improve and extend some previous known results and based on weaker conditions. Some examples which show that our results are applicable when the previous results are inapplicable are also included.

Keywords: Functional integral equation, fixed-point, measure of noncompactness, attractive solution, asymptotic stability.

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2202 Energy Models for Analyzing the Economic Wide Impact of the Environmental Policies

Authors: Majdi M. Alomari, Nafesah I. Alshdaifat, Mohammad S. Widyan

Abstract:

Different countries have introduced different schemes and policies to counter global warming. The rationale behind the proposed policies and the potential barriers to successful implementation of the policies adopted by the countries were analyzed and estimated based on different models. It is argued that these models enhance the transparency and provide a better understanding to the policy makers. However, these models are underpinned with several structural and baseline assumptions. These assumptions, modeling features and future prediction of emission reductions and other implication such as cost and benefits of a transition to a low-carbon economy and its economy wide impacts were discussed. On the other hand, there are potential barriers in the form political, financial, and cultural and many others that pose a threat to the mitigation options.

Keywords: Economic wide impact, energy models, environmental policy instruments, mitigating CO2 emission.

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2201 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Elias Stathatos, Evangelos Vitoratos

Abstract:

Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: Counter electrodes, dye-sensitized solar cells, quasisolid state electrolyte, transparency.

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2200 Experimental Study of CO2 Absorption in Different Blend Solutions as Solvent for CO2 Capture

Authors: Rouzbeh Ramezani, Renzo Di Felice

Abstract:

Nowadays, removal of CO2 as one of the major contributors to global warming using alternative solvents with high CO2 absorption efficiency, is an important industrial operation. In this study, three amines, including 2-methylpiperazine, potassium sarcosinate and potassium lysinate as potential additives, were added to the potassium carbonate solution as a base solvent for CO2 capture. In order to study the absorption performance of CO2 in terms of loading capacity of CO2 and absorption rate, the absorption experiments in a blend of additives with potassium carbonate were carried out using the vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus at a temperature of 313.15 K, CO2 partial pressures ranging from 0 to 50 kPa and at mole fractions 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Furthermore, the performance of CO2 absorption in these blend solutions was compared with pure monoethanolamine and with pure potassium carbonate. Finally, a correlation with good accuracy was developed using the nonlinear regression analysis in order to predict CO2 loading capacity.

Keywords: Absorption rate, carbon dioxide, CO2 capture, global warming, loading capacity.

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2199 An Efficient Spam Mail Detection by Counter Technique

Authors: Raheleh Kholghi, Soheil Behnam Roudsari, Alireza Nemaney Pour

Abstract:

Spam mails are unwanted mails sent to large number of users. Spam mails not only consume the network resources, but cause security threats as well. This paper proposes an efficient technique to detect, and to prevent spam mail in the sender side rather than the receiver side. This technique is based on a counter set on the sender server. When a mail is transmitted to the server, the mail server checks the number of the recipients based on its counter policy. The counter policy performed by the mail server is based on some pre-defined criteria. When the number of recipients exceeds the counter policy, the mail server discontinues the rest of the process, and sends a failure mail to sender of the mail; otherwise the mail is transmitted through the network. By using this technique, the usage of network resources such as bandwidth, and memory is preserved. The simulation results in real network show that when the counter is set on the sender side, the time required for spam mail detection is 100 times faster than the time the counter is set on the receiver side, and the network resources are preserved largely compared with other anti-spam mail techniques in the receiver side.

Keywords: Anti-spam, Mail server, Sender side, Spam mail

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2198 Necessary and Sufficient Condition for the Quaternion Vector Measure

Authors: Mei Li, Fahui Zhai

Abstract:

In this paper, the definitions of the quaternion measure and the quaternion vector measure are introduced. The relation between the quaternion measure and the complex vector measure as well as the relation between the quaternion linear functional and the complex linear functional are discussed respectively. By using these relations, the necessary and sufficient condition to determine the quaternion vector measure is given.

Keywords: Quaternion, Quaternion measure, Quaternion vector measure, Quaternion Banach space, Quaternion linear functional.

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2197 An Optimized Virtual Scheme for Reducing Collisions in MAC Layer

Authors: M. Sivakumar, S. Saravanan

Abstract:

The main function of Medium Access Control (MAC) is to share the channel efficiently between all nodes. In the real-time scenario, there will be certain amount of wastage in bandwidth due to back-off periods. More bandwidth will be wasted in idle state if the back-off period is very high and collision may occur if the back-off period is small. So, an optimization is needed for this problem. The main objective of the work is to reduce delay due to back-off period thereby reducing collision and increasing throughput. Here a method, called the virtual back-off algorithm (VBA) is used to optimize the back-off period and thereby it increases throughput and reduces collisions. The main idea is to optimize the number of transmission for every node. A counter is introduced at each node to implement this idea. Here counter value represents the sequence number. VBA is classified into two types VBA with counter sharing (VBA-CS) and VBA with no counter sharing (VBA-NCS). These two classifications of VBA are compared for various parameters. Simulation is done in NS-2 environment. The results obtained are found to be promising. 

Keywords: VBA, sequence number, counter, back-off period.

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2196 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae

Abstract:

Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this research, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: CO2 Emissions, CO2 Reduction, Ready-mixed Concrete, Environmental Impact Assessment.

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2195 A New Similarity Measure Based On Edge Counting

Authors: T. Slimani, B. Ben Yaghlane, K. Mellouli

Abstract:

In the field of concepts, the measure of Wu and Palmer [1] has the advantage of being simple to implement and have good performances compared to the other similarity measures [2]. Nevertheless, the Wu and Palmer measure present the following disadvantage: in some situations, the similarity of two elements of an IS-A ontology contained in the neighborhood exceeds the similarity value of two elements contained in the same hierarchy. This situation is inadequate within the information retrieval framework. To overcome this problem, we propose a new similarity measure based on the Wu and Palmer measure. Our objective is to obtain realistic results for concepts not located in the same way. The obtained results show that compared to the Wu and Palmer approach, our measure presents a profit in terms of relevance and execution time.

Keywords: Hierarchy, IS-A ontology, Semantic Web, Similarity Measure.

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2194 Improved K-Modes for Categorical Clustering Using Weighted Dissimilarity Measure

Authors: S.Aranganayagi, K.Thangavel

Abstract:

K-Modes is an extension of K-Means clustering algorithm, developed to cluster the categorical data, where the mean is replaced by the mode. The similarity measure proposed by Huang is the simple matching or mismatching measure. Weight of attribute values contribute much in clustering; thus in this paper we propose a new weighted dissimilarity measure for K-Modes, based on the ratio of frequency of attribute values in the cluster and in the data set. The new weighted measure is experimented with the data sets obtained from the UCI data repository. The results are compared with K-Modes and K-representative, which show that the new measure generates clusters with high purity.

Keywords: Clustering, categorical data, K-Modes, weighted dissimilarity measure

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2193 Promoting Authenticity in Employer Brands to Address the Global-Local Problem in Complex Organisations: The Case of a Developing Country

Authors: Saud A. Taj

Abstract:

Employer branding is considered as a useful tool for addressing the global-local problem facing complex organisations that have operations scattered across the globe and face challenges of dealing with the local environment alongside. Despite being an established field of study within the Western developed world, there is little empirical evidence concerning the relevance of employer branding to global companies that operate in the under-developed economies. This paper fills this gap by gaining rich insight into the implementation of employer branding programs in a foreign multinational operating in Pakistan dealing with the global-local problem. The study is qualitative in nature and employs semistructured and focus group interviews with senior/middle managers and local frontline employees to deeply examine the phenomenon in case organisation. Findings suggest that authenticity is required in employer brands to enable them to respond to the local needs thereby leading to the resolution of the global-local problem. However, the role of signaling theory is key to the development of authentic employer brands as it stresses on the need to establish an efficient and effective signaling environment where in signals travel in both directions (from signal designers to receivers and backwards) and facilitate firms with the global-local problem. The paper also identifies future avenues of research for the employer branding field.

Keywords: Authenticity, Counter-signals, Employer Branding, Global-Local Problem, Signaling Theory.

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2192 Analysis of Temperature Change under Global Warming Impact using Empirical Mode Decomposition

Authors: Md. Khademul Islam Molla, Akimasa Sumi, M. Sayedur Rahman

Abstract:

The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) represents any time series into a finite set of basis functions. The bases are termed as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) which are mutually orthogonal containing minimum amount of cross-information. The EMD successively extracts the IMFs with the highest local frequencies in a recursive way, which yields effectively a set low-pass filters based entirely on the properties exhibited by the data. In this paper, EMD is applied to explore the properties of the multi-year air temperature and to observe its effects on climate change under global warming. This method decomposes the original time-series into intrinsic time scale. It is capable of analyzing nonlinear, non-stationary climatic time series that cause problems to many linear statistical methods and their users. The analysis results show that the mode of EMD presents seasonal variability. The most of the IMFs have normal distribution and the energy density distribution of the IMFs satisfies Chi-square distribution. The IMFs are more effective in isolating physical processes of various time-scales and also statistically significant. The analysis results also show that the EMD method provides a good job to find many characteristics on inter annual climate. The results suggest that climate fluctuations of every single element such as temperature are the results of variations in the global atmospheric circulation.

Keywords: Empirical mode decomposition, instantaneous frequency, Hilbert spectrum, Chi-square distribution, anthropogenic impact.

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2191 Tritium Determination in Danube River Water in Serbia by Liquid Scintillation Counter

Authors: S. Forkapic, J. Nikolov, N. Todorovic, D. Mrdja, I. Bikit

Abstract:

Tritium activity concentration in Danube river water in Serbia has been determinate using a liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220. During December 2010, water samples were taken along the entire course of Danube through Serbia, from Hungarian- Serbian to Romanian-Serbian border. This investigation is very important because of the nearness of nuclear reactor Paks in Hungary. Sample preparation was performed by standard test method using Optiphase HiSafe 3 scintillation cocktail. We used a rapid method for the preparation of environmental samples, without electrolytic enrichment.

Keywords: detection limit, liquid scintillation counter, low-leveltritium analysis, monitoring.

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2190 Image Mapping with Cumulative Distribution Function for Quick Convergence of Counter Propagation Neural Networks in Image Compression

Authors: S. Anna Durai, E. Anna Saro

Abstract:

In general the images used for compression are of different types like dark image, high intensity image etc. When these images are compressed using Counter Propagation Neural Network, it takes longer time to converge. The reason for this is that the given image may contain a number of distinct gray levels with narrow difference with their neighborhood pixels. If the gray levels of the pixels in an image and their neighbors are mapped in such a way that the difference in the gray levels of the neighbor with the pixel is minimum, then compression ratio as well as the convergence of the network can be improved. To achieve this, a Cumulative Distribution Function is estimated for the image and it is used to map the image pixels. When the mapped image pixels are used the Counter Propagation Neural Network yield high compression ratio as well as it converges quickly.

Keywords: Correlation, Counter Propagation Neural Networks, Cummulative Distribution Function, Image compression.

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2189 LFSR Counter Implementation in CMOS VLSI

Authors: Doshi N. A., Dhobale S. B., Kakade S. R.

Abstract:

As chip manufacturing technology is suddenly on the threshold of major evaluation, which shrinks chip in size and performance, LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) is implemented in layout level which develops the low power consumption chip, using recent CMOS, sub-micrometer layout tools. Thus LFSR counter can be a new trend setter in cryptography and is also beneficial as compared to GRAY & BINARY counter and variety of other applications. This paper compares 3 architectures in terms of the hardware implementation, CMOS layout and power consumption, using Microwind CMOS layout tool. Thus it provides solution to a low power architecture implementation of LFSR in CMOS VLSI.

Keywords: Chip technology, Layout level, LFSR, Pass transistor

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2188 Development and Assessment of Measuring/Rehabilitation Device for Myelopathy Patients with Lower Extremity Function

Authors: Hironobu Murayama, Shohei Shimizu, Masakazu Ohnuki, Hisanori Mihara, Tohru Kanada

Abstract:

Disordered function of maniphalanx and difficulty with ambulation will occur insofar as a human has a failure in the spinal marrow. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy as one of the myelopathy emanates from not only external factors but also increased age. In addition, the diacrisis is difficult since cervical spondylotic myelopathy is evaluated by a doctor-s neurological remark and imaging findings. As a quantitative method for measuring the degree of disability, hand-operated triangle step test (for short, TST) has formulated. In this research, a full automatic triangle step counter apparatus is designed and developed to measure the degree of disability in an accurate fashion according to the principle of TST. The step counter apparatus whose shape is a low triangle pole displays the number of stepping upon each corner. Furthermore, the apparatus has two modes of operation. Namely, one is for measuring the degree of disability and the other for rehabilitation exercise. In terms of usefulness, clinical practice should be executed before too long.

Keywords: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy, disorder of lower limbs, measuringfunction, rehabilitation function, full automatic apparatus, triangle step test.

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2187 Investigating the Precipitation and Temperature Change Procedure in Zayanderood Watershed

Authors: Amir Gandomkar

Abstract:

Global warming and continental changes have been one of the people's issues in the recent years and its consequences have appeared in the most parts of the earth planet or will appear in the future. Temperature and Precipitation are two main parameters in climatology. Any changes in these two parameters in this region cause widespread changes in the ecosystem and its natural and humanistic structure. One of the important consequences of this procedure is change in surface and underground water resources. Zayanderood watershed basin which is the main central river in Iran has faced water shortage in the recent years and also it has resulted in drought in Gavkhuni swamp and the river itself. Managers and experts in provinces which are the Zayanderood water consumers believe that global warming; raining decrease and continental changes are the main reason of water decrease. By statistical investigation of annual Precipitation and 46 years temperature of internal and external areas of Zayanderood watershed basin's stations and by using Kendal-man method, Precipitation and temperature procedure changes have been analyzed in this basin. According to obtained results, there was not any noticeable decrease or increase procedure in Precipitation and annual temperature in the basin during this period. However, regarding to Precipitation, a noticeable decrease and increase have been observed in small part of western and some parts of eastern and southern basin, respectively. Furthermore, the investigation of annual temperature procedure has shown that a noticeable increase has been observed in some parts of western and eastern basin, and also a noticeable increasing procedure of temperature in the central parts of metropolitan Esfahan can be observed.

Keywords: Zayanderood, Man_Kendal, Climate Change

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2186 Further the Effectiveness of Software Testability Measure

Authors: Liang Zhao, Feng Wang, Bo Deng, Bo Yang

Abstract:

Software testability is proposed to address the problem of increasing cost of test and the quality of software. Testability measure provides a quantified way to denote the testability of software. Since 1990s, many testability measure models are proposed to address the problem. By discussing the contradiction between domain testability and domain range ratio (DRR), a new testability measure, semantic fault distance, is proposed. Its validity is discussed.

Keywords: Software testability, DRR, Domain testability.

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