Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Dam reservoir

9 Application of Stochastic Models to Annual Extreme Streamflow Data

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi

Abstract:

This study was designed to find the best stochastic model (using of time series analysis) for annual extreme streamflow (peak and maximum streamflow) of Karkheh River at Iran. The Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model used to simulate these series and forecast those in future. For the analysis, annual extreme streamflow data of Jelogir Majin station (above of Karkheh dam reservoir) for the years 1958–2005 were used. A visual inspection of the time plot gives a little increasing trend; therefore, series is not stationary. The stationarity observed in Auto-Correlation Function (ACF) and Partial Auto-Correlation Function (PACF) plots of annual extreme streamflow was removed using first order differencing (d=1) in order to the development of the ARIMA model. Interestingly, the ARIMA(4,1,1) model developed was found to be most suitable for simulating annual extreme streamflow for Karkheh River. The model was found to be appropriate to forecast ten years of annual extreme streamflow and assist decision makers to establish priorities for water demand. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) codes were used to determinate of the best model for this series.

Keywords: Stochastic models, ARIMA, extreme streamflow, Karkheh River.

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8 Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, water quality classification, water quality indexes, Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs.

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7 The Study of Stable Isotopes (18O, 2H & 13C) in Kardeh River and Dam Reservoir, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Hossein Mohammadzadeh, Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Among various water resources, the surface water has a dominant role in providing water supply in the arid and semi-arid region of Iran. Andarokh-Kardeh basin is located in 50 km from Mashhad city - the second biggest city of Iran (NE of Iran), draining by Kardeh river which provides a significant portion of potable and irrigation water needs for Mashhad. The stable isotopes (18O, 2H,13C-DIC, and 13C-DOC), as reliable and precious water fingerprints, have been measured in Kardeh river (Kharket, Mareshk, Jong, All and Kardeh stations) and in Kardeh dam reservoirs (at five different sites S1 to S5) during March to June 2011 and June 2012. On δ18O vs. δ2H diagram, the river samples were plotted between Global and Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water lines (GMWL and EMMWL) which demonstrate that various moisture sources are providing humidity for precipitation events in this area. The enriched δ18O and δ2H values (-6.5 ‰ and -44.5 ‰ VSMOW) of Kardeh dam reservoir are compared to Kardeh river (-8.6‰and-54.4‰), and its deviation from Mashhad meteoric water line (MMWL- δ2H=7.16δ18O+11.22) is due to evaporation from the open surface water body. The enriched value of δ 13C-DIC and high amount of DIC values (-7.9 ‰ VPDB and 57.23 ppm) in the river and Kardeh dam reservoir (-7.3 ‰ VPDB and 55.53 ppm) is due to dissolution of Mozdooran Carbonate Formation lithology (Jm1 to Jm3 units) (contains enriched δ13C DIC values of 9.2‰ to 27.7‰ VPDB) in the region. Because of the domination of C3 vegetations in Andarokh_Kardeh basin, the δ13C-DOC isotope of the river (-28.4‰ VPDB) and dam reservoir (-32.3‰ VPDB) demonstrate depleted values. Higher DOC concentration in dam reservoir (2.57 ppm) compared to the river (0.72 ppm) is due to more biologogical activities and organic matters in dam reservoir.

Keywords: Dam reservoir, Iran, Kardeh river, Khorasan razavi, Stable isotopes.

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6 Identifying Karst Pattern to Prevent Bell Spring from Being Submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir

Authors: H. Shafaattalab Dehghani, H. R. Zarei

Abstract:

The large karstic Bell spring with a discharge ranging between 250 and 5300 lit/ sec is one of the most important springs of Kermanshah Province. This spring supplies drinking water of Nodsheh City and its surrounding villages. The spring is located in the reservoir of Daryan Dam and its mouth would be submerged after impounding under a water column of about 110 m height. This paper has aimed to render an account of the karstification pattern around the spring under consideration with the intention of preventing Bell Spring from being submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir. The studies comprise engineering geology and hydrogeology investigations. Some geotechnical activities included in these studies include geophysical studies, drilling, excavation of exploratory gallery and shaft and diving. The results depict that Bell is a single-conduit siphon spring with 4 m diameter and 85 m height that 32 m of the conduit is located below the spring outlet. To survive the spring, it was decided to plug the outlet and convey the water to upper elevations under the natural pressure of the aquifer. After plugging, water was successfully conveyed to elevation 837 meter above sea level (about 120 m from the outlet) under the natural pressure of the aquifer. This signifies the accuracy of the studies done and proper recognition of the karstification pattern of Bell Spring. This is a unique experience in karst problems in Iran.

Keywords: Bell spring, karst, Daryan Dam, submerged.

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5 Landscape Assessment of the Dam and Motorway Networks that Provide Visual and Recreational Opportunities: Case Study of Artvin, Turkey

Authors: Banu Karaşah, Derya Sarı

Abstract:

Nature constantly changes as a result of human necessities. This change mostly feels in natural water sources which are reconstructed with an effect of dams and motorways. In other respects, visual quality of the landscape gets a new and different character during and after the construction of dams and motorways. Changing and specialization new landscapes will be very important to protection-usage balance to explore sustainable usage facilities. The main cause of the selection of Artvin city is that it has very important geographical location and one of the most attraction points in the World with its biodiversity, conservation areas and natural landscape characteristics. Many hydroelectric station and 7 dams are situated, 3 of them have already been built on the Çoruh River in the province of Artvin. As a result of dams, motorways route were reshaped and the ways which have already changed because of elevation is directly affected several of natural destruction. In contrast, many different reservoirs in Coruh Basin provide new vista point that has high visual quality. In this study, we would like to evaluate with sustainable landscape design in 76 km river corridor, which is mainly based on Deriner, Borçka and Muratlı Dams and determination of their basin-lakes recreational potential and opportunities. Lastly, we are going to give some suggestion about the potential of the corridor.

Keywords: Artvin, dam reservoirs, landscape assessment, river corridor, visual quality.

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4 Optimal Water Allocation: Sustainable Management of Dam Reservoir

Authors: Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Shatirah Akib, Babak Kamali, Sadia Rahman

Abstract:

Scarcity of water resources and huge costs of establishing new hydraulic installations necessitate optimal exploitation from existing reservoirs. Sustainable management and efficient exploitation from existing finite water resources are important factors in water resource management, particularly in the periods of water insufficiency and in dry regions, and on account of competitive allocations in the view of exploitation management. This study aims to minimize reservoir water release from a determined rate of demand. A numerical model for water optimal exploitation has been developed using GAMS introduced by the World Bank and applied to the case of Meijaran dam, northern Iran. The results indicate that this model can optimize the function of reservoir exploitation while required water for lower parts of the region will be supplied. Further, allocating optimal water from reservoir, the optimal rate of water allocated to any group of the users were specified to increase benefits in curve dam exploitation.

Keywords: Water resource management, water reservoirs, water allocation, GAMS, Meijaran dam

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3 Assessment of Water Pollution of Kowsar Dam Reservoir

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Jabbari, Fardin Boustani

Abstract:

The reservoir of Kowsar dam supply water for different usages such as aquaculture farms , drinking, agricultural and industrial usages for some provinces in south of Iran. The Kowsar dam is located next to the city of Dehdashat in Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad province in southern Iran. There are some towns and villages on the Kowsar dam watersheds, which Dehdasht and Choram are the most important and populated twons in this area, which can to be sources of pollution for water reservoir of the Kowsar dam . This study was done to determine of water pollution of the Kowsar dam reservoir which is one of the most important water resources of Kohkiloye and Boyerahmad and Bushehr provinces in south-west Iran. In this study , water samples during 12 months were collected to examine Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen(DO) as a criterion for evaluation of water pollution of the reservoir. In summary ,the study has shown Maximum, average and minimum levels of BOD have observed 25.9 ,9.15 and 2.3 mg/L respectively and statistical parameters of data such as standard deviation , variance and skewness have calculated 7.88, 62 and 1.54 respectively. Finally the results were compared with Iranian national standards. Among the analyzed samples, as the maximum value of BOD (25.9 mg/L) was observed at the May 2010 , was within the maximum admissible limits by the Iranian standards.

Keywords: Kowsar dam, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, water pollution

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2 A Closed Form Solution for Hydrodynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Reservoir with Effect of Viscosity under Dynamic Loading

Authors: B. Navayineya, J. Vaseghi Amiri, M. Alijani Ardeshir

Abstract:

Hydrodynamic pressures acting on upstream of concrete dams during an earthquake are an important factor in designing and assessing the safety of these structures in Earthquake regions. Due to inherent complexities, assessing exact hydrodynamic pressure is only feasible for problems with simple geometry. In this research, the governing equation of concrete gravity dam reservoirs with effect of fluid viscosity in frequency domain is solved and then compared with that in which viscosity is assumed zero. The results show that viscosity influences the reservoir-s natural frequency. In excitation frequencies near the reservoir's natural frequencies, hydrodynamic pressure has a considerable difference in compare to the results of non-viscose fluid.

Keywords: Closed form solution, concrete dams reservoir, viscosity, dynamic loads, hydrodynamic pressure.

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1 Simulation of Snow Covers Area by a Physical based Model

Authors: Hossein Zeinivand, Florimond De Smedt

Abstract:

Snow cover is an important phenomenon in hydrology, hence modeling the snow accumulation and melting is an important issue in places where snowmelt significantly contributes to runoff and has significant effect on water balance. The physics-based models are invariably distributed, with the basin disaggregated into zones or grid cells. Satellites images provide valuable data to verify the accuracy of spatially distributed model outputs. In this study a spatially distributed physically based model (WetSpa) was applied to predict snow cover and melting in the Latyan dam watershed in Iran. Snowmelt is simulated based on an energy balance approach. The model is applied and calibrated with one year of observed daily precipitation, air temperature, windspeed, and daily potential evaporation. The predicted snow-covered area is compared with remotely sensed images (MODIS). The results show that simulated snow cover area SCA has a good agreement with satellite image snow cover area SCA from MODIS images. The model performance is also tested by statistical and graphical comparison of simulated and measured discharges entering the Latyan dam reservoir.

Keywords: Physical based model, Satellite image, Snow covers.

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