Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 498

Search results for: Stable isotopes.

498 Studying the Spatial Variations of Stable Isotopes (18O and 2H) in Precipitation and Groundwater Resources in Zagros Region

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Zagros mountain range is a very important precipitation zone in Iran as it receives high average annual precipitation compared to other parts of this country. Although this region is important precipitation zone in semi-arid an arid country like Iran, accurate method to study water resources in this region has not been applied yet. In this study, stable isotope δ18O content of precipitation and groundwater resources showed spatial variations across Zagros region as southern parts of Zagros region showed more enriched isotope values compared to the northern parts. This is normal as southern Zagros region is much drier with higher air temperature and evaporation compared to northern parts. In addition, the spatial variations of stable isotope δ18O in precipitation in Zagros region have been simulated by the models which consider the altitude and latitude variations as input to simulate δ18O in precipitation.

Keywords: Groundwater, precipitation, simulation, stable isotopes, Zagros region.

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497 The Study of Stable Isotopes (18O, 2H & 13C) in Kardeh River and Dam Reservoir, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Hossein Mohammadzadeh, Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Among various water resources, the surface water has a dominant role in providing water supply in the arid and semi-arid region of Iran. Andarokh-Kardeh basin is located in 50 km from Mashhad city - the second biggest city of Iran (NE of Iran), draining by Kardeh river which provides a significant portion of potable and irrigation water needs for Mashhad. The stable isotopes (18O, 2H,13C-DIC, and 13C-DOC), as reliable and precious water fingerprints, have been measured in Kardeh river (Kharket, Mareshk, Jong, All and Kardeh stations) and in Kardeh dam reservoirs (at five different sites S1 to S5) during March to June 2011 and June 2012. On δ18O vs. δ2H diagram, the river samples were plotted between Global and Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water lines (GMWL and EMMWL) which demonstrate that various moisture sources are providing humidity for precipitation events in this area. The enriched δ18O and δ2H values (-6.5 ‰ and -44.5 ‰ VSMOW) of Kardeh dam reservoir are compared to Kardeh river (-8.6‰and-54.4‰), and its deviation from Mashhad meteoric water line (MMWL- δ2H=7.16δ18O+11.22) is due to evaporation from the open surface water body. The enriched value of δ 13C-DIC and high amount of DIC values (-7.9 ‰ VPDB and 57.23 ppm) in the river and Kardeh dam reservoir (-7.3 ‰ VPDB and 55.53 ppm) is due to dissolution of Mozdooran Carbonate Formation lithology (Jm1 to Jm3 units) (contains enriched δ13C DIC values of 9.2‰ to 27.7‰ VPDB) in the region. Because of the domination of C3 vegetations in Andarokh_Kardeh basin, the δ13C-DOC isotope of the river (-28.4‰ VPDB) and dam reservoir (-32.3‰ VPDB) demonstrate depleted values. Higher DOC concentration in dam reservoir (2.57 ppm) compared to the river (0.72 ppm) is due to more biologogical activities and organic matters in dam reservoir.

Keywords: Dam reservoir, Iran, Kardeh river, Khorasan razavi, Stable isotopes.

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496 Studying the Moisture Sources and the Stable Isotope Characteristic of Moisture in Northern Khorasan Province, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad, Hamid Ghalibaf Mohammadabadi

Abstract:

Iran is a semi-arid and arid country in south-western Asia in the Middle East facing intense climatological drought from the early times. Therefore, studying the precipitation events and the moisture sources and air masses causing precipitation has great importance in this region. In this study, the moisture sources and stable isotope content of precipitation moisture in three main events in 2015 have been studied in North-Eastern Iran. HYSPLIT model backward trajectories showed that the Caspian Sea and the mixture of the Caspian and Mediterranean Seas are dominant moisture sources for the studied events. This showed the role of cP (Siberian) and Mediterranean (MedT) air masses. Stable isotope studies showed that precipitation events originated from the Caspian Sea with lower Sea Surface Temperature (SST) have more depleted isotope values. However, precipitation events sourced from the mixture of the Caspian and the Mediterranean Seas (with higher SST) showed more enriched isotope values.

Keywords: HYSPLIT, Iran, Northern Khorasan, stable isotopes.

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495 Applications of Stable Distributions in Time Series Analysis, Computer Sciences and Financial Markets

Authors: Mohammad Ali Baradaran Ghahfarokhi, Parvin Baradaran Ghahfarokhi

Abstract:

In this paper, first we introduce the stable distribution, stable process and theirs characteristics. The a -stable distribution family has received great interest in the last decade due to its success in modeling data, which are too impulsive to be accommodated by the Gaussian distribution. In the second part, we propose major applications of alpha stable distribution in telecommunication, computer science such as network delays and signal processing and financial markets. At the end, we focus on using stable distribution to estimate measure of risk in stock markets and show simulated data with statistical softwares.

Keywords: stable distribution, SaS, infinite variance, heavy tail networks, VaR.

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494 Decay Heat Contribution Analyses of Curium Isotopes in the Mixed Oxide Nuclear Fuel

Authors: S. S. Nafee, A. K. Al-Ramady, S. A. Shaheen

Abstract:

The mixed oxide nuclear fuel (MOX) of U and Pu contains several percent of fission products and minor actinides, such as neptunium, americium and curium. It is important to determine accurately the decay heat from Curium isotopes as they contribute significantly in the MOX fuel. This heat generation can cause samples to melt very quickly if excessive quantities of curium are present. In the present paper, we introduce a new approach that can predict the decay heat from curium isotopes. This work is a part of the project funded by King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KASCT), Long-Term Comprehensive National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovations, and take place in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia. The approach is based on the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe decays and buildups of many nuclides to calculate the decay heat produced after shutdown. Results show the consistency and reliability of the approach applied.

Keywords: Decay heat, Mixed oxide nuclear fuel, Numerical Solution of Linear Differential Equations, and Curium isotopes

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493 An Agent-based Model for Analyzing Interaction of Two Stable Social Networks

Authors: Masatora Daito, Hisashi Kojima

Abstract:

In this research, the authors analyze network stability using agent-based simulation. Firstly, the authors focus on analyzing large networks (eight agents) by connecting different two stable small social networks (A small stable network is consisted on four agents.). Secondly, the authors analyze the network (eight agents) shape which is added one agent to a stable network (seven agents). Thirdly, the authors analyze interpersonal comparison of utility. The “star-network "was not found on the result of interaction among stable two small networks. On the other hand, “decentralized network" was formed from several combination. In case of added one agent to a stable network (seven agents), if the value of “c"(maintenance cost of per a link) was larger, the number of patterns of stable network was also larger. In this case, the authors identified the characteristics of a large stable network. The authors discovered the cases of decreasing personal utility under condition increasing total utility.

Keywords: Social Network, Symmetric Situation, Network Stability, Agent-Based Modeling.

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492 Use of Detectors Technology for Gamma Ray Issued from Radioactive Isotopes and its Impact on Knowledge of Behavior of the Stationary Case of Solid Phase Holdup

Authors: Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi

Abstract:

For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)

Keywords: Multichannel analyzer, Spectrum, Energies, Fluids holdup, Image

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491 Design of Nonlinear Robust Control in a Class of Structurally Stable Functions

Authors: V. Ten

Abstract:

An approach of design of stable of control systems with ultimately wide ranges of uncertainly disturbed parameters is offered. The method relies on using of nonlinear structurally stable functions from catastrophe theory as controllers. Theoretical part presents an analysis of designed nonlinear second-order control systems. As more important the integrators in series, canonical controllable form and Jordan forms are considered. The analysis resumes that due to added controllers systems become stable and insensitive to any disturbance of parameters. Experimental part presents MATLAB simulation of design of control systems of epidemic spread, aircrafts angular motion and submarine depth. The results of simulation confirm the efficiency of offered method of design. KeywordsCatastrophes, robust control, simulation, uncertain parameters.

Keywords: Catastrophes, robust control, simulation, uncertain parameters.

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490 An Algorithm for Estimating the Stable Operation Conditions of the Synchronous Motor of the Ore Mill Electric Drive

Authors: M. Baghdasaryan, A. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

An algorithm for estimating the stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor of the ore mill electric drive is proposed. The stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor are revealed, taking into account the estimation of the q angle change and the technological factors. The stability condition obtained allows to ensure the stable operation of the motor in the synchronous mode, taking into account the nonlinear character of the mill loading. The developed algorithm gives an opportunity to present the undesirable phenomena, arising in the electric drive system. The obtained stability condition can be successfully applied for the optimal control of the electromechanical system of the mill.

Keywords: Electric drive, synchronous motor, ore mill, stability, technological factors.

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489 Delay-dependent Stability Analysis for Uncertain Switched Neutral System

Authors: Lianglin Xiong, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

This paper considers the robust exponential stability issues for a class of uncertain switched neutral system which delays switched according to the switching rule. The system under consideration includes both stable and unstable subsystems. The uncertainties considered in this paper are norm bounded, and possibly time varying. Based on multiple Lyapunov functional approach and dwell-time technique, the time-dependent switching rule is designed depend on the so-called average dwell time of stable subsystems as well as the ratio of the total activation time of stable subsystems and unstable subsystems. It is shown that by suitably controlling the switching between the stable and unstable modes, the robust stabilization of the switched uncertain neutral systems can be achieved. Two simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Switched neutral system, exponential stability, multiple Lyapunov functional, dwell time technique, time-dependent switching rule.

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488 Aliasing Free and Additive Error in Spectra for Alpha Stable Signals

Authors: R. Sabre

Abstract:

This work focuses on the symmetric alpha stable process with continuous time frequently used in modeling the signal with indefinitely growing variance, often observed with an unknown additive error. The objective of this paper is to estimate this error from discrete observations of the signal. For that, we propose a method based on the smoothing of the observations via Jackson polynomial kernel and taking into account the width of the interval where the spectral density is non-zero. This technique allows avoiding the “Aliasing phenomenon” encountered when the estimation is made from the discrete observations of a process with continuous time. We have studied the convergence rate of the estimator and have shown that the convergence rate improves in the case where the spectral density is zero at the origin. Thus, we set up an estimator of the additive error that can be subtracted for approaching the original signal without error.

Keywords: Spectral density, stable processes, aliasing, p-adic.

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487 Stable Robust Adaptive Controller and Observer Design for a Class of SISO Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Dead Zone

Authors: Ibrahim F. Jasim

Abstract:

This paper presents a new stable robust adaptive controller and observer design for a class of nonlinear systems that contain i. Coupling of unmeasured states and unknown parameters ii. Unknown dead zone at the system actuator. The system is firstly cast into a modified form in which the observer and parameter estimation become feasible. Then a stable robust adaptive controller, state observer, parameter update laws are derived that would provide global adaptive system stability and desirable performance. To validate the approach, simulation was performed to a single-link mechanical system with a dynamic friction model and unknown dead zone exists at the system actuation. Then a comparison is presented with the results when there is no dead zone at the system actuation.

Keywords: Dead Zone, Nonlinear Systems, Observer, Robust Adaptive Control.

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486 A Model to Determine Atmospheric Stability and its Correlation with CO Concentration

Authors: Kh. Ashrafi, Gh. A. Hoshyaripour

Abstract:

Atmospheric stability plays the most important role in the transport and dispersion of air pollutants. Different methods are used for stability determination with varying degrees of complexity. Most of these methods are based on the relative magnitude of convective and mechanical turbulence in atmospheric motions. Richardson number, Monin-Obukhov length, Pasquill-Gifford stability classification and Pasquill–Turner stability classification, are the most common parameters and methods. The Pasquill–Turner Method (PTM), which is employed in this study, makes use of observations of wind speed, insolation and the time of day to classify atmospheric stability with distinguishable indices. In this study, a model is presented to determination of atmospheric stability conditions using PTM. As a case study, meteorological data of Mehrabad station in Tehran from 2000 to 2005 is applied to model. Here, three different categories are considered to deduce the pattern of stability conditions. First, the total pattern of stability classification is obtained and results show that atmosphere is 38.77%, 27.26%, 33.97%, at stable, neutral and unstable condition, respectively. It is also observed that days are mostly unstable (66.50%) while nights are mostly stable (72.55%). Second, monthly and seasonal patterns are derived and results indicate that relative frequency of stable conditions decrease during January to June and increase during June to December, while results for unstable conditions are exactly in opposite manner. Autumn is the most stable season with relative frequency of 50.69% for stable condition, whilst, it is 42.79%, 34.38% and 27.08% for winter, summer and spring, respectively. Hourly stability pattern is the third category that points out that unstable condition is dominant from approximately 03-15 GTM and 04-12 GTM for warm and cold seasons, respectively. Finally, correlation between atmospheric stability and CO concentration is achieved.

Keywords: Atmospheric stability, Pasquill-Turner classification, convective turbulence, mechanical turbulence, Tehran.

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485 Node Pair Selection Scheme in Relay-Aided Communication Based On Stable Marriage Problem

Authors: Tetsuki Taniguchi, Yoshio Karasawa

Abstract:

This paper describes a node pair selection scheme in relay-aided multiple source multiple destination communication system based on stable marriage problem. A general case is assumed in which all of source, relay and destination nodes are equipped with multiantenna and carry out multistream transmission. Based on several metrics introduced from inter-node channel condition, the preference order is determined about all source-relay and relay-destination relations, and then the node pairs are determined using Gale-Shapley algorithm. The computer simulations show that the effectiveness of node pair selection is larger in multihop communication. Some additional aspects which are different from relay-less case are also investigated.

Keywords: Relay, multiple input multiple output (MIMO), multiuser, amplify and forward, stable marriage problem, Gale-Shapley algorithm.

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484 Stability of Discrete Linear Systems with Periodic Coefficients under Parametric Perturbations

Authors: Adam Czornik, Aleksander Nawrat

Abstract:

This paper studies the problem of exponential stability of perturbed discrete linear systems with periodic coefficients. Assuming that the unperturbed system is exponentially stable we obtain conditions on the perturbations under which the perturbed system is exponentially stable.

Keywords: Exponential stability, time-varying linear systems, periodic systems.

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483 Optical Heterodyning of Injection-Locked Laser Sources — A Novel Technique for Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Soumik Das, Antara Saha

Abstract:

A novel technique has been developed to generate ultra-stable millimeter-wave signal by optical heterodyning of the output from two slave laser (SL) sources injection-locked to the sidebands of a frequency modulated (FM) master laser (ML). Precise thermal tuning of the SL sources is required to lock the particular slave laser frequency to the desired FM sidebands of the ML. The output signals from the injection-locked SL when coherently heterodyned in a fast response photo detector like high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), extremely stable millimeter-wave signal having very narrow line width can be generated. The scheme may also be used to generate ultra-stable sub-millimeter-wave/terahertz signal.

Keywords: FM sideband injection locking, Master-Slave injection locking, Millimetre-wave signal generation and Optical heterodyning.

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482 Transmission Model for Plasmodium Vivax Malaria: Conditions for Bifurcation

Authors: P. Pongsumpun, I.M. Tang

Abstract:

Plasmodium vivax malaria differs from P. falciparum malaria in that a person suffering from P. vivax infection can suffer relapses of the disease. This is due the parasite being able to remain dormant in the liver of the patients where it is able to re-infect the patient after a passage of time. During this stage, the patient is classified as being in the dormant class. The model to describe the transmission of P. vivax malaria consists of a human population divided into four classes, the susceptible, the infected, the dormant and the recovered. The effect of a time delay on the transmission of this disease is studied. The time delay is the period in which the P. vivax parasite develops inside the mosquito (vector) before the vector becomes infectious (i.e., pass on the infection). We analyze our model by using standard dynamic modeling method. Two stable equilibrium states, a disease free state E0 and an endemic state E1, are found to be possible. It is found that the E0 state is stable when a newly defined basic reproduction number G is less than one. If G is greater than one the endemic state E1 is stable. The conditions for the endemic equilibrium state E1 to be a stable spiral node are established. For realistic values of the parameters in the model, it is found that solutions in phase space are trajectories spiraling into the endemic state. It is shown that the limit cycle and chaotic behaviors can only be achieved with unrealistic parameter values.

Keywords: Equilibrium states, Hopf bifurcation, limit cyclebehavior, local stability, Plasmodium Vivax, time delay.

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481 Collaborative Tracking Control of UAV-UGV

Authors: Jae-Young Choi, Sung-Gaun Kim

Abstract:

This paper suggests a fast and stable Target Tracking system in collaborative control of UAV and UGV. Wi-Fi communication range is limited in collaborative control of UAV and UGV. Thus, to secure a stable communications, UAV and UGV have to be kept within a certain distance from each other. But existing method which uses UAV Vertical Camera to follow the motion of UGV is likely to lose a target with a sudden movement change. Eventually, UGV has disadvantages that it could only move at a low speed and not make any sudden change of direction in order to keep track of the target. Therefore, we suggest utilizing AR Drone UAV front camera to track fast-moving and Omnidirectional Mecanum Wheel UGV.

Keywords: Collaborative control, UAV, UGV, Target Tracking.

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480 Design of Stable IIR Digital Filters with Specified Group Delay Errors

Authors: Yasunori Sugita, Toshinori Yoshikawa

Abstract:

The design problem of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) digital filters is usually expressed as the minimization problem of the complex magnitude error that includes both the magnitude and phase information. However, the group delay of the filter obtained by solving such design problem may be far from the desired group delay. In this paper, we propose a design method of stable IIR digital filters with prespecified maximum group delay errors. In the proposed method, the approximation problems of the magnitude-phase and group delay are separately defined, and these two approximation problems are alternately solved using successive projections. As a result, the proposed method can design the IIR filters that satisfy the prespecified allowable errors for not only the complex magnitude but also the group delay by alternately executing the coefficient update for the magnitude-phase and the group delay approximation. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified through some examples.

Keywords: Filter design, Group delay approximation, Stable IIRfilters, Successive projection method.

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479 Order Reduction using Modified Pole Clustering and Pade Approximations

Authors: C.B. Vishwakarma

Abstract:

The authors present a mixed method for reducing the order of the large-scale dynamic systems. In this method, the denominator polynomial of the reduced order model is obtained by using the modified pole clustering technique while the coefficients of the numerator are obtained by Pade approximations. This method is conceptually simple and always generates stable reduced models if the original high-order system is stable. The proposed method is illustrated with the help of the numerical examples taken from the literature.

Keywords: Modified pole clustering, order reduction, padeapproximation, stability, transfer function.

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478 New PTH Moment Stable Criteria of Stochastic Neural Networks

Authors: Zixin Liu, Huawei Yang, Fangwei Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, the issue of pth moment stability of a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed delays is investigated. By establishing two integro-differential inequalities, some new sufficient conditions ensuring pth moment exponential stability are obtained. Compared with some previous publications, our results generalize some earlier works reported in the literature, and remove some strict constraints of time delays and kernel functions. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.

Keywords: Neural networks, stochastic, PTH moment stable, time varying delays, distributed delays.

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477 Advanced Gronwall-Bellman-Type Integral Inequalities and Their Applications

Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

In this paper, some new nonlinear generalized Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities with mixed time delays are established. These inequalities can be used as handy tools to research stability problems of delayed differential and integral dynamic systems. As applications, based on these new established inequalities, some p-stable results of a integro-differential equation are also given. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.

Keywords: Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities, integrodifferential equation, p-exponentially stable, mixed delays.

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476 Iranian Bazaars: The Illustration of Stable Thoughts

Authors: Aida Amirazodi

Abstract:

"Bazaar" is a Persian word from the language of Iranians of 2500 years ago which has entered the languages of other countries. “Bazaar", the trading or marketing place with the architectural principles and concerns, was formed in Iran because of the long experience of marketing. This has become a valuable inheritance of Islamic ideological civilization and Iranian advanced architecture and a model of Islamic-marketing places with spectacular elements and parts, and the place for economical, social and cultural exchanges. “Bazaars" are found in cities of Iran and many Islamic countries in west of Asia and north of Africa. With the stable structure and function as a symbol of social values, this place has become the economic center and the illustration of stable architecture and advanced principles. “Bazaars" as the heart of Iranian cities economy with several major and minor rows of shops, in closed and open areas, along a fixed line or branches with beautiful arcs, patios, and frameworks are among the main national inheritance of Iran and one of the important Iranian architectural treasures because of its Iranian nobility.

Keywords: Traditional Bazaar, Form of Bazaar, Iranian Architecture

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475 Exponential State Estimation for Neural Networks with Leakage, Discrete and Distributed Delays

Authors: Liyuan Wang, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

In this paper, the design problem of state estimator for neural networks with the mixed time-varying delays are investigated by constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and using some effective mathematical techniques. In order to derive several conditions to guarantee the estimation error systems to be globally exponential stable, we transform the considered systems into the neural-type time-delay systems. Then with a set of linear inequalities(LMIs), we can obtain the stable criteria. Finally, three numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed criterion.

Keywords: State estimator, Neural networks, Globally exponential stability.

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474 Stability Analysis of Mutualism Population Model with Time Delay

Authors: Rusliza Ahmad, Harun Budin

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of time delay on stability of mutualism population model with limited resources for both species. First, the stability of the model without time delay is analyzed. The model is then improved by considering a time delay in the mechanism of the growth rate of the population. We analyze the effect of time delay on the stability of the stable equilibrium point. Result showed that the time delay can induce instability of the stable equilibrium point, bifurcation and stability switches.

Keywords: Bifurcation, Delay margin, Mutualism population model, Time delay

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473 Performance Analysis of Deterministic Stable Election Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sumanpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor containing motes (nodes) incorporate batteries that can lament at some extent. To upgrade the energy utilization, clustering is one of the prototypical approaches for split sensor motes into a number of clusters where one mote (also called as node) proceeds as a Cluster Head (CH). CH selection is one of the optimization techniques for enlarging stability and network lifespan. Deterministic Stable Election Protocol (DSEP) is an effectual clustering protocol that makes use of three kinds of nodes with dissimilar residual energy for CH election. Fuzzy Logic technology is used to expand energy level of DSEP protocol by using fuzzy inference system. This paper presents protocol DSEP using Fuzzy Logic (DSEP-FL) CH by taking into account four linguistic variables such as energy, concentration, centrality and distance to base station. Simulation results show that our proposed method gives more effective results in term of a lifespan of network and stability as compared to the performance of other clustering protocols.

Keywords: Deterministic stable election protocol, energy model, fuzzy logic, wireless sensor network.

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472 The Nanobiotechnology of Obtaining of Collagen Gels from Marin Fish Skin and Yours Reological Properties for using Like New Materials in Dental Medicine

Authors: Anamaria Bechir, Rodica Sirbu, Minodora Leca, Maria Maris, Dan Artenie Maris, Emilia Mihaela Cadar, Marius Maris

Abstract:

This paper aims at presenting the biotechnology used to obtain collagen-based gels from shark (Squalus acanthias) and brill skin, marine fish growing in the Black Sea. Due to the structure of its micro-fibres, collagen can be considered a nanomaterial; in order to use collagen-based matrixes as biomaterial, rheological studies must be performed first, to state whether they are stable or not. For the triple-helix structure to remain stable within these gels at room or human body temperature, they must be stabilized by reticulation.

Keywords: Collagen, biotechnology, reticulation.

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471 The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum

Authors: Dunwen Zuo, Yongfang Deng, Bo Song

Abstract:

An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.

Keywords: FSJ, force factor, AA2024, friction stir joining.

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470 Production of As Isotopes in the Interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV Protons

Authors: Yong H. Chung, Eun J. Han, Seil Lee, Sun Y. Park, Eun H. Yoon, Eun J. Cho, Jang H. Lee, Young J. Chu, Jang H. Ha, Jongseo Chai, Yu S. Kim, Min Y. Lee, Hyeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Cross sections of As radionuclides in the interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV protons have been deduced by off-line y-ray spectroscopy to find optimal reaction channels leading to radiotracers for positron emission tomography. The experimental results were compared with the previous results and those estimated by the compound nucleus reaction model.

Keywords: Compound nucleus reaction model, off-line g-ray spectroscopy, radionuclide.

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469 Organic Thin Film Transistors based Oligothiophine Derivatives using DZ-Dihexyl(quarter- and sexi-)Thiophene

Authors: Jae-Hong Kwon, Myung-Ho Chung, Tae-Yeon Oh, Hyeon-Seok Bae, Byeong-Kwon Ju

Abstract:

End-substitution of quarterthiophene and sexithiophene with hexyl groups leads to highly soluble conjugated oligomers,DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene (DH-4T) and DZ-dihexylsexithiophene (DH-6T). We have characterized these oligomers for optical and electrical properties. We fabricated an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) using the above two air-stable p-type organic semiconductor materials. We obtained a stable characteristic curve. The field effect mobility, Pwas calculated to be 3.2910-4 cm2/Vs for DH-6T based OTFT; while the DH-4T based OTFT had 1.8810-5 cm2/Vs.KeywordsOrganic thin film transistor, DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene, DZ-dihexylsexithiophene.

Keywords: Organic thin film transistor, DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene, DZ-dihexylsexithiophene.

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