Search results for: Civic Discrimination
125 Legal Awareness of Surakarta Local Government Officer to Law Number 12 Year 2006 on Citizenship in Vanishing Civic Discrimination to Chinese Indonesians
Abstract:The purposes of the paper are to know and improve the legal awareness of Surakarta local government officer to Law No.12/2006 on Citizenship in vanishing civic discrimination to Chinese Indonesians. Some issues of the Chinese Indonesian are the definitions of Indonesian citizens and native Indonesian people or “warga negara Indonesia (WNI) asli" and their obligation to show Indonesian Citizenship Certificate (SBKRI) in processing civil documents. Legal awareness of Surakarta local government officer can be categorized as “legal knowledge" only. They know the laws but they do not implement it yet. Nevertheless, at least this research has given the new awareness in citizenship law for the officers.
Keywords: Legal Awareness, Government Officer, Civic Discrimination, Chinese IndonesiansProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1312
124 A New Approaches for Seismic Signals Discrimination
Authors: M. Benbrahim, K. Benjelloun, A. Ibenbrahim, M. Kasmi, E. Ardil
The automatic discrimination of seismic signals is an important practical goal for the earth-science observatories due to the large amount of information that they receive continuously. An essential discrimination task is to allocate the incoming signal to a group associated with the kind of physical phenomena producing it. In this paper, we present new techniques for seismic signals classification: local, regional and global discrimination. These techniques were tested on seismic signals from the data base of the National Geophysical Institute of the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (Morocco) by using the Moroccan software for seismic signals analysis.
Keywords: Seismic signals, local discrimination, regionaldiscrimination, global discrimination, Moroccan software for seismicsignals analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1422
123 Employment Discrimination on Civil Servant Recruitment
Authors: Li Lei, Jia Jidong
Employment right is linked to the people’s livelihood in our society. As a most important and representative part in the labor market, the employment of public servants is always taking much attention. But the discrimination in the employment of public servants has always existed and, to become a controversy in our society. The paper try to discuss this problem from four parts as follows: First, the employment of public servants has a representative status in our labor market. The second part is about the discrimination in the employment of public servants. The third part is about the right of equality and its significance. The last part is to analysis the legal predicament about discrimination in the employment of public servants in China.
Keywords: Discrimination, Employment of public servants, Right of labor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1644
122 The International Labor Standard on the Elimination of Discrimination in Employment: Response and Prospect of Malaysia
Authors: Harlida Abdul Wahab
Abstract:Discrimination in employment has its wider social and economic consequences other than mere violating a basic human right. Discrimination involves treating people differently because of certain grounds such as race, color, or sex, which results in the impairment of equality of opportunity and treatment. As an essential part of promoting decent work, combating discrimination through the principle of non-discrimination has been established by the International Labor Organization (ILO) through the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 1998. Considering elimination of discrimination in employment as a core labor standard, member states are expected to respect, promote and implement it to their national laws and policies. Being a member state, Malaysia has to position herself align with this international requirement. The author discusses the related convention together with Malaysia-s responses on the matter. At the closing stage, the prospect of Malaysia is presumed taking into account of the current positions and reports submitted to the ILO.
Keywords: Discrimination, employment, international labor standard, Malaysia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1759
121 Formation of Civic Identity in the Process of Globalization: The Example of the U.S.A. and Kazakhstan
Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen
Abstract:An attempt has been made several times to identify and discuss the U.S. experience on the formation of political nation in political science. The purpose of this research paper is to identify the main aspects of the formation of civic identity in the United States and Kazakhstan, through the identification of similarities and differences that can get practical application in making decisions of national policy issues in the context of globalization, as well as to answer the questions “What should unite the citizens of Kazakhstan to the nation?" and “What should be the dominant identity: civil or ethnic (national) one?" Can Kazakhstan being multiethnic country like America, adopt its experience in the formation of a civic nation? Since it is believed that the “multi-ethnic state of the population is a characteristic feature of most modern countries in the world," it states that “inter-ethnic integration is one of the most important aspects of the problem of forming a new social community (metaetnic - Kazakh people, Kazakh nation" .
Keywords: nation, civic identity, nation building, globalization, interethnic relations, patriotismProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2039
120 A Study of the Impact of Discrimination Experience on Life Satisfaction in Korean Women with Severe Disabilities
Authors: Soungwan Kim
Abstract:The present study analyzed the effect of discrimination experience on the life satisfaction in women with severe disabilities and the mediating effect of disability acceptance. In verifying this mediating effect of disability acceptance between discrimination experience and life satisfaction, both discrimination experience and disability acceptance were found to be statistically significant in the first and second phases. Disability acceptance was found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between discrimination experience and life satisfaction. Based on this finding, measures for enhancing the quality of life in individuals with disabilities that experience low levels of life satisfaction were proposed.
Keywords: Disability Discrimination, Disability Acceptance, Life Satisfaction, Mediating Effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1558
119 An Empirical Study of Gender Discrimination and Employee Performance among Academic Staff of Government Universities in Lagos State, Nigeria
Authors: Daniel E. Gberevbie, Adewale O. Osibanjo, Anthonia A. Adeniji, Olumuyiwa A. Oludayo
Research has shown that a recruitment policy devoid of gender discrimination enhances employee performance in an organization. Previous studies in Nigeria show that gender discrimination against men and women based on their ethnic, religious and geographical identity is common. This survey, however, focuses on discrimination against women on the basis of gender and performance in government universities in Lagos State, Nigeria. The model used for this study was developed and tested in which one hundred and eighty seven copies of the questionnaire that were administered to respondents as completed by the academic staff of government universities in Lagos State were retrieved. Pearson correlation and regression were utilized for the analysis of the study, and the result showed that managerial roles based on gender discrimination against women in government universities in Lagos State have affected employee job performance negatively. The study concludes that for as long as gender discrimination rather than merit remains the basis for staff employment into positions of authority in Nigerian Universities, enhanced performance is more likely to elude employees and the educational sector in general.
Keywords: Academic staff, Employee performance, Gender discrimination, Nigeria, Universities.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5427
118 Central Asia and Kazakhstan: In Search of Civic Identity
Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen, Ziyakul Assyltayeva, Aliya Alimzhanova
Abstract:Mankind has entered into an extremely complex and controversial stage of its development: the world is simultaneously organized and chaoticized, globalized and localized, combined and split. Analysts point out that globalization as a process of strengthening economic, cultural, financial and other ties of states cause many problems. In the economic sphere, it creates the danger of growing gap between the states, in the sphere of politics it leads to the weakening of political power and influence of nation-states.
Keywords: Civic identity, globalization, identity crisis, culture identityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1675
117 Gender Discrimination in Education in Croatia
Authors: Ivana Šalinović
The term gender emerged in the second half of the last century and since then a growing body of research dealing with the topic demonstrates its importance. Primarily, the research and the theories that were addressing the topic were focused on stating the differences between the terms sex and gender, where sex refers to the biological aspect of a person, while gender refers to the socially ascribed roles, attitudes, behaviors, and etc., and on gender discrimination whose visible and invisible repercussions are harming society and one of the agents of change should be educators on all educational levels since they are emotionally sculpting their students, that is why considerable effort should be put into implementing education about this topic into the standard curriculum. Not only educators, but it is also necessary to change the mindset of the younger generations because they will be important agents in the further elimination of gender discrimination, thus causing societal changes. Therefore, it is very important to hear their voices and their experiences and for these reasons, this research has been done, to see what the students of the second year at a private college university Aspira in Croatia have gone through in their educational ladder. The hypothesis was that the findings would most certainly show a huge difference between female and male students’ experiences and effects of gender discrimination, but the results have actually shown a very mixed picture and the original hypothesis was somewhat disapproved. Instead of finding out that girls experienced a lot of gender discrimination, it turned out that it was the boys who believed that in their previous and current education, there was no equal time distribution between genders, they noticed that the language was not gender-sensitive, teaching aids were not adopted to the genders. They were also the ones that pointed out that the discipline path was not the same for everyone, and they were the ones that the teacher’s gender had more influence on and were also the ones that experienced more gender discrimination.
Keywords: Gender, discrimination, elementary school, high school.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 126
116 Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale: Preliminary Factor and Psychometric Analysis
Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Rosnah Ismail, Ferlis Bahari, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Lailawati Madlan, Asong Joseph
Abstract:The aims of this study were to determine the factor structure and psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and convergent validity) of the Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale (MMEDS). It consists of 71-items measure experience, strategies used and consequences of ethnic discrimination. A sample of 649 university students from one of the higher education institution in Malaysia was asked to complete MMEDS, as well as Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination. The exploratory factor analysis on ethnic discrimination experience extracted two factors labeled ‘unfair treatment’ (15 items) and ‘Denial of the ethnic right’ (12 items) which accounted for 60.92% of the total variance. The two sub scales demonstrated clear reliability with internal consistency above .70. The convergent validity of the Scale was supported by an expected pattern of correlations (positive and significant correlation) between the score of unfair treatment and denial of the ethnic right and the score of Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination by Peers Scale. The results suggest that the MMEDS is a reliable and valid measure. However, further studies need to be carried out in other groups of sample as to validate the Scale.
Keywords: Factor structure, psychometric properties, exploratory factor analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2321
115 Molecular Mechanism of Amino Acid Discrimination for the Editing Reaction of E.coli Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase
Authors: Keun Woo Lee, Minky Son, Chanin Park, Ayoung Baek
Certain tRNA synthetases have developed highly accurate molecular machinery to discriminate their cognate amino acids. Those aaRSs achieve their goal via editing reaction in the Connective Polypeptide 1 (CP1). Recently mutagenesis studies have revealed the critical importance of residues in the CP1 domain for editing activity and X-ray structures have shown binding mode of noncognate amino acids in the editing domain. To pursue molecular mechanism for amino acid discrimination, molecular modeling studies were performed. Our results suggest that aaRS bind the noncognate amino acid more tightly than the cognate one. Finally, by comparing binding conformations of the amino acids in three systems, the amino acid binding mode was elucidated and a discrimination mechanism proposed. The results strongly reveal that the conserved threonines are responsible for amino acid discrimination. This is achieved through side chain interactions between T252 and T247/T248 as well as between those threonines and the incoming amino acids.
Keywords: Amino acid discrimination, Binding free energy Leucyl-tRNAsynthetase, Molecular dynamics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
114 Development Prospects of Education System in Modernization
Authors: Akbar Seraly, Kazbek Primbetov, Gulmira Abdiraiymova, Gulnapis Abdikerova
Abstract:the article analyzes the development prospects of education system in Kazakhstan. Education is among key sources of culture and social mobility. Modern education must become civic which means availability of high quality education to all people irrespective of their racial, ethnic, religious, social, gender and any other differences. Socially focused nature of modernization of Kazakhstan-s society is predicated upon formation of a civic education model in the future. Kazakhstan-s education system undergoes intensive reforms first of all intended to achieve international education standards and integration into the global educational and information space.
Keywords: Education system, Kazakhstan , ModernizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1647
113 Citizenship Norms and the Participation of Young Adults in a Democracy
Authors: Samsudin A. Rahim, Latiffah Pawanteh, Ali Salman
Abstract:This paper explores the changing trend in citizenship norms among young citizens from various ethnic groups in Malaysia and the extent to which it influences the participation of young citizens in political and civil issues. Embedded in democratic constitutions are the rights and freedoms that accompany citizenship, and these rights and freedoms include participation. Participation in democracies should go beyond voting; it should include taking part in the governance process. The political process is not at risk even though politics does not work as it did in the past. A national sample of 1697 respondents between the ages of 21 and 40 years were interviewed in January 2011. The findings show that respondents embrace an engaged-citizenship norm more than they do the traditional duty-citizen norm. Among the ethnic groups, the Chinese show lower means in both citizenship norms compared with other ethnic groups, namely, the Malays and the Indians. The duty-citizen norm correlates higher with political participation than with civic participation. On the other hand, the engaged-citizen norm correlates higher with civic participation than with political participation.
Keywords: citizenship norms, political participation, civic participation, youths, globalizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2389
112 Does Perceived Organizational Virtuousness Explain Organizational Citizenship Behaviors?
Authors: Neuza Ribeiro, Arménio Rego
The paper shows how the perceptions of five organizational virtuousness dimensions (optimism, trust, compassion, integrity, and forgiveness) explain organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy, conscientiousness, and civic virtue). A sample comprising 216 individuals from 14 industrial organizations was collected. Individuals reported their perceptions of organizational virtuousness, their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) being reported by their supervisors. The main findings are the following: (a) the perceptions of trust predict altruism; (b) the perceptions of integrity predict civic virtue.
Keywords: OCB, organizational virtuousness, psychological climateProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2379
111 Discrimination of Seismic Signals Using Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: Mohammed Benbrahim, Adil Daoudi, Khalid Benjelloun, Aomar Ibenbrahim
Abstract:The automatic discrimination of seismic signals is an important practical goal for earth-science observatories due to the large amount of information that they receive continuously. An essential discrimination task is to allocate the incoming signal to a group associated with the kind of physical phenomena producing it. In this paper, two classes of seismic signals recorded routinely in geophysical laboratory of the National Center for Scientific and Technical Research in Morocco are considered. They correspond to signals associated to local earthquakes and chemical explosions. The approach adopted for the development of an automatic discrimination system is a modular system composed by three blocs: 1) Representation, 2) Dimensionality reduction and 3) Classification. The originality of our work consists in the use of a new wavelet called "modified Mexican hat wavelet" in the representation stage. For the dimensionality reduction, we propose a new algorithm based on the random projection and the principal component analysis.
Keywords: Seismic signals, Wavelets, Dimensionality reduction, Artificial neural networks, Classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1519
110 Monitoring Co-Creation: A Survey of Lithuanian Urban Communities
Authors: Aelita Skarzauskiene, Monika Maciuliene
In this paper, we conduct a systematic survey of urban communities in Lithuania to evaluate their potential to co-create collective intelligence or “civic intelligence” applying Digital Co-creation Index methodology that includes different socio-technological indicators. Civic intelligence is a form of collective intelligence that refers to the group’s capacity to perceive societal problems and to address them effectively. The research focuses on evaluation of diverse organizational designs that increase efficient collective performance. The current scientific project advanced the state of the art by evaluating the basic preconditions in the urban communities through which the collective intelligence is being co-created under the systemic manner. The research subject is the “bottom up” digital enabled urban platforms, initiated by Lithuanian public organizations, civic movements or business entities. The web-based monitoring results obtained by applying a social indices calculation methodology and Pearson correlation analysis provided the information about the potential and limits of the urban communities and what possible changes need to be implemented to overcome the limitations.
Keywords: Computer supported collaboration, co-creation, collective intelligence, socio-technological system, networked society.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 596
109 Carbon Isotope Discrimination, A Tool for Screening of Salinity Tolerance of Genotypes
Authors: Alireza Dadkhah, Mahmoud Ghorbanzadeh- Neghab
Abstract:This study carried out in order to investigate the effects of salinity on carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of shoots and roots of four sugar beet cultivars (cv) including Madison (British origin) and three Iranian culivars (7233-P12, 7233-P21 and 7233-P29). Plants were grown in sand culture medium in greenhouse conditions. Plants irrigated with saline water (tap water as control, 50 mM, 150 mM, 250 mM and 350 mM of NaCl + CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio) from 4 leaves stage for 16 weeks. Carbon isotope discrimination significantly decreased with increasing salinity. Significant differences of Δ between shoot and root were observed in all cvs and all levels of salinity. Madison cv showed lower Δ in shoot and root than other three cvs at all levels of salinity expect control, but cv 7233-P29 had significantly higher Δ values at saline conditions of 150 mM and above. Therefore, Δ might be applicable, as a useful tool, for study of salinity tolerance of sugar beet genotypes.
Keywords: Carbon isotope discrimination, Photosynthesis, Salt stress, Sugar beetProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1578
108 Patriarchy and Gender Discrimination as seen in the Novels of Ahdaf Soueif’s In the Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002)
Authors: Nagwa Soliman
Women for centuries have undergone gender discrimination under the pretext of patriarchy which is engraved in the culture and tradition of some societies. It is important to highlight that this condition has been encoded by the male gender to dominate and manipulate women. It is therefore necessary to draw attention to this important obstacle that stands in the way of women’s achievement of their full potential and humanity in the face of these cultural traditions. The appropriate style that was chosen for this literary analysis is a qualitative research method that relies on the feminist technique using Freud’s psychological theories. This article explores patriarchy and gender discrimination as portrayed in Ahdaf Soueif’s In The Eye of the Sun (1992) and Pramoedya Ananta Toer’s The Girl from the Coast (2002). It could be argued that those two novels describe a society that is feminist, patriarchal, and gender discriminatory. Moreover, it is important to assert that patriarchy and gender discrimination are part of the system’s social order which compels the female characters to adjust to society’s norms and conventions. This social order is supported by traditional and cultural masculine attitudes and results in sustaining gender inequality, female stereo typing and patriarchy which suppress women’s beliefs and dreams.
Keywords: Gender discrimination, Patriarchy, Feminism, Stereotype.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 657
107 Gender Discrimination and Pay Gap on Tourism Labor Market
Authors: Alka Obadić
The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in core tourism activities. Women's gross hourly earnings in accommodation and food services were below those of men in the European Union and only countries who recorded increase of gender pay gap from the beginning of crisis are Bulgaria and Croatia. Women in tourism industry are still overrepresented in lower status jobs with fewer opportunities for career progression and are often treated unequally.
Keywords: Employment, gender discrimination, tourism, women’s participation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3030
106 Association between Job Satisfaction, Motivation and Five Factors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Authors: K. Mushtaq, M. Umar
Abstract:The research aims to study the association between job satisfaction, motivation and the five factors of organizational citizenship behavior (i.e. Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic virtue) among Public Sector Employees in Pakistan. In this research Structure Equation Modeling with confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the relationship between two independent and five dependent variables. Data was collected through questionnaire survey from 152 Public Servants Working in Gujrat District-Pakistan in different capacities. Stratified Random Sampling Technique was used to conduct this survey. The results of the study indicate that five factors of OCB have positive significant relation with both motivation and job satisfaction except the relationship of Civic Virtue with Motivation. The research findings implicate that factors other than motivation and job satisfaction may also affect OCB. Likewise, all the five factors of OCB may not be present in all populations. Thus, Managers must concentrate on increasing motivation and job satisfaction to increase OCB. Furthermore, the present research gives a direction to future researchers to use more independent variables (e.g. Culture, leadership, workplace environment, various job attitudes, types of motivation, etc.) on different types of populations with larger sample size in order to find the reasons behind insignificant relationship of civic virtue with Motivation in the research in hand and to generalize the tested model.
Keywords: Five Factors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Public Sector Employees in Pakistan.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3016
105 Trabecular Texture Analysis Using Fractal Metrics for Bone Fragility Assessment
Authors: Khaled Harrar, Rachid Jennane
Abstract:The purpose of this study is the discrimination of 28 postmenopausal with osteoporotic femoral fractures from an agematched control group of 28 women using texture analysis based on fractals. Two pre-processing approaches are applied on radiographic images; these techniques are compared to highlight the choice of the pre-processing method. Furthermore, the values of the fractal dimension are compared to those of the fractal signature in terms of the classification of the two populations. In a second analysis, the BMD measure at proximal femur was compared to the fractal analysis, the latter, which is a non-invasive technique, allowed a better discrimination; the results confirm that the fractal analysis of texture on calcaneus radiographs is able to discriminate osteoporotic patients with femoral fracture from controls. This discrimination was efficient compared to that obtained by BMD alone. It was also present in comparing subgroups with overlapping values of BMD.
Keywords: Osteoporosis, fractal dimension, fractal signature, bone mineral density.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2211
104 Work and Religion: Artificial Dichotomy or Competing Interests?
Authors: Philip T. Roundy
Abstract:Prior research has examined the relationship between religiosity, religious involvement, and involvement in secular, civic organizations. However, research has not examined the influence of religious involvement on secular, non-civic organizations (i.e. work organizations). This study examines the link between religiosity, religious involvement, and the three-component model of organizational commitment. More specifically, the author hypothesizes that individuals high in religiosity (and religious involvement) will have lower affective, continuance, and normative commitment than less religious (or non-religious) individuals. In addition, it is hypothesized that this relationship is moderated by a third factor: organizational spirituality. Further, the author hypothesizes that for organizations that are spiritual the negative relationship between religiosity and job commitment will be weakened or even negated.
Keywords: Job Commitment, Organizational Spirituality, Religiosity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1697
103 Identifying New Sequence Features for Exon-Intron Discrimination by Rescaled-Range Frameshift Analysis
Authors: Sing-Wu Liou, Yin-Fu Huang
Abstract:For identifying the discriminative sequence features between exons and introns, a new paradigm, rescaled-range frameshift analysis (RRFA), was proposed. By RRFA, two new sequence features, the frameshift sensitivity (FS) and the accumulative penta-mer complexity (APC), were discovered which were further integrated into a new feature of larger scale, the persistency in anti-mutation (PAM). The feature-validation experiments were performed on six model organisms to test the power of discrimination. All the experimental results highly support that FS, APC and PAM were all distinguishing features between exons and introns. These identified new sequence features provide new insights into the sequence composition of genes and they have great potentials of forming a new basis for recognizing the exonintron boundaries in gene sequences.
Keywords: Exon-Intron Discrimination, Rescaled-Range Frameshift Analysis, Frameshift Sensitivity, Accumulative Sequence ComplexityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1069
102 Database Development and Discrimination Algorithms for Membrane Protein Functions
Authors: M. Michael Gromiha, Y. Yabuki, K. Imai, P. Horton, K. Fukui
We have developed a database for membrane protein functions, which has more than 3000 experimental data on functionally important amino acid residues in membrane proteins along with sequence, structure and literature information. Further, we have proposed different methods for identifying membrane proteins based on their functions: (i) discrimination of membrane transport proteins from other globular and membrane proteins and classifying them into channels/pores, electrochemical and active transporters, and (ii) β-signal for the insertion of mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins and potential targets. Our method showed an accuracy of 82% in discriminating transport proteins and 68% to classify them into three different transporters. In addition, we have identified a motif for targeting β-signal and potential candidates for mitochondrial β-barrel membrane proteins. Our methods can be used as effective tools for genome-wide annotations.
Keywords: Membrane proteins, database, transporters, discrimination, β-signal.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1448
101 An Investigation into Kanji Character Discrimination Process from EEG Signals
Authors: Hiroshi Abe, Minoru Nakayama
Abstract:The frontal area in the brain is known to be involved in behavioral judgement. Because a Kanji character can be discriminated visually and linguistically from other characters, in Kanji character discrimination, we hypothesized that frontal event-related potential (ERP) waveforms reflect two discrimination processes in separate time periods: one based on visual analysis and the other based on lexcical access. To examine this hypothesis, we recorded ERPs while performing a Kanji lexical decision task. In this task, either a known Kanji character, an unknown Kanji character or a symbol was presented and the subject had to report if the presented character was a known Kanji character for the subject or not. The same response was required for unknown Kanji trials and symbol trials. As a preprocessing of signals, we examined the performance of a method using independent component analysis for artifact rejection and found it was effective. Therefore we used it. In the ERP results, there were two time periods in which the frontal ERP wavefoms were significantly different betweeen the unknown Kanji trials and the symbol trials: around 170ms and around 300ms after stimulus onset. This result supported our hypothesis. In addition, the result suggests that Kanji character lexical access may be fully completed by around 260ms after stimulus onset.
Keywords: Character discrimination, Event-related Potential, IndependentComponent Analysis, Kanji, Lexical access.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1670
100 Discrimination of Alcoholic Subjects using Second Order Autoregressive Modelling of Brain Signals Evoked during Visual Stimulus Perception
Authors: Ramaswamy Palaniappan
Abstract:In this paper, a second order autoregressive (AR) model is proposed to discriminate alcoholics using single trial gamma band Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) signals using 3 different classifiers: Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP (SFA) neural network (NN), Multilayer-perceptron-backpropagation (MLP-BP) NN and Linear Discriminant (LD). Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded from alcoholic and control subjects during the presentation of visuals from Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set. Single trial VEP signals were extracted from EEG signals using Elliptic filtering in the gamma band spectral range. A second order AR model was used as gamma band VEP exhibits pseudo-periodic behaviour and second order AR is optimal to represent this behaviour. This circumvents the requirement of having to use some criteria to choose the correct order. The averaged discrimination errors of 2.6%, 2.8% and 11.9% were given by LD, MLP-BP and SFA classifiers. The high LD discrimination results show the validity of the proposed method to discriminate between alcoholic subjects.
Keywords: Linear Discriminant, Neural Network, VisualEvoked Potential.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
99 Two Stage Fuzzy Methodology to Evaluate the Credit Risks of Investment Projects
Authors: O. Badagadze, G. Sirbiladze, I. Khutsishvili
The work proposes a decision support methodology for the credit risk minimization in selection of investment projects. The methodology provides two stages of projects’ evaluation. Preliminary selection of projects with minor credit risks is made using the Expertons Method. The second stage makes ranking of chosen projects using the Possibilistic Discrimination Analysis Method. The latter is a new modification of a well-known Method of Fuzzy Discrimination Analysis.
Keywords: Expert valuations, expertons, investment project risks, positive and negative discriminations, possibility distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1634
98 Reviewing the Relation of Language and Minorities' Rights
Authors: Mohsen Davarzani, Ehsan Lame, Mohammad Taghi Hassan Zadeh
Abstract:Language is considered as a powerful and outstanding feature of ethnicity. However, humiliating and prohibiting using human language is one the most heinous and brutal acts in the form of racism. In other words, racism can be a product of physiological humiliations and discrimination, such as skin color, and can also be resulted from ethnic humiliation and discrimination such as language, customs and so on. Ethnic and racial discrimination is one of the main problems of the world that minorities and occasionally the majority have suffered from. Nowadays, few states can be found in which all individuals and its citizens are of the same race and ethnicity, culture and language. In these countries, referred to as the multinational states, (eg, Iran, Switzerland, India, etc.), there are the communities and groups which have their own linguistic, cultural and historical characteristics. Characteristics of human rights issues, diversity of issues and plurality of meanings indicate that they appear in various aspects. The states are obliged to respect, as per national and international obligations, the rights of all citizens from different angles, especially different groups that require special attention in order of the particular aspects such as ethnicity, religious and political minorities, children, women, workers, unions and in case the states are in breach of any of these items, they are faced with challenges in local, regional or international fields.
Keywords: Law, language, minorities, ethnicity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 592
97 Emergency Condition Discrimination for Single People Using a CO2 Sensor and Body Detectors
Authors: Taiyo Matsumura, Kota Funabashi, Nobumichi Sakai, Takashi Ono
The purpose of this research is to construct a watching system that monitors human activity in a room and detects abnormalities at an early stage to prevent unattended deaths of people living alone. In this article, we propose a method whereby highly urgent abnormal conditions of a person are determined by changes in the concentration of CO2 generated from activity and respiration in a room. We also discussed the effects the amount of activity has on the determination. The results showed that this discrimination method is not dependent on the amount of activity and is effective in judging highly urgent abnormal conditions.
Keywords: Abnormal conditions, multiple sensors, people living alone, respiratory arrest, unattended death, watching system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 659
96 Civic E-Participation in Central and Eastern Europe: A Comparative Analysis
Authors: Izabela Kapsa
Civic participation is an important aspect of democracy. The contemporary model of democracy is based on citizens' participation in political decision-making (deliberative democracy, participatory democracy). This participation takes many forms of activities like display of slogans and symbols, voting, social consultations, political demonstrations, membership in political parties or organizing civil disobedience. The countries of Central and Eastern Europe after 1989 are characterized by great social, economic and political diversity. Civil society is also part of the process of democratization. Civil society, funded by the rule of law, civil rights, such as freedom of speech and association and private ownership, was to play a central role in the development of liberal democracy. Among the many interpretations of concepts, defining the concept of contemporary democracy, one can assume that the terms civil society and democracy, although different in meaning, nowadays overlap. In the post-communist countries, the process of shaping and maturing societies took place in the context of a struggle with a state governed by undemocratic power. State fraud or repudiation of the institution is a representative state, which in the past was the only way to manifest and defend its identity, but after the breakthrough became one of the main obstacles to the development of civil society. In Central and Eastern Europe, there are many obstacles to the development of civil society, for example, the elimination of economic poverty, the implementation of educational campaigns, consciousness-related obstacles, the formation of social capital and the deficit of social activity. Obviously, civil society does not only entail an electoral turnout but a broader participation in the decision-making process, which is impossible without direct and participative democratic institutions. This article considers such broad forms of civic participation and their characteristics in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper is attempts to analyze the functioning of electronic forms of civic participation in Central and Eastern European states. This is not accompanied by a referendum or a referendum initiative, and other forms of political participation, such as public consultations, participative budgets, or e-Government. However, this paper will broadly present electronic administration tools, the application of which results from both legal regulations and increasingly common practice in state and city management. In the comparative analysis, the experiences of post-communist bloc countries will be summed up to indicate the challenges and possible goals for further development of this form of citizen participation in the political process. The author argues that for to function efficiently and effectively, states need to involve their citizens in the political decision-making process, especially with the use of electronic tools.
Keywords: Central and Eastern Europe, e-participation, e-government, post-communism.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 812