Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31742
Gender Discrimination and Pay Gap on Tourism Labor Market

Authors: Alka Obadić


The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in core tourism activities. Women's gross hourly earnings in accommodation and food services were below those of men in the European Union and only countries who recorded increase of gender pay gap from the beginning of crisis are Bulgaria and Croatia. Women in tourism industry are still overrepresented in lower status jobs with fewer opportunities for career progression and are often treated unequally.

Keywords: Employment, gender discrimination, tourism, women’s participation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2876


[1] UNWTO, Global Report on Women in Tourism 2010. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the United Nations Entitty for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. Madrid, Spain: UNWTO, 2011.
[2] H. Kattara, “Career Challenges for Female Managers in Egyptian Hotels”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 17 (2/3), pp. 238–251, 2005.
[3] I. Livanos, Ç. Yalkin and I. Nuňez, “Gender employment discrimination: Greece and the United Kingdom”, International Journal of Manpower. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 815-834, Sept. 2009.
[4] L. Parrett, Women in Tourism Employment – A Guided Tour of the Greenwich Experience, Research Report: London Thames Gateway Forum, 2004.
[5] A. Obadić, I. and Marić, “The Significance of Tourism as an Employment Generator of Female Labour Force”, Economic Thought and Practice, vol. XVIII, pp. 93-114, no. 1, 2009.
[6] C. Costa, I. Carvalho, S. Caçador, Z. Breda, Future Higher Education in Tourism Studies and the Labor Markets: Gender Perspectives on Expectations and Experiences. In D. Prebežac, C. Schott, P.J. Sheldon (Eds.), The Tourism Education Futures Initiative, p. 193-213, Routledge, New York, USA, 2014.
[7] Eurostat, “Employment in tourism”, The statistical office of the European Union, No. 221/2015 - 14 December 2015. Available:
[8] Eurostat, “Tourism industries – employment”, Statistics Explained, The statistical office of the European Union, November 2015. Available:
[9] European Parliament, “Tourism and the European Union – Recent trends and policy developments”, EPRS – European Parliamentary Research Service, PE 568.343, Sep. 2015.
[10] UNWTO, Measuring Employment in the Tourism Industries – Guide with Best Practices, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and International Labour Organization (ILO). Madrid, Spain: UNWTO, 2014.
[11] T. Baum, C. Cheung, Women in Tourism & Hospitality: Unlocking the Potential in the Talent Pool, White Paper, Hospitality Industry, March 2015.
[12] T. Baum, International Perspectives on Women and Work in Hotels, Catering and Tourism, GENDER Working Paper 1/2013, Bureau for Gender Equality and Sectoral Activities Department, International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
[13] A. Obadić, and I. Marić, “The Significance of Tourism as an Employment Generator of Female Labour Force”, Economic Thought and Practice, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1330-1039, University of Dubrovnik, 2009.
[14] L.D. Santos and J. Varejão, “Employment, Pay and Discrimination in the Tourism Industry”, FEP Working Papers, no. 205, Feb. 2006.
[15] Eurostat, “Gender pay gap statistics”, Statistics Explained, The statistical office of the European Union, Feb., 2015.
[16] F. Muñoz-Bullón, “The gap between male and female pay in the Spanish tourism industry”, Working Paper 08-57, Business Economic Series 13, Nov. 2008.
[17] C. Thrane, “Earnings differentiation in the tourism industry: Gender, human capital and socio-demographic effects”, Tourism Management, Vol. 29, pp. 514-524, 2008.
[18] J.A. Campos-Soria, B. Ortega-Aguaza and M. R. Ropero-García, “Gender segregation and wage difference in the hospitality industry”, Tourism Economics, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 847-866, 2009.
[19] H. Tucekr, “Undoing Shame: Tourism and Women’s Work in Turkey”, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, Vol. 5, pp. 87-105, No. 2, 2007.