Does Perceived Organizational Virtuousness Explain Organizational Citizenship Behaviors?
The paper shows how the perceptions of five organizational virtuousness dimensions (optimism, trust, compassion, integrity, and forgiveness) explain organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy, conscientiousness, and civic virtue). A sample comprising 216 individuals from 14 industrial organizations was collected. Individuals reported their perceptions of organizational virtuousness, their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) being reported by their supervisors. The main findings are the following: (a) the perceptions of trust predict altruism; (b) the perceptions of integrity predict civic virtue.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1058703Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2067
 C. Peterson and M. P. Seligman, "Positive organizational studies: Thirteen lessons from positive psychology" in K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R.E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 14-29), San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 2003.
 K. S. Cameron, "Organizational virtuousness and performance" in K.S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E. Quinn (eds). Positive Organizational Scholarship. (pp. 48-65). San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 2003.
 R. A. Emmons, "Acts of gratitude in organizations" in K.S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E. Quinn (eds), Positive Organizational Scholarship (pp. 81-93), San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 2003.
 D. O. Clifton and J. K. Harter, "Investing in strengths" in K.S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E. Quinn (eds), Positive Organizational Scholarship (pp. 111-122), San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 2003.
 R. P. Bagozzi, "Positive and negative emotions in organizations" in K.S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E. Quinn (eds), Positive Organizational Scholarship (pp. 176-193), San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 2003.
 M. Bolino, W. Turnley and J. Bloodgood, "Citizenship behavior and the creation of social capital in organizations", Academy of Management Review, 27(4), pp. 505-522, 2002.
 P. M. Podsakoff, P.M. and S. B. MacKenzie, "Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestions for future research". Human Performance, 10(2), pp. 133- 151, 1997.
 A. Rego and M. P. Cunha, "Organisational citizenship behaviours and effectiveness: An empirical study in two small insurance companies", Service Industries Journal, 28(4), pp. 541-554, 2008.
 K. S. Cameron, D. Bright and A. Caza, "Exploring the relationships between organizational virtuousness and performance", The American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6), pp. 766-790, 2004.
 E. K. Kelloway and A. L. Day, "Building healthy workplaces: What we know so far" Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 37(4), pp. 223- 235, 2005.
 J. C. Quick and M. Macik-Frey, "Healthy, Productive Work: Positive Strength through Communication Competence and Interpersonal Interdependence" in D. L. Nelson & C. L. Cooper (eds), Positive Organizational Behavior, (pp. 25-39), London, Sage, 2007.
 M. J. Burke, C. C. Borucki and J. D. Kaufman, "Contemporary perspectives on the study of psychological climate: A commentary", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11(3), pp. 325-340, 2002.
 C. P. Parker, B. B. Baltes, S. A. Young, J. Huff, R. Altmann, H. LaCost and J. E. Roberts, "Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: A meta-analytic review", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 2003, pp. 389-416.
 D. W. Organ, Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, p. 3, 1988.
 M. A. Konovsky and D. W. Organ, "Dispositional and contextual determinants of organizational citizenship behaviors", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, pp. 253-266, 1996.
 P. M. Podsakoff and S. B. MacKenzie, "Transformational leader behaviors and their affects on followers- trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors", Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), pp.107-142, 1990.
 H. B. Avey, T. S. Wernsing and F. Luthans, "Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors", Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(1), pp. 48-70, 2008.
 J. K. Boehm and S. Lyubomirsky, "Does happiness promote career success?", Journal of Career Assessment, 16(19), pp. 101-116, 2008.
 J. P. Forgas, "Feeling and doing: Affective influences on interpersonal behavior", Psychological Inquiry, 13, pp. 1-28, 2002.
 J. M. George, "State or trait: Effects of positive mood on prosocial behaviors at work", Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, pp. 299-307, 1991.
 A. M. Isen, "Positive affect, cognitive processes and social behaviour", Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, pp. 1206-1217, 1987.
 D. E. Miles, W. E. Borman, P. E. Spector and S. Fox, "Building an integrative model of extra role work behaviors: A comparison of counterproductive work behavior with organizational citizenship behavior", International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, pp. 51-57, 2002.
 P. E. Spector and S. Fox, "An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive behavior and organizational citizenship behaviour", Human Resource Management Review, 12, pp. 269-292, 2002.
 M. Bergami and R. P. Bagozzi, "Self-categorization, affective commitment, and group self-esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization". British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, pp. 555- 577, 2000.
 K. T. Dirks and D. L. Ferrin, "Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice", Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), pp. 611-628, 2002.
 J. E. Dutton, J. M. Duberich, and C. V. Harquail, "Organizational images and member identification", Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, pp. 239-263, 1994.
 J. M. Lilius, M. C. Worline, S. Maitlis, J. Kanov, J. E. Dutton and P. Frost, "The contours and consequences of compassion at work", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, pp. 193-218, 2008.
 M. F. R. Kets de Vries, "Creating authentizotic organizations: Wellfunctioning individuals in vibrant companies", Human Relations, 54(1), pp. 101-111, 2001.
 J. H. Gavin and R. O. Mason, "The virtuous organization: The value of happiness in the workplace", Organizational Dynamics, 33(4), pp. 379- 392, 2004.
 P. M. Podsakoff, S. B. MacKenzie, J. B. Paine and D. G. Bachrach, "Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research", Journal of Management, 26(3), pp. 513-563, 2000.
 T. A. Wright and R. Cropanzano, "The role of psychological well-being in job performance: A fresh look at an age-old quest", Organizational Dynamics, 33(4), pp. 338-351, 2004.
 J. M. George and A. P. Brief, "Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship", Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), pp. 310-329, 1992.
 J. Coyle-Shapiro, "A psychological perspective on organizational citizenship behavior", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(8), pp. 927-946, 2002.
 R. Eisenberger, S. Armeli, B. Rexwinkel, P. D. Lynch and L. Rhoades, "Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), pp. 42-51, 2001.
 B. M. Byrne, Structural equation modelling with Lisrel, Prelis, and Simplis, London, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998.
 J. F. Hair, R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham and W. C. Black, Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998.
 J. C. Nunnally, Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, McGraw-Hill, 1978.
 C. A. Smith, D. W. Organ and J. P. Near, "Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents", Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), pp. 653-663, 1983.
 P. M. Podsakoff, S. B. MacKenzie, R. H. Moorman and R. Fetter, "Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors", Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), pp. 107-142, 1990.
 S. B. MacKenzie, P. M. Podsakoff and R. Fetter, "Organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of managerial on evaluations of salespersons' performance", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, pp. 123- 150, 1991.
 S. M. Burroughs and L. T. Eby, "Psychological sense of community at work: A measurement system and explanatory framework", Journal of Community Psychology, 26(6), pp. 509-532, 1998.
 L. van Dyne, D. Vandewalle, T. Kostova, M. E. Latham and L. L. Cummings, "Collectivism, Propensity to Trust and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship in a Non-Work Setting", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(1), pp. 3-23, 2000.
 B. R. Dineen, R. J. Lewicki and C. E. Tomlinson, "Supervisory guidance and behavioral integrity: Relationships with employee citizenship and deviant behavior". Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, pp. 622-635, 2006.
 T. Simons, "Behavioral integrity: The perceived alignment between managers- words and deeds as a research focus", Organization Science, 13, pp. 18-85, 2002.
 S. W. Lester, H. H. Brower, "In the eyes of the beholder: The relationship between subordinates- felt trustworthiness and their work attitudes and behaviors", Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(2), pp. 17-34, 2003.
 M. A. Konovsky and S. D. Pugh, "Citizenship behavior and social exchange". Academy of Journal Management, 37, pp. 656-669, 1994.
 S. Robinson, "Trust and the breach of the psychological contract", Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, pp. 574-599, 1996.
 C. D. Batson, "Why act for the public good? Four answers", Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, pp. 603-610, 1994.
 J. A. Piliavin and H. Charng, "Altruism: A review of recent theory and research". Annual Review of Sociology, 16, pp. 27-65, 1990.
 M. Glynn and H. Jamerson, "Principled leadership: A framework for action". In E. D. Hess & K. S. Cameron (Eds.), Leading values: Positivity, virtue, and high performance (pp. 151-171), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
 Aristotle, The Nicomachean ethics, Batoche Books (translated by W. D. Ross), 1999.
 B. L. Fredrickson, "Positive emotions and upward spirals in organizational settings" in K.S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E. Quinn (eds). Positive Organizational Scholarship. (pp. 163-175), San Francisco, Berrett Koehler, 2003.
 K. Schuyler, "The possibility of healthy organizations: Toward a new framework for organizational theory and practice", Journal of Applied Sociology, 21(2), pp. 57-59, 2004.