Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Anthocyanin

12 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Topical Anthocyanins by Complexation and Niosomal Encapsulation

Authors: Aroonsri Priprem, Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Suttasinee Thappasarapong

Abstract:

Anthocyanins are natural pigments with effective UV protection but their topical use could be limited due to their physicochemical characteristics. An attempt to overcome such limitations by complexation of 2 major anthocyanin-rich sources, C. ternatea and Z. mays, has potentiated its use as topical antiinflammatory. Cell studies indicate no cytotoxicity of the anthocyanin complex (AC) up to 1 mg/ml tested in HaCaT and human fore head fibroblasts by MTT. Croton oil-induced ear edema in Wistar rats suggests an effective dose of 5 mg/cm2 of AC as a topical anti-inflammatory in comparison to 0.5 mg/cm2 of fluocinolone acetonide. Niosomal encapsulation of the AC significantly prolonged the anti-inflammatory activity particularly at 8 h after topical application (p = 0.0001). The AC was not cytotoxic and its anti-inflammatory and activity was dose-dependent and prolonged by niosomal encapsulation. It has also shown to promote collagen type 1 production in cell culture. Thus, AC could be a potential candidate for topical anti-inflammatory agent from natural resources.

Keywords: Anthocyanin complex, ear edema, inflammation, niosomes, skin.

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11 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang

Abstract:

Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. ceritina Kulesh. and delphinidin-rich extracts from Clitoria ternatea L. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3 and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation. FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding. Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea, physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity.

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10 Influence of Cultivar and Storage Conditions in Anthocyanin Content and Radical-Scavenging Activity of Strawberry Jams

Authors: L. F. Amaro, M. T. Soares, C. Pinho, I. F. Almeida, I. M. P. L. V. O. Ferreira, O. Pinho

Abstract:

The strawberry jam is rich in bioactive compounds. It is economically and commercially important and widely consumed. Different strawberries cultivars can be used for its preparation, however, a careful selection should be performed to guarantee the preservation of bioactive compounds during jam storage. Two strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and American 13) were analyzed by HPLC, three anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3- glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside were quantified. Camarosa strawberries presented significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins (p<0.05), and greater radical-scavenging activity. During jam storage period significant changes occurred regarding anthocyanin composition, at 15 and 60 days. Jams stored in dark presented slightly higher levels of anthocyanins. No significant changes were observed in jam-s radical-scavenging activity between 15 and 60 days of storage under dark and light conditions. Camarosa cultivar is more appropriate for strawberry jam preparation because it contains higher levels of anthocyanins and higher radical-scavenging activity.

Keywords: American 13, Anthocyanin, Camarosa, Radical- Scavenging Activity, Strawberry Jams

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9 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan

Abstract:

Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: Antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation.

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8 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali

Abstract:

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties was evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p<0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: Yellow alkaline noodle, mangosteen pericarp powder, proximate composition, antioxidant properties.

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7 The Induction of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cabbage Seedlings by Heavy Metal Stress

Authors: J. Kumchai, J. Z. Huang, C. Y. Lee, F. C. Chen, S. W. Chin

Abstract:

Cabbage seedlings grown in vitro were exposed to excess levels of heavy metals, including Cd, Mo, and Zn. High metal levels affected plant growth at cotyledonary stage. Seedlings under Cd, Mo, and Zn treatments could not produce root hairs and true leaves. Under stress conditions, seedlings accumulated a higher amount of anthocyanins in their cotyledons than those in the control. The pigments isolated from Cd and Zn stressed seedling cotyledons appeared as pink, while under Mo stress, was dark pink or purple. Moreover, excess Mo stress increased antioxidant enzyme activities of APX, CAT, SOD. These results suggest that, under excess Mo stress, the induced antioxidant enzyme activity of cabbage seedlings may function as a protective mechanism to shield the plants from toxicity and exacerbated growth.

Keywords: Anthocyanin, antioxidant enzyme activity, heavy metal, growth inhibition.

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6 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarkblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 molTE/g and from 24.7 to 53.4molTE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, blueberry cultivar, geographical origin, phenolic compounds.

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5 Electrical Properties of Roystonea regia Fruit Extract as Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Adenike Boyo, Olasunkanmi Kesinro, Henry Boyo, Surukite Oluwole

Abstract:

Utilizing solar energy in producing electricity can minimize environmental pollution generated by fossil fuel in producing electricity. Our research was base on the extraction of dye from Roystonea regia fruit by using methanol as solvent. The dye extracts were used as sensitizers in Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). Study was done on the electrical properties from the extracts of Roystonea regia fruit as Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). The absorptions of the extracts and extracts with dye were determined at different wavelengths (350-1000nm). Absorption peak was observed at 1.339 at wavelength 400nm. The obtained values for methanol extract Roystonea regia extract are, Imp = 0.015mA, Vmp = 12.0mV, fill factor = 0.763, Isc= 0.018 mA and Voc = 13.1 mV and efficiency of 0.32%. .The phytochemical screening was taken and it was observed that Roystonea regia extract contained less of anthocyanin compared to flavonoids. The nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) will provide economically credible alternative to present day silicon p–n junction photovoltaic.

Keywords: Methanol, Ethanol, Titanium dioxide, Roystonea regia fruit, Dye-sensitized solar cell.

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4 Effect of Plant Nutrients on Anthocyanin Content and Yield Component of Black Glutinous Rice Plants

Authors: Chonlada Bennett, Phumon Sookwong, Sakul Moolkam, Sivapong Naruebal Sugunya Mahatheeranont

Abstract:

The cultivation of black glutinous rice rich in anthocyanins can provide great benefits to both farmers and consumers. Total anthocyanins content and yield component data of black glutinous rice cultivar (KHHK) grown with the addition of mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, Fe and Se) under soilless conditions were studied. Ca application increased seed anthocyanins content by three-folds compared to controls. Cu application to rice plants obtained the highest number of grains panicle, panicle length and subsequently high panicle weight. Se application had the largest effect on leaf anthocyanins content, the number of tillers, number of panicles and 100-grain weight. These findings showed that the addition of mineral elements had a positive effect on increasing anthocyanins content in black rice plants and seeds as well as the heightened development of black glutinous rice plant growth.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, black glutinous rice, mineral elements, soilless culture.

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3 Investigation of Green Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Natural Dyes

Authors: M. Hosseinnezhad, K. Gharanjig

Abstract:

Natural dyes, extracted from black carrot and bramble, were utilized as photosensitizers to prepare dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Spectrophotometric studies of the natural dyes in solution and on a titanium dioxide substrate were carried out in order to assess changes in the status of the dyes. The results show that the bathochromic shift is seen on the photo-electrode substrate. The chemical binding of the natural dyes at the surface photo-electrode were increased by the chelating effect of the Ti(IV) ions. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that all extracts are suitable to be performed in DSSCs. Finally, photochemical performance and stability of DSSCs based on natural dyes were studied. The DSSCs sensitized by black carrot extract have been reported to achieve up to Jsc=1.17 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.55 V, FF= 0.52, η=0.34%, whereas Bramble extract can obtain up to Jsc=2.24 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.54 V, FF= 0.57, η=0.71%. The power conversion efficiency was obtained from the mixed dyes in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using mixed Black carrot and Bramble dye is the average of the their efficiency in single DSSCs.

Keywords: Anthocyanin, dye-sensitized solar cells, green energy, optical materials.

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2 Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation

Authors: H.R. Balouchi

Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.

Keywords: Abiotic stress, Genetic variation, Fluorescence, Wheat genotypes.

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1 Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation

Authors: H.R. Balouchi

Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.

Keywords: Abiotic stress, genetic variation, fluorescence, wheat genotypes.

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