Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Topical Anthocyanins by Complexation and Niosomal Encapsulation
Anthocyanins are natural pigments with effective UV protection but their topical use could be limited due to their physicochemical characteristics. An attempt to overcome such limitations by complexation of 2 major anthocyanin-rich sources, C. ternatea and Z. mays, has potentiated its use as topical antiinflammatory. Cell studies indicate no cytotoxicity of the anthocyanin complex (AC) up to 1 mg/ml tested in HaCaT and human fore head fibroblasts by MTT. Croton oil-induced ear edema in Wistar rats suggests an effective dose of 5 mg/cm2 of AC as a topical anti-inflammatory in comparison to 0.5 mg/cm2 of fluocinolone acetonide. Niosomal encapsulation of the AC significantly prolonged the anti-inflammatory activity particularly at 8 h after topical application (p = 0.0001). The AC was not cytotoxic and its anti-inflammatory and activity was dose-dependent and prolonged by niosomal encapsulation. It has also shown to promote collagen type 1 production in cell culture. Thus, AC could be a potential candidate for topical anti-inflammatory agent from natural resources.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1099066Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2764
 E. Pojer, F. Mattivi, D. Johnson, C. S. Stockley, “The Case for Anthocyanin Consumption to Promote Human Health: A Review” Compr. Rev. Food Sci. F. vol. 12, pp. 483, 2013.
 M. Shiono, N. Matsugaki, K. Takeda, “Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment” Nature vol. 436, pp. 791, 2005.
 Y. Zhu et al., “Anti-inflammatory effect of purified dietary anthocyanin in adults with hypercholesterolemia: A randomized controlled trial” Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. vol. 23, pp. 843, 2013.
 J. Y. Choi et al., “Analysis and tentative structure elucidation of new anthocyanins in fruit peel of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (meoru) using LCMS/ MS: Contribution to the overall antioxidant activity” J. Sep. Sci. vol. 33, pp. 1192, 2010.
 C. Ubeda et al., “Employment of different processes for the production of strawberry vinegars: Effects on antioxidant activity, total phenols and monomeric anthocyanins” LWT - Food Sci. Technol. vol. 52, pp. 139, 2013.
 S. C. Thomasset, University of Leicester (2008).
 L. C. Vasconcelos, M. C. Sampaio, F. C. Sampaio, J. S. Higino, “Use of Punica granatum as an antifungal agent against candidosis associated with denture stomatitis” Mycoses vol. 46, pp. 192, 2003.
 A. Cisowska, D. Wojnicz, A. Hendrich, “Anthocyanins as antimicrobial agents of natural plant origin.” Nat. Prod. Commun. vol. 6, pp. 149, 2011.
 R. J. Mankovitz. (United States, 2004).
 C. H. Brenes, D. D. Pozo-Insfran, S. T. Talcott, “Stability of copigmented anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in a grape juice model system” J. Agri.Food Chem. vol. 53, pp. 49, 2005.
 C. Zhang, Y. Ma, X. Zhao, J. Mu, “Influence of copigmentation on stability of anthocyanins from purple potato peel in both liquid state and solid state” J. Agri.Food Chem. vol. 57, pp. 9503, 2009.
 I. F. Uchegbu, S. Vyas, “Non-ionic surfactant based vesicles (niosomes) in drug delivery” Int. J. Pharm. vol. 172, pp. 33, 1998.
 B. Khampaenjiraroch, A. Priprem, K. Lertrat, T. Damrongrungruang, “Rapid HPLC of cyanidin and delphinidin of an anthocyanin complex exposed to human gingival epithelial cells” Appl. Mech. Mater. vol. 563, pp. 403, 2014.
 H. Ikeda et al., “EM703, the new derivative of erythromycin, inhibits transcription of type I collagen in normal and scleroderma fibroblasts.” J. Dermatol. Sci. vol. 49, pp. 195, 2008.
 W. Muincharern, P. Louwakul, P. Pavasant, V. Lertchirakarn, “Effect of fluocinolone acetonide on human dental pulp cells: cytotoxicity, proliferation, and extracellular matrix formation” J. Endod. vol. 37, pp. 181, 2011.
 S. Singhabutta, 200 types of Thai herbal activities by Sountaree Singhabutta. (Koon, Bangkok, 1993).
 M. B. M. Huveneers-Oorsprong, L. A. P. Hoogenboom, H. A. Kuiper, “The use of MTT test for determining the cytotoxicity of veterinary drugs in pig hepatocytes. ” Toxicol. in Vitro vol. 11, pp. 385, 1997.
 J. Tiedtke, O. Marks, J. Morel, “Stimulation of collagen Production in Human Fibroblasts” Cosmet. Sci. Technol.vol., pp. 15, 2007.
 N. Garbacki et al., “Inhibition of croton oil-induced oedema in mice ear skin by capsular polysaccharides from cyanobacteria” Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. vol. 361, pp. 460, 2000.
 C. Charlier, C. Michaux, “Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) as a new strategy to provide safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs” Eur. J. Med. Chem. vol. 38, pp. 645, 2003.
 W. G. Li, X. Y. Zhang, Y. J. Wu, X. T. X, “Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of action of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds.” Acta Pharmacol. Sin. vol. 22, pp. 1117, 2001.