Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: butterfly pea

18 Automatic Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling and Analysis of Butterfly Valve Using Python Script

Authors: N. Guru Prasath, Sangjin Ma, Chang-Wan Kim

Abstract:

A butterfly valve is a quarter turn valve which is used to control the flow of a fluid through a section of pipe. Generally, butterfly valve is used in wide range of applications such as water distribution, sewage, oil and gas plants. In particular, butterfly valve with larger diameter finds its immense applications in hydro power plants to control the fluid flow. In-lieu with the constraints in cost and size to run laboratory setup, analysis of large diameter values will be mostly studied by computational method which is the best and inexpensive solution. For fluid and structural analysis, CFD and FEM software is used to perform large scale valve analyses, respectively. In order to perform above analysis in butterfly valve, the CAD model has to recreate and perform mesh in conventional software’s for various dimensions of valve. Therefore, its limitation is time consuming process. In-order to overcome that issue, python code was created to outcome complete pre-processing setup automatically in Salome software. Applying dimensions of the model clearly in the python code makes the running time comparatively lower and easier way to perform analysis of the valve. Hence, in this paper, an attempt was made to study the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of butterfly valves by varying the valve angles and dimensions using python code in pre-processing software, and results are produced.

Keywords: Butterfly valve, fluid-structure interaction, automatic CFD analysis, flow coefficient.

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17 Study on Butterfly Visitation Patterns of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis as a Beneficial Plant for Butterfly Conservation

Authors: P. U. S. Peiris

Abstract:

The butterflies are ecologically very important insects. The adults generally feed on nectar and are important as pollinators of flowering plants. However, these pollinators are under threat with their habitat loss. One reason for habitat loss is spread of invasive plants. However, there are even beneficial exotic plants which can directly support for Butterfly Conservation Action Plan of Sri Lanka by attracting butterflies for nectar. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) is an important nectar plant which attracts a diverse set of butterflies in higher number. It comprises a violet color inflorescence which last for about 37 hours where it attracted a peak of butterflies around 9.00am having around average of 15 butterflies. There were no butterflies in early and late hours where the number goes to very low values as 2 at 1.00pm. it was found that a diverse group of butterflies were attracted from around 15 species including 01 endemic species, 02 endemic subspecies and 02 vulnerable species. Therefore, this is a beneficial exotic plant that could be used in butterfly attraction and conservation however with adequate monitoring of the plant population.

Keywords: Butterflies, exotic plants, pollinators, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.), butterfly conservation

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16 Analysis of One-Way and Two-Way FSI Approaches to Characterise the Flow Regime and the Mechanical Behaviour during Closing Manoeuvring Operation of a Butterfly Valve

Authors: M. Ezkurra, J. A. Esnaola, M. Martinez-Agirre, U. Etxeberria, U. Lertxundi, L. Colomo, M. Begiristain, I. Zurutuza

Abstract:

Butterfly valves are widely used industrial piping components as on-off and flow controlling devices. The main challenge in the design process of this type of valves is the correct dimensioning to ensure proper mechanical performance as well as to minimise flow losses that affect the efficiency of the system. Butterfly valves are typically dimensioned in a closed position based on mechanical approaches considering uniform hydrostatic pressure, whereas the flow losses are analysed by means of CFD simulations. The main limitation of these approaches is that they do not consider either the influence of the dynamics of the manoeuvring stage or coupled phenomena. Recent works have included the influence of the flow on the mechanical behaviour for different opening angles by means of one-way FSI approach. However, these works consider steady-state flow for the selected angles, not capturing the effect of the transient flow evolution during the manoeuvring stage. Two-way FSI modelling approach could allow overcoming such limitations providing more accurate results. Nevertheless, the use of this technique is limited due to the increase in the computational cost. In the present work, the applicability of FSI one-way and two-way approaches is evaluated for the analysis of butterfly valves, showing that not considering fluid-structure coupling involves not capturing the most critical situation for the valve disc.

Keywords: Butterfly valves, fluid-structure interaction, one-way approach, two-way approach.

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15 Structural Design Strategy of Double-Eccentric Butterfly Valve using Topology Optimization Techniques

Authors: Jun-Oh Kim, Seol-Min Yang, Seok-Heum Baek, Sangmo Kang

Abstract:

In this paper, the shape design process is briefly discussed emphasizing the use of topology optimization in the conceptual design stage. The basic idea is to view feasible domains for sensitivity region concepts. In this method, the main process consists of two steps: as the design moves further inside the feasible domain using Taguchi method, and thus becoming more successful topology optimization, the sensitivity region becomes larger. In designing a double-eccentric butterfly valve, related to hydrodynamic performance and disc structure, are discussed where the use of topology optimization has proven to dramatically improve an existing design and significantly decrease the development time of a shape design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results demonstrate the validity of this approach.

Keywords: Double-eccentric butterfly valve, CFD, Topology optimization

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14 Numerical Study of a Butterfly Valve for Vibration Analysis and Reduction

Authors: Malik I. Al-Amayreh, Mohammad I. Kilani, Ahmed S. Al-Salaymeh

Abstract:

This work presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a butterfly valve used to control the flow of combustible gas mixture in an industrial process setting.The work uses CFD simulation to analyze the flow characteristics in the vicinity of the valve, including the pressure distributions and Frequency spectrum of the pressure pulsations downstream the valves and the vortex shedding allow predicting the torque fluctuations acting on the valve shaft and the possibility of generating mechanical vibration and resonance.These fluctuations are due to aerodynamic torque resulting from fluid turbulence and vortex shedding in the valve vicinity. The valve analyzed is located in a pipeline between two opposing 90o elbows, which exposes the valve and the surrounding structure to the turbulence generated upstream and downstream the elbows at either end of the pipe.CFD simulations show that the best location for the valve from a vibration point of view is in the middle of the pipe joining the elbows.

Keywords: Butterfly Valve Vibration Analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Fluid Flow Circuit Design, Fluid Mechanics.

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13 Force Analysis of an Automated Rapid Maxillary Expansion (ARME) Appliance

Authors: A.A.Sharizli, N.A.Abu Osman, A.A.Saifizul

Abstract:

An Automated Rapid Maxillary Expander (ARME) is a specially designed microcontroller-based orthodontic appliance to overcome the shortcomings imposed by the traditional maxillary expansion appliances. This new device is operates by automatically widening the maxilla (upper jaw) by expanding the midpalatal suture [1]. The ARME appliance that has been developed is a combination of modified butterfly expander appliance, micro gear, micro motor, and microcontroller to automatically produce light and continuous pressure to expand the maxilla. For this study, the functionality of the system is verified through laboratory tests by measure the forced applied to the teeth each time the maxilla expands. The laboratory test results show that the developed appliance meets the desired performance specifications consistently.

Keywords: Maxillary Expansion, Microcontroller, Automated, Orthodontist, Force Analysis.

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12 Experimental Estimation of Mixed-Mode Fracture Properties of Steel Weld

Authors: S. R. Hosseini, N. Choupani, A. R. M. Gharabaghi

Abstract:

The modified Arcan fixture was used in order to investigate the mixed mode fracture properties of high strength steel butt weld through experimental and numerical analysis. The fixture consisted of a central section with "butterfly-shaped" specimen that had central crack. The specimens were under pure mode I (opening), pure mode II (shearing) and all in plane mixed mode loading angles starting from 0 to 90 degrees. The geometric calibration factors were calculated with the aid of finite element analysis for various loading mode and different crack length (0.45≤ a/w ≤0.55) and the critical fracture loads obtained experimentally. The critical fracture toughness (KIC & KIIC) estimated with experimental and numerical analysis under mixed mode loading conditions.

Keywords: Arcan specimen, fracture toughness, mixed mode, steel weld.

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11 Identification of Ductile Damage Parameters for Austenitic Steel

Authors: J. Dzugan, M. Spaniel, P. Konopík, J. Ruzicka, J. Kuzelka

Abstract:

The modeling of inelastic behavior of plastic materials requires measurements providing information on material response to different multiaxial loading conditions. Different triaxiality conditions and values of Lode parameters have to be covered for complex description of the material plastic behavior. Samples geometries providing material plastic behavoiur over the range of interest are proposed with the use of FEM analysis. Round samples with 3 different notches and smooth surface are used together with butterfly type of samples tested at angle ranging for 0 to 90°. Identification of ductile damage parameters is carried out on the basis of obtained experimental data for austenitic stainless steel. The obtained material plastic damage parameters are subsequently applied to FEM simulation of notched CT normally samples used for fracture mechanics testing and results from the simulation are compared with real tests.

Keywords: baqus, austenitic steel, computer simulation, ductile damage, triaxiality

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10 Lifetime Maximization in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Network Coding and Matrix Game

Authors: Jain-Shing Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a matrix game-theoretic cross-layer optimization formulation to maximize the network lifetime in wireless ad hoc networks with network coding. To this end, we introduce a cross-layer formulation of general NUM (network utility maximization) that accommodates routing, scheduling, and stream control from different layers in the coded networks. Specifically, for the scheduling problem and then the objective function involved, we develop a matrix game with the strategy sets of the players corresponding to hyperlinks and transmission modes, and design the payoffs specific to the lifetime. In particular, with the inherit merit that matrix game can be solved with linear programming, our cross-layer programming formulation can benefit from both game-based and NUM-based approaches at the same time by cooperating the programming model for the matrix game with that for the other layers in a consistent framework. Finally, our numerical example demonstrates its performance results on a well-known wireless butterfly network to verify the cross-layer optimization scheme.

Keywords: Cross-layer design, Lifetime maximization, Matrix game, Network coding

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9 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang

Abstract:

Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. ceritina Kulesh. and delphinidin-rich extracts from Clitoria ternatea L. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3 and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation. FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding. Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea, physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity.

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8 Sex Differentiation of Elm Nymphalid (Nymphalis polychloros Linnaeus, 1758) on Pupal Stage

Authors: Hanife Genc

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine sex differentiation of laboratory reared Elm nymphalid (Nymphalis polychloros Linnaeus, 1758) by examining the morphological structure of pupal stage. Laboratory colony of elm nymphalid, reared on pear leaves, was used to set up experiments. It was performed with 5 replications having 8 pupae for each replication. Dorsal, ventral and lateral parts of external morphological structures of pupae were examined by Olympus SZX9 stereozoom microscope and photographed. When fully grown, mature larvae wander the highest part of the rearing cage and pupae were formed hanging by cremaster. After completing prepupa stage about 1.5±0.3 days, they all pupated. Pupal stage was completed at 24±1°C about 4.38±1.20 days. Pupal weights were 0.483±0.05 g in females and 0.392±0.08 g (n=40) in males respectively. Pupal emergence rate was 95%, with 22 females and 16 males. Examinations of ventral parts of 8th, 9th, and 10th abdominal segments revealed that anal opening were found at 10th abdominal segment in both sexes, 3 lumps were determined at 9th abdominal segments then the specific opening structure at 8th segment was only found on female pupae.

Keywords: Butterfly, Nymphalis polychloros, pupae, sex differentiation.

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7 A Preliminary Study on Factors Determining the Success of High Conservation Value Area in Oil Palm Plantations

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Rozza Tri Kwatrina

Abstract:

High Conservation Value (HCV) is an area with conservation function within oil palm plantation. Despite the important role of HCV area in biodiversity conservation and various studies on HCV, there was a lack of research studying the factors determining its success. A preliminary study was conducted to identify the determinant factor of HCV that affected the diversity. Line transect method was used to calculate the species diversity of butterfly, birds, mammals, and herpetofauna species as well as their richness. Specifically for mammals, camera traps were also used. The research sites comprised of 12 HCV areas in 3 provinces of Indonesia (Central Kalimantan, Riau, and Palembang). The relationship between the HCV biophysical factor with the species number and species diversity for each wildlife class was identified using Chi-Square analysis with Cross tab (contingency table). Results of the study revealed that species diversity varied by research locations. Four factors determining the success of HCV area in relations to the number and diversity of wildlife species are land cover types for mammals, the width of area and distance to rivers for birds, and distance to settlements for butterflies.

Keywords: Ecological factors, high conservation value area, oil palm plantation, wildlife diversity.

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6 Hybrid GA Tuned RBF Based Neuro-Fuzzy Controller for Robotic Manipulator

Authors: Sufian Ashraf Mazhari, Surendra Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper performance of Puma 560 manipulator is being compared for hybrid gradient descent and least square method learning based ANFIS controller with hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Generalized Pattern Search tuned radial basis function based Neuro-Fuzzy controller. ANFIS which is based on Takagi Sugeno type Fuzzy controller needs prior knowledge of rule base while in radial basis function based Neuro-Fuzzy rule base knowledge is not required. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with generalized Pattern Search is used for tuning weights of radial basis function based Neuro- fuzzy controller. All the controllers are checked for butterfly trajectory tracking and results in the form of Cartesian and joint space errors are being compared. ANFIS based controller is showing better performance compared to Radial Basis Function based Neuro-Fuzzy Controller but rule base independency of RBF based Neuro-Fuzzy gives it an edge over ANFIS

Keywords: Neuro-Fuzzy, Robotic Control, RBFNF, ANFIS, Hybrid GA.

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5 PUMA 560 Optimal Trajectory Control using Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing and Generalized Pattern Search Techniques

Authors: Sufian Ashraf Mazhari, Surendra Kumar

Abstract:

Robot manipulators are highly coupled nonlinear systems, therefore real system and mathematical model of dynamics used for control system design are not same. Hence, fine-tuning of controller is always needed. For better tuning fast simulation speed is desired. Since, Matlab incorporates LAPACK to increase the speed and complexity of matrix computation, dynamics, forward and inverse kinematics of PUMA 560 is modeled on Matlab/Simulink in such a way that all operations are matrix based which give very less simulation time. This paper compares PID parameter tuning using Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing, Generalized Pattern Search (GPS) and Hybrid Search techniques. Controller performances for all these methods are compared in terms of joint space ITSE and cartesian space ISE for tracking circular and butterfly trajectories. Disturbance signal is added to check robustness of controller. GAGPS hybrid search technique is showing best results for tuning PID controller parameters in terms of ITSE and robustness.

Keywords: Controller Tuning, Genetic Algorithm, Pattern Search, Robotic Controller, Simulated Annealing.

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4 Parallel-computing Approach for FFT Implementation on Digital Signal Processor (DSP)

Authors: Yi-Pin Hsu, Shin-Yu Lin

Abstract:

An efficient parallel form in digital signal processor can improve the algorithm performance. The butterfly structure is an important role in fast Fourier transform (FFT), because its symmetry form is suitable for hardware implementation. Although it can perform a symmetric structure, the performance will be reduced under the data-dependent flow characteristic. Even though recent research which call as novel memory reference reduction methods (NMRRM) for FFT focus on reduce memory reference in twiddle factor, the data-dependent property still exists. In this paper, we propose a parallel-computing approach for FFT implementation on digital signal processor (DSP) which is based on data-independent property and still hold the property of low-memory reference. The proposed method combines final two steps in NMRRM FFT to perform a novel data-independent structure, besides it is very suitable for multi-operation-unit digital signal processor and dual-core system. We have applied the proposed method of radix-2 FFT algorithm in low memory reference on TI TMSC320C64x DSP. Experimental results show the method can reduce 33.8% clock cycles comparing with the NMRRM FFT implementation and keep the low-memory reference property.

Keywords: Parallel-computing, FFT, low-memory reference, TIDSP.

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3 Iterative Process to Improve Simple Adaptive Subdivision Surfaces Method with Butterfly Scheme

Authors: Noor Asma Husain, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Abdullah Bade

Abstract:

Subdivision surfaces were applied to the entire meshes in order to produce smooth surfaces refinement from coarse mesh. Several schemes had been introduced in this area to provide a set of rules to converge smooth surfaces. However, to compute and render all the vertices are really inconvenient in terms of memory consumption and runtime during the subdivision process. It will lead to a heavy computational load especially at a higher level of subdivision. Adaptive subdivision is a method that subdivides only at certain areas of the meshes while the rest were maintained less polygons. Although adaptive subdivision occurs at the selected areas, the quality of produced surfaces which is their smoothness can be preserved similar as well as regular subdivision. Nevertheless, adaptive subdivision process burdened from two causes; calculations need to be done to define areas that are required to be subdivided and to remove cracks created from the subdivision depth difference between the selected and unselected areas. Unfortunately, the result of adaptive subdivision when it reaches to the higher level of subdivision, it still brings the problem with memory consumption. This research brings to iterative process of adaptive subdivision to improve the previous adaptive method that will reduce memory consumption applied on triangular mesh. The result of this iterative process was acceptable better in memory and appearance in order to produce fewer polygons while it preserves smooth surfaces.

Keywords: Subdivision surfaces, adaptive subdivision, selectioncriteria, handle cracks, smooth surface

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2 MinRoot and CMesh: Interconnection Architectures for Network-on-Chip Systems

Authors: Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali, Ahmad Khademzadeh

Abstract:

The success of an electronic system in a System-on- Chip is highly dependent on the efficiency of its interconnection network, which is constructed from routers and channels (the routers move data across the channels between nodes). Since neither classical bus based nor point to point architectures can provide scalable solutions and satisfy the tight power and performance requirements of future applications, the Network-on-Chip (NoC) approach has recently been proposed as a promising solution. Indeed, in contrast to the traditional solutions, the NoC approach can provide large bandwidth with moderate area overhead. The selected topology of the components interconnects plays prime rule in the performance of NoC architecture as well as routing and switching techniques that can be used. In this paper, we present two generic NoC architectures that can be customized to the specific communication needs of an application in order to reduce the area with minimal degradation of the latency of the system. An experimental study is performed to compare these structures with basic NoC topologies represented by 2D mesh, Butterfly-Fat Tree (BFT) and SPIN. It is shown that Cluster mesh (CMesh) and MinRoot schemes achieves significant improvements in network latency and energy consumption with only negligible area overhead and complexity over existing architectures. In fact, in the case of basic NoC topologies, CMesh and MinRoot schemes provides substantial savings in area as well, because they requires fewer routers. The simulation results show that CMesh and MinRoot networks outperforms MESH, BFT and SPIN in main performance metrics.

Keywords: MinRoot, CMesh, NoC, Topology, Performance Evaluation

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1 Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures

Authors: Abinash Tripathy, Girish Muralidharan, Amitava Pramanik, Prosenjit Sen

Abstract:

Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.

Keywords: Contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, contact time, superhydrophobic.

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