Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: Latency.

85 Optimizing Network Latency with Fast Path Assignment for Incoming Flows

Authors: Qing Lyu, Hang Zhu

Abstract:

Various flows in the network require to go through different types of middlebox. The improper placement of network middlebox and path assignment for flows could greatly increase the network latency and also decrease the performance of network. Minimizing the total end to end latency of all the ows requires to assign path for the incoming flows. In this paper, the flow path assignment problem in regard to the placement of various kinds of middlebox is studied. The flow path assignment problem is formulated to a linear programming problem, which is very time consuming. On the other hand, a naive greedy algorithm is studied. Which is very fast but causes much more latency than the linear programming algorithm. At last, the paper presents a heuristic algorithm named FPA, which takes bottleneck link information and estimated bandwidth occupancy into consideration, and achieves near optimal latency in much less time. Evaluation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Latency, Fast path assignment, Bottleneck link.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 268
84 Improving Packet Latency of Video Sensor Networks

Authors: Arijit Ghosh, Tony Givargis

Abstract:

Video sensor networks operate on stringent requirements of latency. Packets have a deadline within which they have to be delivered. Violation of the deadline causes a packet to be treated as lost and the loss of packets ultimately affects the quality of the application. Network latency is typically a function of many interacting components. In this paper, we propose ways of reducing the forwarding latency of a packet at intermediate nodes. The forwarding latency is caused by a combination of processing delay and queueing delay. The former is incurred in order to determine the next hop in dynamic routing. We show that unless link failures in a very specific and unlikely pattern, a vast majority of these lookups are redundant. To counter this we propose source routing as the routing strategy. However, source routing suffers from issues related to scalability and being impervious to network dynamics. We propose solutions to counter these and show that source routing is definitely a viable option in practical sized video networks. We also propose a fast and fair packet scheduling algorithm that reduces queueing delay at the nodes. We support our claims through extensive simulation on realistic topologies with practical traffic loads and failure patterns.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Packet latency, Network design, Networkperformance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
83 Amplitude and Latency of P300 Component from Auditory Stimulus in Different Types of Personality: An Event Related Potential Study

Authors: Nasir Yusoff, Ahmad Adamu Adamu, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza

Abstract:

The P300 from Event related potential (ERP) explains the psycho-physiological phenomenon in human body. The present study aims to identify the differences of amplitude and latency of P300 component from auditory stimuli, between ambiversion and extraversion types of personality. Ambivert (N=20) and extravert (N=20) undergoing ERP recording at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) laboratory. Electroencephalogram data was recorded with oddball paradigm, counting auditory standard and target tones, from nine electrode sites (Fz, Cz, Pz, T3, T4, T5, T6, P3 and P4) by using the 128 HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net. The P300 latency of the target tones at all electrodes were insignificant. Similarly, the P300 latency of the standard tones were also insignificant except at Fz and T3 electrode. Likewise, the P300 amplitude of the target and standard tone in all electrode sites were insignificant. Extravert and ambivert indicate similar characteristic in cognition processing from auditory task.

Keywords: Amplitude, Event Related Potential, P300 Component, Latency.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1164
82 Bi-Criteria Latency Optimization of Intra-and Inter-Autonomous System Traffic Engineering

Authors: K. Vidya, V.Rhymend Uthariaraj

Abstract:

Traffic Engineering (TE) is the process of controlling how traffic flows through a network in order to facilitate efficient and reliable network operations while simultaneously optimizing network resource utilization and traffic performance. TE improves the management of data traffic within a network and provides the better utilization of network resources. Many research works considers intra and inter Traffic Engineering separately. But in reality one influences the other. Hence the effective network performances of both inter and intra Autonomous Systems (AS) are not optimized properly. To achieve a better Joint Optimization of both Intra and Inter AS TE, we propose a joint Optimization technique by considering intra-AS features during inter – AS TE and vice versa. This work considers the important criterion say latency within an AS and between ASes. and proposes a Bi-Criteria Latency optimization model. Hence an overall network performance can be improved by considering this jointoptimization technique in terms of Latency.

Keywords: Inter-Domain Routing , Measurement, OptimizationPerformance, Traffic Engineering.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1232
81 An Energy Efficient Cluster Formation Protocol with Low Latency In Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Allirani, M. Suganthi

Abstract:

Data gathering is an essential operation in wireless sensor network applications. So it requires energy efficiency techniques to increase the lifetime of the network. Similarly, clustering is also an effective technique to improve the energy efficiency and network lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an energy efficient cluster formation protocol is proposed with the objective of achieving low energy dissipation and latency without sacrificing application specific quality. The objective is achieved by applying randomized, adaptive, self-configuring cluster formation and localized control for data transfers. It involves application - specific data processing, such as data aggregation or compression. The cluster formation algorithm allows each node to make independent decisions, so as to generate good clusters as the end. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol utilizes minimum energy and latency for cluster formation, there by reducing the overhead of the protocol.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Low latency, Energy sorting protocol, data processing, Cluster formation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2472
80 Effect of Network Communication Overhead on the Performance of Adaptive Speculative Locking Protocol

Authors: Waqar Haque, Pai Qi

Abstract:

The speculative locking (SL) protocol extends the twophase locking (2PL) protocol to allow for parallelism among conflicting transactions. The adaptive speculative locking (ASL) protocol provided further enhancements and outperformed SL protocols under most conditions. Neither of these protocols consider the impact of network latency on the performance of the distributed database systems. We have studied the performance of ASL protocol taking into account the communication overhead. The results indicate that though system load can counter network latency, it can still become a bottleneck in many situations. The impact of latency on performance depends on many factors including the system resources. A flexible discrete event simulator was used as the testbed for this study.

Keywords: concurrency control, distributed database systems, speculative locking

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1406
79 An Energy-Latency-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Tahar Ezzedine, Mohamed Miladi, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Because nodes are usually battery-powered, the energy presents a very scarce resource in wireless sensor networks. For this reason, the design of medium access control had to take energy efficiency as one of its hottest concerns. Accordingly, in order to improve the energy performance of MAC schemes in wireless sensor networks, several ways can be followed. In fact, some researchers try to limit idle listening while others focus on mitigating overhearing (i.e. a node can hear a packet which is destined to another node) or reducing the number of the used control packets. We, in this paper, propose a new hybrid MAC protocol termed ELE-MAC (i.e. Energy Latency Efficient MAC). The ELE-MAC major design goals are energy and latency efficiencies. It adopts less control packets than SMAC in order to preserve energy. We carried out ns- 2 simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol. Thus, our simulation-s results prove the ELE-MAC energy efficiency. Additionally, our solution performs statistically the same or better latency characteristic compared to adaptive SMAC.

Keywords: Control packet, energy efficiency, medium access control, wireless sensor networks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1449
78 Enhanced-Delivery Overlay Multicasting Scheme by Optimizing Bandwidth and Latency Discrepancy Ratios

Authors: Omar F. Hamad, T. Marwala

Abstract:

With optimized bandwidth and latency discrepancy ratios, Node Gain Scores (NGSs) are determined and used as a basis for shaping the max-heap overlay. The NGSs - determined as the respective bandwidth-latency-products - govern the construction of max-heap-form overlays. Each NGS is earned as a synergy of discrepancy ratio of the bandwidth requested with respect to the estimated available bandwidth, and latency discrepancy ratio between the nodes and the source node. The tree leads to enhanceddelivery overlay multicasting – increasing packet delivery which could, otherwise, be hindered by induced packet loss occurring in other schemes not considering the synergy of these parameters on placing the nodes on the overlays. The NGS is a function of four main parameters – estimated available bandwidth, Ba; individual node's requested bandwidth, Br; proposed node latency to its prospective parent (Lp); and suggested best latency as advised by source node (Lb). Bandwidth discrepancy ratio (BDR) and latency discrepancy ratio (LDR) carry weights of α and (1,000 - α ) , respectively, with arbitrary chosen α ranging between 0 and 1,000 to ensure that the NGS values, used as node IDs, maintain a good possibility of uniqueness and balance between the most critical factor between the BDR and the LDR. A max-heap-form tree is constructed with assumption that all nodes possess NGS less than the source node. To maintain a sense of load balance, children of each level's siblings are evenly distributed such that a node can not accept a second child, and so on, until all its siblings able to do so, have already acquired the same number of children. That is so logically done from left to right in a conceptual overlay tree. The records of the pair-wise approximate available bandwidths as measured by a pathChirp scheme at individual nodes are maintained. Evaluation measures as compared to other schemes – Bandwidth Aware multicaSt architecturE (BASE), Tree Building Control Protocol (TBCP), and Host Multicast Tree Protocol (HMTP) - have been conducted. This new scheme generally performs better in terms of trade-off between packet delivery ratio; link stress; control overhead; and end-to-end delays.

Keywords: Overlay multicast, Available bandwidth, Max-heapform overlay, Induced packet loss, Bandwidth-latency product, Node Gain Score (NGS).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1344
77 Optimization for Reducing Handoff Latency and Utilization of Bandwidth in ATM Networks

Authors: Pooja, Megha Kulshrestha, V. K. Banga, Parvinder S. Sandhu

Abstract:

To support mobility in ATM networks, a number of technical challenges need to be resolved. The impact of handoff schemes in terms of service disruption, handoff latency, cost implications and excess resources required during handoffs needs to be addressed. In this paper, a one phase handoff and route optimization solution using reserved PVCs between adjacent ATM switches to reroute connections during inter-switch handoff is studied. In the second phase, a distributed optimization process is initiated to optimally reroute handoff connections. The main objective is to find the optimal operating point at which to perform optimization subject to cost constraint with the purpose of reducing blocking probability of inter-switch handoff calls for delay tolerant traffic. We examine the relation between the required bandwidth resources and optimization rate. Also we calculate and study the handoff blocking probability due to lack of bandwidth for resources reserved to facilitate the rapid rerouting.

Keywords: Wireless ATM, Mobility, Latency, Optimization rateand Blocking Probability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1160
76 Evaluation of Handover Latency in Intra- Domain Mobility

Authors: Aisha Hassan Abdalla Hashim, Fauzana Ridzuan, Nazreen Rusli

Abstract:

Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) describes how mobile node can change its point of attachment from one access router to another. As a demand for wireless mobile devices increases, many enhancements for macro-mobility (inter-domain) protocols have been proposed, designed and implemented in Mobile IPv6. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) is one of them that is designed to reduce the amount of signaling required and to improve handover speed for mobile connections. This is achieved by introducing a new network entity called Mobility Anchor Point (MAP). This report presents a comparative study of the Hierarchical Mobility IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 protocols and we have narrowed down the scope to micro-mobility (intra-domain). The architecture and operation of each protocol is studied and they are evaluated based on the Quality of Service (QoS) parameter; handover latency. The simulation was carried out by using the Network Simulator-2. The outcome from this simulation has been discussed. From the results, it shows that, HMIPv6 performs best under intra-domain mobility compared to MIPv6. The MIPv6 suffers large handover latency. As enhancement we proposed to HMIPv6 to locate the MAP to be in the middle of the domain with respect to all Access Routers. That gives approximately same distance between MAP and Mobile Node (MN) regardless of the new location of MN, and possible shorter distance. This will reduce the delay since the distance is shorter. As a future work performance analysis is to be carried for the proposed HMIPv6 and compared to HMIPv6.

Keywords: Intra-domain mobility, HMIPv6, Handover Latency, proposed HMIPv6.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1177
75 Phenotypes of B Cells Differ in EBV-positive Burkitt-s lymphoma Derived Cell Lines

Authors: Irina Spaka, Rita Birkenfelde, Svetlana Kozireva, Jevgenija Osmjana, Madara Upmane, ElenaKashuba, Irina Kholodnyuk Holodnuka

Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of the endemic Burkitt-s lymphoma (BL). The EBVpositive BL-derived cell lines initially maintain the original tumor phenotype of EBV infection (latency I, LatI), but most of them drift toward a lymphoblast phenotype of EBV latency III (LatIII) during in vitro culturing. The aim of the present work was to characterize the B-cell subsets in EBV-positive BL cell lines and to verify whether a particular cell subset correlates with the type of EBV infection. The phenotype analysis of two EBV-negative and eleven EBV-positive (three of LatI and eight of LatIII) BL cell lines was performed by polychromatic flow cytomery, based on expression pattern of CD19, CD10, CD38, CD27, and CD5 markers. Two cell subsets, CD19+CD10+ and CD19+CD10-, were defined in LatIII BL cell lines. In both subsets, the CD27 and CD5 cell surface expression was detected in a proportion of the cells.

Keywords: B-cell subsets, Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, EBV latency, phenotype profiles.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1664
74 Performance Analysis of 5G for Low Latency Transmission Based on Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier Technique and Interleave Division Multiple Access

Authors: A. Asgharzadeh, M. Maroufi

Abstract:

5G mobile communication system has drawn more and more attention. The 5G system needs to provide three different types of services, including enhanced Mobile BroadBand (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC). Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC), Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC), and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (f-OFDM) are suggested as a well-known candidate waveform for the coming 5G system. Themachine-to-machine (M2M) communications are one of the essential applications in 5G, and it involves exchanging of concise messages with a very short latency. However, in UFMC systems, the subcarriers are grouped into subbands but f-OFDM only one subband covers the entire band. Furthermore, in FBMC, a subband includes only one subcarrier, and the number of subbands is the same as the number of subcarriers. This paper mainly discusses the performance of UFMC with different parameters for the UFMC system. Also, paper shows that UFMC is the best choice outperforming OFDM in any case and FBMC in case of very short packets while performing similarly for long sequences with channel estimation techniques for Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) systems.

Keywords: UFMC, IDMA, 5G, subband.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 79
73 Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with power control or without power control), and different antenna models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models. In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard, we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its performance measure.

Keywords: Data aggregation, convergecast, gathering, approximation, interference, omni-directional, directional.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 576
72 Performance Analysis of HSDPA Systems using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)Coding as Compared to Turbo Coding

Authors: K. Anitha Sheela, J. Tarun Kumar

Abstract:

HSDPA is a new feature which is introduced in Release-5 specifications of the 3GPP WCDMA/UTRA standard to realize higher speed data rate together with lower round-trip times. Moreover, the HSDPA concept offers outstanding improvement of packet throughput and also significantly reduces the packet call transfer delay as compared to Release -99 DSCH. Till now the HSDPA system uses turbo coding which is the best coding technique to achieve the Shannon limit. However, the main drawbacks of turbo coding are high decoding complexity and high latency which makes it unsuitable for some applications like satellite communications, since the transmission distance itself introduces latency due to limited speed of light. Hence in this paper it is proposed to use LDPC coding in place of Turbo coding for HSDPA system which decreases the latency and decoding complexity. But LDPC coding increases the Encoding complexity. Though the complexity of transmitter increases at NodeB, the End user is at an advantage in terms of receiver complexity and Bit- error rate. In this paper LDPC Encoder is implemented using “sparse parity check matrix" H to generate a codeword at Encoder and “Belief Propagation algorithm "for LDPC decoding .Simulation results shows that in LDPC coding the BER suddenly drops as the number of iterations increase with a small increase in Eb/No. Which is not possible in Turbo coding. Also same BER was achieved using less number of iterations and hence the latency and receiver complexity has decreased for LDPC coding. HSDPA increases the downlink data rate within a cell to a theoretical maximum of 14Mbps, with 2Mbps on the uplink. The changes that HSDPA enables includes better quality, more reliable and more robust data services. In other words, while realistic data rates are only a few Mbps, the actual quality and number of users achieved will improve significantly.

Keywords: AMC, HSDPA, LDPC, WCDMA, 3GPP.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1805
71 MJPEG Real-Time Transmission in Industrial Environments Using a CBR Channel

Authors: J. Silvestre, L. Almeida, R. Marau, P. Pedreiras

Abstract:

Currently, there are many local area industrial networks that can give guaranteed bandwidth to synchronous traffic, particularly providing CBR channels (Constant Bit Rate), which allow improved bandwidth management. Some of such networks operate over Ethernet, delivering channels with enough capacity, specially with compressors, to integrate multimedia traffic in industrial monitoring and image processing applications with many sources. In these industrial environments where a low latency is an essential requirement, JPEG is an adequate compressing technique but it generates VBR traffic (Variable Bit Rate). Transmitting VBR traffic in CBR channels is inefficient and current solutions to this problem significantly increase the latency or further degrade the quality. In this paper an R(q) model is used which allows on-line calculation of the JPEG quantification factor. We obtained increased quality, a lower requirement for the CBR channel with reduced number of discarded frames along with better use of the channel bandwidth.

Keywords: Industrial Networks, Multimedia.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1349
70 Turbo-Coded Mobile Terrestrial Communication Systems in Urban and Suburban Areas for Wireless Multimedia Applications

Authors: F. Mehran

Abstract:

With the rapid popularization of internet services, it is apparent that the next generation terrestrial communication systems must be capable of supporting various applications like voice, video, and data. This paper presents the performance evaluation of turbo- coded mobile terrestrial communication systems, which are capable of providing high quality services for delay sensitive (voice or video) and delay tolerant (text transmission) multimedia applications in urban and suburban areas. Different types of multimedia information require different service qualities, which are generally expressed in terms of a maximum acceptable bit-error-rate (BER) and maximum tolerable latency. The breakthrough discovery of turbo codes allows us to significantly reduce the probability of bit errors with feasible latency. In a turbo-coded system, a trade-off between latency and BER results from the choice of convolutional component codes, interleaver type and size, decoding algorithm, and the number of decoding iterations. This trade-off can be exploited for multimedia applications by using optimal and suboptimal performance parameter amalgamations to achieve different service qualities. The results are therefore proposing an adaptive framework for turbo-coded wireless multimedia communications which incorporate a set of performance parameters that achieve an appropriate set of service qualities, depending on the application's requirements.

Keywords: Mobile communications, Turbo codes, wireless multimedia communication systems.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1288
69 A Generic and Extensible Spidergon NoC

Authors: Abdelkrim Zitouni, Mounir Zid, Sami Badrouchi, Rached Tourki

Abstract:

The Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous Network on Chip (GALS NoC) is the most efficient solution that provides low latency transfers and power efficient System on Chip (SoC) interconnect. This study presents a GALS and generic NoC architecture based on a configurable router. This router integrates a sophisticated dynamic arbiter, the wormhole routing technique and can be configured in a manner that allows it to be used in many possible NoC topologies such as Mesh 2-D, Tree and Polygon architectures. This makes it possible to improve the quality of service (QoS) required by the proposed NoC. A comparative performances study of the proposed NoC architecture, Tore architecture and of the most used Mesh 2D architecture is performed. This study shows that Spidergon architecture is characterised by the lower latency and the later saturation. It is also shown that no matter what the number of used links is raised; the Links×Diameter product permitted by the Spidergon architecture remains always the lower. The only limitation of this architecture comes from it-s over cost in term of silicon area.

Keywords: Dynamic arbiter, Generic router, Spidergon NoC, SoC.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1348
68 Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, A. E. Abu El-Azm, N. A. El-Fishawy, F. Shawky, F. E. El-Samie

Abstract:

With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate (CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the transmission process according to the channel conditions. The proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable for the low throughput Bluetooth.

Keywords: Bluetooth, throughput, adaptive packets, EDRpackets, CQDDR, low latency. Channel condition

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1620
67 Dual-Link Hierarchical Cluster-Based Interconnect Architecture for 3D Network on Chip

Authors: Guang Sun, Yong Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shijun Lin, Li Su, Depeng Jin, Lieguang zeng

Abstract:

Network on Chip (NoC) has emerged as a promising on chip communication infrastructure. Three Dimensional Integrate Circuit (3D IC) provides small interconnection length between layers and the interconnect scalability in the third dimension, which can further improve the performance of NoC. Therefore, in this paper, a hierarchical cluster-based interconnect architecture is merged with the 3D IC. This interconnect architecture significantly reduces the number of long wires. Since this architecture only has approximately a quarter of routers in 3D mesh-based architecture, the average number of hops is smaller, which leads to lower latency and higher throughput. Moreover, smaller number of routers decreases the area overhead. Meanwhile, some dual links are inserted into the bottlenecks of communication to improve the performance of NoC. Simulation results demonstrate our theoretical analysis and show the advantages of our proposed architecture in latency, throughput and area, when compared with 3D mesh-based architecture.

Keywords: Network on Chip (NoC), interconnect architecture, performance, area, Three Dimensional Integrate Circuit (3D IC).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1281
66 An Agent-Based Modelling Simulation Approach to Calculate Processing Delay of GEO Satellite Payload

Authors: V. Vicente E. Mujica, Gustavo Gonzalez

Abstract:

The global coverage of broadband multimedia and internet-based services in terrestrial-satellite networks demand particular interests for satellite providers in order to enhance services with low latencies and high signal quality to diverse users. In particular, the delay of on-board processing is an inherent source of latency in a satellite communication that sometimes is discarded for the end-to-end delay of the satellite link. The frame work for this paper includes modelling of an on-orbit satellite payload using an agent model that can reproduce the properties of processing delays. In essence, a comparison of different spatial interpolation methods is carried out to evaluate physical data obtained by an GEO satellite in order to define a discretization function for determining that delay. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed agent and the development of a delay discretization function are together validated by simulating an hybrid satellite and terrestrial network. Simulation results show high accuracy according to the characteristics of initial data points of processing delay for Ku bands.

Keywords: Terrestrial-satellite networks, latency, on-orbit satellite payload, simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 608
65 Comparison of Router Intelligent and Cooperative Host Intelligent Algorithms in a Continuous Model of Fixed Telecommunication Networks

Authors: Dávid Csercsik, Sándor Imre

Abstract:

The performance of state of the art worldwide telecommunication networks strongly depends on the efficiency of the applied routing mechanism. Game theoretical approaches to this problem offer new solutions. In this paper a new continuous network routing model is defined to describe data transfer in fixed telecommunication networks of multiple hosts. The nodes of the network correspond to routers whose latency is assumed to be traffic dependent. We propose that the whole traffic of the network can be decomposed to a finite number of tasks, which belong to various hosts. To describe the different latency-sensitivity, utility functions are defined for each task. The model is used to compare router and host intelligent types of routing methods, corresponding to various data transfer protocols. We analyze host intelligent routing as a transferable utility cooperative game with externalities. The main aim of the paper is to provide a framework in which the efficiency of various routing algorithms can be compared and the transferable utility game arising in the cooperative case can be analyzed.

Keywords: Routing, Telecommunication networks, Performance evaluation, Cooperative game theory, Partition function form games

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1578
64 Weighted Data Replication Strategy for Data Grid Considering Economic Approach

Authors: N. Mansouri, A. Asadi

Abstract:

Data Grid is a geographically distributed environment that deals with data intensive application in scientific and enterprise computing. Data replication is a common method used to achieve efficient and fault-tolerant data access in Grids. In this paper, a dynamic data replication strategy, called Enhanced Latest Access Largest Weight (ELALW) is proposed. This strategy is an enhanced version of Latest Access Largest Weight strategy. However, replication should be used wisely because the storage capacity of each Grid site is limited. Thus, it is important to design an effective strategy for the replication replacement task. ELALW replaces replicas based on the number of requests in future, the size of the replica, and the number of copies of the file. It also improves access latency by selecting the best replica when various sites hold replicas. The proposed replica selection selects the best replica location from among the many replicas based on response time that can be determined by considering the data transfer time, the storage access latency, the replica requests that waiting in the storage queue and the distance between nodes. Simulation results utilizing the OptorSim show our replication strategy achieve better performance overall than other strategies in terms of job execution time, effective network usage and storage resource usage.

Keywords: Data grid, data replication, simulation, replica selection, replica placement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1755
63 MinRoot and CMesh: Interconnection Architectures for Network-on-Chip Systems

Authors: Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali, Ahmad Khademzadeh

Abstract:

The success of an electronic system in a System-on- Chip is highly dependent on the efficiency of its interconnection network, which is constructed from routers and channels (the routers move data across the channels between nodes). Since neither classical bus based nor point to point architectures can provide scalable solutions and satisfy the tight power and performance requirements of future applications, the Network-on-Chip (NoC) approach has recently been proposed as a promising solution. Indeed, in contrast to the traditional solutions, the NoC approach can provide large bandwidth with moderate area overhead. The selected topology of the components interconnects plays prime rule in the performance of NoC architecture as well as routing and switching techniques that can be used. In this paper, we present two generic NoC architectures that can be customized to the specific communication needs of an application in order to reduce the area with minimal degradation of the latency of the system. An experimental study is performed to compare these structures with basic NoC topologies represented by 2D mesh, Butterfly-Fat Tree (BFT) and SPIN. It is shown that Cluster mesh (CMesh) and MinRoot schemes achieves significant improvements in network latency and energy consumption with only negligible area overhead and complexity over existing architectures. In fact, in the case of basic NoC topologies, CMesh and MinRoot schemes provides substantial savings in area as well, because they requires fewer routers. The simulation results show that CMesh and MinRoot networks outperforms MESH, BFT and SPIN in main performance metrics.

Keywords: MinRoot, CMesh, NoC, Topology, Performance Evaluation

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1821
62 The Security Trade-Offs in Resource Constrained Nodes for IoT Application

Authors: Sultan Alharby, Nick Harris, Alex Weddell, Jeff Reeve

Abstract:

The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) has received much attention over the last five years. It is predicted that the IoT will influence every aspect of our lifestyles in the near future. Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the key enablers of the operation of IoTs, allowing data to be collected from the surrounding environment. However, due to limited resources, nature of deployment and unattended operation, a WSN is vulnerable to various types of attack. Security is paramount for reliable and safe communication between IoT embedded devices, but it does, however, come at a cost to resources. Nodes are usually equipped with small batteries, which makes energy conservation crucial to IoT devices. Nevertheless, security cost in terms of energy consumption has not been studied sufficiently. Previous research has used a security specification of 802.15.4 for IoT applications, but the energy cost of each security level and the impact on quality of services (QoS) parameters remain unknown. This research focuses on the cost of security at the IoT media access control (MAC) layer. It begins by studying the energy consumption of IEEE 802.15.4 security levels, which is followed by an evaluation for the impact of security on data latency and throughput, and then presents the impact of transmission power on security overhead, and finally shows the effects of security on memory footprint. The results show that security overhead in terms of energy consumption with a payload of 24 bytes fluctuates between 31.5% at minimum level over non-secure packets and 60.4% at the top security level of 802.15.4 security specification. Also, it shows that security cost has less impact at longer packet lengths, and more with smaller packet size. In addition, the results depicts a significant impact on data latency and throughput. Overall, maximum authentication length decreases throughput by almost 53%, and encryption and authentication together by almost 62%.

Keywords: Internet of Things, IEEE 802.15.4, security cost evaluation, wireless sensor network, energy consumption.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1130
61 Verification and Proposal of Information Processing Model Using EEG-Based Brain Activity Monitoring

Authors: Toshitaka Higashino, Naoki Wakamiya

Abstract:

Human beings perform a task by perceiving information from outside, recognizing them, and responding them. There have been various attempts to analyze and understand internal processes behind the reaction to a given stimulus by conducting psychological experiments and analysis from multiple perspectives. Among these, we focused on Model Human Processor (MHP). However, it was built based on psychological experiments and thus the relation with brain activity was unclear so far. To verify the validity of the MHP and propose our model from a viewpoint of neuroscience, EEG (Electroencephalography) measurements are performed during experiments in this study. More specifically, first, experiments were conducted where Latin alphabet characters were used as visual stimuli. In addition to response time, ERPs (event-related potentials) such as N100 and P300 were measured by using EEG. By comparing cycle time predicted by the MHP and latency of ERPs, it was found that N100, related to perception of stimuli, appeared at the end of the perceptual processor. Furthermore, by conducting an additional experiment, it was revealed that P300, related to decision making, appeared during the response decision process, not at the end. Second, by experiments using Japanese Hiragana characters, i.e. Japan's own phonetic symbols, those findings were confirmed. Finally, Japanese Kanji characters were used as more complicated visual stimuli. A Kanji character usually has several readings and several meanings. Despite the difference, a reading-related task and a meaning-related task exhibited similar results, meaning that they involved similar information processing processes of the brain. Based on those results, our model was proposed which reflects response time and ERP latency. It consists of three processors: the perception processor from an input of a stimulus to appearance of N100, the cognitive processor from N100 to P300, and the decision-action processor from P300 to response. Using our model, an application system which reflects brain activity can be established.

Keywords: Brain activity, EEG, information processing model, model human processor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 194
60 A Novel Security Framework for the Web System

Authors: J. P. Dubois, P. G. Jreije

Abstract:

In this paper, a framework is presented trying to make the most secure web system out of the available generic and web security technology which can be used as a guideline for organizations building their web sites. The framework is designed to provide necessary security services, to address the known security threats, and to provide some cover to other security problems especially unknown threats. The requirements for the design are discussed which guided us to the design of secure web system. The designed security framework is then simulated and various quality of service (QoS) metrics are calculated to measure the performance of this system.

Keywords: Web Security, Internet Voting, Firewall, QoS, Latency, Utilization, Throughput.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1048
59 On the Construction of Lightweight Circulant Maximum Distance Separable Matrices

Authors: Qinyi Mei, Li-Ping Wang

Abstract:

MDS matrices are of great significance in the design of block ciphers and hash functions. In the present paper, we investigate the problem of constructing MDS matrices which are both lightweight and low-latency. We propose a new method of constructing lightweight MDS matrices using circulant matrices which can be implemented efficiently in hardware. Furthermore, we provide circulant MDS matrices with as few bit XOR operations as possible for the classical dimensions 4 × 4, 8 × 8 over the space of linear transformations over finite field F42 . In contrast to previous constructions of MDS matrices, our constructions have achieved fewer XORs.

Keywords: Linear diffusion layer, circulant matrix, lightweight, MDS matrix.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 607
58 A Design and Implementation Model for Web Caching Using Server “URL Rewriting“

Authors: Mostafa E. Saleh, A. Abdel Nabi, A. Baith Mohamed

Abstract:

In order to make surfing the internet faster, and to save redundant processing load with each request for the same web page, many caching techniques have been developed to reduce latency of retrieving data on World Wide Web. In this paper we will give a quick overview of existing web caching techniques used for dynamic web pages then we will introduce a design and implementation model that take advantage of “URL Rewriting" feature in some popular web servers, e.g. Apache, to provide an effective approach of caching dynamic web pages.

Keywords: Web Caching, URL Rewriting, Optimizing Web Performance, Dynamic Web Pages Loading Time.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1624
57 Efficient Web Usage Mining Based on K-Medoids Clustering Technique

Authors: P. Sengottuvelan, T. Gopalakrishnan

Abstract:

Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to find usage patterns from web log data, so as to grasp required patterns and serve the requirements of Web-based applications. User’s expertise on the internet may be improved by minimizing user’s web access latency. This may be done by predicting the future search page earlier and the same may be prefetched and cached. Therefore, to enhance the standard of web services, it is needed topic to research the user web navigation behavior. Analysis of user’s web navigation behavior is achieved through modeling web navigation history. We propose this technique which cluster’s the user sessions, based on the K-medoids technique.

Keywords: Clustering, K-medoids, Recommendation, User Session, Web Usage Mining.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1130
56 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali

Abstract:

The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, ad hoc topology, cluster, sub-network, WSN design requirements.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1537