Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Al-Madinah Holy Mosque

23 Assessment of the Occupancy’s Effect on Speech Intelligibility in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque

Authors: Wasim Orfali, Hesham Tolba

Abstract:

This research investigates the acoustical characteristics of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque. Extensive field measurements were conducted in different locations of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque to characterize its acoustic characteristics. The acoustical characteristics are usually evaluated by the use of objective parameters in unoccupied rooms due to practical considerations. However, under normal conditions, the room occupancy can vary such characteristics due to the effect of the additional sound absorption present in the room or by the change in signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the acoustic measurements carried out in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque with and without occupancy, and the analysis of such measurements, the existence of acoustical deficiencies has been confirmed.

Keywords: Worship sound, Al-Madinah Holy Mosque, mosque acoustics, speech intelligibility.

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22 Typological Study of Traditional Mosque Ornamentation in Malaysia – Prospect of Traditional Ornament in Urban Mosque

Authors: N. Utaberta, S. D. M. Sojak, M. Surat, A. I. Che-Ani, M.M. Tahir

Abstract:

Since the admission of Islam onto the Malay World in 16th century, the Malay culture began to grow in line with the teachings of Islam as a guide of life. Mosque become a symbol of Muslim communities, as well as the cultural values that have been adapted represent the maturity and readiness of Malay Muslim in manifest a lifestyle tradition into the community. Refinement of ornament that used to take from Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before were adopted and refined to the Islamic values based on the teachings of al-Quran and as-Sunnah delivered a certain message to convey a meaning to the observer. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the typology and classification of ornaments in Malaysia-s traditional mosque as a channel to the community towards understanding of the identity and also the framework of design thinking in ornaments particularly to the urban mosques in Malaysia.

Keywords: Aesthetic, Malay Traditional Mosque, Ornamentation, Symbolism

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21 Conservation and Repair Works for Traditional Timber Mosque in Malaysia: A Review on Techniques

Authors: N.K.F. Mustafa, S. Johar, A.G. Ahmad, S.H. Zulkarnain, M.Y. A. Rahman, A.I. Che Ani

Abstract:

Building life cycle will never be excused from the existence of defects and deterioration. They are common problems in building, existed in newly build or in aged building. Buildings constructed from wood are indeed affected by its agent and serious defects and damages can reduce values to a building. In repair works, it is important to identify the causes and repair techniques that best suites with the condition. This paper reviews the conservation of traditional timber mosque in Malaysia comprises the concept, principles and approaches of mosque conservation in general. As in conservation practice, wood in historic building can be conserved by using various restoration and conservation techniques which this can be grouped as Fully and Partial Replacement, Mechanical Reinforcement, Consolidation by Impregnation and Reinforcement, Removing Paint and also Preservation of Wood and Control Insect Invasion, as to prolong and extended the function of a timber in a building. It resulted that the common techniques adopted in timber mosque conservation are from the conventional ways and the understanding of the repair technique requires the use of only preserve wood to prevent the future immature defects.

Keywords: Building conservation, conservation principles, repair works, traditional timber mosque.

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20 Computable Difference Matrix for Synonyms in the Holy Quran

Authors: Mohamed Ali AlShaari, Khalid M. ElFitori

Abstract:

In the field of Quran Studies known as GHAREEB AL QURAN (The study of the meanings of strange words and structures in Holy Quran), it is difficult to distinguish some pragmatic meanings from conceptual meanings. One who wants to study this subject may need to look for a common usage between any two words or more; to understand general meaning, and sometimes may need to look for common differences between them, even if there are synonyms (word sisters).

Some of the distinguished scholars of Arabic linguistics believe that there are no synonym words, they believe in varieties of meaning and multi-context usage. Based on this viewpoint, our method was designedto look for synonyms of a word, then the differences that distinct the word and their synonyms.

There are many available books that use such a method e.g. synonyms books, dictionaries, glossaries, and some books on the interpretations of strange vocabulary of the Holy Quran, but it is difficult to look up words in these written works.

For that reason, we proposed a logical entity, which we called Differences Matrix (DM).

DM groups the synonyms words to extract the relations between them and to know the general meaning, which defines the skeleton of all word synonyms; this meaning is expressed by a word of its sisters.

In Differences Matrix, we used  the sisters(words) as titles for rows and columns, and in the obtained  cells we tried to define the row title (word) by using column title (her sister), so the relations between sisters appear, the expected result is well defined groups of sisters for each word. We represented the obtained results formally, and used the defined groups as a base for building the ontology of the Holy Quran synonyms.

Keywords: Quran, synonyms, Differences Matrix, ontology

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19 God in Jesus, a Daimonion in Socrates and Their Respective Divine Communication

Authors: Yip-Mei Loh

Abstract:

Jesus and Socrates shared a remarkable gift; a channel of inner spiritual communication, to afford them truthful guidance in their respective religious discourse. Jesus is part of the Trinity; he is the Son, the Son of God. In mortal life he is the son of a carpenter. He called on all peoples to repent of their sins but fell foul of the authorities and was crucified. Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher and the son of an artisan. His mission is to drive the Athenians to investigate truth, but he too incurs the displeasure of fellow citizens, to the extent of execution. The accusations made against them centre around, in Jesus’ case, proclaiming himself the Son of God, with the means to pardon, and in Socrates’, that a daimonion, an inner voice, speaks to him in his heart. Jesus talks with God directly through prayer, as the pneuma of God, i.e. to pneuma to hagion, or Holy Spirit, is with him. Socrates seems to enter what we would now think of as a trance-like condition, wherein he communicates with his inner daimonion, who directs him to take courage on the righteous path.

Keywords: Daimonion, God, Holy Spirit, life, truth.

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18 Analyzing the Historical Ayazma Bath within the Scope of Integrated Preservation and Specifying the Criteria for Reuse

Authors: Meryem Elif Çelebi Yakartepe, Ayşe Betül Gökarslan

Abstract:

Today, preservation of the historical constructions in "single construction" scale creates an inadequate preservation model in terms of the integrity of the historical environment in which they are located. However, in order to preserve these structures forming this integrity with a holistic approach, the structures either need to continue their unique functions or to be reshaped for function conforming to today's comfort conditions brought by the modern life.

In this work, the preservation of Ayazma Social Complex located in Ayazma Neighborhood of Üsküdar, one of the most important historical districts of İstanbul, with integrated preservation method has been discussed. In the conventional Turkish architecture, the social complex is a structure complex formed via constructing the public buildings required for the daily life of the people living in a settlement. Thus, the preservation of the social complexes within the scope of "integrated preservation" has gained importance. Ayazma Social Complex that forms the examination area of this work consists of a mosque in its center and structures around this mosque such as sultan mansion, time assignment center, primary school, stores, bath and water reservoirs. Mosque, sultan mansion and the water reservoirs survived to today as mostly preserved status. However, time assignment center, primary school and the stores didn't survive to today and new structures were built on their plots. The bath was mostly damaged and only the wall residues survive to today. Thus, it's urgent and crucial especially carry out the preservation restoration of the bath in accordance with integrated preservation principles. The preservation problems of the bath based on the social complex were determined as a working method and preservation suggestions were made to overcome these problems and to include the bath into daily life. Furthermore, it was suggested that the bath should be reshaped for a different function in order to be preserved with the social complex.

Keywords: Üsküdar, Ayazma Complex, Ayazma Bath, Conservation, Restoration.

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17 Transforming Ganges to be a Living River through Waste Water Management

Authors: P. M. Natarajan, Shambhu Kallolikar, S. Ganesh

Abstract:

By size and volume of water, Ganges River basin is the biggest among the fourteen major river basins in India. By Hindu’s faith, it is the main ‘holy river’ in this nation. But, of late, the pollution load, both domestic and industrial sources are deteriorating the surface and groundwater as well as land resources and hence the environment of the Ganges River basin is under threat. Seeing this scenario, the Indian government began to reclaim this river by two Ganges Action Plans I and II since 1986 by spending Rs. 2,747.52 crores ($457.92 million). But the result was no improvement in the water quality of the river and groundwater and environment even after almost three decades of reclamation, and hence now the New Indian Government is taking extra care to rejuvenate this river and allotted Rs. 2,037 cores ($339.50 million) in 2014 and Rs. 20,000 crores ($3,333.33 million) in 2015. The reasons for the poor water quality and stinking environment even after three decades of reclamation of the river are either no treatment/partial treatment of the sewage. Hence, now the authors are suggesting a tertiary level treatment standard of sewages of all sources and origins of the Ganges River basin and recycling the entire treated water for nondomestic uses. At 20million litres per day (MLD) capacity of each sewage treatment plant (STP), this basin needs about 2020 plants to treat the entire sewage load. Cost of the STPs is Rs. 3,43,400 million ($5,723.33 million) and the annual maintenance cost is Rs. 15,352 million ($255.87 million). The advantages of the proposed exercise are: we can produce a volume of 1,769.52 million m3 of biogas. Since biogas is energy, can be used as a fuel, for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. It is possible to generate about 3,539.04 million kilowatt electricity per annum from the biogas generated in the process of wastewater treatment in Ganges basin. The income generation from electricity works out to Rs 10,617.12million ($176.95million). This power can be used to bridge the supply and demand gap of energy in the power hungry villages where 300million people are without electricity in India even today, and to run these STPs as well. The 664.18 million tonnes of sludge generated by the treatment plants per annum can be used in agriculture as manure with suitable amendments. By arresting the pollution load the 187.42 cubic kilometer (km3) of groundwater potential of the Ganges River basin could be protected from deterioration. Since we can recycle the sewage for non-domestic purposes, about 14.75km3 of fresh water per annum can be conserved for future use. The total value of the water saving per annum is Rs.22,11,916million ($36,865.27million) and each citizen of Ganges River basin can save Rs. 4,423.83/ ($73.73) per annum and Rs. 12.12 ($0.202) per day by recycling the treated water for nondomestic uses. Further the environment of this basin could be kept clean by arresting the foul smell as well as the 3% of greenhouse gages emission from the stinking waterways and land. These are the ways to reclaim the waterways of Ganges River basin from deterioration.

Keywords: Holy Ganges River, lifeline of India, wastewater treatment and management, making Ganges permanently holy.

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16 Palestine Smart Tourism Augmented Reality Mobile Application

Authors: Murad Al-Rajab, Sherin Hazboun, Azhar Al-Hamamreh, Nirmeen Odeh, Siham Halaseh

Abstract:

Tourism is considered an important sector for most countries, while maintaining good tourism attractions can promote national economic development. The State of Palestine is historically considered a wealthy country full of many archaeological places. In the city of Bethlehem, for example, the Church of the Nativity is the most important touristic site, but it does not have enough technology development to attract tourists. In this paper, we propose a smart mobile application named “Pal-STAR” (Palestine Smart Tourist Augmented Reality) as an innovative solution which targets tourists and assists them to make a visit inside the Church of the Nativity. The application will use augmented reality and feature a virtual tourist guide showing views of the church while providing historical information in a smart, easy, effective and user-friendly way. The proposed application is compatible with multiple mobile platforms and is considered user friendly. The findings show that this application will improve the practice of the tourism sector in the Holy Land, it will also increase the number of tourists visiting the Church of the Nativity and it will facilitate access to historical data that have been difficult to obtain using traditional tourism guidance. The value that tourism adds to a country cannot be denied, and the more technological advances are incorporated in this sector, the better the country’s tourism sector can be served. Palestine’s economy is heavily dependent on tourism in many of its main cities, despite several limitations, and technological development is needed to enable this sector to flourish. The proposed mobile application would definitely have a good impact on the development of the tourism sector by creating an Augmented Reality environment for tourists inside the church, helping them to navigate and learn about holy places in a non-traditional way, using a virtual tourist guide.

Keywords: Smartphones, tourism, tourists guide, augmented reality, Palestine.

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15 History of Appearance and Distribution of Hijab and Its Types

Authors: K. Zh. Monkebayeva, N. Zh. Baitenova, A. A. Mustafayevа

Abstract:

According to historical legend, after the revelation of the holy Qur'an, which gave the hijab compulsory and women were required to cover the head and body with a handkerchief, and the general form of clothing in her veil, Muslim women have begun to comply with this worthy tradition. This article discusses the history of the rise and spread of the hijab and its types. And here is described in detail types of hijab and its intended value, style hijab in different regions. Now wearing the hijab, hijab in general the problem is important not only in the Arab world, but also in the world.

Keywords: Hijab, Islam, women's clothing, Arab world.

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14 Mobile Phone Services in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed T. Simsim

Abstract:

This paper discusses telecominication market developments in Saudi Arabia. Empirical research was carried in the holy city of Makkah to study the customer's preference for mobile cellular service and  the factor influencing their subscription of the mobile phone service. Results indicate that the financial factor sicnificantly influence the customer's selection of the service provider.                                                                              

Keywords: Customer, Makkah, Mobile phone, Operator, Saudi Arabia

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13 Islam and Fertility Regulations

Authors: Muhammad Hammad Lakhvi

Abstract:

Islam has a general principle of increase in population. But the Muslims are equally obliged to take care of health, education and the provisions etc. for their offspring and wives in the best possible way. The Muslims would have to regulate and manage the number of children, if any situation affects their duties regarding their wives or children. Islam accomplishes permissibility of temporary blockade in human fertility if someone faces any problem regarding health of mother or children. During the life of the Holy Prophet (SAW), Azl (coitus interruptus) was the only way for temporary spacing between the children. In technologically developed environment, the same can be resort through some advanced methodology or instrument of temporary blockade. Solid grounds are available in Islam that the fertility rate should be managed if any of the aspect of human quality is being affected.

Keywords: Islam, Fertility Regulations, Muslims, Qur'an

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12 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

Abstract:

Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: Digital discourse, digital rhetoric, social media, Facebook.

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11 Islam and Values of Kazakh Culture

Authors: Kairat Zatov, Tursun Gabitov, Maral Botaeva, Moldagaliyev Bauyrzhan, Saira Shamahay

Abstract:

Unlike Christianity and Buddhism, Islam, being one of the three universal world religions, actively penetrates into people-s everyday life. The main reason for this is that in Islam the religion and ideology, philosophy, religious organizations and state bodies are closely interrelated. In order to analyze the state of being of interrelations of religion and civil society in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to study Islam and its relations with spiritual culture of the society. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan the religion is separated from the state, i.e. each performs its own function without interfering into each other-s affairs. The right of the citizens of our republic to freedom of thinking and faith is based on the Constitution of the RK, Civil Code, Law “On freedom of faith and religious unions in the Republic of Kazakhstan". Legislatively secured separation of the mosque and church from the state does not mean that religion has no influence on the latter. The state, consisting of citizens with their own beliefs, including religious ones, cannot be isolated from the influence of religion. Nowadays it is commonly accepted that it is not possible to understand and forecast key social processes without taking into account the religious factor.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, Islam, Shamanism, tradition and innovation, fundamentalism, religious culture, spirit worship, tolerance, sectarianism, extremism and civilization.

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10 An Investigation of the Relationship between the Need for Cognitive Closure and Religious Fundamentalism

Authors: Hadi G. Altabatabaei, Nguyen L. L. Anh

Abstract:

There are positive significant relationships between the Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC) and Religious Fundamentalism (RF) among students. The preliminary assumption of the current study was: There would be a stronger pattern of association between these constructs, if the participants of the study are more exposed to the study's main concept which is religiosity. In other words, close-mindedness would be more related to homogeneous samples of practicing devotees of monotheistic religions compared to student samples. The main hypothesis was that concerning the Muslim sample, there will be a significant and positive correlation between the need for closure (and all facets of it, except decisiveness) and RF. Both the student sample (n=88), and the Muslim practicing mosque attending sample (n=40), were administrated three scales of Need for Closure (NFCS), Religious Fundamentalism (RFS), and Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness (FBDRS). The results of the study moderately confirmed the hypothesis and showed a positive correlation between NFCS and RFS with the Muslim sample. Specifically, preference for order, preference for predictability and discomfort with ambiguity facets of the NFCS positively correlated with RFS. However, with regards to the student sample such relationships between the constructs were not found.

Keywords: Religiosity, close-mindedness, religious fundamentalism, need for closure, monotheistic religions.

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9 Assessing Nutrient Concentration and Trophic Status of Brahma Sarover at Kurukshetra, India

Authors: Shailendra Kumar Patidar

Abstract:

Eutrophication of surface water is one of the most widespread environmental problems at present. Large number of pilgrims and tourists visit sacred artificial tank known as “Brahma Sarover” located at Kurukshetra, India to take holy dip and perform religious ceremonies. The sources of pollutants include impurities in feed water, mass bathing, religious offerings and windblown particulate matter. Studies so far have focused mainly on assessing water quality for bathing purpose by using physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. No effort has been made to assess nutrient concentration and trophic status of the tank to take more appropriate measures for improving water quality on long term basis. In the present study, total nitrogen, total phosphorous and chlorophyll a measurements have been done to assess the nutrient level and trophic status of the tank. The results show presence of high concentration of nutrients and Chlorophyll a indicating mesotrophic and eutrophic state of the tank. Phosphorous has been observed as limiting nutrient in the tank water.

Keywords: Brahma Sarover, eutrophication, nutrients, trophic status.

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8 An Analysis of the Five Most Used Numerals and a Proposal for the Adoption of a Universally Acceptable Numeral (UAN)

Authors: Mufutau Ayinla Abdul-Yakeen

Abstract:

An analysis of the five most used numerals and a proposal for the adoption of a Universally Acceptable Numerals (UAN), came up as a result of the researchers inquisitiveses of the need for a set of numerals that is universally accepted. The researcher sought for the meaning of the first letter, “Nun”, “ن”, of the first verse of Suratul-Kalam (Chapter of the Pen), the Sixty-Eighth Chapter of the Holy Qur'an. It was observed that there was no universally accepted, economical, explainable, linkable and consistent set of numerals used by all scientists up till the moment of making this enquiry. As a theoretical paper, explanatory method is used to review five of the most used numerals (Tally Marks, Roman Figure, Hindu-Arabic, Arabic, and Chinese) and the urgent need for a universally accepted, economical, explainable, linkable and consistent set of numerals arises. The study discovers: ., I, \, _, L, U, =, C, O, 9, and 1.; to be used as numeral 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively; as a set of universally acceptable, economical, explainable, linkable, sustainable, convertible and consistent set of numerals that originates from Islam. They can be called Islameconumerals or UAN. With UAN, everything dropped, written, drawn and/or scribbled has meaning(s) as postulated by the first verse of Qur'an 68 and everyone can easily document all figures within the shortest period. It is suggested that there should be a discipline called Numeralnomics (Study of optimum utilization of Numerals) and everybody should start using the UAN, now, in order in know their strengths and weaknesses so as to suggest a better and acceptable set of numerals for the interested readers. Similarly study can be conducted for the alphabets.

Keywords: Islameconumerals, economical, Universally Acceptable Numerals (UAN), numeralnomics.

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7 A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran: 630-1630 AD

Authors: Cengiz Tavşan, Niloufar Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and was only for decoration and beautification, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas; and also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.

Keywords: Islamic art, Islamic architecture, decorations in Iranian mosques, calligraphy.

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6 Structure and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Fe2O3/TiO2 Catalysts Fabricated by Heterogeneous Precipitation

Authors: Jana P. Vejpravova, Daniel Niznansky, Vaclav Vales, Barbara Bittova, Vaclav Tyrpekl, Stanislav Danis, Vaclav Holy, Stephen Doyle

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to study phase composition, particle size and magnetic response of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites with respect to the final annealing temperature. Those nanomaterials are considered as smart catalysts, separable from a liquid/gaseous phase by applied magnetic field. The starting product was obtained by an ecologically acceptable route, based on heterogeneous precipitation of the TiO2 on modified g-Fe2O3 nanocrystals dispersed in water. The precursor was subsequently annealed on air at temperatures ranging from 200 oC to 900 oC. The samples were investigated by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (S-PXRD), magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. As evidenced by S-PXRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy, increasing the annealing temperature causes evolution of the phase composition from anatase/maghemite to rutile/hematite, finally above 700 oC the pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) also forms. The apparent particle size of the various Fe2O3/TiO2 phases has been determined from the highquality S-PXRD data by using two different approaches: the Rietveld refinement and the Debye method. Magnetic response of the samples is discussed in considering the phase composition and the particle size.

Keywords: X-ray diffraction, profile analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic properties, TiO2, Fe2O3, Fe2TiO5

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5 In vitro Culture Medium Sterilization by Chemicals and Essential Oils without Autoclaving and Growth of Chrysanthemum Nodes

Authors: Wittaya Deein, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture is an important in vitro technology applied for agricultural and industrial production. A sterile condition of culture medium is one of the main aspects. The alternative technique for medium sterilization to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of plant tissue culture medium without autoclaving, ten commercial pure essential oils and 5 disinfectants were tested. Each essential oil or disinfectant was added to a 20-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils or disinfectants, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. Sterile conditions of MS medium were found 100% from betel oil or clove oil (18 mL/20 mL medium), cinnamon oil (36 mL/20 mL medium), lavender oil or holy basil oil (108 mL/20 mL medium), and lemon oil or tea tree oil or turmeric oil (252 mL/20 mL medium), compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. For disinfectants, 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide, 2% merbromine solution, 10% povidone-iodine, 6% sodium hypochlorite or 0.1% thimerosal at 36 mL/20 mL medium provided 100% sterile conditions. Furthermore, growth of new shoots from chrysanthemum node explants on treated media (fresh weight, shoot length, root length and number of node) were also reported and discussed in the comparison of those on autoclaved medium.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum, disinfectants, essential oils, MS medium, sterilizing agents, sterilization of medium without autoclaving.

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4 The Importance of Zakat in Struggle against Circle of Poverty and Income Redistribution

Authors: Hasan Bulent Kantarcı

Abstract:

This paper examines how “Zakat” provides fair income redistribution and aids the struggle against poverty. Providing fair income redistribution and combating poverty constitutes some of the fundamental tasks performed by countries all over the world. Each country seeks a solution for these problems according to their political, economic and administrative styles through applying various economic and financial policies. The same situation can be handled via “zakat” association in Islam. Nowadays, we observe different versions of “zakat” in developed countries. Applications such as negative income tax denote merely a different form of “zakat” that is being applied almost in the same way but under changed names. However, the minimum values to donate under zakat (e.g. 85 gr. gold and 40 animals) get altered and various amounts are put into practice. It might be named as negative income tax instead of zakat, nonetheless, these applications are based on the Holy Koran and the hadith released 1400 years ago. Besides, considering the savage and slavery in the world at those times, we might easily recognize the true value of the zakat being applied for the first time then in the Islamic system. Through zakat, governments are able to transfer incomes to the poor as a means of enabling them achieve the minimum standard of living required. With regards to who benefits from the Zakat, an objective and fair criteria was used to determine who benefits from the zakat contrary to the notion that it was based on peoples’ own choices. Since the zakat is obligatory, the transfers do not get forwarded directly but via the government and get distributed, which requires vast governmental organizations. Through the application of Zakat, reduced levels of poverty can be achieved and also ensure the fair income redistribution.

Keywords: Cycle of poverty, Islamic finance, income redistribution, zakat.

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3 Immunolabeling of TGF-β during Muscle Regeneration

Authors: K. Nikovics, D. Riccobono, M. Oger, H. Morin, L. Barbier, T. Poyot, X. Holy, A. Bendahmane, M. Drouet, A. L. Favier

Abstract:

Muscle regeneration after injury (as irradiation) is of great importance. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Cytokines are believed to play fundamental role in the different stages of muscle regeneration. They are secreted by many cell populations, but the predominant producers are macrophages and helper T cells. On the other hand, it has been shown that adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell (ASC) injection could improve muscle regeneration. Stem cells probably induce the coordinated modulations of gene expression in different macrophage cells. Therefore, we investigated the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression of different cytokines occurring upon stem cells loading. Muscle regeneration was studied in an irradiated muscle of minipig animal model in presence or absence of ASC treatment (irradiated and treated with ASCs, IRR+ASC; irradiated not-treated with ASCs, IRR; and non-irradiated no-IRR). We characterized macrophage populations by immunolabeling in the different conditions. In our study, we found mostly M2 and a few M1 macrophages in the IRR+ASC samples. However, only few M2b macrophages were noticed in the IRR muscles. In addition, we found intensive fibrosis in the IRR samples. With in situ hybridization and immunolabeling, we analyzed the cytokine expression of the different macrophages and we showed that M2d macrophage are the most abundant in the IRR+ASC samples. By in situ hybridization, strong expression of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) was observed in the IRR+ASC but very week in the IRR samples. But when we analyzed TGF-β level with immunolabeling the expression was very different: many M2 macrophages showed week expression in IRR+ASC and few cells expressing stronger level in IRR muscles. Therefore, we investigated the MMP expressions in the different muscles. Our data showed that the M2 macrophages of the IRR+ASC muscle expressed MMP2 proteins. Our working hypothesis is that MMP2 expression of the M2 macrophages can decrease fibrosis in the IRR+ASC muscle by capturing TGF-β.

Keywords: Adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell, cytokine, macrophage, muscle regeneration.

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2 Traditionally Sustainability Analyses of Hydraulic-Architectural Bridge Construction in Iran

Authors: Karim Shiraazi, Zargham OstadiAsl, Vahid Sheikhloie, Ahadollah Azami, Shahin Hassanimehr

Abstract:

Bridge is an architectural symbol in Iran as Badgir (wind catcher); fire temples and arch are vaults are such. Therefore, from the very old ages, construction of bridges in Iran has mixed with architecture, social customs, alms and charity and holiness. Since long ago, from Mad, Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid times which construction of bridges got an inseparable relation with social dependency and architecture, based on those dependency bridges and dams got holy names; as Dokhtar castle and Dokhtar bridges were constructed. This method continued even after Islam and whenever Iranians got free from political fights and the immunity of roads were established the bridge construction did also prospered. In ancient times bridge construction passes through it growing and completion process and in Sassanid time in some way it reached to the peak of art and glory; as after Islam especially during 4th. century (Arab calendar) it put behind a period of glory and in Safavid time it reached to an exceptional glory and magnificence by constructing glorious bridges on Zayandeh Roud River in Isfahan. Having a combined style and changeability into bridge barrier, some of these bridges develop into magnificent constructions. The sustainable structures, mentioned above, are constructed for various reasons as follows: connecting two sides of a river, storing water, controlling floods, using water energy to operate water windmills, making lanes of streams for farms- use, and building recreational places for people, etc. These studies carried in bridges reveals the fact that in construction and designing mentioned above, lots of technological factors have been taken into consideration such as exceeding floods in the rives, hydraulic and hydrology of the rivers and bridges, geology, foundation, structure, construction material, and adopting appropriate executing methods, all of which are being analyzed in this article.

Keywords: Hydraulic-Architectural Bridge, Sustainability, Construction

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1 Mordechai Vanunu: “The Atomic Spy” as a Nuclear Threat to Discourse in Israeli Society

Authors: Ada Yurman

Abstract:

Using the case of Israeli Atomic Spy Mordechai Vanunu as an example, this study sought to examine social response to political deviance whereby social response can be mobilized in order to achieve social control. Mordechai Vanunu, a junior technician in the Dimona Atomic Research Center, played a normative role in the militaristic discourse while working in the “holy shrine” of the Israeli defense system for many years. At a certain stage, however, Vanunu decided to detach himself from this collective and launched an assault on this top-secret circle. Israeli society in general and the security establishment in particular found this attack intolerable and unforgivable. They presented Vanunu as a ticking time bomb, delegitimized him and portrayed him as “other”. In addition, Israeli enforcement authorities imposed myriad prohibitions and sanctions on Vanunu even after his release from prison – “as will be done to he who desecrates holiness.” Social response to Vanunu at the time of his capture and trial was studied by conducting a content analysis of six contemporary daily newspapers. The analysis focused on use of language and forms of expression. In contrast with traditional content analysis methodology, this study did not just look at frequency of expressions of ideas and terms in the text and covert content; rather, the text was analyzed as a structural whole, and included examination of style, tone and unusual use of imagery, and more, in order to uncover hidden messages within the text. The social response to this case was extraordinarily intense, not only because in this case of political deviance, involving espionage and treason, Vanunu’s actions comprised a real potential threat to the country, but also because of the threat his behavior posed to the symbolic universe of society. Therefore, the response to this instance of political deviance can be seen as being part of a mechanism of social control aiming to protect world view of society as a whole, as well as to punish the criminal.

Keywords: Militarism, political deviance, social construction, social control.

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