God in Jesus, a Daimonion in Socrates and Their Respective Divine Communication
Authors: Yip-Mei Loh
Jesus and Socrates shared a remarkable gift; a channel of inner spiritual communication, to afford them truthful guidance in their respective religious discourse. Jesus is part of the Trinity; he is the Son, the Son of God. In mortal life he is the son of a carpenter. He called on all peoples to repent of their sins but fell foul of the authorities and was crucified. Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher and the son of an artisan. His mission is to drive the Athenians to investigate truth, but he too incurs the displeasure of fellow citizens, to the extent of execution. The accusations made against them centre around, in Jesus’ case, proclaiming himself the Son of God, with the means to pardon, and in Socrates’, that a daimonion, an inner voice, speaks to him in his heart. Jesus talks with God directly through prayer, as the pneuma of God, i.e. to pneuma to hagion, or Holy Spirit, is with him. Socrates seems to enter what we would now think of as a trance-like condition, wherein he communicates with his inner daimonion, who directs him to take courage on the righteous path.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316408Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 606
 Tarrech, Armand Puig i (2005). Jesus: A Biography, Texas: Baylor University Press.
 Polkinghorne, John (1994). Science and Christian Belief: Theological Reflections of a Bottom-Up Thinker, The Gifford Lectures for 1993-4, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
 Edwards, Mark J. (2002). Origen against Plato, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
 Beare, Frank W. (1968). ‘Concerning Jesus of Nazareth’, pp. 125-135, ALTA ®: Society of Biblical Literature.
 Scripture quotations are from the Holy Bible: New International Version®. Copyright© 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society
 The Greek New Testament, Copyright© 1966, 1968, 1975, 1983 by United Bible Societies, edited by Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, and Allen Wikgren. Printed in West Germany by Biblia-GmbH Stuttgart. The author has used both of these sources for biblical quotations, the majority from the NIV. However, some are drawn from the original Greek in the UBS edition, or from the author's own translation, as she considers appropriate.
 Jaeger, Werner (1944). Paideia: Die Formung Des Griechischen Menschen, Zweiter Band, Berlin: Walter De Gruyter & Co.
 Stowers, Stanley K. ‘Jesus the Teacher and Stoic Ethics in the Gospel of Matthew’ in the Stoicism in Early Christianity, edited by Tuomas Rasimus, Troels Engberg-Pedersen and Ismo Dunderberg, Michigan: Baker Academic.
 Aquinas, Thomas (2012). Commentary on the Gospel of Saint Matthew, Copyright © 2012 Paul M. Kimball. All right reserved. Copyright © 2011 by Wesley Talley. All rights reserved.
 Ferdinando, Keith (2013). ‘Jesus, the Theological Educator’ in the Themelios 38.3 (2013): 360-374, ATLAS®.
 Plato, edited by Cooper, John, M. (1997). Plato: Complete Works, associate editor D. S. Hutchinson, Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company.
 Platon, Werke, edited by Schleiermacher, Friedrich (1990). Griechisch und Deutsch. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. All Platonic references in this paper are drawn from these two editions. It should be noted that when drawing on the Platonic oeuvre there has been one principal source (Cooper) and one subsidiary (Schleiermacher), and, where circumstances merit, the author's own translation.
 Guthrie, W. K. C. (1971). Socrates, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Brickhouse, Thomas C. and Smith, Nicholas D. (1983). ‘The Origin of Socrates’ Mission’ in the Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 44, No.4, Oct. - Dec. 1983, pp. 657-666. Published by University of Pennsylvania Press.
 Cf. Loh, Yip-Mei (2017). ‘Socrates’ Mythological Role in Plato’s Theaetetus’ in The International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, Vol:11, No.2, 2017. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3368/d9ac6380c07ca5ad4584c88bf212d18f9359.pdf.
 Menn, Stephen (1995). Plato on God as Nous, p. 1. the US: Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data.
 Cf. Loh, Yip-Mei (2016). ‘The Sōma And The Psychē In The Gospel Of Matthew And In Plato’s Timaeus’ in the People: International Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2454-5899, Global Research & Development Services.
 Saint Augustine (2008). The City of God, Vol. 14, Book VIII-XVI, translated by Gerald G. Walsh, S.J. and Grace Monahan, O.S.U., Washington: The Catholic University of America Press.
 Evans, Craig A. (2001). ‘Context, family and formation’ in The Cambridge Companion to Jesus, edited by Markus Bockmuehl. The UK/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Tomson, Peter J. (2001). ‘Jesus and his Judaism’ Ibid.
 Stanton, Graham (2001). ‘Message and Miracles’, Ibid.
 Dubs, H. Homer (Jul. 1927). ‘The Socratic Problem’ in The Philosophical Review, Vol. 36, No.4, pp. 287-306. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2179240