Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 229

Search results for: injection velocity

229 Effects of Injection Velocity and Entrance Airflow Velocity on Droplets Sizing in a Duct

Authors: M. M. Doustdar , M. Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

This paper addresses one important aspect of combustion system analysis, the spray evaporation and dispersion modeling. In this study we assume an empty cylinder which is as a simulator for a ramjet engine and the cylinder has been studied by cold flow. Four nozzles have the duties of injection which are located in the entrance of cylinder. The air flow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done. By changing injection velocity and entrance air flow velocity, we have studied droplet sizing and efficient mass fraction of fuel vapor near and at the exit area. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the efficient mass fraction. Further, we decreased the initial temperature of fuel droplets and we have repeated the investigating again. To fulfill the calculation we used a modified version of KIVA-3V.

Keywords: Ramjet, droplet sizing, injection velocity, air flow velocity, efficient mass fraction.

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228 The Analysis of Two-Phase Jet in Pneumatic Powder Injection into Liquid Alloys

Authors: J. Jezierski, K. Janerka

Abstract:

The results of the two-phase gas-solid jet in pneumatic powder injection process analysis were presented in the paper. The researches were conducted on model set-up with high speed camera jet movement recording. Then the recorded material was analyzed to estimate main particles movement parameters. The values obtained from this direct measurement were compared to those calculated with the use of the well-known formulas for the two-phase flows (pneumatic conveying). Moreover, they were compared to experimental results previously achieved by authors. The analysis led to conclusions which to some extent changed the assumptions used even by authors, regarding the two-phase jet in pneumatic powder injection process. Additionally, the visual analysis of the recorded clips supplied data to make a more complete evaluation of the jet behavior in the lance outlet than before.

Keywords: injection lance, liquid metal, powder injection, slip velocity, two-phase jet

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227 An Investigation on the Effects of Injection Spray Cone on Propulsive Droplets in a Duct

Authors: M. Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

This paper addresses one important aspect of combustion system analysis, the spray evaporation and dispersion modeling. In this study we assume an empty cylinder which is as a simulator for a ramjet engine and the cylinder has been studied by cold flow. Four nozzles have the duties of injection which are located in the entrance of cylinder. The air flow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done. By changing injection velocity and entrance air flow velocity, we have studied droplet sizing and efficient mass fraction of fuel vapor near and at the exit area. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the efficient mass fraction. Further, we decreased the initial temperature of fuel droplets and we have repeated the investigating again. To fulfill the calculation we used a modified version of KIVA-3V.

Keywords: Ramjet, droplet sizing, injection velocity, air flowvelocity, efficient mass fraction..

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226 Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Wen-Teng Wang, Chin-Chiuan Kuo, Chieh-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.

Keywords: Injection molding, melt viscosity, injection quality, injection speed.

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225 Main Variables Competition in DFB Lasers under Dual Optical Injection

Authors: Najm M. Al-Hosiny

Abstract:

We theoretically investigate the effects of frequency detuning and injection power on the nonlinear dynamics of DFB lasers under dual external optical injection.

Keywords: Optical injection, DFB laser, frequency detuning, injection power.

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224 A Pattern Recognition Neural Network Model for Detection and Classification of SQL Injection Attacks

Authors: Naghmeh Moradpoor Sheykhkanloo

Abstract:

Thousands of organisations store important and confidential information related to them, their customers, and their business partners in databases all across the world. The stored data ranges from less sensitive (e.g. first name, last name, date of birth) to more sensitive data (e.g. password, pin code, and credit card information). Losing data, disclosing confidential information or even changing the value of data are the severe damages that Structured Query Language injection (SQLi) attack can cause on a given database. It is a code injection technique where malicious SQL statements are inserted into a given SQL database by simply using a web browser. In this paper, we propose an effective pattern recognition neural network model for detection and classification of SQLi attacks. The proposed model is built from three main elements of: a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) generator in order to generate thousands of malicious and benign URLs, a URL classifier in order to: 1) classify each generated URL to either a benign URL or a malicious URL and 2) classify the malicious URLs into different SQLi attack categories, and a NN model in order to: 1) detect either a given URL is a malicious URL or a benign URL and 2) identify the type of SQLi attack for each malicious URL. The model is first trained and then evaluated by employing thousands of benign and malicious URLs. The results of the experiments are presented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Neural Networks, pattern recognition, SQL injection attacks, SQL injection attack classification, SQL injection attack detection.

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223 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of CO2 and WAG Injection on Permeability Reduction Induced by Asphaltene Precipitation in Light Oil

Authors: Ali F. Alta'ee, Ong S. Hun, Sima Sh. Alian, Ismail M. Saaid

Abstract:

Permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation during gas injection is one of the serious problems in the oil industry. This problem can lead to formation damage and decrease the oil production rate. In this work, Malaysian light oil sample has been used to investigate the effect CO2 injection and Water Alternating Gas (WAG) injection on permeability reduction. In this work, dynamic core flooding experiments were conducted to study the effect of CO2 and WAG injection on the amount of asphaltene precipitated. Core properties after displacement were inspected for any permeability reduction to study the effect of asphaltene precipitation on rock properties. The results showed that WAG injection gave less asphaltene precipitation and formation damage compared to CO2 injection. The study suggested that WAG injection can be one of the important factors of managing asphaltene precipitation.

Keywords: Asphaltene Precipitation, Permeability Reduction, CO2 Injection, WAG Injection.

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222 Deep Injection Wells for Flood Prevention and Groundwater Management

Authors: Mohammad R. Jafari, Francois G. Bernardeau

Abstract:

With its arid climate, Qatar experiences low annual rainfall, intense storms, and high evaporation rates. However, the fast-paced rate of infrastructure development in the capital city of Doha has led to recurring instances of surface water flooding as well as rising groundwater levels. Public Work Authority (PWA/ASHGHAL) has implemented an approach to collect and discharge the flood water into a) positive gravity systems; b) Emergency Flooding Area (EFA) – Evaporation, Infiltration or Storage off-site using tankers; and c) Discharge to deep injection wells. As part of the flood prevention scheme, 21 deep injection wells have been constructed to discharge the collected surface and groundwater table in Doha city. These injection wells function as an alternative in localities that do not possess either positive gravity systems or downstream networks that can accommodate additional loads. These injection wells are 400-m deep and are constructed in a complex karstic subsurface condition with large cavities. The injection well system will discharge collected groundwater and storm surface runoff into the permeable Umm Er Radhuma Formation, which is an aquifer present throughout the Persian Gulf Region. The Umm Er Radhuma formation contains saline water that is not being used for water supply. The injection zone is separated by an impervious gypsum formation which acts as a barrier between upper and lower aquifer. State of the art drilling, grouting, and geophysical techniques have been implemented in construction of the wells to assure that the shallow aquifer would not be contaminated and impacted by injected water. Injection and pumping tests were performed to evaluate injection well functionality (injectability). The results of these tests indicated that majority of the wells can accept injection rate of 200 to 300 m3 /h (56 to 83 l/s) under gravity with average value of 250 m3 /h (70 l/s) compared to design value of 50 l/s. This paper presents design and construction process and issues associated with these injection wells, performing injection/pumping tests to determine capacity and effectiveness of the injection wells, the detailed design of collection system and conveying system into the injection wells, and the operation and maintenance process. This system is completed now and is under operation, and therefore, construction of injection wells is an effective option for flood control.

Keywords: Deep injection well, wellhead assembly system, emergency flood area, flood prevention scheme, geophysical tests, pumping and injection tests, Qatar geology.

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221 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: Mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity.

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220 Development of a Complete Single Jet Common Rail Injection System Gas Dynamic Model for Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Port Injection Feeding System

Authors: Mohammed Kamil, M. M. Rahman, Rosli A. Bakar

Abstract:

Modeling of hydrogen fueled engine (H2ICE) injection system is a very important tool that can be used for explaining or predicting the effect of advanced injection strategies on combustion and emissions. In this paper, a common rail injection system (CRIS) is proposed for 4-strokes 4-cylinders hydrogen fueled engine with port injection feeding system (PIH2ICE). For this system, a numerical one-dimensional gas dynamic model is developed considering single injection event for each injector per a cycle. One-dimensional flow equations in conservation form are used to simulate wave propagation phenomenon throughout the CR (accumulator). Using this model, the effect of common rail on the injection system characteristics is clarified. These characteristics include: rail pressure, sound velocity, rail mass flow rate, injected mass flow rate and pressure drop across injectors. The interaction effects of operational conditions (engine speed and rail pressure) and geometrical features (injector hole diameter) are illustrated; and the required compromised solutions are highlighted. The CRIS is shown to be a promising enhancement for PIH2ICE.

Keywords: Common rail, hydrogen engine, port injection, wave propagation.

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219 Optical Heterodyning of Injection-Locked Laser Sources — A Novel Technique for Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Soumik Das, Antara Saha

Abstract:

A novel technique has been developed to generate ultra-stable millimeter-wave signal by optical heterodyning of the output from two slave laser (SL) sources injection-locked to the sidebands of a frequency modulated (FM) master laser (ML). Precise thermal tuning of the SL sources is required to lock the particular slave laser frequency to the desired FM sidebands of the ML. The output signals from the injection-locked SL when coherently heterodyned in a fast response photo detector like high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), extremely stable millimeter-wave signal having very narrow line width can be generated. The scheme may also be used to generate ultra-stable sub-millimeter-wave/terahertz signal.

Keywords: FM sideband injection locking, Master-Slave injection locking, Millimetre-wave signal generation and Optical heterodyning.

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218 Modeling of Cross Flow Classifier with Water Injection

Authors: E. Pikushchak, J. Dueck, L. Minkov

Abstract:

In hydrocyclones, the particle separation efficiency is limited by the suspended fine particles, which are discharged with the coarse product in the underflow. It is well known that injecting water in the conical part of the cyclone reduces the fine particle fraction in the underflow. This paper presents a mathematical model that simulates the water injection in the conical component. The model accounts for the fluid flow and the particle motion. Particle interaction, due to hindered settling caused by increased density and viscosity of the suspension, and fine particle entrainment by settling coarse particles are included in the model. Water injection in the conical part of the hydrocyclone is performed to reduce fine particle discharge in the underflow. The model demonstrates the impact of the injection rate, injection velocity, and injection location on the shape of the partition curve. The simulations are compared with experimental data of a 50-mm cyclone.

Keywords: Classification, fine particle processing, hydrocyclone, water injection.

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217 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: Mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference.

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216 Mean Velocity Modeling of Open-Channel Flow with Submerged Rigid Vegetation

Authors: M. Morri, A. Soualmia, P. Belleudy

Abstract:

Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models have both been developed to model the effects of submerged vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.

Keywords: Analytic Models, Comparison, Mean Velocity, Vegetation.

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215 Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region

Authors: S. Sivakumar, Ravikiran Sangras, Vasudevan Raghavan

Abstract:

In this work, stationary hot-wire measurements are carried out to investigate the characteristics of a round free jet in its potential core region (0 ≤ x/d ≤ 10). Measurements are carried out on an incompressible round jet for a range of Reynolds numbers from 4000 to 8000, calculated based on the jet exit mean velocity and the nozzle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the development characteristics of the jet in the core region is analyzed. Timeaveraged statistics, spectra of velocity and its higher order moments are presented and explained.

Keywords: Contoured nozzle, hot-wire anemometer, Reynolds number, velocity fluctuations, velocity spectra.

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214 Improving Injection Moulding Processes Using Experimental Design

Authors: Yousef Amer, Mehdi Moayyedian, Zeinab Hajiabolhasani, Lida Moayyedian

Abstract:

Moulded parts contribute to more than 70% of components in products. However, common defects particularly in plastic injection moulding exist such as: warpage, shrinkage, sink marks, and weld lines. In this paper Taguchi experimental design methods are applied to reduce the warpage defect of thin plate Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and are demonstrated in two levels; namely, orthogonal arrays of Taguchi and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Eight trials have been run in which the optimal parameters that can minimize the warpage defect in factorial experiment are obtained. The results obtained from ANOVA approach analysis with respect to those derived from MINITAB illustrate the most significant factors which may cause warpage in injection moulding process. Moreover, ANOVA approach in comparison with other approaches like S/N ratio is more accurate and with the interaction of factors it is possible to achieve higher and the better outcomes.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, ANOVA, plastic injection mould, Taguchi methods, Warpage.

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213 Injection Forging of Splines Using Numerical and Experimental Study

Authors: M.Zadshakoyan, H.Jafarzadeh, E.Abdi Sobbouhi

Abstract:

Injection forging is a Nett-shape manufacturing process in which one or two punches move axially causing a radial flow into a die cavity in a form which is prescribed by the exitgeometry, such as pulley, flanges, gears and splines on a shaft. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the injection forging of splines in terms of load requirement and material flow. Three dimensional finite element analyses are used to investigate the effect of some important parameters in this process. The experiment has been carried out using solid commercial lead billets with two different billet diameters and four different dies.

Keywords: Injection forging, splines, material flow, FEM

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212 Searching for Forensic Evidence in a Compromised Virtual Web Server against SQL Injection Attacks and PHP Web Shell

Authors: Gigih Supriyatno

Abstract:

SQL injection is one of the most common types of attacks and has a very critical impact on web servers. In the worst case, an attacker can perform post-exploitation after a successful SQL injection attack. In the case of forensics web servers, web server analysis is closely related to log file analysis. But sometimes large file sizes and different log types make it difficult for investigators to look for traces of attackers on the server. The purpose of this paper is to help investigator take appropriate steps to investigate when the web server gets attacked. We use attack scenarios using SQL injection attacks including PHP backdoor injection as post-exploitation. We perform post-mortem analysis of web server logs based on Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) POST and HTTP GET method approaches that are characteristic of SQL injection attacks. In addition, we also propose structured analysis method between the web server application log file, database application, and other additional logs that exist on the webserver. This method makes the investigator more structured to analyze the log file so as to produce evidence of attack with acceptable time. There is also the possibility that other attack techniques can be detected with this method. On the other side, it can help web administrators to prepare their systems for the forensic readiness.

Keywords: Web forensic, SQL injection, web shell, investigation.

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211 Thermodynamic Performance Assessment of Steam-Injection Gas-Turbine Systems

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim, Giman Kim

Abstract:

The cycles of the steam-injection gas-turbine systems are studied. The analyses of the parametric effects and the optimal operating conditions for the steam-injection gas-turbine (STIG) system and the regenerative steam-injection gas-turbine (RSTIG) system are investigated to ensure the maximum performance. Using the analytic model, the performance parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency, fuel consumption and specific power, and also the optimal operating conditions are evaluated in terms of pressure ratio, steam injection ratio, ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). It is shown that the computational results are presented to have a notable enhancement of thermal efficiency and specific power.

Keywords: gas turbine, RSTIG, steam injection, STIG, thermal efficiency.

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210 Vehicle Velocity Estimation for Traffic Surveillance System

Authors: H. A. Rahim, U. U. Sheikh, R. B. Ahmad, A. S. M. Zain

Abstract:

This paper describes an algorithm to estimate realtime vehicle velocity using image processing technique from the known camera calibration parameters. The presented algorithm involves several main steps. First, the moving object is extracted by utilizing frame differencing technique. Second, the object tracking method is applied and the speed is estimated based on the displacement of the object-s centroid. Several assumptions are listed to simplify the transformation of 2D images from 3D real-world images. The results obtained from the experiment have been compared to the estimated ground truth. From this experiment, it exhibits that the proposed algorithm has achieved the velocity accuracy estimation of about ± 1.7 km/h.

Keywords: camera calibration, object tracking, velocity estimation, video image processing

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209 The Analysis of Defects Prediction in Injection Molding

Authors: Mehdi Moayyedian, Kazem Abhary, Romeo Marian

Abstract:

This paper presents an evaluation of a plastic defect in injection molding before it occurs in the process; it is known as the short shot defect. The evaluation of different parameters which affect the possibility of short shot defect is the aim of this paper. The analysis of short shot possibility is conducted via SolidWorks Plastics and Taguchi method to determine the most significant parameters. Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed to analyze two circular flat polypropylene plates of 1 mm thickness. Filling time, part cooling time, pressure holding time, melt temperature and gate type are chosen as process and geometric parameters, respectively. A methodology is presented herein to predict the possibility of the short-shot occurrence. The analysis determined melt temperature is the most influential parameter affecting the possibility of short shot defect with a contribution of 74.25%, and filling time with a contribution of 22%, followed by gate type with a contribution of 3.69%. It was also determined the optimum level of each parameter leading to a reduction in the possibility of short shot are gate type at level 1, filling time at level 3 and melt temperature at level 3. Finally, the most significant parameters affecting the possibility of short shot were determined to be melt temperature, filling time, and gate type.

Keywords: Injection molding, plastic defects, short shot, Taguchi method.

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208 The Defects Reduction in Injection Molding by Fuzzy Logic based Machine Selection System

Authors: S. Suwannasri, R. Sirovetnukul

Abstract:

The effective machine-job assignment of injection molding machines is very important for industry because it is not only directly affects the quality of the product but also the performance and lifetime of the machine as well. The phase of machine selection was mostly done by professionals or experienced planners, so the possibility of matching a job with an inappropriate machine might occur when it was conducted by an inexperienced person. It could lead to an uneconomical plan and defects. This research aimed to develop a machine selection system for plastic injection machines as a tool to help in decision making of the user. This proposed system could be used both in normal times and in times of emergency. Fuzzy logic principle is applied to deal with uncertainty and mechanical factors in the selection of both quantity and quality criteria. The six criteria were obtained from a plastic manufacturer's case study to construct a system based on fuzzy logic theory using MATLAB. The results showed that the system was able to reduce the defects of Short Shot and Sink Mark to 24.0% and 8.0% and the total defects was reduced around 8.7% per month.

Keywords: Injection molding machine, machine selection, fuzzy logic, defects in injection molding, matlab.

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207 Improving Power Plant Efficiency using Water Droplet Injection in Air Condensers

Authors: Mohammad Javadi, A. Golshani, Amir Mahdi Ghasemi, Morteza Anbarsooz, M. Moghiman

Abstract:

Observations show that power plant efficiency decreases in hot summer days. Water droplet injection in air condensers is suggested in order to decrease the inlet air temperature. Nozzle arrangement, injected water flow rate and droplets diameter effects on evaporation rate and the resulting air temperature are investigated using numerical simulation. Decreasing the diameter of injected droplets and increasing the number of injecting nozzles, decreases the outlet air temperature. Also a more uniform air temperature can be obtained using more injecting nozzles. Numerical results are in good agreement with analytical results.

Keywords: Power, air condenser, evaporation, droplet injection.

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206 Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column

Authors: Mário A. R. Talaia

Abstract:

As it is known, buoyancy and drag forces rule bubble's rise velocity in a liquid column. These forces are strongly dependent on fluid properties, gravity as well as equivalent's diameter. This study reports a set of bubble rising velocity experiments in a liquid column using water or glycerol. Several records of terminal velocity were obtained. The results show that bubble's rise terminal velocity is strongly dependent on dynamic viscosity effect. The data set allowed to have some terminal velocities data interval of 8.0 ? 32.9 cm/s with Reynolds number interval 1.3 -7490. The bubble's movement was recorded with a video camera. The main goal is to present an original set data and results that will be discussed based on two-phase flow's theory. It will also discussed, the prediction of terminal velocity of a single bubble in liquid, as well as the range of its applicability. In conclusion, this study presents general expressions for the determination of the terminal velocity of isolated gas bubbles of a Reynolds number range, when the fluid proprieties are known.

Keywords: Bubbles, terminal velocity, two phase-flow, vertical column.

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205 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris

Abstract:

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: Particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number.

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204 Measuring Pressure Wave Velocity in a Hydraulic System

Authors: Lari Kela, Pekka Vähäoja

Abstract:

Pressure wave velocity in a hydraulic system was determined using piezo pressure sensors without removing fluid from the system. The measurements were carried out in a low pressure range (0.2 – 6 bar) and the results were compared with the results of other studies. This method is not as accurate as measurement with separate measurement equipment, but the fluid is in the actual machine the whole time and the effect of air is taken into consideration if air is present in the system. The amount of air is estimated by calculations and comparisons between other studies. This measurement equipment can also be installed in an existing machine and it can be programmed so that it measures in real time. Thus, it could be used e.g. to control dampers.

Keywords: Bulk modulus, pressure wave, sound velocity.

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203 Investigation on Nanoparticle Velocity in Two Phase Approach

Authors: E. Mat Tokit, Yusoff M. Z, Mohammed H.

Abstract:

Numerical investigation on the generality of nanoparticle velocity equation had been done on the previous published work. The three dimensional governing equations (continuity, momentum and energy) were solved using finite volume method (FVM). Parametric study of thermal performance between pure water-cooled and nanofluid-cooled are evaluated for volume fraction in the range of 1% to 4%, and nanofluid type of gamma-Al2O3 at Reynolds number range of 67.41 to 286.77. The nanofluid is modeled using single and two phase approach. Three different existing Brownian motion velocities are applied in comparing the generality of the equation for a wide parametric condition. Deviation in between the Brownian motion velocity is identified to be due to the different means of mean free path and constant value used in diffusion equation.

Keywords: Brownian nanoparticle velocity, heat transfer enhancement, nanofluid, two phase model.

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202 Molding Properties of Cobalt-Chrome-Based Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Ehsan Gholami, Vincent Demers

Abstract:

Low-pressure powder injection molding is an emerging technology for cost-effectively producing complex shape metallic parts with the proper dimensional tolerances, either in high or in low production volumes. In this study, the molding properties of cobalt-chrome-based feedstocks were evaluated for use in a low-pressure powder injection molding process. The rheological properties of feedstock formulations were obtained by mixing metallic powder with a proprietary wax-based binder system. Rheological parameters such as reference viscosity, shear rate sensitivity index, and activation energy for viscous flow, were extracted from the viscosity profiles and introduced into the Weir model to calculate the moldability index. Feedstocks were experimentally injected into a spiral mold cavity to validate the injection performance calculated with the model.

Keywords: Binder, feedstock, moldability, powder injection molding, viscosity.

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201 Online Monitoring Rheological Property of Polymer Melt during Injection Molding

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Chien-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The detection of the polymer melt state during manufacture process is regarded as an efficient way to control the molded part quality in advance. Online monitoring rheological property of polymer melt during processing procedure provides an approach to understand the melt state immediately. Rheological property reflects the polymer melt state at different processing parameters and is very important in injection molding process especially. An approach that demonstrates how to calculate rheological property of polymer melt through in-process measurement, using injection molding as an example, is proposed in this study. The system consists of two sensors and a data acquisition module can process the measured data, which are used for the calculation of rheological properties of polymer melt. The rheological properties of polymer melt discussed in this study include shear rate and viscosity which are investigated with respect to injection speed and melt temperature. The results show that the effect of injection speed on the rheological properties is apparent, especially for high melt temperature and should be considered for precision molding process.

Keywords: Injection molding, melt viscosity, shear rate, monitoring.

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200 Optimization of Control Parameters for MRR in Injection Flushing Type of EDM on Stainless Steel 304 Workpiece

Authors: M. S. Reza, M. Hamdi, A.S. Hadi

Abstract:

The operating control parameters of injection flushing type of electrical discharge machining process on stainless steel 304 workpiece with copper tools are being optimized according to its individual machining characteristic i.e. material removal rate (MRR). Lower MRR during EDM machining process may decrease its- machining productivity. Hence, the quality characteristic for MRR is set to higher-the-better to achieve the optimum machining productivity. Taguchi method has been used for the construction, layout and analysis of the experiment for each of the machining characteristic for the MRR. The use of Taguchi method in the experiment saves a lot of time and cost of preparing and machining the experiment samples. Therefore, an L18 Orthogonal array which was the fundamental component in the statistical design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the optimum machining parameters for this machining characteristic. The control parameters selected for this optimization experiments are polarity, pulse on duration, discharge current, discharge voltage, machining depth, machining diameter and dielectric liquid pressure. The result had shown that the higher the discharge voltage, the higher will be the MRR.

Keywords: ANOVA, EDM, Injection Flushing, L18 OrthogonalArray, MRR, Stainless Steel 304

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