Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: histogram

63 Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Yu-Siang Su, Pau-Choo Chung, Jar-Ferr Yang

Abstract:

Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.

Keywords: Moving object detection, histogram of oriented gradient histogram of oriented gradient, histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient, linear support vector machine.

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62 Image Contrast Enhancement based Sub-histogram Equalization Technique without Over-equalization Noise

Authors: Hyunsup Yoon, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In order to enhance the contrast in the regions where the pixels have similar intensities, this paper presents a new histogram equalization scheme. Conventional global equalization schemes over-equalizes these regions so that too bright or dark pixels are resulted and local equalization schemes produce unexpected discontinuities at the boundaries of the blocks. The proposed algorithm segments the original histogram into sub-histograms with reference to brightness level and equalizes each sub-histogram with the limited extents of equalization considering its mean and variance. The final image is determined as the weighted sum of the equalized images obtained by using the sub-histogram equalizations. By limiting the maximum and minimum ranges of equalization operations on individual sub-histograms, the over-equalization effect is eliminated. Also the result image does not miss feature information in low density histogram region since the remaining these area is applied separating equalization. This paper includes how to determine the segmentation points in the histogram. The proposed algorithm has been tested with more than 100 images having various contrasts in the images and the results are compared to the conventional approaches to show its superiority.

Keywords: Contrast Enhancement, Histogram Equalization, Histogram Region Equalization, Equalization Noise

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61 Image Spam Detection Using Color Features and K-Nearest Neighbor Classification

Authors: T. Kumaresan, S. Sanjushree, C. Palanisamy

Abstract:

Image spam is a kind of email spam where the spam text is embedded with an image. It is a new spamming technique being used by spammers to send their messages to bulk of internet users. Spam email has become a big problem in the lives of internet users, causing time consumption and economic losses. The main objective of this paper is to detect the image spam by using histogram properties of an image. Though there are many techniques to automatically detect and avoid this problem, spammers employing new tricks to bypass those techniques, as a result those techniques are inefficient to detect the spam mails. In this paper we have proposed a new method to detect the image spam. Here the image features are extracted by using RGB histogram, HSV histogram and combination of both RGB and HSV histogram. Based on the optimized image feature set classification is done by using k- Nearest Neighbor(k-NN) algorithm. Experimental result shows that our method has achieved better accuracy. From the result it is known that combination of RGB and HSV histogram with k-NN algorithm gives the best accuracy in spam detection.

Keywords: File Type, HSV Histogram, k-NN, RGB Histogram, Spam Detection.

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60 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: Image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, Classification.

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59 Fast Search Method for Large Video Database Using Histogram Features and Temporal Division

Authors: Feifei Lee, Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an improved fast search algorithm using combined histogram features and temporal division method for short MPEG video clips from large video database. There are two types of histogram features used to generate more robust features. The first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Another one is ordinal feature which is robust to color distortion. Combined with active search [4], a temporal pruning algorithm, fast and robust video search can be realized. The proposed search algorithm has been evaluated by 6 hours of video to search for given 200 MPEG video clips which each length is 30 seconds. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip in merely 120ms, and Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 1% is achieved, which is more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.

Keywords: Fast search, Adjacent pixel intensity differencequantization (APIDQ), DC image, Histogram feature.

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58 An Improvement of Multi-Label Image Classification Method Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient

Authors: Ziad Abdallah, Mohamad Oueidat, Ali El-Zaart

Abstract:

Image Multi-label Classification (IMC) assigns a label or a set of labels to an image. The big demand for image annotation and archiving in the web attracts the researchers to develop many algorithms for this application domain. The existing techniques for IMC have two drawbacks: The description of the elementary characteristics from the image and the correlation between labels are not taken into account. In this paper, we present an algorithm (MIML-HOGLPP), which simultaneously handles these limitations. The algorithm uses the histogram of gradients as feature descriptor. It applies the Label Priority Power-set as multi-label transformation to solve the problem of label correlation. The experiment shows that the results of MIML-HOGLPP are better in terms of some of the evaluation metrics comparing with the two existing techniques.

Keywords: Data mining, information retrieval system, multi-label, problem transformation, histogram of gradients.

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57 Design of Auto Exposure Unit Based On 2-Way Histogram Equalization

Authors: Junghwan Choi, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

Histogram equalization is often used in image enhancement, but it can be also used in auto exposure. However, conventional histogram equalization does not work well when many pixels are concentrated in a narrow luminance range.This paper proposes an auto exposure method based on 2-way histogram equalization. Two cumulative distribution functions are used, where one is from dark to bright and the other is from bright to dark. In this paper, the proposed auto exposure method is also designed and implemented for image signal processors with full-HD images.

Keywords: Histogram equalization, Auto exposure, Image signal processor, Low-cost, Full HD Video.

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56 Non-Parametric Histogram-Based Thresholding Methods for Weld Defect Detection in Radiography

Authors: N. Nacereddine, L. Hamami, M. Tridi, N. Oucief

Abstract:

In non destructive testing by radiography, a perfect knowledge of the weld defect shape is an essential step to appreciate the quality of the weld and make decision on its acceptability or rejection. Because of the complex nature of the considered images, and in order that the detected defect region represents the most accurately possible the real defect, the choice of thresholding methods must be done judiciously. In this paper, performance criteria are used to conduct a comparative study of four non parametric histogram thresholding methods for automatic extraction of weld defect in radiographic images.

Keywords: Radiographic images, non parametric methods, histogram thresholding, performance criteria.

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55 Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based On 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments

Authors: Khalid Elasnaoui, Brahim Aksasse, Mohammed Ouanan

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.

Keywords: 2-D histogram, Statistical moments, Indexing, Similarity distance, Histograms intersection.

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54 Skin Detection using Histogram depend on the Mean Shift Algorithm

Authors: Soo- Young Ye, Ki-Gon Nam, Ki-Won Byun

Abstract:

In this paper, we were introduces a skin detection method using a histogram approximation based on the mean shift algorithm. The proposed method applies the mean shift procedure to a histogram of a skin map of the input image, generated by comparison with standard skin colors in the CbCr color space, and divides the background from the skin region by selecting the maximum value according to brightness level. The proposed method detects the skin region using the mean shift procedure to determine a maximum value that becomes the dividing point, rather than using a manually selected threshold value, as in existing techniques. Even when skin color is contaminated by illumination, the procedure can accurately segment the skin region and the background region. The proposed method may be useful in detecting facial regions as a pretreatment for face recognition in various types of illumination.

Keywords: Skin region detection, mean shift, histogram approximation.

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53 Image Search by Features of Sorted Gray level Histogram Polynomial Curve

Authors: Awais Adnan, Muhammad Ali, Amir Hanif Dar

Abstract:

Image Searching was always a problem specially when these images are not properly managed or these are distributed over different locations. Currently different techniques are used for image search. On one end, more features of the image are captured and stored to get better results. Storing and management of such features is itself a time consuming job. While on the other extreme if fewer features are stored the accuracy rate is not satisfactory. Same image stored with different visual properties can further reduce the rate of accuracy. In this paper we present a new concept of using polynomials of sorted histogram of the image. This approach need less overhead and can cope with the difference in visual features of image.

Keywords: Sorted Histogram, Polynomial Curves, feature pointsof images, Grayscale, visual properties of image.

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52 A New Method in Short-Term Heart Rate Variability — Five-Class Density Histogram

Authors: Liping Li, Ke Li, Changchun Liu, Chengyu Liu, Yuanyang Li

Abstract:

A five-class density histogram with an index named cumulative density was proposed to analyze the short-term HRV. 150 subjects participated in the test, falling into three groups with equal numbers -- the healthy young group (Young), the healthy old group (Old), and the group of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Results of multiple comparisons showed a significant differences of the cumulative density in the three groups, with values 0.0238 for Young, 0.0406 for Old and 0.0732 for CHF (p<0.001). After 7 days and 14 days, 46 subjects from the Young and Old groups were retested twice following the same test protocol. Results showed good-to-excellent interclass correlations (ICC=0.783, 95% confidence interval 0.676-0.864). The Bland-Altman plots were used to reexamine the test-retest reliability. In conclusion, the method proposed could be a valid and reliable method to the short-term HRV assessment.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, congestive heart failure, heart rate variability, histogram.

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51 An Improved Fast Search Method Using Histogram Features for DNA Sequence Database

Authors: Qiu Chen, Feifei Lee, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient hierarchical DNA sequence search method to improve the search speed while the accuracy is being kept constant. For a given query DNA sequence, firstly, a fast local search method using histogram features is used as a filtering mechanism before scanning the sequences in the database. An overlapping processing is newly added to improve the robustness of the algorithm. A large number of DNA sequences with low similarity will be excluded for latter searching. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is then applied to each remainder sequences. Experimental results using GenBank sequence data show the proposed method combining histogram information and Smith-Waterman algorithm is more efficient for DNA sequence search.

Keywords: Fast search, DNA sequence, Histogram feature, Smith-Waterman algorithm, Local search

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50 Intelligent Assistive Methods for Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Histogram Smoothing and Feature Extraction of Bone Images

Authors: SP. Chokkalingam, K. Komathy

Abstract:

Advances in the field of image processing envision a new era of evaluation techniques and application of procedures in various different fields. One such field being considered is the biomedical field for prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. This plethora of methods though provides a wide range of options to select from, it also proves confusion in selecting the apt process and also in finding which one is more suitable. Our objective is to use a series of techniques on bone scans, so as to detect the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as accurately as possible. Amongst other techniques existing in the field our proposed system tends to be more effective as it depends on new methodologies that have been proved to be better and more consistent than others. Computer aided diagnosis will provide more accurate and infallible rate of consistency that will help to improve the efficiency of the system. The image first undergoes histogram smoothing and specification, morphing operation, boundary detection by edge following algorithm and finally image subtraction to determine the presence of rheumatoid arthritis in a more efficient and effective way. Using preprocessing noises are removed from images and using segmentation, region of interest is found and Histogram smoothing is applied for a specific portion of the images. Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features like Mean, Median, Energy, Correlation, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and etc. After finding all the features it stores in the database. This dataset is trained with inflamed and noninflamed values and with the help of neural network all the new images are checked properly for their status and Rough set is implemented for further reduction.

Keywords: Computer Aided Diagnosis, Edge Detection, Histogram Smoothing, Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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49 Skin Lesion Segmentation Using Color Channel Optimization and Clustering-based Histogram Thresholding

Authors: Rahil Garnavi, Mohammad Aldeen, M. Emre Celebi, Alauddin Bhuiyan, Constantinos Dolianitis, George Varigos

Abstract:

Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards the automated analysis of malignant melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes an automatic segmentation algorithm based on color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, a process which is able to determine the optimal color channel for detecting the borders in dermoscopy images. The algorithm is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images. A comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm, applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. By performing ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is demonstrated that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels, resulting in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-of-theart skin lesion segmentation methods.

Keywords: Border detection, Color space analysis, Dermoscopy, Histogram thresholding, Melanoma, Segmentation.

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48 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh

Abstract:

Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: Butterworth filter, digital watermarking, histogram, visual cryptography.

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47 Selecting the Best Sub-Region Indexing the Images in the Case of Weak Segmentation Based On Local Color Histograms

Authors: Mawloud Mosbah, Bachir Boucheham

Abstract:

Color Histogram is considered as the oldest method used by CBIR systems for indexing images. In turn, the global histograms do not include the spatial information; this is why the other techniques coming later have attempted to encounter this limitation by involving the segmentation task as a preprocessing step. The weak segmentation is employed by the local histograms while other methods as CCV (Color Coherent Vector) are based on strong segmentation. The indexation based on local histograms consists of splitting the image into N overlapping blocks or sub-regions, and then the histogram of each block is computed. The dissimilarity between two images is reduced, as consequence, to compute the distance between the N local histograms of the both images resulting then in N*N values; generally, the lowest value is taken into account to rank images, that means that the lowest value is that which helps to designate which sub-region utilized to index images of the collection being asked. In this paper, we make under light the local histogram indexation method in the hope to compare the results obtained against those given by the global histogram. We address also another noteworthy issue when Relying on local histograms namely which value, among N*N values, to trust on when comparing images, in other words, which sub-region among the N*N sub-regions on which we base to index images. Based on the results achieved here, it seems that relying on the local histograms, which needs to pose an extra overhead on the system by involving another preprocessing step naming segmentation, does not necessary mean that it produces better results. In addition to that, we have proposed here some ideas to select the local histogram on which we rely on to encode the image rather than relying on the local histogram having lowest distance with the query histograms.

Keywords: CBIR, Color Global Histogram, Color Local Histogram, Weak Segmentation, Euclidean Distance.

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46 An Improved Fast Video Clip Search Algorithm for Copy Detection using Histogram-based Features

Authors: Feifei Lee, Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an improved fast and robust search algorithm for copy detection using histogram-based features for short MPEG video clips from large video database. There are two types of histogram features used to generate more robust features. The first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Another one is ordinal histogram feature which is robust to color distortion. Furthermore, by Combining with a temporal division method, the spatial and temporal features of the video sequence are integrated to realize fast and robust video search for copy detection. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.

Keywords: Fast search, Copy detection, Adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ), DC image, Histogram feature.

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45 Automatic Segmentation of Dermoscopy Images Using Histogram Thresholding on Optimal Color Channels

Authors: Rahil Garnavi, Mohammad Aldeen, M. Emre Celebi, Alauddin Bhuiyan, Constantinos Dolianitis, George Varigos

Abstract:

Automatic segmentation of skin lesions is the first step towards development of a computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. Although numerous segmentation methods have been developed, few studies have focused on determining the most discriminative and effective color space for melanoma application. This paper proposes a novel automatic segmentation algorithm using color space analysis and clustering-based histogram thresholding, which is able to determine the optimal color channel for segmentation of skin lesions. To demonstrate the validity of the algorithm, it is tested on a set of 30 high resolution dermoscopy images and a comprehensive evaluation of the results is provided, where borders manually drawn by four dermatologists, are compared to automated borders detected by the proposed algorithm. The evaluation is carried out by applying three previously used metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and a new metric of similarity. Through ROC analysis and ranking the metrics, it is shown that the best results are obtained with the X and XoYoR color channels which results in an accuracy of approximately 97%. The proposed method is also compared with two state-ofthe- art skin lesion segmentation methods, which demonstrates the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed segmentation method.

Keywords: Border detection, Color space analysis, Dermoscopy, Histogram thresholding, Melanoma, Segmentation.

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44 Surveillance Video Summarization Based on Histogram Differencing and Sum Conditional Variance

Authors: Nada Jasim Habeeb, Rana Saad Mohammed, Muntaha Khudair Abbass

Abstract:

For more efficient and fast video summarization, this paper presents a surveillance video summarization method. The presented method works to improve video summarization technique. This method depends on temporal differencing to extract most important data from large video stream. This method uses histogram differencing and Sum Conditional Variance which is robust against to illumination variations in order to extract motion objects. The experimental results showed that the presented method gives better output compared with temporal differencing based summarization techniques.

Keywords: Temporal differencing, video summarization, histogram differencing, sum conditional variance.

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43 A Quantum Algorithm of Constructing Image Histogram

Authors: Yi Zhang, Kai Lu, Ying-hui Gao, Mo Wang

Abstract:

Histogram plays an important statistical role in digital image processing. However, the existing quantum image models are deficient to do this kind of image statistical processing because different gray scales are not distinguishable. In this paper, a novel quantum image representation model is proposed firstly in which the pixels with different gray scales can be distinguished and operated simultaneously. Based on the new model, a fast quantum algorithm of constructing histogram for quantum image is designed. Performance comparison reveals that the new quantum algorithm could achieve an approximately quadratic speedup than the classical counterpart. The proposed quantum model and algorithm have significant meanings for the future researches of quantum image processing.

Keywords: Quantum Image Representation, Quantum Algorithm, Image Histogram.

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42 The Water Level Detection Algorithm Using the Accumulated Histogram with Band Pass Filter

Authors: Sangbum Park, Namki Lee, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the robust water level detection method based on the accumulated histogram under small changed image which is acquired from water level surveillance camera. In general surveillance system, this is detecting and recognizing invasion from searching area which is in big change on the sequential images. However, in case of a water level detection system, these general surveillance techniques are not suitable due to small change on the water surface. Therefore the algorithm introduces the accumulated histogram which is emphasizing change of water surface in sequential images. Accumulated histogram is based on the current image frame. The histogram is cumulating differences between previous images and current image. But, these differences are also appeared in the land region. The band pass filter is able to remove noises in the accumulated histogram Finally, this algorithm clearly separates water and land regions. After these works, the algorithm converts from the water level value on the image space to the real water level on the real space using calibration table. The detected water level is sent to the host computer with current image. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we use test images from various situations.

Keywords: accumulated histogram, water level detection, band pass filter.

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41 Fast Search for MPEG Video Clips Using Adjacent Pixel Intensity Difference Quantization Histogram Feature

Authors: Feifei Lee, Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel fast search algorithm for short MPEG video clips from video database. This algorithm is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Instead of fully decompressed video frames, partially decoded data, namely DC images are utilized. Combined with active search [4], a temporal pruning algorithm, fast and robust video search can be realized. The proposed search algorithm has been evaluated by 6 hours of video to search for given 200 MPEG video clips which each length is 15 seconds. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip in merely 80ms, and Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 3 % is achieved, which is more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.

Keywords: Fast search, adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ), DC image, histogram feature.

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40 Developing the Color Temperature Histogram Method for Improving the Content-Based Image Retrieval

Authors: P. Phokharatkul, S. Chaisriya, S. Somkuarnpanit, S. Phaiboon, C. Kimpan

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method for image searches and image indexing in databases with a color temperature histogram. The color temperature histogram can be used for performance improvement of content–based image retrieval by using a combination of color temperature and histogram. The color temperature histogram can be represented by a range of 46 colors. That is more than the color histogram and the dominant color temperature. Moreover, with our method the colors that have the same color temperature can be separated while the dominant color temperature can not. The results showed that the color temperature histogram retrieved an accurate image more often than the dominant color temperature method or color histogram method. This also took less time so the color temperature can be used for indexing and searching for images.

Keywords: Color temperature histogram, color temperature, animage retrieval and content-based image retrieval.

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39 Tests for Gaussianity of a Stationary Time Series

Authors: Adnan Al-Smadi

Abstract:

One of the primary uses of higher order statistics in signal processing has been for detecting and estimation of non- Gaussian signals in Gaussian noise of unknown covariance. This is motivated by the ability of higher order statistics to suppress additive Gaussian noise. In this paper, several methods to test for non- Gaussianity of a given process are presented. These methods include histogram plot, kurtosis test, and hypothesis testing using cumulants and bispectrum of the available sequence. The hypothesis testing is performed by constructing a statistic to test whether the bispectrum of the given signal is non-zero. A zero bispectrum is not a proof of Gaussianity. Hence, other tests such as the kurtosis test should be employed. Examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the presented methods.

Keywords: Non-Gaussian, bispectrum, kurtosis, hypothesistesting, histogram.

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38 Fast Extraction of Edge Histogram in DCT Domain based on MPEG7

Authors: Minyoung Eom, Yoonsik Choe

Abstract:

In these days, multimedia data is transmitted and processed in compressed format. Due to the decoding procedure and filtering for edge detection, the feature extraction process of MPEG-7 Edge Histogram Descriptor is time-consuming as well as computationally expensive. To improve efficiency of compressed image retrieval, we propose a new edge histogram generation algorithm in DCT domain in this paper. Using the edge information provided by only two AC coefficients of DCT coefficients, we can get edge directions and strengths directly in DCT domain. The experimental results demonstrate that our system has good performance in terms of retrieval efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: DCT, Descriptor, EHD, MPEG7.

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37 Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos

Authors: Yih-Chuan Lin, Jung-Hong Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain. The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and output bit-rate for most test videos.

Keywords: Reversible data hiding, H.264/AVC standard, CAVLC, Histogram shifting

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36 Scene Adaptive Shadow Detection Algorithm

Authors: Mohammed Ibrahim M, Anupama R.

Abstract:

Robustness is one of the primary performance criteria for an Intelligent Video Surveillance (IVS) system. One of the key factors in enhancing the robustness of dynamic video analysis is,providing accurate and reliable means for shadow detection. If left undetected, shadow pixels may result in incorrect object tracking and classification, as it tends to distort localization and measurement information. Most of the algorithms proposed in literature are computationally expensive; some to the extent of equalling computational requirement of motion detection. In this paper, the homogeneity property of shadows is explored in a novel way for shadow detection. An adaptive division image (which highlights homogeneity property of shadows) analysis followed by a relatively simpler projection histogram analysis for penumbra suppression is the key novelty in our approach.

Keywords: homogeneity, penumbra, projection histogram, shadow correction

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35 Image Retrieval Using Fused Features

Authors: K. Sakthivel, R. Nallusamy, C. Kavitha

Abstract:

The system is designed to show images which are related to the query image. Extracting color, texture, and shape features from an image plays a vital role in content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Initially RGB image is converted into HSV color space due to its perceptual uniformity. From the HSV image, Color features are extracted using block color histogram, texture features using Haar transform and shape feature using Fuzzy C-means Algorithm. Then, the characteristics of the global and local color histogram, texture features through co-occurrence matrix and Haar wavelet transform and shape are compared and analyzed for CBIR. Finally, the best method of each feature is fused during similarity measure to improve image retrieval effectiveness and accuracy.

Keywords: Color Histogram, Haar Wavelet Transform, Fuzzy C-means, Co-occurrence matrix; Similarity measure.

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34 Human Facial Expression Recognition using MANFIS Model

Authors: V. Gomathi, Dr. K. Ramar, A. Santhiyaku Jeevakumar

Abstract:

Facial expression analysis plays a significant role for human computer interaction. Automatic analysis of human facial expression is still a challenging problem with many applications. In this paper, we propose neuro-fuzzy based automatic facial expression recognition system to recognize the human facial expressions like happy, fear, sad, angry, disgust and surprise. Initially facial image is segmented into three regions from which the uniform Local Binary Pattern (LBP) texture features distributions are extracted and represented as a histogram descriptor. The facial expressions are recognized using Multiple Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (MANFIS). The proposed system designed and tested with JAFFE face database. The proposed model reports 94.29% of classification accuracy.

Keywords: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, Facialexpression, Local binary pattern, Uniform Histogram

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