Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Induction machine

29 Contribution to Improving the DFIG Control Using a Multi-Level Inverter

Authors: Imane El Karaoui, Mohammed Maaroufi, Hamid Chaikhy

Abstract:

Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is one of the most reliable wind generator. Major problem in wind power generation is to generate Sinusoidal signal with very low THD on variable speed caused by inverter two levels used. This paper presents a multi-level inverter whose objective is to reduce the THD and the dimensions of the output filter. This work proposes a three-level NPC-type inverter, the results simulation are presented demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed inverter.

Keywords: DFIG, multilevel inverter, NPC inverter , THD, Induction machine.

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28 Investigation of Grid Supply Harmonic Effects in Wound Rotor Induction Machines

Authors: Nur Sarma, Paul M. Tuohy, Siniša Djurović

Abstract:

This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the effects of several grid supply harmonic voltages on the stator currents of an example wound rotor induction machine. The observed effects of higher order grid supply harmonics are identified using a finite element time stepping transient model, as well as a time-stepping electromagnetic model. In addition, a number of analytical equations to calculate the spectral content of the stator currents are presented in the paper. The presented equations are validated through comparison with the obtained spectra predicted using the finite element and electromagnetic models. The presented study provides a better understanding of the origin of supply harmonic effects identified in the stator currents of the example wound rotor induction machine. Furthermore, the study helps to understand the effects of higher order supply harmonics on the harmonic emissions of the wound rotor induction machine.  

Keywords: Wound rotor induction machine, supply harmonics, current spectrum, power spectrum, power quality, harmonic emissions, finite element analysis.

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27 States Estimation and Fault Detection of a Doubly Fed Induction Machine by Moving Horizon Estimation

Authors: A. T. Boum, L. Bitjoka, N. N. Léandre, S. Bennet

Abstract:

This paper presents the estimation of the key parameters of a double fed induction machine (DFIM) by the use of the moving horizon estimator (MHE) for control and monitoring purpose. A study was conducted on the behavior of this observer in the presence of some faults which can occur during the operation of the machine. In the first case a stator phase has been suppressed. In the second case the rotor resistance has been multiplied by a factor. The results show a good estimation of different parameters such as rotor flux, rotor speed, stator current with a very small estimation error. The robustness of the observer was also tested in the practical case of DFIM by using another model different from the real one at a constant close. The very small estimation error makes the MHE a good software sensor candidate for monitoring purpose for the DFIM. 

Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine, moving horizon estimator parameters’ estimation.

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26 Integration of Virtual Learning of Induction Machines for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In context of understanding problems faced by undergraduate students while carrying out laboratory experiments dealing with high voltages, it was found that most of the students are hesitant to work directly on machine. The reason is that error in the circuitry might lead to deterioration of machine and laboratory instruments. So, it has become inevitable to include modern pedagogic techniques for undergraduate students, which would help them to first carry out experiment in virtual system and then to work on live circuit. Further advantages include that students can try out their intuitive ideas and perform in virtual environment, hence leading to new research and innovations. In this paper, virtual environment used is of MATLAB/Simulink for three-phase induction machines. The performance analysis of three-phase induction machine is carried out using virtual environment which includes Direct Current (DC) Test, No-Load Test, and Block Rotor Test along with speed torque characteristics for different rotor resistances and input voltage, respectively. Further, this paper carries out computer aided teaching of basic Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) drive circuitry. Hence, this paper gave undergraduates a clearer view of experiments performed on virtual machine (No-Load test, Block Rotor test and DC test, respectively). After successful implementation of basic tests, VSI circuitry is implemented, and related harmonic distortion (THD) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of current and voltage waveform are studied.

Keywords: Block rotor test, DC test, no-load test, virtual environment, VSI.

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25 Double Manifold Sliding Mode Observer for Sensorless Control of Multiphase Induction Machine under Fault Condition

Authors: Mohammad Jafarifar

Abstract:

Multiphase Induction Machine (IM) is normally controlled using rotor field oriented vector control. Under phase(s) loss, the machine currents can be optimally controlled to satisfy certain optimization criteria. In this paper we discuss the performance of double manifold sliding mode observer (DM-SMO) in Sensorless control of multiphase induction machine under unsymmetrical condition (one phase loss). This observer is developed using the IM model in the stationary reference frame. DM-SMO is constructed by adding extra feedback term to conventional single mode sliding mode observer (SM-SMO) which proposed in many literature. This leads to a fully convergent observer that also yields an accurate estimate of the speed and stator currents. It will be shown by the simulation results that the estimated speed and currents by the method are very well and error between real and estimated quantities is negligible. Also parameter sensitivity analysis shows that this method is rather robust against parameter variation.

Keywords: Multiphase induction machine, field oriented control, sliding mode, unsymmetrical condition, manifold.

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24 Second Order Sliding Mode Observer Using MRAS Theory for Sensorless Control of Multiphase Induction Machine

Authors: Mohammad Jafarifar

Abstract:

This paper presents a speed estimation scheme based on second-order sliding-mode Super Twisting Algorithm (STA) and Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) estimation theory for Sensorless control of multiphase induction machine. A stator current observer is designed based on the STA, which is utilized to take the place of the reference voltage model of the standard MRAS algorithm. The observer is insensitive to the variation of rotor resistance and magnetizing inductance when the states arrive at the sliding mode. Derivatives of rotor flux are obtained and designed as the state of MRAS, thus eliminating the integration. Compared with the first-order sliding-mode speed estimator, the proposed scheme makes full use of the auxiliary sliding-mode surface, thus alleviating the chattering behavior without increasing the complexity. Simulation results show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: Multiphase induction machine, field oriented control, sliding mode, super twisting algorithm, MRAS algorithm.

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23 High Accuracy ESPRIT-TLS Technique for Wind Turbine Fault Discrimination

Authors: Saad Chakkor, Mostafa Baghouri, Abderrahmane Hajraoui

Abstract:

ESPRIT-TLS method appears a good choice for high resolution fault detection in induction machines. It has a very high effectiveness in the frequency and amplitude identification. Contrariwise, it presents a high computation complexity which affects its implementation in real time fault diagnosis. To avoid this problem, a Fast-ESPRIT algorithm that combined the IIR band-pass filtering technique, the decimation technique and the original ESPRIT-TLS method was employed to enhance extracting accurately frequencies and their magnitudes from the wind stator current with less computation cost. The proposed algorithm has been applied to verify the wind turbine machine need in the implementation of an online, fast, and proactive condition monitoring. This type of remote and periodic maintenance provides an acceptable machine lifetime, minimize its downtimes and maximize its productivity. The developed technique has evaluated by computer simulations under many fault scenarios. Study results prove the performance of Fast- ESPRIT offering rapid and high resolution harmonics recognizing with minimum computation time and less memory cost.

Keywords: Spectral Estimation, ESPRIT-TLS, Real Time, Diagnosis, Wind Turbine Faults, Band-Pass Filtering, Decimation.

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22 Reliability Indices Evaluation of SEIG Rotor Core Magnetization with Minimum Capacitive Excitation for WECs

Authors: Lokesh Varshney, R. K. Saket

Abstract:

This paper presents reliability indices evaluation of the rotor core magnetization of the induction motor operated as a self excited induction generator by using probability distribution approach and Monte Carlo simulation. Parallel capacitors with calculated minimum capacitive value across the terminals of the induction motor operated as a SEIG with unregulated shaft speed have been connected during the experimental study. A three phase, 4 poles, 50Hz, 5.5 hp, 12.3A, 230V induction motor coupled with DC Shunt Motor was tested in the electrical machine laboratory with variable reactive loads. Based on this experimental study, it is possible to choose a reliable induction machines operated as a SEIG for unregulated renewable energy application in remote area or where grid is not available. Failure density function, cumulative failure distribution function, survivor function, hazard model, probability of success and probability of failure for reliability evaluation of the three phase induction motor operating as a SEIG have been presented graphically in this paper.

Keywords: Residual magnetism, magnetization curve, induction motor, self excited induction generator, probability distribution, Monte Carlo simulation.

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21 Diagnosis of Induction Machine Faults by DWT

Authors: Hamidreza Akbari

Abstract:

In this paper, for detection of inclined eccentricity in an induction motor, time–frequency analysis of the stator startup current is carried out. For this purpose, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Data are obtained from simulations, using winding function approach. The results show the validity of the approach for detecting the fault and discriminating with respect to other faults.

Keywords: Induction machine, Fault, DWT.

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20 A New Self-Tuning Fuzzy PD Controller of a BDFIG for Wind Energy Conversion

Authors: Zoheir Tir, Rachid Abdessemed

Abstract:

This paper presents a new control scheme to control a brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) using back-to-back PWM converters for wind power generation. The proposed control scheme is a New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC). The goal of BDFIG control is to achieve a similar dynamic performance to the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), exploiting the well-known induction machine vector control philosophy. The performance of NSTFPDC controller has been investigated and compared with the two controllers, called Proportional–Integral (PI) and PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller (PD-like FLC) based BDFIG. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the NSTFPDC controller.

Keywords: Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator (BDFIG), PI controller, PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller, New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC), Scaling factor, back-to-back PWM converters, wind energy system.

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19 Direct Torque Control - DTC of Induction Motor Used for Piloting a Centrifugal Pump Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

Authors: S. Abouda, F. Nollet, A. Chaari, N. Essounbouli, Y. Koubaa

Abstract:

In this paper we propose the study of a centrifugal pump control system driven by a three-phase induction motor, which is supplied by a PhotoVoltaic PV generator. The system includes solar panel, a DC / DC converter equipped with its MPPT control, a voltage inverter to three-phase Pulse Width Modulation - PWM and a centrifugal pump driven by a three phase induction motor. In order to control the flow of the centrifugal pump, a Direct Torque Control - DTC of the induction machine is used. To illustrate the performances of the control, simulation results are carried out using Matlab/Simulink.

Keywords: Photovoltaic generators, Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), DC/DC converters, Induction motor, Direct torque control (DTC).

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18 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Speed Controller for a Vector Controlled Induction Motor

Authors: S. Massoum, A. Bentaallah, A. Massoum, F. Benaimeche, P. Wira, A. Meroufel

Abstract:

This paper presents a speed fuzzy sliding mode controller for a vector controlled induction machine (IM) fed by a voltage source inverter (PWM). The sliding mode based fuzzy control method is developed to achieve fast response, a best disturbance rejection and to maintain a good decoupling. The problem with sliding mode control is that there is high frequency switching around the sliding mode surface. The FSMC is the combination of the robustness of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the smoothness of Fuzzy Logic (FL). To reduce the torque fluctuations (chattering), the sign function used in the conventional SMC is substituted with a fuzzy logic algorithm. The proposed algorithm was simulated by Matlab/Simulink software and simulation results show that the performance of the control scheme is robust and the chattering problem is solved.

Keywords: IM, FOC, FLC, SMC, and FSMC.

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17 Symmetrical Analysis of a Six-Phase Induction Machine Under Fault Conditions

Authors: E. K.Appiah, G. M'boungui, A. A. Jimoh, J. L. Munda, A.S.O. Ogunjuyigbe

Abstract:

The operational behavior of a six-phase squirrel cage induction machine with faulted stator terminals is presented in this paper. The study is carried out using the derived mathematical model of the machine in the arbitrary reference frame. Tests are conducted on a 1 kW experimental machine. Steady-state and dynamic performance are analyzed for the machine unloaded and loaded conditions. The results shows that with one of the stator phases experiencing either an open- circuit or short circuit fault the machine still produces starting torque, albeit the running performance is significantly derated.

Keywords: Performance, fault conditions, six-phase induction machine.

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16 The Effect of Dynamic Eccentricity on Induction Machine Stator Currents (Part A)

Authors: Saleh S. Hamad Elawgali

Abstract:

Current spectrums of a high power induction machine was calculated for the cases of full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity. The calculations involve integration of 93 electrical plus four mechanical ordinary differential equations. Electrical equations account for variable inductances affected by slotting and eccentricities. The calculations were followed by Fourier analysis of the stator currents in steady state operation. The paper presents the stator current spectrums in full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity cases, and demonstrates the harmonics present in each case. The effect of dynamic eccentricity is demonstrating via comparing the current spectrums related to dynamic eccentricity cases with the full symmetry one. The paper includes one case study, refers to dynamic eccentricity, to present the spectrum of the measured current and demonstrate the existence of the harmonics related to dynamic eccentricity. The zooms of current spectrums around the main slot harmonic zone are included to simplify the comparison and prove the existence of the dynamic eccentricity harmonics in both calculated and measured current spectrums.

Keywords: Current spectrum, diagnostics, harmonics, Induction machine

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15 Steady-State Analysis and Control of Double Feed Induction Motor

Authors: H. Sediki, Dj. Ould Abdeslam, T. Otmane-cherif, A. Bechouche, K. Mesbah

Abstract:

This paper explores steady-state characteristics of grid-connected doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) in case of unity power factor operation. Based on the synchronized mathematical model, analytic determination of the control laws is presented and illustrated by various figures to understand the effect of the applied rotor voltage on the speed and the active power. On other hand, unlike previous works where the stator resistance was neglected, in this work, stator resistance is included such that the equations can be applied to small wind turbine generators which are becoming more popular. Finally the work is crowned by integration of the studied induction generator in a wind system where an open loop control is proposed confers a remarkable simplicity of implementation compared to the known methods.

Keywords: DFIM, equivalent circuit, induction machine, steady state

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14 Integration of Fixed and Variable Speed Wind Generator Dynamics with Multimachine AC Systems

Authors: A.H.M.A.Rahim

Abstract:

The impact of fixed speed squirrel cage type as well as variable speed doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) on dynamic performance of a multimachine power system has been investigated. Detailed models of the various components have been presented and the integration of asynchronous and synchronous generators has been carried out through a rotor angle based transform. Simulation studies carried out considering the conventional dynamic model of squirrel cage asynchronous generators show that integration, as such, could degrade to the AC system performance transiently. This article proposes a frequency or power controller which can effectively control the transients and restore normal operation of fixed speed induction generator quickly. Comparison of simulation results between classical cage and doubly-fed induction generators indicate that the doubly fed induction machine is more adaptable to multimachine AC system. Frequency controller installed in the DFIG system can also improve its transient profile.

Keywords: Doubly-fed generator, Induction generator, Multimachine system modeling, Wind energy systems

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13 Power Control in a Doubly Fed Induction Machine

Authors: A. Ourici

Abstract:

This paper proposes a direct power control for doubly-fed induction machine for variable speed wind power generation. It provides decoupled regulation of the primary side active and reactive power and it is suitable for both electric energy generation and drive applications. In order to control the power flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the network, a decoupled control of active and reactive power is synthesized using PI controllers.The obtained simulation results show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the suggested method

Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine , decoupled power control , vector control , active and reactive power, PWM inverter

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12 Discrete Vector Control for Induction Motor Drives with the Rotor Time Constant Update

Authors: A.Larabi, M.S. Boucherit

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigated vector control of an induction machine taking into account discretization problems of the command. In the purpose to show how to include in a discrete model of this current control and with rotor time constant update. The results of simulation obtained are very satisfaisant. That was possible thanks to the good choice of the values of the parameters of the regulators used which shows, the founded good of the method used, for the choice of the parameters of the discrete regulators. The simulation results are presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: Induction motor, discrete vector control, PIRegulator, transformation of park, PWM.

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11 Double Flux Orientation Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Machine

Authors: A. Ourici

Abstract:

Doubly fed induction machines DFIM are used mainly for wind energy conversion in MW power plants. This paper presents a new strategy of field oriented control ,it is based on the principle of a double flux orientation of stator and rotor at the same time. Therefore, the orthogonality created between the two oriented fluxes, which must be strictly observed, leads to generate a linear and decoupled control with an optimal torque. The obtained simulation results show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the suggested method.

Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine, double fluxorientation control , vector control , PWM inverter.

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10 Speed Sensorless Control with a Linearizationby State Feedback of Asynchronous Machine Using a Model Reference Adaptive System

Authors: A. Larabi, M. S. Boucherit

Abstract:

In this paper, we show that the association of the PI regulators for the speed and stator currents with a control strategy using the linearization by state feedback for an induction machine without speed sensor, and with an adaptation of the rotor resistance. The rotor speed is estimated by using the model reference adaptive system approach (MRAS). This method consists of using two models: The first is the reference model and the second is an adjustable one in which two components of the stator flux, obtained from the measurement of the currents and stator voltages are estimated. The estimated rotor speed is then obtained by canceling the difference between stator-flux of the reference model and those of the adjustable one. Satisfactory results of simulation are obtained and discussed in this paper to highlight the proposed approach.

Keywords: Asynchronous actuator, PI Regulator, adaptivemethod with reference model, Vector control.

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9 Fault Classification of a Doubly FED Induction Machine Using Neural Network

Authors: A. Ourici

Abstract:

Rapid progress in process automation and tightening quality standards result in a growing demand being placed on fault detection and diagnostics methods to provide both speed and reliability of motor quality testing. Doubly fed induction generators are used mainly for wind energy conversion in MW power plants. This paper presents a detection of an inter turn stator and an open phase faults, in a doubly fed induction machine whose stator and rotor are supplied by two pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The method used in this article to detect these faults, is based on Park-s Vector Approach, using a neural network.

Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine, inter turn stator fault, neural network, open phase fault, Park's vector approach, PWMinverter.

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8 Compensation Method Eliminating Voltage Distortions in PWM Inverter

Authors: H. Sediki, S. Djennoune

Abstract:

The switching lag-time and the voltage drop across the power devices cause serious waveform distortions and fundamental voltage drop in pulse width-modulated inverter output. These phenomenons are conspicuous when both the output frequency and voltage are low. To estimate the output voltage from the PWM reference signal it is essential to take account of these imperfections and to correct them. In this paper, on-line compensation method is presented. It needs three simple blocs to add at the ideal reference voltages. This method does not require any additional hardware circuit and off- line experimental measurement. The paper includes experimental results to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. It is applied, finally, in case of indirect vector controlled induction machine and implemented using dSpace card.

Keywords: Dead time, field-oriented control, Induction motor, PWM inverter, voltage drop.

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7 Three-phases Model of the Induction Machine Taking Account the Stator Faults

Authors: Djalal Eddine Khodja, Aissa Kheldoun

Abstract:

In this work we present the modelling of the induction machine, taking into consideration the stator defects of the induction machine. It is based on the theory of electromagnetic coupling of electrical circuits. In fact, for the modelling of stationary defects such as short circuit between turns in the same phase, we introduce only in the matrix the coefficients of resistance and inductance of stator and in the mutual inductance stator-rotor. These coefficients take account the number of turns in short-circuit deducted from the total number of turns in the same phase; in this way we obtain the number of useful turns. In addition, all these faults involved, will be used for the creation of the database that will be used to develop an automated system failures of the induction machine.

Keywords: Asynchronous machine, Indicatory Values Statorfaults, Multi-turns Model, Three-phases Model.

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6 ILMI Approach for Robust Output Feedback Control of Induction Machine

Authors: Abdelwahed Echchatbi, Adil Rizki, Ali Haddi, Nabil Mrani, Noureddine Elalami

Abstract:

In this note, the robust static output feedback stabilisation of an induction machine is addressed. The machine is described by a non homogenous bilinear model with structural uncertainties, and the feedback gain is computed via an iterative LMI (ILMI) algorithm.

Keywords: Induction machine, Static output feedback, robust stabilisation.

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5 Design and Implementation of TMS320C31 DSP and FPGA for Conventional Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction Machines

Authors: C. L. Toh, N. R. N. Idris, A. H. M. Yatim

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new digital logic design, which combines the DSP and FPGA to implement the conventional DTC of induction machine. The DSP will be used for floating point calculation whereas the FPGA main task is to implement the hysteresis-based controller. The emphasis is on FPGA digital logic design. The simulation and experimental results are presented and summarized.

Keywords: DTC, DSP, FPGA, induction machine

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4 Modelling of a Direct Drive Industrial Robot

Authors: C. Perez, O. Reinoso, N. Garcia, J. M. Sabater, L. Gracia

Abstract:

For high-speed control of robots, a good knowledge of system modelling is necessary to obtain the desired bandwidth. In this paper, we present a cartesian robot with a pan/tilt unit in end-effector (5 dof). This robot is implemented with powerful direct drive AC induction machines. The dynamic model, parameter identification and model validation of the robot are studied (including actuators). This work considers the cartesian robot coupled and non linear (contrary to normal considerations for this type of robots). The mechanical and control architecture proposed in this paper is efficient for industrial and research application in which high speed, well known model and very high accuracy are required.

Keywords: Robot modelling, parameter identification and validation, AC servo-motors.

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3 Vector Control of Multimotor Drive

Authors: Archana S. Nanoty, A. R. Chudasama

Abstract:

Three-phase induction machines are today a standard for industrial electrical drives. Cost, reliability, robustness and maintenance free operation are among the reasons these machines are replacing dc drive systems. The development of power electronics and signal processing systems has eliminated one of the greatest disadvantages of such ac systems, which is the issue of control. With modern techniques of field oriented vector control, the task of variable speed control of induction machines is no longer a disadvantage. The need to increase system performance, particularly when facing limits on the power ratings of power supplies and semiconductors, motivates the use of phase number other than three, In this paper a novel scheme of connecting two, three phase induction motors in parallel fed by two inverters; viz. VSI and CSI and their vector control is presented.

Keywords: Field oriented control, multiphase induction motor, power electronics converter.

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2 Harmonic Analysis and Performance Improvement of a Wind Energy Conversions System with Double Output Induction Generator

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

Wind turbines with double output induction generators can operate at variable speed permitting conversion efficiency maximization over a wide range of wind velocities. This paper presents the performance analysis of a wind driven double output induction generator (DOIG) operating at varying shafts speed. A periodic transient state analysis of DOIG equipped with two converters is carried out using a hybrid induction machine model. This paper simulates the harmonic content of waveforms in various points of drive at different speeds, based on the hybrid model (dqabc). Then the sinusoidal and trapezoidal pulse-width–modulation control techniques are used in order to improve the power factor of the machine and to weaken the injected low order harmonics to the supply. Based on the frequency spectrum, total harmonics distortion, distortion factor and power factor. Finally advantages of sinusoidal and trapezoidal pulse width modulation techniques are compared.

Keywords: DOIG, Harmonic Analysis, Wind.

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1 Improvement Approach on Rotor Time Constant Adaptation with Optimum Flux in IFOC for Induction Machines Drives

Authors: S. Grouni, R. Ibtiouen, M. Kidouche, O. Touhami

Abstract:

Induction machine models used for steady-state and transient analysis require machine parameters that are usually considered design parameters or data. The knowledge of induction machine parameters is very important for Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC). A mismatched set of parameters will degrade the response of speed and torque control. This paper presents an improvement approach on rotor time constant adaptation in IFOC for Induction Machines (IM). Our approach tends to improve the estimation accuracy of the fundamental model for flux estimation. Based on the reduced order of the IM model, the rotor fluxes and rotor time constant are estimated using only the stator currents and voltages. This reduced order model offers many advantages for real time identification parameters of the IM.

Keywords: Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC), InductionMachine (IM), Rotor Time Constant, Parameters ApproachAdaptation. Optimum rotor flux.

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