Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3429

Search results for: Independent Component Analysis

3429 Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Liew Yee Ping, Pang Ying Han, Lau Siong Hoe, Ooi Shih Yin, Housam Khalifa Bashier Babiker

Abstract:

In face recognition, feature extraction techniques attempts to search for appropriate representation of the data. However, when the feature dimension is larger than the samples size, it brings performance degradation. Hence, we propose a method called Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis (NDICA). The input data will be regularized to obtain the most reliable features from the data and processed using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The proposed method is evaluated on three face databases, Olivetti Research Ltd (ORL), Face Recognition Technology (FERET) and Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). NDICA showed it effectiveness compared with other unsupervised and supervised techniques.

Keywords: Face recognition, small sample size, regularization, independent component analysis.

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3428 A New Traffic Pattern Matching for DDoS Traceback Using Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Yuji Waizumi, Tohru Sato, Yoshiaki Nemoto

Abstract:

Recently, Denial of Service(DoS) attacks and Distributed DoS(DDoS) attacks which are stronger form of DoS attacks from plural hosts have become security threats on the Internet. It is important to identify the attack source and to block attack traffic as one of the measures against these attacks. In general, it is difficult to identify them because information about the attack source is falsified. Therefore a method of identifying the attack source by tracing the route of the attack traffic is necessary. A traceback method which uses traffic patterns, using changes in the number of packets over time as criteria for the attack traceback has been proposed. The traceback method using the traffic patterns can trace the attack by matching the shapes of input traffic patterns and the shape of output traffic pattern observed at a network branch point such as a router. The traffic pattern is a shapes of traffic and unfalsifiable information. The proposed trace methods proposed till date cannot obtain enough tracing accuracy, because they directly use traffic patterns which are influenced by non-attack traffics. In this paper, a new traffic pattern matching method using Independent Component Analysis(ICA) is proposed.

Keywords: Distributed Denial of Service, Independent Component Analysis, Traffic pattern

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3427 Independent Component Analysis to Mass Spectra of Aluminium Sulphate

Authors: M. Heikkinen, A. Sarpola, H. Hellman, J. Rämö, Y. Hiltunen

Abstract:

Independent component analysis (ICA) is a computational method for finding underlying signals or components from multivariate statistical data. The ICA method has been successfully applied in many fields, e.g. in vision research, brain imaging, geological signals and telecommunications. In this paper, we apply the ICA method to an analysis of mass spectra of oligomeric species emerged from aluminium sulphate. Mass spectra are typically complex, because they are linear combinations of spectra from different types of oligomeric species. The results show that ICA can decomposite the spectral components for useful information. This information is essential in developing coagulation phases of water treatment processes.

Keywords: Independent component analysis, massspectroscopy, water treatment, aluminium sulphate.

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3426 Incremental Learning of Independent Topic Analysis

Authors: Takahiro Nishigaki, Katsumi Nitta, Takashi Onoda

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method of applying Independent Topic Analysis (ITA) to increasing the number of document data. The number of document data has been increasing since the spread of the Internet. ITA was presented as one method to analyze the document data. ITA is a method for extracting the independent topics from the document data by using the Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA is a technique in the signal processing; however, it is difficult to apply the ITA to increasing number of document data. Because ITA must use the all document data so temporal and spatial cost is very high. Therefore, we present Incremental ITA which extracts the independent topics from increasing number of document data. Incremental ITA is a method of updating the independent topics when the document data is added after extracted the independent topics from a just previous the data. In addition, Incremental ITA updates the independent topics when the document data is added. And we show the result applied Incremental ITA to benchmark datasets.

Keywords: Text mining, topic extraction, independent, incremental, independent component analysis.

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3425 An Approach for Blind Source Separation using the Sliding DFT and Time Domain Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Koji Yamanouchi, Masaru Fujieda, Takahiro Murakami, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

''Cocktail party problem'' is well known as one of the human auditory abilities. We can recognize the specific sound that we want to listen by this ability even if a lot of undesirable sounds or noises are mixed. Blind source separation (BSS) based on independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the methods by which we can separate only a special signal from their mixed signals with simple hypothesis. In this paper, we propose an online approach for blind source separation using the sliding DFT and the time domain independent component analysis. The proposed method can reduce calculation complexity in comparison with conventional methods, and can be applied to parallel processing by using digital signal processors (DSPs) and so on. We evaluate this method and show its availability.

Keywords: Cocktail party problem, blind Source Separation(BSS), independent component analysis, sliding DFT, onlineprocessing.

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3424 Time Series Forecasting Using Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Theodor D. Popescu

Abstract:

The paper presents a method for multivariate time series forecasting using Independent Component Analysis (ICA), as a preprocessing tool. The idea of this approach is to do the forecasting in the space of independent components (sources), and then to transform back the results to the original time series space. The forecasting can be done separately and with a different method for each component, depending on its time structure. The paper gives also a review of the main algorithms for independent component analysis in the case of instantaneous mixture models, using second and high-order statistics. The method has been applied in simulation to an artificial multivariate time series with five components, generated from three sources and a mixing matrix, randomly generated.

Keywords: Independent Component Analysis, second order statistics, simulation, time series forecasting

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3423 Nodal Load Profiles Estimation for Time Series Load Flow Using Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Mashitah Mohd Hussain, Salleh Serwan, Zuhaina Hj Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to estimate load profile in a multiple power flow solutions for every minutes in 24 hours per day. A method to calculate multiple solutions of non linear profile is introduced. The Power System Simulation/Engineering (PSS®E) and python has been used to solve the load power flow. The result of this power flow solutions has been used to estimate the load profiles for each load at buses using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) without any knowledge of parameter and network topology of the systems. The proposed algorithm is tested with IEEE 69 test bus system represents for distribution part and the method of ICA has been programmed in MATLAB R2012b version. Simulation results and errors of estimations are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Electrical Distribution System, Power Flow Solution, Distribution Network, Independent Component Analysis, Newton Raphson, Power System Simulation for Engineering.

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3422 Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps for the Automatic Artifact Rejection from EEG Data

Authors: Antonino Greco, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Mario Versaci

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to improve the efficiency and the reliability of the automatic artifact rejection, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Artifact rejection is a key topic in signal processing. The artifacts are unwelcome signals that may occur during the signal acquisition and that may alter the analysis of the signals themselves. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we enhance this technique introducing the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested exploiting the Independent Component scalp maps and it was compared to the performance of the method in literature and it showed to outperform it.

Keywords: Artifact, EEG, Renyi's entropy, independent component analysis, kurtosis.

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3421 Semi-Automatic Artifact Rejection Procedure Based on Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps

Authors: Antonino Greco, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Mario Versaci

Abstract:

Artifact rejection plays a key role in many signal processing applications. The artifacts are disturbance that can occur during the signal acquisition and that can alter the analysis of the signals themselves. Our aim is to automatically remove the artifacts, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we try to enhance this technique proposing a new method based on the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested and compared to the performance of the method in literature and the former proved to outperform the latter.

Keywords: Artifact, EEG, Renyi's entropy, kurtosis, independent component analysis.

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3420 Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer with Proteomic Patterns in Serum using Independent Component Analysis and Neural Networks

Authors: Simone C. F. Neves, Lúcio F. A. Campos, Ewaldo Santana, Ginalber L. O. Serra, Allan K. Barros

Abstract:

We propose a method for discrimination and classification of ovarian with benign, malignant and normal tissue using independent component analysis and neural networks. The method was tested for a proteomic patters set from A database, and radial basis functions neural networks. The best performance was obtained with probabilistic neural networks, resulting I 99% success rate, with 98% of specificity e 100% of sensitivity.

Keywords: Cancer ovarian, Proteomic patterns in serum, independent component analysis and neural networks.

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3419 An Experimental Comparison of Unsupervised Learning Techniques for Face Recognition

Authors: Dinesh Kumar, C.S. Rai, Shakti Kumar

Abstract:

Face Recognition has always been a fascinating research area. It has drawn the attention of many researchers because of its various potential applications such as security systems, entertainment, criminal identification etc. Many supervised and unsupervised learning techniques have been reported so far. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) are the three techniques among many others as proposed by different researchers for Face Recognition, known as the unsupervised techniques. This paper proposes integration of the two techniques, SOM and PCA, for dimensionality reduction and feature selection. Simulation results show that, though, the individual techniques SOM and PCA itself give excellent performance but the combination of these two can also be utilized for face recognition. Experimental results also indicate that for the given face database and the classifier used, SOM performs better as compared to other unsupervised learning techniques. A comparison of two proposed methodologies of SOM, Local and Global processing, shows the superiority of the later but at the cost of more computational time.

Keywords: Face Recognition, Principal Component Analysis, Self Organizing Maps, Independent Component Analysis

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3418 Application of Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) for Removal of Ocular Artifacts from Electroencephalogram

Authors: V Krishnaveni, S Jayaraman, K Ramadoss

Abstract:

The electrical potentials generated during eye movements and blinks are one of the main sources of artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and can propagate much across the scalp, masking and distorting brain signals. In recent times, signal separation algorithms are used widely for removing artifacts from the observed EEG data. In this paper, a recently introduced signal separation algorithm Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) is employed to separate ocular artifacts from EEG. The aim of MILCA is to minimize the Mutual Information (MI) between the independent components (estimated sources) under a pure rotation. Performance of this algorithm is compared with eleven popular algorithms (Infomax, Extended Infomax, Fast ICA, SOBI, TDSEP, JADE, OGWE, MS-ICA, SHIBBS, Kernel-ICA, and RADICAL) for the actual independence and uniqueness of the estimated source components obtained for different sets of EEG data with ocular artifacts by using a reliable MI Estimator. Results show that MILCA is best in separating the ocular artifacts and EEG and is recommended for further analysis.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, Ocular Artifacts (OA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Mutual Information (MI), Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis(MILCA)

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3417 Spectral Analysis of Speech: A New Technique

Authors: Neeta Awasthy, J.P.Saini, D.S.Chauhan

Abstract:

ICA which is generally used for blind source separation problem has been tested for feature extraction in Speech recognition system to replace the phoneme based approach of MFCC. Applying the Cepstral coefficients generated to ICA as preprocessing has developed a new signal processing approach. This gives much better results against MFCC and ICA separately, both for word and speaker recognition. The mixing matrix A is different before and after MFCC as expected. As Mel is a nonlinear scale. However, cepstrals generated from Linear Predictive Coefficient being independent prove to be the right candidate for ICA. Matlab is the tool used for all comparisons. The database used is samples of ISOLET.

Keywords: Cepstral Coefficient, Distance measures, Independent Component Analysis, Linear Predictive Coefficients.

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3416 An Approach to Solving a Permutation Problem of Frequency Domain Independent Component Analysis for Blind Source Separation of Speech Signals

Authors: Masaru Fujieda, Takahiro Murakami, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

Independent component analysis (ICA) in the frequency domain is used for solving the problem of blind source separation (BSS). However, this method has some problems. For example, a general ICA algorithm cannot determine the permutation of signals which is important in the frequency domain ICA. In this paper, we propose an approach to the solution for a permutation problem. The idea is to effectively combine two conventional approaches. This approach improves the signal separation performance by exploiting features of the conventional approaches. We show the simulation results using artificial data.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Independent componentanalysis, Frequency domain, Permutation ambiguity.

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3415 Random Projections for Dimensionality Reduction in ICA

Authors: Sabrina Gaito, Andrea Greppi, Giuliano Grossi

Abstract:

In this paper we present a technique to speed up ICA based on the idea of reducing the dimensionality of the data set preserving the quality of the results. In particular we refer to FastICA algorithm which uses the Kurtosis as statistical property to be maximized. By performing a particular Johnson-Lindenstrauss like projection of the data set, we find the minimum dimensionality reduction rate ¤ü, defined as the ratio between the size k of the reduced space and the original one d, which guarantees a narrow confidence interval of such estimator with high confidence level. The derived dimensionality reduction rate depends on a system control parameter β easily computed a priori on the basis of the observations only. Extensive simulations have been done on different sets of real world signals. They show that actually the dimensionality reduction is very high, it preserves the quality of the decomposition and impressively speeds up FastICA. On the other hand, a set of signals, on which the estimated reduction rate is greater than 1, exhibits bad decomposition results if reduced, thus validating the reliability of the parameter β. We are confident that our method will lead to a better approach to real time applications.

Keywords: Independent Component Analysis, FastICA algorithm, Higher-order statistics, Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma.

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3414 Stakeholder Analysis: Who are the Key Actorsin Establishing and Developing Thai Independent Consumer Organizations?

Authors: P. Ondee, S. Pannarunothai

Abstract:

In Thailand, both the 1997 and the current 2007 Thai Constitutions have mentioned the establishment of independent organizations as a new mechanism to play a key role in proposing policy recommendations to national decision-makers in the interest of collective consumers. Over the last ten years, no independent organizations have yet been set up. Evidently, nobody could point out who should be key players in establishing provincial independent consumer bodies. The purpose of this study was to find definitive stakeholders in establishing and developing independent consumer bodies in a Thai context. This was a cross-sectional study between August and September 2007, using a postal questionnaire with telephone follow-up. The questionnaire was designed and used to obtain multiple stakeholder assessment of three key attributes (power, interest and influence). Study population was 153 stakeholders associated with policy decision-making, formulation and implementation processes of civil-based consumer protection in pilot provinces. The population covered key representatives from five sectors (academics, government officers, business traders, mass media and consumer networks) who participated in the deliberative forums at 10 provinces. A 49.7% response rate was achieved. Data were analyzed, comparing means of three stakeholder attributes and classification of stakeholder typology. The results showed that the provincial health officers were the definitive stakeholders as they had legal power, influence and interest in establishing and sustaining the independent consumer bodies. However, only a few key representatives of the provincial health officers expressed their own paradigm on the civil-based consumer protection. Most provincial health officers put their own standpoint of building civic participation at only a plan-implementation level. For effective policy implementation by the independent consumer bodies, the Thai government should provide budgetary support for the operation of the provincial health officers with their paradigm shift as well as their own clarified standpoint on corporate governance.

Keywords: Civic participation, civil society, consumerprotection, independent organization, policy decision-making, stakeholder analysis.

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3413 A Completed Adaptive De-mixing Algorithm on Stiefel Manifold for ICA

Authors: Jianwei Wu

Abstract:

Based on the one-bit-matching principle and by turning the de-mixing matrix into an orthogonal matrix via certain normalization, Ma et al proposed a one-bit-matching learning algorithm on the Stiefel manifold for independent component analysis [8]. But this algorithm is not adaptive. In this paper, an algorithm which can extract kurtosis and its sign of each independent source component directly from observation data is firstly introduced.With the algorithm , the one-bit-matching learning algorithm is revised, so that it can make the blind separation on the Stiefel manifold implemented completely in the adaptive mode in the framework of natural gradient.

Keywords: Independent component analysis, kurtosis, Stiefel manifold, super-gaussians or sub-gaussians.

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3412 Unsupervised Texture Classification and Segmentation

Authors: V.P.Subramanyam Rallabandi, S.K.Sett

Abstract:

An unsupervised classification algorithm is derived by modeling observed data as a mixture of several mutually exclusive classes that are each described by linear combinations of independent non-Gaussian densities. The algorithm estimates the data density in each class by using parametric nonlinear functions that fit to the non-Gaussian structure of the data. This improves classification accuracy compared with standard Gaussian mixture models. When applied to textures, the algorithm can learn basis functions for images that capture the statistically significant structure intrinsic in the images. We apply this technique to the problem of unsupervised texture classification and segmentation.

Keywords: Gaussian Mixture Model, Independent Component Analysis, Segmentation, Unsupervised Classification.

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3411 An ICA Algorithm for Separation of Convolutive Mixture of Speech Signals

Authors: Rajkishore Prasad, Hiroshi Saruwatari, Kiyohiro Shikano

Abstract:

This paper describes Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based fixed-point algorithm for the blind separation of the convolutive mixture of speech, picked-up by a linear microphone array. The proposed algorithm extracts independent sources by non- Gaussianizing the Time-Frequency Series of Speech (TFSS) in a deflationary way. The degree of non-Gaussianization is measured by negentropy. The relative performances of algorithm under random initialization and Null beamformer (NBF) based initialization are studied. It has been found that an NBF based initial value gives speedy convergence as well as better separation performance

Keywords: Blind signal separation, independent component analysis, negentropy, convolutive mixture.

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3410 Variance Based Component Analysis for Texture Segmentation

Authors: Zeinab Ghasemi, S. Amirhassan Monadjemi, Abbas Vafaei

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new unsupervised PCA-based technique for steel plates texture segmentation towards defect detection. The proposed scheme called Variance Based Component Analysis or VBCA employs PCA for feature extraction, applies a feature reduction algorithm based on variance of eigenpictures and classifies the pixels as defective and normal. While the classic PCA uses a clusterer like Kmeans for pixel clustering, VBCA employs thresholding and some post processing operations to label pixels as defective and normal. The experimental results show that proposed algorithm called VBCA is 12.46% more accurate and 78.85% faster than the classic PCA.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis; Variance Based Component Analysis; Defect Detection; Texture Segmentation.

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3409 Identifying Missing Component in the Bechdel Test Using Principal Component Analysis Method

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Chandra Kanth Nagesh, Krishna Madgula

Abstract:

A lot has been said and discussed regarding the rationale and significance of the Bechdel Score. It became a digital sensation in 2013, when Swedish cinemas began to showcase the Bechdel test score of a film alongside its rating. The test has drawn criticism from experts and the film fraternity regarding its use to rate the female presence in a movie. The pundits believe that the score is too simplified and the underlying criteria of a film to pass the test must include 1) at least two women, 2) who have at least one dialogue, 3) about something other than a man, is egregious. In this research, we have considered a few more parameters which highlight how we represent females in film, like the number of female dialogues in a movie, dialogue genre, and part of speech tags in the dialogue. The parameters were missing in the existing criteria to calculate the Bechdel score. The research aims to analyze 342 movies scripts to test a hypothesis if these extra parameters, above with the current Bechdel criteria, are significant in calculating the female representation score. The result of the Principal Component Analysis method concludes that the female dialogue content is a key component and should be considered while measuring the representation of women in a work of fiction.

Keywords: Bechdel test, dialogue genre, parts of speech tags, principal component analysis.

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3408 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared

Abstract:

In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: Biometrics, finger vein recognition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA).

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3407 Mutually Independent Hamiltonian Cycles of Cn x Cn

Authors: Kai-Siou Wu, Justie Su-Tzu Juan

Abstract:

In a graph G, a cycle is Hamiltonian cycle if it contain all vertices of G. Two Hamiltonian cycles C_1 = ⟨u_0, u_1, u_2, ..., u_{n−1}, u_0⟩ and C_2 = ⟨v_0, v_1, v_2, ..., v_{n−1}, v_0⟩ in G are independent if u_0 = v_0, u_i = ̸ v_i for all 1 ≤ i ≤ n−1. In G, a set of Hamiltonian cycles C = {C_1, C_2, ..., C_k} is mutually independent if any two Hamiltonian cycles of C are independent. The mutually independent Hamiltonicity IHC(G), = k means there exist a maximum integer k such that there exists k-mutually independent Hamiltonian cycles start from any vertex of G. In this paper, we prove that IHC(C_n × C_n) = 4, for n ≥ 3.

Keywords: Hamiltonian, independent, cycle, Cartesian product, mutually independent Hamiltonicity

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3406 Blind Source Separation Using Modified Gaussian FastICA

Authors: V. K. Ananthashayana, Jyothirmayi M.

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of source separation in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation. Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.

Keywords: Amari error, Blind Source Separation, Contrast function, Gaussian function, Independent Component Analysis.

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3405 Theoretical Considerations for Software Component Metrics

Authors: V. Lakshmi Narasimhan, Bayu Hendradjaya

Abstract:

We have defined two suites of metrics, which cover static and dynamic aspects of component assembly. The static metrics measure complexity and criticality of component assembly, wherein complexity is measured using Component Packing Density and Component Interaction Density metrics. Further, four criticality conditions namely, Link, Bridge, Inheritance and Size criticalities have been identified and quantified. The complexity and criticality metrics are combined to form a Triangular Metric, which can be used to classify the type and nature of applications. Dynamic metrics are collected during the runtime of a complete application. Dynamic metrics are useful to identify super-component and to evaluate the degree of utilisation of various components. In this paper both static and dynamic metrics are evaluated using Weyuker-s set of properties. The result shows that the metrics provide a valid means to measure issues in component assembly. We relate our metrics suite with McCall-s Quality Model and illustrate their impact on product quality and to the management of component-based product development.

Keywords: Component Assembly, Component Based SoftwareEngineering, CORBA Component Model, Software ComponentMetrics.

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3404 Network Anomaly Detection using Soft Computing

Authors: Surat Srinoy, Werasak Kurutach, Witcha Chimphlee, Siriporn Chimphlee

Abstract:

One main drawback of intrusion detection system is the inability of detecting new attacks which do not have known signatures. In this paper we discuss an intrusion detection method that proposes independent component analysis (ICA) based feature selection heuristics and using rough fuzzy for clustering data. ICA is to separate these independent components (ICs) from the monitored variables. Rough set has to decrease the amount of data and get rid of redundancy and Fuzzy methods allow objects to belong to several clusters simultaneously, with different degrees of membership. Our approach allows us to recognize not only known attacks but also to detect activity that may be the result of a new, unknown attack. The experimental results on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining- (KDDCup 1999) dataset.

Keywords: Network security, intrusion detection, rough set, ICA, anomaly detection, independent component analysis, rough fuzzy .

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3403 A Survey of Business Component Identification Methods and Related Techniques

Authors: Zhongjie Wang, Xiaofei Xu, Dechen Zhan

Abstract:

With deep development of software reuse, componentrelated technologies have been widely applied in the development of large-scale complex applications. Component identification (CI) is one of the primary research problems in software reuse, by analyzing domain business models to get a set of business components with high reuse value and good reuse performance to support effective reuse. Based on the concept and classification of CI, its technical stack is briefly discussed from four views, i.e., form of input business models, identification goals, identification strategies, and identification process. Then various CI methods presented in literatures are classified into four types, i.e., domain analysis based methods, cohesion-coupling based clustering methods, CRUD matrix based methods, and other methods, with the comparisons between these methods for their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, some insufficiencies of study on CI are discussed, and the causes are explained subsequently. Finally, it is concluded with some significantly promising tendency about research on this problem.

Keywords: Business component, component granularity, component identification, reuse performance.

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3402 Non-negative Principal Component Analysis for Face Recognition

Authors: Zhang Yan, Yu Bin

Abstract:

Principle component analysis is often combined with the state-of-art classification algorithms to recognize human faces. However, principle component analysis can only capture these features contributing to the global characteristics of data because it is a global feature selection algorithm. It misses those features contributing to the local characteristics of data because each principal component only contains some levels of global characteristics of data. In this study, we present a novel face recognition approach using non-negative principal component analysis which is added with the constraint of non-negative to improve data locality and contribute to elucidating latent data structures. Experiments are performed on the Cambridge ORL face database. We demonstrate the strong performances of the algorithm in recognizing human faces in comparison with PCA and NREMF approaches.

Keywords: classification, face recognition, non-negativeprinciple component analysis (NPCA)

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3401 A Supervised Text-Independent Speaker Recognition Approach

Authors: Tudor Barbu

Abstract:

We provide a supervised speech-independent voice recognition technique in this paper. In the feature extraction stage we propose a mel-cepstral based approach. Our feature vector classification method uses a special nonlinear metric, derived from the Hausdorff distance for sets, and a minimum mean distance classifier.

Keywords: Text-independent speaker recognition, mel cepstral analysis, speech feature vector, Hausdorff-based metric, supervised classification.

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3400 Effects of Different Meteorological Variables on Reference Evapotranspiration Modeling: Application of Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

The correct estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETₒ) is required for effective irrigation water resources planning and management. However, there are some variables that must be considered while estimating and modeling ETₒ. This study therefore determines the multivariate analysis of correlated variables involved in the estimation and modeling of ETₒ at Vaalharts irrigation scheme (VIS) in South Africa using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. Weather and meteorological data between 1994 and 2014 were obtained both from South African Weather Service (SAWS) and Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in South Africa for this study. Average monthly data of minimum and maximum temperature (°C), rainfall (mm), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m/s) were the inputs to the PCA-based model, while ETₒ is the output. PCA technique was adopted to extract the most important information from the dataset and also to analyze the relationship between the five variables and ETₒ. This is to determine the most significant variables affecting ETₒ estimation at VIS. From the model performances, two principal components with a variance of 82.7% were retained after the eigenvector extraction. The results of the two principal components were compared and the model output shows that minimum temperature, maximum temperature and windspeed are the most important variables in ETₒ estimation and modeling at VIS. In order words, ETₒ increases with temperature and windspeed. Other variables such as rainfall and relative humidity are less important and cannot be used to provide enough information about ETₒ estimation at VIS. The outcome of this study has helped to reduce input variable dimensionality from five to the three most significant variables in ETₒ modelling at VIS, South Africa.

Keywords: Irrigation, principal component analysis, reference evapotranspiration, Vaalharts.

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