Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 695

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

695 Failure Analysis of a 304 Stainless Steel Flange Crack at Pipeline Transportation of Ethylene

Authors: Parisa Hasanpour, Bahram Borooghani, Vahid Asadi

Abstract:

In the current research, a catastrophic failure of a 304 stainless steel flange at pipeline transportation of ethylene in a petrochemical refinery was studied. Cracking was found in the flange after about 78840h service. Through the chemical analysis and tensile tests, in addition to microstructural analysis such as optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on the failed part, it found that the fatigue was responsible for the fracture of the flange, which originated from bumps and depressions on the outer surface and propagated by vibration caused by the working condition.

Keywords: Failure analysis, 304 stainless steel, fatigue, flange, petrochemical refinery.

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694 Evaluation of Inceptor Design for Manned Multicopter

Authors: Jędrzej Minda

Abstract:

In aviation a very narrow spectrum of control inceptors exists, namely centre-sticks, side-sticks, pedals and yokes. However, new types of aircraft are emerging and with them a need for new inceptors. A manned multicopter created at AGH University of Science and Technology is an aircraft in which the pilot takes a specific orientation in which classical inceptors may be impractical to use. In this paper unique kind of control inceptor is described, which aims to provide a handling quality not unlike standard solutions and provide a firm grip point for the pilot without the risk of involuntary stick movement. Simulations of pilot-inceptor model were performed in order to compare dynamic amplification factors of design described in this paper with classical one. Functional prototype is built on which drone pilots carried out a comfort of use evaluation. This paper provides a general overview of the project, including literature review, reasoning behind components selection and mechanism design finalized by conclusions.

Keywords: Mechanisms, mechatronics, embedded control, serious gaming, rescue missions, rescue robotics.

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693 Determining the Mode II Intra-Ply Energy Release Rate of Composites Made of Prepreg

Authors: Philip Rose, Markus Linke, David Busquets

Abstract:

The distinction between interlaminar and intralaminar fracture toughness is challenging. For loading mode I, the double cantilever beam specimens were often used for the interlaminar fracture toughness and the compact tension specimen for the intralaminar fracture toughness. For the analysis of interlaminar properties regarding energy release under different loading modes, the geometry of the DCB specimen can also be tested under three-point bending for Mode II characteristics. The same specimen can also be tested with defined superimposed loading conditions (mixed mode) using the Mixed Mode Bending test apparatus. However, this approach has not been applicable for intralaminar characteristics, as crack initiation in a single layer for laminates made out of prepreg, has not been feasible. The method presented in this work enables differentiation of interlaminar and intralaminar energy release rates in Mode II loading with nearly identical specimen geometry. With this, a practically identical energy release rate is observed in Mode II for the investigated material IM7/8552.

Keywords: Fibre reinforced plastics, end-notched flexure, energy release rate, fracture toughness, intralaminar, interlaminar.

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692 Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Design and Characteristics

Authors: A. Almuwallad

Abstract:

The magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is classified as an electric propulsion system and consists of two metal electrodes separated by an insulator. A high-current electric arc is driven between electrodes to ionize the injected propellant between electrodes for plasma creation. At the same time, a magnetic field is generated by the electric current returning to the power supply. This magnetic field interacts with the electric current flowing through the plasma to produce thrust. This paper compares the performance of MPD thrusters when using three different propellants (methane, nitrogen, and propane) at varying input mass flow rates. Methane provided the best performance, and nitrogen performed better than propane. In addition, when using the same parameters, the thruster with a divergent nozzle performed better than the thruster with a constant nozzle.

Keywords: Magnetoplasmadynamic thruster, electric propulsion, propellant, plasma.

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691 Emerging Technologies in European Aeronautics: How Collaborative Innovation Efforts are Shaping the Industry

Authors: Nikola Radovanovic, Petros Gkotsis, Mathieu Doussineau

Abstract:

Aeronautics is regarded as a strategically important sector for European competitiveness. It was at the heart of European entrepreneurial development since the industry was born. Currently, the EU is the world leader in the production of civil aircraft, including helicopters, aircraft engines, parts, and components. It is recording a surplus in trade relating to aerospace products, which are exported all over the globe. Also, this industry shows above-average investments in research and development, as demonstrated in the patent activity in this area. The post-pandemic recovery of the industry will partly depend on the possibilities to streamline collaboration in further research and innovation activities. Aeronautics features as one of the often-selected priority domains in smart specialisation, which represents the main regional and national approach in developing and implementing innovation policies in Europe. The basis for the selection of priority domains for smart specialisation lies in the mapping of innovative potential, with research and patent activities being among the key elements of this analysis. This research is aimed at identifying characteristics of the trends in research and patent activities in the regions and countries that base their competitiveness on the aeronautics sector. It is also aimed at determining the scope and patterns of collaborations in aeronautics between innovators from the European regions, focusing on revealing new technology areas that emerge from these collaborations. For this purpose, we developed a methodology based on desk research and the analysis of the PATSTAT patent database as well as the databases of R&I framework programmes.

Keywords: aeronautics, smart specialisation, innovation policy, regional policy.

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690 Airplane Stability during Climb/Descend Phase Using a Flight Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Niloufar Ghoreishi, Ali Nekouzadeh

Abstract:

The stability of the flight during maneuvering and in response to probable perturbations is one of the most essential features of an aircraft that should be analyzed and designed for. In this study, we derived the non-linear governing equations of aircraft dynamics during the climb/descend phase and simulated a model aircraft. The corresponding force and moment dimensionless coefficients of the model and their variations with elevator angle and other relevant aerodynamic parameters were measured experimentally. The short-period mode and phugoid mode response were simulated by solving the governing equations numerically and then compared with the desired stability parameters for the particular level, category, and class of the aircraft model. To meet the target stability, a controller was designed and used. This resulted in significant improvement in the stability parameters of the flight.

Keywords: Flight stability, phugoid mode, short period mode, climb phase, damping coefficient.

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689 Comparison of Composite Programming and Compromise Programming for Aircraft Selection Problem Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, the comparison of composite programming and compromise programming for the aircraft selection problem is discussed using the multiple criteria decision analysis method. The decision making process requires the prior definition and fulfillment of certain factors, especially when it comes to complex areas such as aircraft selection problems. The proposed technique gives more efficient results by extending the composite programming and compromise programming, which are widely used in modeling multiple criteria decisions. The proposed model is applied to a practical decision problem for evaluating and selecting aircraft problems.A selection of aircraft was made based on the proposed approach developed in the field of multiple criteria decision making. The model presented is solved by using the following methods: composite programming, and compromise programming. The importance values of the weight coefficients of the criteria are calculated using the mean weight method. The evaluation and ranking of aircraft are carried out using the composite programming and compromise programming methods. In order to determine the stability of the model and the ability to apply the developed composite programming and compromise programming approach, the paper analyzes its sensitivity, which involves changing the value of the coefficient λ and q in the first part. The second part of the sensitivity analysis relates to the application of different multiple criteria decision making methods, composite programming and compromise programming. In addition, in the third part of the sensitivity analysis, the Spearman correlation coefficient of the ranks obtained was calculated which confirms the applicability of all the proposed approaches.

Keywords: composite programming, compromise programming, additive weighted model, multiplicative weighted model, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, aircraft selection

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688 Application of Turbulence Modeling in Computational Fluid Dynamics for Airfoil Simulations

Authors: Mohammed Bilal

Abstract:

The precise prediction of aerodynamic behavior is necessary for the design and optimization of airfoils for a variety of applications. Turbulence, a phenomenon of complex and irregular flow, significantly affects the aerodynamic properties of airfoils. Therefore, turbulence modeling is essential for accurately predicting the behavior of airfoils in simulations. This study investigates five commonly employed turbulence models: Spalart-Allmaras (SA) model, k-epsilon model, k-omega model, Reynolds Stress Model (RSM), and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The paper includes a comparison of the models' precision, computational expense, and applicability to various flow conditions. The strengths and weaknesses of each model are highlighted, allowing researchers and engineers to make informed decisions regarding simulations of specific airfoils. Unquestionably, the continuous development of turbulence modeling will contribute to further improvements in airfoil design and optimization, which will be advantageous to numerous industries.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, airfoil, turbulence, aircraft.

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687 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Selection Using Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

The selection of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) involves complex decision-making due to the evaluation of numerous alternatives and criteria simultaneously. This process necessitates the consideration of various factors such as payload capacity, maximum speed, endurance, altitude, avionics systems, price, economic life, and maximum range. This study aims to determine the most suitable UAV by taking these criteria into account. To achieve this, the standard fuzzy set methodology is employed, enabling decision-makers to define linguistic terms as references. A practical numerical example is provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Through a successful application, a comparison of different UAVs is conducted, culminating in the selection of the most appropriate vehicle during the final stage.

Keywords: Standard fuzzy sets (SFSs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) selection, multiple criteria decision making, MCDM

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686 Reliable Damping Measurements of Solid Beams with Special Focus on the Boundary Conditions and Non-Contact Test Set-Ups

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu, Ahmet Reha Gunay

Abstract:

Correct measurement of a structural damping value is an important issue for the reliable design of the components exposed to vibratory and noise conditions. As far as a vibrating beam technique is concerned, the specimens under the test somehow are interacted with measuring and exciting devices and also with boundary conditions of the test set-up. The aim of this study is to propose a vibrating beam method that offers a non-contact dynamic measurement of solid beam specimens. To evaluate possible effects of the clamped portion of the specimens with clamped-free ends on the dynamic values (damping and the elastic modulus), the same measuring devices were used, and the results were compared to those with the free-free ends. To get clear idea about the sensitivity of the boundary conditions to the damping values at low, medium and high levels, representative materials were subjected to the tests. The results show that the specimens with low damping values are especially sensitive to the boundary conditions and the most reliable structural damping values are obtained for the specimens with free-free ends. For the damping values at the low levels, a deviation of about 368% was obtained between the specimens with free-free and clamped-free ends, yet, for those having high inherent damping values, comparable results were obtained.

Keywords: Vibrating beam technique, dynamic values, damping, boundary conditions, non-contact measuring systems.

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685 Contactless and Multiple Space Debris Removal by Micro to Nano Satellites

Authors: Junichiro Kawaguchi

Abstract:

Space debris problems have emerged and threatened the use of low earth orbit around the Earth owing to a large number of spacecrafts.. The robots should be sophisticated enough to access automatically the debris articulating the attitude and the translation motion with respect to the debris. This paper presents the idea of using the torpedo-like third unsophisticated and disposable body, in addition to the first body of the servicing robot and the second body of the target debris. The third body is launched from the first body from a distance further than the size of the second body. This paper presents the method and the system, so that the third body is launched from the first body. The third body carries both a net and an inflatable or extendible drag deceleration device and is built small and light. This method enables even micro to nano satellites to perform contactless and multiple debris removal even via a single flight.

Keywords: Ballute, Debris Removal, Echo satellite, Gossamer, Gun-Net, Inflatable Space Structure, Small Satellite, Un-cooperated Target.

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684 Material Properties Evolution Affecting Demisability for Space Debris Mitigation

Authors: Chetan Mahawar, Sarath Chandran, Sridhar Panigrahi, V. P. Shaji

Abstract:

The ever-growing advancement in space exploration has led to an alarming concern for space debris removal as it restricts further launch operations and adventurous space missions; hence various technologies and methods are explored for re-entry predictions and material selection processes for mitigating space debris. The selection of material and operating conditions is determined with the objective of lightweight structure and ability to demise faster subject to spacecraft survivability during its mission. The various evolving thermal material properties such as emissivity, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, radiation intensity, etc. affect demisability of spacecraft. Thus, this paper presents the analysis of evolving thermal material properties of spacecraft, which affect the demisability process and thus estimate demise time using the demisability model by incorporating evolving thermal properties for sensible heating followed by the complete or partial break-up of spacecraft. The demisability analysis thus concludes that the best suitable spacecraft material is based on the least estimated demise time, which fulfills the criteria of design-for-survivability and as well as of design-for-demisability.

Keywords: Demisability, emissivity, lightweight, re-entry, survivability.

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683 Aircraft Selection Process Using Reference Linear Combination in Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new method for multiplecriteria decision making (MCDM) that avoids order reversal and ensures consistency in decision-making. The proposed method involves range targeting of benefit and cost criteria vectors for range normalization of the initial decision matrix. The Reference Linear Combination (RLC) is used to avoid the rank reversal problem. The preference order generated from the target score matrix does not require relative comparisons between alternatives but relies on a chosen reference solution point after transforming the original decision matrix into an MCDM problem by specifying the minimum and maximum bounds of each criterion. The efficiency and applicability of the proposed RLC method were demonstrated in the selection of commercial passenger aircraft. 

Keywords: Aircraft selection, reference linear combination (RLC), multiple criteria decision-making, MCDM

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682 Using the PARIS Method for Multiple Criteria Decision Making in Unmanned Combat Aircraft Evaluation and Selection

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Unmanned combat aircraft (UCA) are expanding significantly in several defense industries, along with artificial intelligence improvements in highly precise technology. UCA is crucial in military settings for targeting enemy elements, and objects. UCA is also utilized for highly precise reconnaissance and surveillance tasks. To select the best alternative for critical missions, a methodical and effective strategy for UCA selection is required. Multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodologies are ideally equipped to handle the complexity of alternative aircraft selection. To analyze UCA alternatives for the selection process, an integrated methodology built on the objective criteria weights and preference analysis for reference ideal solution (PARIS). First, the weights of essential elements are determined using the average weight (AW), standard deviation (SW) and entropy weight (EW) approach. The weights of the evaluation criteria affect the decision-making process. The aircraft choices in the decision problem are then ranked using objective criteria weights along with the PARIS technique. The validation and sensitivity analysis of the proposed MCDM approach are discussed.

Keywords: unmanned combat aircraft (UCA), multiple criteria decision making, MCDM, PARIS

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681 Multiple Criteria Decision Making for Turkish Air Force Stealth Fighter Aircraft Selection

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Neutrosophic logic decision analysis is proposed as a method of stealth fighter aircraft selection for Turkish Air Force. The opinion of experts is employed to rank the alternatives across a set of criteria. The analyst uses neutrosophic logic numbers to describe the experts' preferences. This approach can handle the situation in the case of unavailability of precise data, which is most commonly the case in stealth fighter aircraft selection. Neutrosophic logic numbers can consider the imprecision of the factors affecting decision making such as stealth analysis, survivability analysis, and performance analysis. Neutrosophic logic ranking is achieved using weighted arithmetic operator and weighted geometric operator and the alternatives are ranked from best to worst. An example is also presented to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method. 

Keywords: Neutrosophic set theory, stealth fighter aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision-making, neutrosophic logic decision making, Turkish Air Force, MCDM

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680 Aircraft Selection Using Preference Optimization Programming (POP)

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

A multiple-criteria decision support system is proposed for the best aircraft selection decision. Various strategic, economic, environmental, and risk-related factors can directly or indirectly influence this choice, and they should be taken into account in the decision-making process. The paper suggests a multiple-criteria analysis to aid in the airline management's decision-making process when choosing an appropriate aircraft. In terms of the suggested approach, an integrated entropic preference optimization programming (POP) for fleet modeling risk analysis is applied. The findings of the study of multiple criteria analysis indicate that the A321(neo) aircraft type is the best alternative in this particular optimization instance. The proposed methodology can be applied to other complex engineering problems involving multiple criteria analysis.

Keywords: Aircraft selection, decision making, multiple criteria decision making, preference optimization programming, POP, entropic weight method, TOPSIS, WSM, WPM

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679 Image-Based UAV Vertical Distance and Velocity Estimation Algorithm during the Vertical Landing Phase Using Low-Resolution Images

Authors: Seyed-Yaser Nabavi-Chashmi, Davood Asadi, Karim Ahmadi, Eren Demir

Abstract:

The landing phase of a UAV is very critical as there are many uncertainties in this phase, which can easily entail a hard landing or even a crash. In this paper, the estimation of relative distance and velocity to the ground, as one of the most important processes during the landing phase, is studied. Using accurate measurement sensors as an alternative approach can be very expensive for sensors like LIDAR, or with a limited operational range, for sensors like ultrasonic sensors. Additionally, absolute positioning systems like GPS or IMU cannot provide distance to the ground independently. The focus of this paper is to determine whether we can measure the relative distance and velocity of UAV and ground in the landing phase using just low-resolution images taken by a monocular camera. The Lucas-Konda feature detection technique is employed to extract the most suitable feature in a series of images taken during the UAV landing. Two different approaches based on Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been proposed, and their performance in estimation of the relative distance and velocity are compared. The first approach uses the kinematics of the UAV as the process and the calculated optical flow as the measurement. On the other hand, the second approach uses the feature’s projection on the camera plane (pixel position) as the measurement while employing both the kinematics of the UAV and the dynamics of variation of projected point as the process to estimate both relative distance and relative velocity. To verify the results, a sequence of low-quality images taken by a camera that is moving on a specifically developed testbed has been used to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm. The case studies show that the quality of images results in considerable noise, which reduces the performance of the first approach. On the other hand, using the projected feature position is much less sensitive to the noise and estimates the distance and velocity with relatively high accuracy. This approach also can be used to predict the future projected feature position, which can drastically decrease the computational workload, as an important criterion for real-time applications.

Keywords: Automatic landing, multirotor, nonlinear control, parameters estimation, optical flow.

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678 Structural Analysis of Aircraft Wing Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Manish Kumar, Pradeep Rout Aditya Kumar Jha, Pankaj Gupta

Abstract:

Wings are structural components of an aeroplane that are used to produce lift while the aircraft is in flight. The initial assault angle of the wing is definite. Due to the pressure difference at the top and bottom surfaces of the wing, lift force is produced when the flow passes over it. This paper explains the fundamental concept of the structural behaviour of a wing threatened by flowing loads during the voyage. The study comprises the use of concepts and analysis with the help of finite element analysis. Wing assembly is the first stage of wing model and design, which are determined by fascinating factual features. The basic gathering wing consists of a thin membrane, two poles, and several ribs. It has two spars, the major spar and the secondary spar. Here, NACA 23015 is selected as the standard model for all types of aerofoil structures since it is more akin to the custom aerofoil utilized in large aircraft, specifically the Airbus A320. Two rods mostly endure the twisting moment and trim strength, which is finished with titanium contamination to ensure enough inflexibility. The covering and wing spars are made of aluminium amalgam to lessen the structural heaviness. Following that, a static underlying examination is performed, and the general contortion, equivalent flexible strain, and comparing Von-Mises pressure are obtained to aid in investigations of the mechanical behaviour of the wing. Moreover, the modular examination is being upheld to decide the normal pace of repetition as well as the modular state of the three orders, which are obtained through the pre-stress modular investigation. The findings of the modular investigation assist engineers in reducing their excitement about regular events and turning away the wing from the whirlwind. Based on the findings of the study, planners can prioritise union and examination of the pressure mindfulness range and tremendous twisting region. All in all, the entertainment outcomes demonstrate that the game plan is feasible and further develop the data grade of the lifting surface.

Keywords: FEM, Airbus, NACA, modulus of elasticity, aircraft wing.

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677 Effects of Boundary Conditions on the Dynamic Values of Solid Structures

Authors: F. Kadioglu, M. Z. Polat, A. R. Gunay

Abstract:

Correct measurement of a structural damping value is an important issue for the reliable design of the components exposed to vibratory and noise conditions. As far as a vibrating beam technique is concerned, the specimens under the test somehow are interacted with measuring and exciting devices, and also with boundary conditions of the test set-up. The aim of this study is to propose a vibrating beam method that offers a non-contact dynamic measurement of solid beam specimens. To evaluate the possible effects of the clamped portion of the specimens with clamped-free ends on the dynamic values (damping and the elastic modulus), the same measuring devices were used, and the results were compared to those with the free-free ends. First, the governing equations of beam specimens related to the free-free and clamped-free boundary conditions were expressed to be able to find their natural frequencies, flexural modulus and damping values. To get a clear idea of the sensitivity of the boundary conditions to the damping values at low, medium and high levels, representative materials were subjected to the tests. The results show that the specimens with low damping values are especially sensitive to the boundary conditions and that the most reliable structural damping values are obtained for the specimens with free-free ends. For the damping values at the low levels, a deviation of about 368% was obtained between the specimens with free-free and clamped-free ends, yet, for those having high inherent damping values, comparable results were obtained. It was obvious that the set-up with clamped-free boundary conditions was not able to produce correct/reliable damping values for the specimens with low inherent damping. 

Keywords: Boundary conditions, damping, dynamic values, non-contact measuring systems, vibrating beam technique.

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676 Vague Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method for Fighter Aircraft Selection

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Fighter aircraft selection is one of the most critical strategies for defense multiple criteria decision-making analysis to increase the decisive power of air defense and its superior power in the defense strategy. Vague set theory is an adequate approach for modeling vagueness, uncertainty, and imprecision in decision-making problems. This study integrates vague set theory and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to support fighter aircraft selection. The proposed method is applied in the selection of fighter aircraft for the Air Force. In the proposed approach, the ratings of alternatives and the importance weights of criteria for fighter aircraft selection are represented by the vague set theory. Finally, an illustrative example for fighter aircraft selection is given to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The fighter aircraft candidates were selected under six criteria including costability, payloadability, maneuverability, speedability, stealthility, and survivability. Analysis results show that the best fighter aircraft is selected with the highest closeness coefficient value. The proposed method can also be applied to solve other multiple criteria decision analysis problems. 

Keywords: fighter aircraft selection, vague set theory, fuzzy set theory, neutrosophic set theory, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, TOPSIS

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675 Smart and Connected Aircraft Cabin: A Balancing Act between Operational Cabin Management, Airline Business and Passenger Expectations

Authors: Ralf God, Lothar Kerschgens, Leonardo Goratti, Steven Lemaire

Abstract:

Ubiquitous connectivity is a reality and a basic need for users on ground. Air travel connectivity in the cabin is also becoming increasingly important for passengers during cabin use. Wireless sensor networks that provide information to cabin management systems are being used by airlines to optimize cabin crew workload. In networked cabin systems, communications and digitally transmitted data must be managed by airlines in every direction. Security and privacy, information processing and knowledge management are the current and future requirements for a smart and connected cabin.

Keywords: Smart and connected cabin management, Internet of Things, power management, airline business.

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674 Intelligent Aid-Analysis Based on the Use of Digital Twin: Application to Electronic Warfare System

Authors: L. Chaussy, M. Nouvel

Abstract:

Workload of the system engineers during Integration Validation Verification process of Electronic Warfare Systems (EWS) is growing with complexity of the systems and with the diversity of tested cases (diversity of operational scenario in front of EWS). Even if the use of Digital Twin makes easier conception and development phases in term of planning and test equipment availability, time to analyze tests results is still too long and too complex. The idea to reduce the system engineer’s workload and improve test coverage is to introduce some intelligent and aid-analysis algorithms to improve this step.

Keywords: Analysis tools, automatic testing, digital twin, electronic warfare system.

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673 Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Fuzzy Preference Optimization Programming (POP)

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

The Turkish Air Force needs to acquire a sixth- generation fighter aircraft in order to maintain its air superiority and dominance against its rivals under the risks posed by global geopolitical opportunities and threats. Accordingly, five evaluation criteria were determined to evaluate the sixth-generation fighter aircraft alternatives and to select the best one. Systematically, a new fuzzy preference optimization programming (POP) method is proposed to select the best sixth generation fighter aircraft in an uncertain environment. The POP technique considers both quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach, it is applied to a multiple criteria decision-making problem to evaluate and select sixth-generation fighter aircraft. The results of the fuzzy POP method are compared with the results of the fuzzy TOPSIS approach to validate it. According to the comparative analysis, fuzzy POP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods get the same results. This demonstrates the applicability of the fuzzy POP technique to address the sixth-generation fighter selection problem.

Keywords: Fighter aircraft selection, sixth-generation fighter aircraft, fuzzy decision process, multiple criteria decision making, preference optimization programming, POP, TOPSIS, Kizilelma, MIUS, fuzzy set theory

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672 Fuzzy Uncertainty Theory for Stealth Fighter Aircraft Selection in Entropic Fuzzy TOPSIS Decision Analysis Process

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present fuzzy TOPSIS in an entropic fuzzy environment. Due to the ambiguous concepts often represented in decision data, exact values are insufficient to model real-life situations. In this paper, the rating of each alternative is defined in fuzzy linguistic terms, which can be expressed with triangular fuzzy numbers. The weight of each criterion is then derived from the decision matrix using the entropy weighting method. Next, a vertex method is proposed to calculate the distance between two triangular fuzzy numbers. According to the TOPSIS concept, a closeness coefficient is defined to determine the ranking order of all alternatives by simultaneously calculating the distances to both the fuzzy positive-ideal solution (FPIS) and the fuzzy negative-ideal solution (FNIS). Finally, an illustrative example of selecting stealth fighter aircraft is shown at the end of this article to highlight the procedure of the proposed method. Correlation analysis and validation analysis using TOPSIS, WSM, and WPM methods were performed to compare the ranking order of the alternatives.

Keywords: stealth fighter aircraft selection, fuzzy uncertainty theory (FUT), fuzzy entropic decision (FED), fuzzy linguistic variables, triangular fuzzy numbers, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, TOPSIS, WSM, WPM

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671 Simulation for Squat Exercise of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Ziraguen O. Williams, Shield B. Lin, Fouad N. Matari, Leslie J. Quiocho

Abstract:

In a task to assist NASA in analyzing the dynamic forces caused by operational countermeasures of an astronaut’s exercise platform impacting the spacecraft, feedback delay and signal noise were added to a simulation model of an active controlled vibration isolation and stabilization system to regulate the movement of the exercise platform. Two additional simulation tools used in this study were Trick and MBDyn, software simulation environments developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Simulation results obtained from these three tools were very similar. All simulation results support the hypothesis that an active controlled vibration isolation and stabilization system outperforms a passive controlled system even with the addition of feedback delay and signal noise to the active controlled system. In this paper, squat exercise was used in creating excited force to the simulation model. The exciter force from squat exercise was calculated from motion capture of an exerciser. The simulation results demonstrate much greater transmitted force reduction in the active controlled system than the passive controlled system.

Keywords: Astronaut, counterweight, stabilization, vibration.

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670 Aerodynamic Design of Three-Dimensional Bellmouth for Low-Speed Open-Circuit Wind Tunnel

Authors: Harshavardhan Reddy, Balaji Subramanian

Abstract:

A systematic parametric study to find the optimum Bellmouth profile by relating geometric and performance parameters to satisfy a set of specifications is reported. A careful aerodynamic design of Bellmouth intake is critical to properly direct the flow with minimal losses and maximal flow uniformity into the honeycomb located inside the settling chamber of an indraft wind tunnel, thus improving the efficiency of the entire unit. Design charts for elliptically profiled Bellmouth's with two different contraction ratios (9 and 18) and three different test section speeds (25 m/s, 50 m/s, and 75 m/s) were presented. A significant performance improvement - especially in the coefficient of discharge and in the flow angularity and boundary layer thickness at the honeycomb inlet - was observed when an entry corner radius (r/D = 0.08) was added to the Bellmouth profile. The nonuniformity at the honeycomb inlet drops by about three times (~1% to 0.3%) when moving from square to regular octagonal cross-section. An octagonal cross-sectioned Bellmouth intake with L/d = 0.55, D/d = 1.625, and r/D = 0.08 met all the four target performance specifications and is proposed as the best choice for a low-speed wind tunnel.

Keywords: Bellmouth intake, low-speed wind tunnel, coefficient of discharge, nonuniformity, flow angularity, boundary layer thickness, CFD, aerodynamics.

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669 Aerodynamic Analysis and Design of Banners for Remote-Controlled Aircraft

Authors: Peyman Honarmandi, Mazen Alhirsh

Abstract:

Banner towing is a major form of advertisement. It consists of a banner showing a logo or a selection of words or letters being towed by an aircraft. Traditionally bush planes have been used to tow banners given their high thrust capabilities, however, with the development of Remote-Controlled (RC) aircraft, they could be a good replacement as RC planes mitigate the risk of human life and can be easier to operate. This paper studies the best banner design to be towed by an RC aircraft. This is done by conducting wind tunnel testing on an array of banners with different materials and designs. A pull gauge is used to record the drag force during testing which is then used to calculate the coefficient of drag, Cd. The testing results show that the best banner design would be a hybrid design with a solid and mesh material. The design with the lowest Cd of 0.082 was a half ripstop nylon half polyester mesh design. On the other hand, the design with highest Cd of 0.305 involved incorporating a tail chute to decrease fluttering.

Keywords: Aerodynamics of banner, banner design, banner towing, drag coefficients of banner, RC aircraft banner.

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668 Visual Odometry and Trajectory Reconstruction for UAVs

Authors: Sandro Bartolini, Alessandro Mecocci, Alessio Medaglini

Abstract:

The growing popularity of systems based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is highlighting their vulnerability particularly in relation to the positioning system used. Typically, UAV architectures use the civilian GPS which is exposed to a number of different attacks, such as jamming or spoofing. This is why it is important to develop alternative methodologies to accurately estimate the actual UAV position without relying on GPS measurements only. In this paper we propose a position estimate method for UAVs based on monocular visual odometry. We have developed a flight control system capable of keeping track of the entire trajectory travelled, with a reduced dependency on the availability of GPS signal. Moreover, the simplicity of the developed solution makes it applicable to a wide range of commercial drones. The final goal is to allow for safer flights in all conditions, even under cyber-attacks trying to deceive the drone.

Keywords: Visual odometry, autonomous UAV, position measurement, autonomous outdoor flight.

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667 Embedded Electrochemistry with a Miniaturized, Drone-Based, Potentiostat System for Remote Detection Chemical Warfare Agents

Authors: Amer Dawoud, Rashid Mia, Arati Biswakarma, Jesy Motchaalangaram, Wujan Miao, Karl Wallace

Abstract:

The development of an embedded miniaturized drone-based system for remote detection of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) is proposed. The paper focuses on the software/hardware system design of the electrochemical Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) signal processing for future deployment on drones. The paper summarizes the progress made towards hardware and electrochemical signal processing for signature detection of CWA. Also, the miniature potentiostat signal is validated by comparing it with the high-end lab potentiostat signal.

Keywords: Drone-based, remote detection chemical warfare agents, miniaturized, potentiostat.

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666 Experimental Investigation of Natural Frequency and Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam under Displacement of Concentrated Mass and Load

Authors: Aref Aasi, Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Balaji Panchapakesan

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the free and forced vibration of a beam with two end joints subjected to a concentrated moving mass and a load using the Euler-Bernoulli method. The natural frequency is calculated for different locations of the concentrated mass and load on the beam. The analytical results are verified by the experimental data. The variations of natural frequency as a function of the location of the mass, the effect of the forced frequency on the vibrational amplitude, and the displacement amplitude versus time are investigated. It is discovered that as the concentrated mass moves toward the center of the beam, the natural frequency of the beam and the relative error between experimental and analytical data decreases. There is a close resemblance between analytical data and experimental observations.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, natural frequency, forced vibration, experimental setup.

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