Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 356

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Urban and Civil Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

356 Alkali Activation of Fly Ash, Metakaolin and Slag Blends: Fresh and Hardened Properties

Authors: Weiliang Gong, Lissa Gomes, Lucile Raymond, Hui Xu, Werner Lutze, Ian L. Pegg

Abstract:

Alkali-activated materials, particularly geopolymers, have attracted much interest in academia. Commercial applications are on the rise, as well. Geopolymers are produced typically by a reaction of one or two aluminosilicates with an alkaline solution at room temperature. Fly ash is an important aluminosilicate source. However, using low-Ca fly ash, the byproduct of burning hard or black coal reacts and sets slowly at room temperature. The development of mechanical durability, e.g., compressive strength, is slow as well. The use of fly ashes with relatively high contents ( > 6%) of unburned carbon, i.e., high loss on ignition (LOI), is particularly disadvantageous as well. This paper will show to what extent these impediments can be mitigated by mixing the fly ash with one or two more aluminosilicate sources. The fly ash used here is generated at the Orlando power plant (Florida, USA). It is low in Ca ( < 1.5% CaO) and has a high LOI of > 6%. The additional aluminosilicate sources are metakaolin and blast furnace slag. Binary fly ash-metakaolin and ternary fly ash-metakaolin-slag geopolymers were prepared. Properties of geopolymer pastes before and after setting have been measured. Fresh mixtures of aluminosilicates with an alkaline solution were studied by Vicat needle penetration, rheology, and isothermal calorimetry up to initial setting and beyond. The hardened geopolymers were investigated by SEM/EDS and the compressive strength was measured. Initial setting (fluid to solid transition) was indicated by a rapid increase in yield stress and plastic viscosity. The rheological times of setting were always smaller than the Vicat times of setting. Both times of setting decreased with increasing replacement of fly ash with blast furnace slag in a ternary fly ash-metakaolin-slag geopolymer system. As expected, setting with only Orlando fly ash was the slowest. Replacing 20% fly ash with metakaolin shortened the set time. Replacing increasing fractions of fly ash in the binary system by blast furnace slag (up to 30%) shortened the time of setting even further. The 28-day compressive strength increased drastically from < 20 MPa to 90 MPa. The most interesting finding relates to the calorimetric measurements. The use of two or three aluminosilicates generated significantly more heat (20 to 65%) than the calculated from the weighted sum of the individual aluminosilicates. This synergetic heat contributes or may be responsible for most of the increase of compressive strength of our binary and ternary geopolymers. The synergetic heat effect may be also related to increased incorporation of calcium in sodium aluminosilicate hydrate to form a hybrid (N,C)A-S-H) gel. The time of setting will be correlated with heat release and maximum heat flow.

Keywords: alkali-activated materials, binary and ternary geopolymers, blends of fly ash, metakaolin and blast furnace slag, rheology, synergetic heats

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355 Impacts of Low-Density Polyethylene (Plastic Shopping Bags) on Structural Strength and Permeability of Hot-Mix-Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Chayanon Boonyuid

Abstract:

This paper experiments the effects of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the structural strength and permeability of hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) pavements. Different proportions of bitumen (4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5% and 6% of total aggregates) and plastic (5%, 10% and 15% of bitumen) contents in HMA mixtures were investigated to estimate the optimum mixture of bitumen and plastic in HMA pavement with long-term performance. Marshall Tests and Falling Head Tests were performed to experiment the structure strength and permeability of HMA mixtures with different percentages of plastic materials and bitumen. The laboratory results show that the optimum binder content was 5.5% by weight of aggregates with higher contents of plastic materials, increase structural stability, reduce permanent deformation, increase ductility, and improve fatigue life of HMA pavements. The use of recycled plastic shopping bags can reduce the use of bitumen content by 0.5% - 1% in HMA mixtures resulting in cheaper material costs with better long-term performance. The plastic materials increase the impermeability of HMA pavements. This study has two-fold contributions: optimum contents of both bitumen and plastic materials in HMA mixtures and the impacts of plastic materials on the permeability of HMA pavements.

Keywords: plastic bags, bitumen, structural strength, permeability

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354 Stress Concentration Trend for Combined Loading Conditions

Authors: Aderet M. Pantierer, Shmuel Pantierer, Raphael Cordina, Yougashwar Budhoo

Abstract:

Stress concentration occurs when there is an abrupt change in geometry, a mechanical part under loading. These changes in geometry can include holes, notches, or cracks within the component. The modifications create larger stress within the part. This maximum stress is difficult to determine, as it is directly at the point of the minimum area. Strain gauges have yet to be developed to analyze stresses at such minute areas. Therefore, a stress concentration factor must be utilized. The stress concentration factor is a dimensionless parameter calculated solely on the geometry of a part. The factor is multiplied by the nominal, or average, stress of the component, which can be found analytically or experimentally. Stress concentration graphs exist for common loading conditions and geometrical configurations to aid in the determination of the maximum stress a part can withstand. These graphs were developed from historical data yielded from experimentation. This project seeks to verify a stress concentration graph for combined loading conditions. The aforementioned graph was developed using CATIA Finite Element Analysis software. The results of this analysis will be validated through further testing. The 3D modeled parts will be subjected to further finite element analysis using Patran-Nastran software. The finite element models will then be verified by testing physical specimen using a tensile testing machine. Once the data is validated, the unique stress concentration graph will be submitted for publication so it can aid engineers in future projects.

Keywords: stress concentration, finite element analysis, finite element models, combined loading

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353 Analysis on the Building Energy Performance of a Retrofitted Residential Building with RETScreen Expert Software

Authors: Abdulhameed Babatunde Owolabi, Benyoh Emmanuel Kigha Nsafon, Jeung-Soo Huh

Abstract:

Energy efficiency measures for residential buildings in South Korea is a national issue because most of the apartments built in the last decades were constructed without proper energy efficiency measures making the energy performance of old buildings to be very poor when compared with new buildings. However, the adoption of advanced building technologies and regulatory building codes are effective energy efficiency strategies for new construction. There is a need to retrofits the existing building using energy conservation measures (ECMs) equipment’s in order to conserve energy and reduce GHGs emissions. To achieve this, the Institute for Global Climate Change and Energy (IGCCE), Kyungpook National University (KNU), Daegu, South Korea employed RETScreen Expert software to carry out measurement and verification (M&V) analysis on an existing building in Korea by using six years gas consumption data collected from Daesung Energy Co., Ltd in order to determine the building energy performance after the introduction of ECM. Through the M&V, energy efficiency is attained, and the resident doubt was reduced. From the analysis, a total of 657 Giga Joules (GJ) of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was consumed at the rate of 0.34 GJ/day having a peak in the year 2015, which cost the occupant the sum of $10,821.

Keywords: energy efficiency, measurement and verification, performance analysis, RETScreen experts

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352 A Qualitative Inquiry of Institutional Responsiveness in Public Land Development in the Urban Areas in Sri Lanka

Authors: Priyanwada I. Singhapathirana

Abstract:

The public land ownership is a common phenomenon in many countries in the world however, the development approaches and the institutional structures are greatly diverse. The existing scholarship around public land development has been greatly limited to Europe and advanced Asian economies. Inferences of such studies seem to be inadequate and inappropriate to comprehend the peculiarities of public land development in developing Asian economies. The absence of critical inquiry on the public land ownership and the long-established institutional structures which govern the development has restrained these countries from institutional innovations. In this context, this research investigates the issues related to public land development and the institutional responses in Sri Lanka. This study introduces the concept of ‘Institutional Responsiveness’ in Public land development, which is conceptualized as the ability of the institutions to respond to the spatial, market and fiscal stimulus. The inquiry was carried out through in-depth interviews with five key informants from apex public agencies in order to explore the responsiveness of land institutions form decision-makers' perspectives. Further, the analysis of grey literature and recent media reports are used to supplement the analysis. As per the findings, long term abandonment of public lands and high transaction costs are some of the key issues in relation to public land development. The inability of the institutions to respond to the market and fiscal stimulus has left many potential public lands underutilized. As a result, the public sector itself and urban citizens have not been able to relish the benefits of the public lands in cities. Spatial analysis at the local scale is suggested for future studies in order to capture the multiple dimensions of the responsiveness of institutions to the development stimulus.

Keywords: institutions, public land, responsiveness, under-utilization

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351 Influence оf Viscous Dampers on Seismic Response оf Isolated Bridges Including Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Marija Vitanova, Aleksandra Bogdanovic, Kemal Edip, Viktor Hristovski, Vlado Micov

Abstract:

Bridges represent critical structures in lifeline systems. They provide reliable modes of transportation, so their failure can seriously obstruct relief and rehabilitation work. Earthquake ground motions can cause significant damages in bridges, so during the strong earthquakes, they can easily collapse. The base isolation technique has been quite effective in seismic response mitigation of the bridges in reducing the piers base shear. The effect of soil structure interaction on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three span girder bridge with viscous dampers is investigated. Viscous dampers are installed in the mid span of the bridge to control bearing displacement. The soil surrounding the foundation of piers has been analyzed by applying different soil densities in order to consider the soil stiffness. The soil medium has been assumed as a four layered infill as dense and loose medium. The boundaries in the soil medium are considered as infinite elements in order to absorb the radiating waves. The formulation of infinite elements is the same as for the finite elements in addition to the mapping of the domain. Based on the iso-parametric concept, the infinite element in global coordinate is mapped onto an element in local coordinate system. In the formulation of the infinite element, only the positive direction extends to infinity thus allowing the waves to propagate outside of the soil medium. Dynamic analyses for two levels of earthquake intensity are performed in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the isolated and controlled isolated bridges are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the piers has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with the installation of the viscous dampers.

Keywords: viscous dampers, reinforced concrete girder bridges, seismic response, SSI

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350 An Interactive User-Oriented Approach to Optimizing Public Space Lighting

Authors: Tamar Trop, Boris Portnov

Abstract:

Public Space Lighting (PSL) of outdoor urban areas promotes comfort, defines spaces and neighborhood identities, enhances perceived safety and security, and contributes to residential satisfaction and wellbeing. However, if excessive or misdirected, PSL leads to unnecessary energy waste and increased greenhouse gas emissions, poses a non-negligible threat to the nocturnal environment, and may become a potential health hazard. At present, PSL is designed according to international, regional, and national standards, which consolidate best practice. Yet, knowledge regarding the optimal light characteristics needed for creating a perception of personal comfort and safety in densely populated residential areas, and the factors associated with this perception, is still scarce. The presented study suggests a paradigm shift in designing PSL towards a user-centered approach, which incorporates pedestrians' perspectives into the process. The study is an ongoing joint research project between China and Israel Ministries of Science and Technology. Its main objectives are to reveal inhabitants' perceptions of and preferences for PSL in different densely populated neighborhoods in China and Israel, and to develop a model that links instrumentally measured parameters of PSL (e.g., intensity, spectra and glare) with its perceived comfort and quality, while controlling for three groups of attributes: locational, temporal, and individual. To investigate measured and perceived PSL, the study employed various research methods and data collection tools, developed a location-based mobile application, and used multiple data sources, such as satellite multi-spectral night-time light imagery, census statistics, and detailed planning schemes. One of the study’s preliminary findings is that higher sense of safety in the investigated neighborhoods is not associated with higher levels of light intensity. This implies potential for energy saving in brightly illuminated residential areas. Study findings might contribute to the design of a smart and adaptive PSL strategy that enhances pedestrians’ perceived safety and comfort while reducing light pollution and energy consumption.

Keywords: energy efficiency, light pollution, public space lighting, PSL, safety perceptions

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349 Actually Existing Policy Mobilities in Czechia: Comparing Creative and Smart Cities

Authors: Ondrej Slach, Jan Machacek, Jan Zenka, Lucie Hyllova, Petr Rumpel

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to identify and asses different trajectories of two fashionable urban policies –creative and smart cities– in specific post-socialistic context. Drawing on the case of Czechia, we employ the concept of policy mobility research. More specifically, we employ a discourse analysis in order to identify the so-called 'infrastructure' of both policies (such as principal actors, journals, conferences, events), with the special focus on 'agents of transfer' in a multiscale perspective. The preliminary results indicate faster and more aggressive spatial penetration of smart cities policy compared to creative cities policy in Czechia. Further, it seems that existed translation and implementation of smart cities policy into the national and urban context resulted in deliberated fragmented policy of smart cities in Czechia (pure technocratic view), which might be a threat for the future development of social sustainability, especially in cities that are facing increasing social polarisation. Last but not least, due to the fast spatial penetration of the concept and policies of smart cities, it seems that creative cities policy has almost been crowded out of the Czech urban agenda.

Keywords: policy mobility, smart cities, creative cities, Czechia

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348 The Impact of Public Open Space System on Housing Price in Chicago

Authors: Si Chen, Le Zhang, Xian He

Abstract:

The research explored the influences of public open space system on housing price through hedonic models, in order to support better open space plans and economic policies. We have three initial hypotheses: 1) public open space system has an overall positive influence on surrounding housing prices. 2) Different public open space types have different levels of influence on motivating surrounding housing prices. 3) Walking and driving accessibilities from property to public open spaces have different statistical relation with housing prices. Cook County, Illinois, was chosen to be a study area since data availability, sufficient open space types, and long-term open space preservation strategies. We considered the housing attributes, driving and walking accessibility scores from houses to nearby public open spaces, and driving accessibility scores to hospitals as influential features and used real housing sales price in 2010 as a dependent variable in the built hedonic model. Through ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, General Moran’s I analysis and geographically weighted regression analysis, we observed the statistical relations between public open spaces and housing sale prices in the three built hedonic models and confirmed all three hypotheses.

Keywords: hedonic model, public open space, housing sale price, regression analysis, accessibility score

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347 Residential Satisfaction and Public Perception of Socialized Housing Projects in Davao City, Philippines

Authors: Micah Amor P. Yares

Abstract:

Aside from the provision of adequate housing, the Philippine government faces the challenge of ensuring that the housing units provided conform to the Filipino’s ambition to self as manifested by owning a small house on a big lot. The study aimed to explore the levels of satisfaction of end-users and the public perception towards socialized housing in Davao City, Philippines. The residential satisfaction survey includes three types of respondents, which are end-users of single-detached, duplex and rowhouse socialized housing units. Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction and perception to the following housing components: Dwelling Unit; Public Facilities; Social Environment; Neighborhood Facilities; Management Systems; and Acquisition and Financing. The data were subjected to Exploratory Factor Analysis to determine if variables can be grouped together, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to measure if the model fits the construct. In determining which component affects the level of perception and satisfaction, a Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was employed. Lastly, an Individual Samples T-Test was performed to compare the levels of satisfaction and perception among respondents. Results revealed that residents of socialized housing were highly satisfied with their living conditions despite concerns on management systems, public and neighborhood facilities. Residents' satisfaction is primarily influenced by the Social Environment, Acquisition and Financing, and the Dwelling Unit. However, a significant difference in residential satisfaction level was observed among different types of housing with rowhouse residents recording the lowest satisfaction level compared to single-detached and duplex units. Moreover, the general public perceived Socialized housing as moderately satisfactory having the same determinant as the end-users aside from the Public Facilities. This study recommends revisiting the current Socialized Housing policies by considering the feedback from the end-users based on their lived experience and the public according to their perception.

Keywords: public perception, residential satisfaction, rowhouse, socialized housing

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346 Mapping of Urban Micro-Climate in Lyon (France) by Integrating Complementary Predictors at Different Scales into Multiple Linear Regression Models

Authors: Lucille Alonso, Florent Renard

Abstract:

The characterizations of urban heat island (UHI) and their interactions with climate change and urban climates are the main research and public health issue, due to the increasing urbanization of the population. These solutions require a better knowledge of the UHI and micro-climate in urban areas, by combining measurements and modelling. This study is part of this topic by evaluating microclimatic conditions in dense urban areas in the Lyon Metropolitan Area (France) using a combination of data traditionally used such as topography, but also from LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, Landsat 8 satellite observation and Sentinel and ground measurements by bike. These bicycle-dependent weather data collections are used to build the database of the variable to be modelled, the air temperature, over Lyon’s hyper-center. This study aims to model the air temperature, measured during 6 mobile campaigns in Lyon in clear weather, using multiple linear regressions based on 33 explanatory variables. They are of various categories such as meteorological parameters from remote sensing, topographic variables, vegetation indices, the presence of water, humidity, bare soil, buildings, radiation, urban morphology or proximity and density to various land uses (water surfaces, vegetation, bare soil, etc.). The acquisition sources are multiple and come from the Landsat 8 and Sentinel satellites, LiDAR points, and cartographic products downloaded from an open data platform in Greater Lyon. Regarding the presence of low, medium, and high vegetation, the presence of buildings and ground, several buffers close to these factors were tested (5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500m). The buffers with the best linear correlations with air temperature for ground are 5m around the measurement points, for low and medium vegetation, and for building 50m and for high vegetation is 100m. The explanatory model of the dependent variable is obtained by multiple linear regression of the remaining explanatory variables (Pearson correlation matrix with a |r| < 0.7 and VIF with < 5) by integrating a stepwise sorting algorithm. Moreover, holdout cross-validation is performed, due to its ability to detect over-fitting of multiple regression, although multiple regression provides internal validation and randomization (80% training, 20% testing). Multiple linear regression explained, on average, 72% of the variance for the study days, with an average RMSE of only 0.20°C. The impact on the model of surface temperature in the estimation of air temperature is the most important variable. Other variables are recurrent such as distance to subway stations, distance to water areas, NDVI, digital elevation model, sky view factor, average vegetation density, or building density. Changing urban morphology influences the city's thermal patterns. The thermal atmosphere in dense urban areas can only be analysed on a microscale to be able to consider the local impact of trees, streets, and buildings. There is currently no network of fixed weather stations sufficiently deployed in central Lyon and most major urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to use mobile measurements, followed by modelling to characterize the city's multiple thermal environments.

Keywords: air temperature, LIDAR, multiple linear regression, surface temperature, urban heat island

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345 Collapse Capacity and Energy Absorption Mechanism of High Rise Steel Moment Frame Considering Aftershock Effects

Authors: Mohammadmehdi Torfehnejad, Serhan Sensoy

Abstract:

Many structures sustain damage during a mainshock earthquake but undergo severe damage under aftershocks following the mainshock. Past researches have studied aftershock effects through different methodologies, but few structural systems have been evaluated for these effects. Collapse capacity and energy absorption mechanism of the Special Steel Moment Frame (SSMF) system is evaluated in this study, under aftershock earthquakes when prior damage is caused by the mainshock. A twenty-story building is considered in assessing the residual collapse capacity and energy absorption mechanism under aftershock excitation. In addition, various levels of mainshock damage are considered and reflected through two different response parameters. Aftershock collapse capacity is estimated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) applied following the mainshock. The study results reveal that the collapse capacity of high-rise structures undergoes a remarkable reduction for high level of mainshock damage. The energy absorption in the columns is decreased by increasing the level of mainshock damage.

Keywords: seismic collapse, mainshock-aftershock effect, incremental dynamic analysis, energy absorption

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344 A Protocol of Procedures and Interventions to Accelerate Post-Earthquake Reconstruction

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

Abstract:

The Italian experiences, positive and negative, of the post-earthquake are conditioned by long times and structural bureaucratic constraints, also motivated by the attempt to contain mafia infiltration and corruption. The transition from the operational phase of the emergency to the planning phase of the reconstruction project is thus hampered by a series of inefficiencies and delays, incompatible with the need for rapid recovery of the territories in crisis. In fact, intervening in areas affected by seismic events means at the same time associating the reconstruction plan with an urban and territorial rehabilitation project based on strategies and tools in which prevention and safety play a leading role in the regeneration of territories in crisis and the return of the population. On the contrary, the earthquakes that took place in Italy have instead further deprived the territories affected of the minimum requirements for habitability, in terms of accessibility and services, accentuating the depopulation process, already underway before the earthquake. The objective of this work is to address with implementing and programmatic tools the procedures and strategies to be put in place, today and in the future, in Italy and abroad, to face the challenge of the reconstruction of activities, sociality, services, risk mitigation: a protocol of operational intentions and firm points, open to a continuous updating and implementation. The methodology followed is that of the comparison in a synthetic form between the different Italian experiences of the post-earthquake, based on facts and not on intentions, to highlight elements of excellence or, on the contrary, damage. The main results obtained can be summarized in technical comparison cards on good and bad practices. With this comparison, we intend to make a concrete contribution to the reconstruction process, certainly not only related to the reconstruction of buildings but privileging the primary social and economic needs. In this context, the recent instrument applied in Italy of the strategic urban and territorial SUM (Minimal Urban Structure) and the strategic monitoring process become dynamic tools for supporting reconstruction. The conclusions establish, by points, a protocol of interventions, the priorities for integrated socio-economic strategies, multisectoral and multicultural, and highlight the innovative aspects of 'inversion' of priorities in the reconstruction process, favoring the take-off of 'accelerator' interventions social and economic and a more updated system of coexistence with risks. In this perspective, reconstruction as a necessary response to the calamitous event can and must become a unique opportunity to raise the level of protection from risks and rehabilitation and development of the most fragile places in Italy and abroad.

Keywords: an operational protocol for reconstruction, operational priorities for coexistence with seismic risk, social and economic interventions accelerators of building reconstruction, the difficult post-earthquake reconstruction in Italy

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343 Structural and Microstructural Analysis of White Etching Layer Formation by Electrical Arcing Induced on the Surface of Rail Track

Authors: Ali Ahmed Ali Al-Juboori, H. Zhu, D. Wexler, H. Li, C. Lu, J. McLeod, S. Pannila, J. Barnes

Abstract:

A number of studies have focused on the formation mechanics of white etching layer and its origin in the railway operation. Until recently, the following hypotheses consider the precise mechanics of WELs formation: (i) WELs are the result of thermal process caused by wheel slip; (ii) WELs are mechanically induced by severe plastic deformation; (iii) WELs are caused by a combination of thermo-mechanical process. The mechanisms discussed above lead to occurrence of white etching layers on the area of wheel and rail contact. This is because the contact patch which is the active point of the wheel on the rail is exposed to highest shear stresses which result in localised severe plastic deformation; and highest rate of heat caused by wheel slipe during excessive traction or braking effort. However, if the WELs are not on the running band area, it would suggest that there is another cause of WELs formation. In railway system, particularly electrified railway, arcing phenomenon has been occurring more often and regularly on the rails. In electrified railway, the current is delivered to the train traction motor via contact wires and then returned to the station via the contact between the wheel and the rail. If the contact between the wheel and the rail is temporarily losing, due to dynamic vibration, entrapped dirt or water, lubricant effect or oxidation occurrences, high current can jump through the gap and results in arcing. The other resources of arcing also include the wheel passage the insulated joint and lightning on a train during bad weather. During the arcing, an extensive heat is generated and speared over a large area of top surface of rail. Thus, arcing is considered another heat source in the rail head (rather than wheel slipe) that results in microstructural changes and white etching layer formation. A head hardened (HH) rail steel, cut from a curved rail truck was used for the investigation. Samples were sectioned from a depth of 10 mm below the rail surface, where the material is considered to be still within the hardened layer but away from any microstructural changes on the top surface layer caused by train passage. These samples were subjected to electrical discharges by using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) machine. The arc current was controlled and moved along the samples surface in the direction of travel, as indicated by an arrow. Five different conditions were applied on the surface of the samples. Samples containing pre-existed WELs, taken from ex-service rail surface, were also considered in this study for comparison. Both simulated and ex-serviced WELs were characterised by advanced methods including SEM, TEM, TKD, EDS, XRD. Samples for TEM and TKFD were prepared by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling. The results showed that both simulated WELs by electrical arcing and ex-service WEL comprise similar microstructure. Brown etching layer was found with WELs and likely induced by a concurrent tempering process. This study provided a clear understanding of new formation mechanics of WELs which contributes to track maintenance procedure.

Keywords: white etching layer, arcing, brown etching layer, material characterisation

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342 Protection from Risks of Natural Disasters and Social and Economic Support to the Native Population

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

Abstract:

The risk of natural disasters affects all the countries of the world, whether it refers to seismic events or tsunamis or hydrogeological disasters. In most cases, the risk can be considered in its three components: hazard, exposure, vulnerability (and urban vulnerability). The aim of this paper is to evaluate how the Italian scientific community has related the contribution of these three components, superimposing the three different maps that summarize the fundamental structure of the risk. Based on the three components considered, the study applies the Regional Planning methodology on the three phases of the risk protection and mitigation process: the prevention phase, the emergency intervention phase, the post-disaster phase. The paper illustrates the Italian experience of the pre-during-post-earthquake intervention. Main results: The study deepens these aspects in the belief that “a historical center” and an “island” can present similar problems at the international level, both in the phase of prevention (earthquake, tsunamis, hydrogeological disasters), in emergency phase (protocols and procedures of intervention) and in the post-disaster phase. The conclusions of the research identify the need to plan in advance how to deal with the post-disaster phase and consider it a priority with respect to the simple reconstruction of destroyed buildings. In fact the main result of the post-disaster intervention must be the return and the social and economic support of the indigenous population, and not only the construction of new housing and equipment. In this sense, the results of the research show that the elderly inhabitants of a historic center can be compared to the indigenous population of an atoll of fishermen, as both constitute the most important resource: the human resource. Their return in conditions of security testifies, with their presence, the culture, customs, and values rooted in the history of a people.

Keywords: post-disaster interventions, risk of natural disasters in Italy and abroad, seismic events in Italy, social and economic protection and support for the native population of historical centers

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341 Using Collaborative Planning to Develop a Guideline for Integrating Biodiversity into Land Use Schemes

Authors: Sagwata A. Manyike, Hulisani Magada

Abstract:

The South African National Biodiversity Institute is in the process of developing a guideline which sets out how biodiversity can be incorporated into land use (zoning) schemes. South Africa promulgated its Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act in 2015 and the act seeks, amongst other things, to bridge the gap between spatial planning and land use management within the country. In addition, the act requires local governments to develop wall-to-wall land use schemes for their entire jurisdictions as they had previously only developed them for their urban areas. At the same time, South Africa has a rich history of systematic conservation planning whereby Critical Biodiversity Areas and Ecological Support Areas have been spatially delineated at a scale appropriate for spatial planning and land use management at the scale of local government. South Africa is also in the process of spatially delineating ecological infrastructure which is defined as naturally occurring ecosystems which provide valuable services to people such as water and climate regulation, soil formation, disaster risk reduction, etc. The Biodiversity and Land Use Project, which is funded by the Global Environmental Facility through the United Nations Development Programme is seeking to explore ways in which biodiversity information and ecological infrastructure can be incorporated into the spatial planning and land use management systems of local governments. Towards this end, the Biodiversity and Land Use Project have developed a guideline which sets out how local governments can integrate biodiversity into their land-use schemes as a way of not only ensuring sustainable development but also as a way helping them prepare for climate change. In addition, by incorporating biodiversity into land-use schemes, the project is exploring new ways of protecting biodiversity through land use schemes. The Guideline for Incorporating Biodiversity into Land Use Schemes was developed as a response to the fact that the National Land Use Scheme Guidelines only indicates that local governments needed to incorporate biodiversity without explaining how this could be achieved. The Natioanl Guideline also failed to specify which biodiversity-related layers are compatible with which land uses or what the benefits of incorporating biodiversity into the schemes will be for that local government. The guideline, therefore, sets out an argument for why biodiversity is important in land management processes and proceeds to provide a step by step guideline for how schemes can integrate priority biodiversity layers. This guideline will further be added as an addendum to the National Land Use Guidelines. Although the planning act calls for local government to have wall to wall schemes within 5 years of its enactment, many municipalities will not meet this deadline and so this guideline will support them in the development of their new schemes.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, land use schemes, local government

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340 Investigations on the Seismic Performance of Hot-Finished Hollow Steel Sections

Authors: Paola Pannuzzo, Tak-Ming Chan

Abstract:

In seismic applications, hollow steel sections show, beyond undeniable esthetical appeal, promising structural advantages since, unlike open section counterparts, they are not susceptible to weak-axis and lateral torsional buckling. In particular, hot-finished hollow steel sections have homogeneous material properties and favorable ductility but have been underutilized for cyclic bending. The main reason is that the parameters affecting their hysteretic behaviors are not yet well understood and, consequently, are not well exploited in existing codes of practice. Therefore, experimental and finite element investigations have been conducted on a wide range of hot-finished rectangular hollow section beams with an aim of providing basic knowledge for evaluating their seismic performance. The section geometry (width-to-thickness and depth-to-thickness ratios) and the type of loading (monotonic and cyclic) have been chosen as the key parameters to investigate the cyclic effect on the rotational capacity and to highlight the differences between monotonic and cyclic load conditions. The test results and the structural performance data generated from FE simulations provide information on the parameters that affect the cyclic performance of hot-finished hollow steel beams and can be used to assess the design provisions stipulated in the current seismic codes of practice.

Keywords: bending, cyclic test, finite element modeling, hollow sections, hot-finished sections

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339 Reaching New Levels: Using Systems Thinking to Analyse a Major Incident Investigation

Authors: Matthew J. I. Woolley, Gemma J. M. Read, Paul M. Salmon, Natassia Goode

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The significance of high consequence, workplace failures within construction continues to resonate with a combined average of 12 fatal incidents occurring daily throughout Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within the Australian construction domain, more than 35 serious, compensable injury incidents are reported daily. These alarming figures, in conjunction with the continued occurrence of fatal and serious, occupational injury incidents globally suggest existing approaches to incident analysis may not be achieving required injury prevention outcomes. One reason may be that, incident analysis methods used in construction have not kept pace with advances in the field of safety science and are not uncovering the full range system-wide contributory factors that are required to achieve optimal levels of construction safety performance. Another reason underpinning this global issue may also be the absence of information surrounding the construction operating and project delivery system. For example, it is not clear who shares the responsibility for construction safety in different contexts. To respond to this issue, to the author’s best knowledge, a first of its kind, control structure model of the construction industry is presented and then used to analyse a fatal construction incident. The model was developed by applying and extending the Systems Theoretic and Incident Model and Process method to hierarchically represent the actors, constraints, feedback mechanisms, and relationships that are involved in managing construction safety performance. The Causal Analysis based on Systems Theory (CAST) method was then used to identify the control and feedback failures involved in the fatal incident. The conclusions from the Coronial investigation into the event are compared with the findings stemming from the CAST analysis. The CAST analysis highlighted additional issues across the construction system that were not identified in the coroner’s recommendations, suggested there is a potential benefit in applying a systems theory approach to incident analysis in construction. The findings demonstrate the utility applying systems theory-based methods to the analysis of construction incidents. Specifically, this study shows the utility of the construction control structure and the potential benefits for project leaders, construction entities, regulators, and construction clients in controlling construction performance.

Keywords: construction project management, construction performance, incident analysis, systems thinking

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338 Factors Affecting Implementation of Construction Health and Safety Regulations, Their Effects and Mitigation Measures in Building Construction Project Sites of Hawassa City

Authors: Tadewos Awugchew Wudineh

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Health and safety issues have always been a major problem and concern in the building construction industry. The health and safety regulations are stated to eliminate the potential hazards and to reduce the consequential risks. However, the importance of the regulations seems to be overlooked in building construction sites of Hawassa City. Accordingly, many companies don’t follow the regulations as construction workers are more likely to be injured and killed by construction accident than any other type of employment. This paper aimed to identify factors that affect the implementation of construction health and safety regulations, their effects and mitigation measures in building construction project sites of Hawassa City. To reach this objective, a review of literature as well as the Ethiopian construction health and safety regulations have been undertaken. Mainly a five-point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed, and statistical analysis was used to summarize, interpret the data, and to find the significances of the responses. In addition, interviews were carried out. Accordingly, the findings indicate that the top factors which affect the implementation of CHS regulations are, availability and development of a clear health and safety policy, health and safety inspections by top management, conducting health and safety training and orientation, provision of healthy and safe working environment and employment of trained safety officers. The study revealed that implementation or non-implementation of CHS regulations have effects on the worker’s productivity, job satisfaction, rate of accidents, and cost greatly. Thus, the suggestion to minimize the impact on worker’s job performance are, developing of a clear health and safety policy, management commitment towards implementation of health and safety regulations, health and safety education and training and conducting regular health and safety inspections. It was concluded from the study that good implementation of health and safety regulations are the results from administrative and management commitment which calls for more attention to be paid to improve the implementation of CHS regulations in building construction sites of Hawassa City.

Keywords: construction health and safety regulations, effects, factors, mitigation

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337 Old and New Paradigms for Pre-Earthquake Prevention and Post-Earthquake Regeneration of Territories in Crisis in Italy

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

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Most of the Italian territory is at seismic risk. Many earthquakes have hit Italy, and devastating effects have been generated. The specific objective of the research is to distinguish the negative approaches that have generated unacceptable social situations of marginalization, abandonment, and economic regression, from positive methodological approaches. On the basis of the different situations examined, the study proposes strategies and guidelines to obtain the best possible results, in Italy or abroad, in the event of new earthquakes. At national and international level, many theoretical studies address the aspects of prevention, while the comparisons, carried out in this study, between the techniques and the operative procedures applied and the results obtained are rare. The adopted methodology compares the different pre-earthquake urban-planning approaches, for the emergency (temporary urban planning), and for the post-earthquake (socio-economic-territorial processes) in Italy. Attention is placed on the current consolidated planning and programming acquisitions, pre and post-earthquake. The main results of the study concern the prospects in Italy of protection from seismic risks in the next decades. An integrated settlement system for a new economic and social model, aimed at the rebirth of territories in crisis, is proposed. Finally, the conclusions describe the disciplinary positions, procedures and the fundamental points generally shared by the scientific community for each approach, in order to identify the strategic choices and the disciplinary and management paths that will be followed in the coming decades.

Keywords: post-earthquake, seismic emergency, seismic prevention, urban planning interventions in Italy

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336 Scheduling of Bus Fleet Departure Time Based on Mathematical Model of Number of Bus Stops for Municipality Bus Organization

Authors: Ali Abdi Kordani, Hamid Bigdelirad, Sid Mohammad Boroomandrad

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Operating Urban Bus Transit System is a phenomenon that has a major role in transporting passengers in cities. There are many factors involved in planning and operating an Urban Bus Transit System, one of which is selecting optimized number of stops and scheduling of bus fleet departure. In this paper, we tried to introduce desirable methodology to select number of stops and schedule properly. Selecting the right number of stops causes convenience in accessibility and reduction in travel time and finally increase in public preference of this transportation mode. The achieved results revealed that number of stops must reduce from 33 to 25. Also according to scheduling and conducted economic analysis, the number of buses must decrease from 17 to 11 to have the most appropriate status for the Bus Organization.

Keywords: number of optimized stops, organizing bus system, scheduling, urban transit

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335 A Geographical Information System Supported Method for Determining Urban Transformation Areas in the Scope of Disaster Risks in Kocaeli

Authors: Tayfun Salihoğlu

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Following the Law No: 6306 on Transformation of Disaster Risk Areas, urban transformation in Turkey found its legal basis. In the best practices all over the World, the urban transformation was shaped as part of comprehensive social programs through the discourses of renewing the economic, social and physical degraded parts of the city, producing spaces resistant to earthquakes and other possible disasters and creating a livable environment. In Turkish practice, a contradictory process is observed. In this study, it is aimed to develop a method for better understanding of the urban space in terms of disaster risks in order to constitute a basis for decisions in Kocaeli Urban Transformation Master Plan, which is being prepared by Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality. The spatial unit used in the study is the 50x50 meter grids. In order to reflect the multidimensionality of urban transformation, three basic components that have spatial data in Kocaeli were identified. These components were named as 'Problems in Built-up Areas', 'Disaster Risks arising from Geological Conditions of the Ground and Problems of Buildings', and 'Inadequacy of Urban Services'. Each component was weighted and scored for each grid. In order to delimitate urban transformation zones Optimized Outlier Analysis (Local Moran I) in the ArcGIS 10.6.1 was conducted to test the type of distribution (clustered or scattered) and its significance on the grids by assuming the weighted total score of the grid as Input Features. As a result of this analysis, it was found that the weighted total scores were not significantly clustering at all grids in urban space. The grids which the input feature is clustered significantly were exported as the new database to use in further mappings. Total Score Map reflects the significant clusters in terms of weighted total scores of 'Problems in Built-up Areas', 'Disaster Risks arising from Geological Conditions of the Ground and Problems of Buildings' and 'Inadequacy of Urban Services'. Resulting grids with the highest scores are the most likely candidates for urban transformation in this citywide study. To categorize urban space in terms of urban transformation, Grouping Analysis in ArcGIS 10.6.1 was conducted to data that includes each component scores in significantly clustered grids. Due to Pseudo Statistics and Box Plots, 6 groups with the highest F stats were extracted. As a result of the mapping of the groups, it can be said that 6 groups can be interpreted in a more meaningful manner in relation to the urban space. The method presented in this study can be magnified due to the availability of more spatial data. By integrating with other data to be obtained during the planning process, this method can contribute to the continuation of research and decision-making processes of urban transformation master plans on a more consistent basis.

Keywords: urban transformation, GIS, disaster risk assessment, Kocaeli

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334 The Effect of Mathematical Modeling of Damping on the Seismic Energy Demands

Authors: Selamawit Dires, Solomon Tesfamariam, Thomas Tannert

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Modern earthquake engineering and design encompass performance-based design philosophy. The main objective in performance-based design is to achieve a system performing precisely to meet the design objectives so to reduce unintended seismic risks and associated losses. Energy-based earthquake-resistant design is one of the design methodologies that can be implemented in performance-based earthquake engineering. In energy-based design, the seismic demand is usually described as the ratio of the hysteretic to input energy. Once the hysteretic energy is known as a percentage of the input energy, it is distributed among energy-dissipating components of a structure. The hysteretic to input energy ratio is highly dependent on the inherent damping of a structural system. In numerical analysis, damping can be modeled as stiffness-proportional, mass-proportional, or a linear combination of stiffness and mass. In this study, the effect of mathematical modeling of damping on the estimation of seismic energy demands is investigated by considering elastic-perfectly-plastic single-degree-of-freedom systems representing short to long period structures. Furthermore, the seismicity of Vancouver, Canada, is used in the nonlinear time history analysis. According to the preliminary results, the input energy demand is not sensitive to the type of damping models deployed. Hence, consistent results are achieved regardless of the damping models utilized in the numerical analyses. On the other hand, the hysteretic to input energy ratios vary significantly for the different damping models.

Keywords: damping, energy-based seismic design, hysteretic energy, input energy

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333 Methodological Approach for Historical Building Retrofit Based on Energy and Cost Analysis in the Different Climatic Zones

Authors: Selin Guleroglu, Ilker Kahraman, E. Selahattin Umdu

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In today’s world, the building sector has a significant impact on primary energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. While new buildings must have high energy performance as indicated by the Energy Performance Directive in Buildings (EPBD), published by the European Union (EU), the energy performance of the existing buildings must also be enhanced with cost-efficient methods. Turkey has a high historical building density similar to south European countries, and the high energy consumption is the main contributor in the energy consumptioın of Turkey, which is rather higher than European counterparts. Historic buildings spread around Turkey for four main climate zones covering very similar climate characteristics to both the north and south European countries. The case study building is determined as the most common building type in Turkey. This study aims to investigate energy retrofit measures covering but not limited to passive and active measures to improve the energy performance of the historical buildings located in different climatic zones within the limits of preservation of the historical value of the building as a crucial constraint. Passive measures include wall, window, and roof construction elements, and active measures HVAC systems in retrofit scenarios. The proposed methodology can help to reach up to 30% energy saving based on primary energy consumption. DesignBuilder, an energy simulation tool, is used to determine the energy performance of buildings with suggested retrofit measures, and the Net Present Value (NPV) method is used for cost analysis of them. Finally, the most efficient energy retrofit measures for all buildings are determined by analyzing primary energy consumption and the cost performance of them. Results show that heat insulation, glazing type, and HVAC system has an important role in energy saving. Also, it found that these parameters have a different positive or negative effect on building energy consumption in different climate zones. For instance, low e glazing has a positive impact on the energy performance of the building in the first zone, while it has a negative effect on the building in the forth zone. Another important result is applying heat insulation has minimum impact on building energy performance compared to other zones.

Keywords: energy performance, climatic zones, historic building, energy retrofit measures, NPV

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332 A Framework and Case Study for Sustainable Development of Urban Areas

Authors: Yasaman Zeinali, Farid Khosravikia

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This paper presents a multi-objective framework for sustainable urban development. The proposed framework aims to address different aspects of sustainability in urban development planning. These aspects include, but are not limited to education, health, job opportunities, architecture, culture, environment, mobility, energy, water, waste, and so on. Then, the proposed framework is applied to the Brackenridge Tract (an area in downtown Austin, Texas), to redevelop that area in a sustainable way. The detail of the implementation process is presented in this paper. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a sustainable area in downtown Austin with ensuring that it locally meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social, environmental, health as well as cultural aspects. Moreover, it helps the city with the population growth problem by accommodating more people in that area.

Keywords: urban planning, sustainability, sustainable urban development, environmental impacts of human activities

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331 Promising Anti-Displacement Practices for High Cost Cities

Authors: Leslie M. Mullins

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In the face of dramatically shifting demographic trends and macroeconomic pressures on affordable housing in high-cost cities, municipalities and developers have been forced to develop new models of sustainable development that integrates elements of substantial rehabilitation and new construction while controlling for relocation and mass displacement. Community development partners in the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California are starting to prioritize anti-displacement strategies when rehabilitating severely neglected public housing developments. This study explored the community-driven efforts to transform four dilapidated public housing sites (N=2,600 households) into thriving mixed-income housing communities. Eight interviews were conducted with frontline workers (property managers and service providers), who directly worked with residents throughout critical stages of the relocation and leasing process. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by a systematic procedure for qualitative analysis to identify key themes on the topics of interest. Also, an extensive literature analysis was conducted to determine promising practices throughout the industry. This study highlighted that resident’s emotional attachment to their homes (regardless of the deteriorating conditions of their unit) could both a) impede the relocation process and substantially impact the budget and timeline, while b) simultaneously providing a basis for an enhanced sense of belonging and community cohesion. This phenomenon often includes the welcoming of new residents and cultures. Resident centered workshops, healing centered rituals, and extensive 'hands-on' guidance was highlighted as promising practices that resulted in residential retention rates that were two to three times the national average and positively impacted the overall project’s budget and timeline.

Keywords: anti-displacement strategies, community based practices, community cohesion, cultural preservation, healing-centered, public housing, relocation, trauma-informed

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330 Development of a 3D Model of Real Estate Properties in Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City, Philippines Using Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Lyka Selene Magnayi, Marcos Vinas, Roseanne Ramos

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As the real estate industry continually grows in the Philippines, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide advantages in generating spatial databases for efficient delivery of information and services. The real estate sector is not only providing qualitative data about real estate properties but also utilizes various spatial aspects of these properties for different applications such as hazard mapping and assessment. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model and a spatial database of real estate properties in Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City are developed using GIS and SketchUp. Spatial datasets include political boundaries, buildings, road network, digital terrain model (DTM) derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) image, Google Earth satellite imageries, and hazard maps. Multiple model layers were created based on property listings by a partner real estate company, including existing and future property buildings. Actual building dimensions, building facade, and building floorplans are incorporated in these 3D models for geovisualization. Hazard model layers are determined through spatial overlays, and different scenarios of hazards are also presented in the models. Animated maps and walkthrough videos were created for company presentation and evaluation. Model evaluation is conducted through client surveys requiring scores in terms of the appropriateness, information content, and design of the 3D models. Survey results show very satisfactory ratings, with the highest average evaluation score equivalent to 9.21 out of 10. The output maps and videos obtained passing rates based on the criteria and standards set by the intended users of the partner real estate company. The methodologies presented in this study were found useful and have remarkable advantages in the real estate industry. This work may be extended to automated mapping and creation of online spatial databases for better storage, access of real property listings and interactive platform using web-based GIS.

Keywords: geovisualization, geographic information systems, GIS, real estate, spatial database, three-dimensional model

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329 Sustainable Housing Framework for the Czech Republic: A Comparative Analysis of International and National Strategies

Authors: Jakub Adamec, Svatava Janouskova, Tomas Hak

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The necessity of sustainable housing is explicitly embedded in ‘The 2030 agenda for sustainable development’, in particular, goal 11 ‘sustainable cities and communities’. Every UN member state is obligated to implement strategies from the agenda, including a strategy for sustainable housing into the practice in the local context. As shown in many countries, the lack of knowledge represses the adaptation process of sustainable strategies by governments. Hence, this study explores the concept of sustainable housing within the Czech Republic. The research elaborates on this term, and its current definition concerning ‘Geneva UN Charter on Sustainable Housing’. To this day, the charter represents the most comprehensive framework for a sustainable housing concept. Researchers conducted a comparative analysis of 38 international and 195 Czech national strategic documents. As a result, the charter‘s and strategic documents‘ goals were interconnected, identifying the most represented targets (e.g. improved environmental and energy performance of dwellings, resilient urban settlements which use renewable energy, and sustainable and integrated transport systems). The research revealed, even though the concept of sustainable housing is still dominated by environmental aspects, that social aspects significantly increased its importance. Additionally, this theoretical framework will serve as a foundation for the sustainable housing index development for the Czech Republic.

Keywords: comparative analysis, Czech national strategy, Geneva un charter, sustainable housing, urban theory

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328 Dwelling in the Built Environment: The Resilience by Design in Modular Thinking toward an Adaptive Alternatives

Authors: Tzen-Ying Ling

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Recently, the resilience of dwellings in urban areas has been deliberated, as to accommodate the growing demand for changing the demography and rapid urbanization. The need to incorporate sustainability and cleaner production thinking have intensified to mitigate climate risks and satisfy the demand for housing. The modular thinking satisfies both the pressing call for fast-tracked housing stocks; while meeting the goal of more sustainable production. In the other side, the importance of the dwelling as a podium for well-being and social connectedness are sought to explore the key human/environment design thinking for the modular system in dwelling. We argue the best practice incorporates the concept of systemic components thinking. The fieldwork reported in this paper illustrates the process of the case study in a modular dwelling unit prototype development; focusing on the systemic frame system design process and adjustment recommendation hereafter. Using a case study method, the study identified that: (1) inclusive human dimensional factoring through systemic design thinking results in affordable implementations possibilities. (2) The environmental dimension encourages the place-based solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system. (3) Prototype design consideration avails module system component as dwelling construction alternative. (4) Building code often acts as an inhibitor for such dwelling units by the restriction in lot sizes and units placement. The demand for fast-track dwelling construction and cleaner production decisively outweighs the code inhibition; we further underscored the sustainability implication of the alternative prototype as the core of this study. The research suggests that modular thinking results in a resilient solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system.

Keywords: system prototype, urban resilience, human/environment dimension, modular thinking, dwelling alternative

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327 Interactions between Residential Mobility, Car Ownership and Commute Mode: The Case for Melbourne

Authors: Solmaz Jahed Shiran, John Hearne, Tayebeh Saghapour

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Daily travel behavior is strongly influenced by the location of the places of residence, education, and employment. Hence a change in those locations due to a move or changes in an occupation leads to a change in travel behavior. Given the interventions of housing mobility and travel behaviors, the hypothesis is that a mobile housing market allows households to move as a result of any change in their life course, allowing them to be closer to central services, public transport facilities and workplace and hence reducing the time spent by individuals on daily travel. Conversely, household’s immobility may lead to longer commutes of residents, for example, after a change of a job or a need for new services such as schools for children who have reached their school age. This paper aims to investigate the association between residential mobility and travel behavior. The Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity (VISTA) data is used for the empirical analysis. Car ownership and journey to work time and distance of employed people are used as indicators of travel behavior. Change of usual residence within the last five years used to identify movers and non-movers. Statistical analysis, including regression models, is used to compare the travel behavior of movers and non-movers. The results show travel time, and the distance does not differ for movers and non-movers. However, this is not the case when taking into account the residence tenure-type. In addition, car ownership rate and number found to be significantly higher for non-movers. It is hoped that the results from this study will contribute to a better understanding of factors other than common socioeconomic and built environment features influencing travel behavior.

Keywords: journey to work, regression models, residential mobility, commute mode, car ownership

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