Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 761

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Urban and Civil Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

761 Leveraging Mobile Apps for Citizen-Centric Urban Planning: Insights from Tajawob Implementation

Authors: Alae El Fahsi


This study explores the ‘Tajawob’ app's role in urban development, demonstrating how mobile applications can empower citizens and facilitate urban planning. Tajawob serves as a digital platform for community feedback, engagement, and participatory governance, addressing urban challenges through innovative tech solutions. This research synthesizes data from a variety of sources, including user feedback, engagement metrics, and interviews with city officials, to assess the app’s impact on citizen participation in urban development in Morocco. By integrating advanced data analytics and user experience design, Tajawob has bridged the communication gap between citizens and government officials, fostering a more collaborative and transparent urban planning process. The findings reveal a significant increase in civic engagement, with users actively contributing to urban management decisions, thereby enhancing the responsiveness and inclusivity of urban governance. Challenges such as digital literacy, infrastructure limitations, and privacy concerns are also discussed, providing a comprehensive overview of the obstacles and opportunities presented by mobile app-based citizen engagement platforms. The study concludes with strategic recommendations for scaling the Tajawob model to other contexts, emphasizing the importance of adaptive technology solutions in meeting the evolving needs of urban populations. This research contributes to the burgeoning field of smart city innovations, offering key insights into the role of digital tools in facilitating more democratic and participatory urban environments.

Keywords: smart cities, digital governance, urban planning, strategic design

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760 Enhancing Project Management Performance in Prefabricated Building Construction under Uncertainty: A Comprehensive Approach

Authors: Niyongabo Elyse


Prefabricated building construction is a pioneering approach that combines design, production, and assembly to attain energy efficiency, environmental sustainability, and economic feasibility. Despite continuous development in the industry in China, the low technical maturity of standardized design, factory production, and construction assembly introduces uncertainties affecting prefabricated component production and on-site assembly processes. This research focuses on enhancing project management performance under uncertainty to help enterprises navigate these challenges and optimize project resources. The study introduces a perspective on how uncertain factors influence the implementation of prefabricated building construction projects. It proposes a theoretical model considering project process management ability, adaptability to uncertain environments, and collaboration ability of project participants. The impact of uncertain factors is demonstrated through case studies and quantitative analysis, revealing constraints on implementation time, cost, quality, and safety. To address uncertainties in prefabricated component production scheduling, a fuzzy model is presented, expressing processing times in interval values. The model utilizes a cooperative co-evolution evolution algorithm (CCEA) to optimize scheduling, demonstrated through a real case study showcasing reduced project duration and minimized effects of processing time disturbances. Additionally, the research addresses on-site assembly construction scheduling, considering the relationship between task processing times and assigned resources. A multi-objective model with fuzzy activity durations is proposed, employing a hybrid cooperative co-evolution evolution algorithm (HCCEA) to optimize project scheduling. Results from real case studies indicate improved project performance in terms of duration, cost, and resilience to processing time delays and resource changes. The study also introduces a multistage dynamic process control model, utilizing IoT technology for real-time monitoring during component production and construction assembly. This approach dynamically adjusts schedules when constraints arise, leading to enhanced project management performance, as demonstrated in a real prefabricated housing project. Key contributions include a fuzzy prefabricated components production scheduling model, a multi-objective multi-mode resource-constrained construction project scheduling model with fuzzy activity durations, a multi-stage dynamic process control model, and a cooperative co-evolution evolution algorithm. The integrated mathematical model addresses the complexity of prefabricated building construction project management, providing a theoretical foundation for practical decision-making in the field.

Keywords: prefabricated construction, project management performance, uncertainty, fuzzy scheduling

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759 The Effect of Artificial Intelligence on Urbanism, Architecture and Environmental Conditions

Authors: Abanoub Rady Shaker Saleb


Nowadays, design and architecture are being affected and underwent change with the rapid advancements in technology, economics, politics, society and culture. Architecture has been transforming with the latest developments after the inclusion of computers into design. Integration of design into the computational environment has revolutionized the architecture and new perspectives in architecture have been gained. The history of architecture shows the various technological developments and changes in which the architecture has transformed with time. Therefore, the analysis of integration between technology and the history of the architectural process makes it possible to build a consensus on the idea of how architecture is to proceed. In this study, each period that occurs with the integration of technology into architecture is addressed within historical process. At the same time, changes in architecture via technology are identified as important milestones and predictions with regards to the future of architecture have been determined. Developments and changes in technology and the use of technology in architecture within years are analyzed in charts and graphs comparatively. The historical process of architecture and its transformation via technology are supported with detailed literature review and they are consolidated with the examination of focal points of 20th-century architecture under the titles; parametric design, genetic architecture, simulation, and biomimicry. It is concluded that with the historical research between past and present; the developments in architecture cannot keep up with the advancements in technology and recent developments in technology overshadow the architecture, even the technology decides the direction of architecture. As a result, a scenario is presented with regards to the reach of technology in the future of architecture and the role of the architect.

Keywords: design and development the information technology architecture, enterprise architecture, enterprise architecture design result, TOGAF architecture development method (ADM)

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758 Reinventing Urban Governance: Sustainable Transport Solutions for Mitigating Climate Risks in Smart Cities

Authors: Jaqueline Nichi, Leila Da Costa Ferreira, Fabiana Barbi Seleguim, Gabriela Marques Di Giulio, Mariana Barbieri


The transport sector is responsible for approximately 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in addition to pollution and other negative externalities, such as road accidents and congestion, that impact the routine of those who live in large cities. The objective of this article is to discuss the application and use of distinct mobility technologies such as climate adaptation and mitigation measures in the context of smart cities in the Global South. The documentary analysis is associated with 22 semi structured interviews with managers who work with mobility technologies in the public and private sectors and in civil society organizations to explore solutions in multilevel governance for smart and low-carbon mobility based on the case study from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The hypothesis that innovation and technology to mitigate and adapt to climate impacts are not yet sufficient to make mobility more sustainable has been confirmed. The results indicate four relevant aspects for advancing a climate agenda in smart cities: integrated planning, coproduction of knowledge, experiments in governance, and new means of financing to guarantee the sustainable sociotechnical transition of the sector.

Keywords: urban mobility, climate change, smart cities, multilevel governance

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757 Spatial Distribution, Aggregation and Linkage Characteristics and Patterns of the Industrial Cluster Value Chain: Taking the Electronic Information Industry Cluster in the PRD as an Example

Authors: Tan Youwei, Duan Lipeng, Lin Aiyuan, Gu Zhihui


Determining the development pattern of industrial clusters and their industrial chains is conducive to adjusting the industrial layout of cities or regions. At present, research on the development of industrial clusters pays more attention to the perspective of spatial aggregation, with some studies observing the development of clusters from the perspective of industrial linkage, but it is very important to observe the development of clusters from two perspectives. Therefore, this paper takes the Pearl River Delta (PRD) electronic information industry cluster as an example based on semantic similarity and spatial colocation analysis to identify industrial clusters and an industrial chain development model. The conclusions are as follows: from the spatial distribution characteristics of the cluster value chain, it can be concluded that the industry has formed a certain division of labor in space; the colocation characteristics of software development/integrated circuit design/sales/service are more obvious, while those of hardware development/material development/core manufacturing/supporting manufacturing are more significant. Industrial clusters have formed core manufacturing-based network ties; in the aggregation pattern, different aggregation modes are formed between different production links, and there are strong linkages between manufacturing links and other links. This study reveals the distribution, spatial colocation, and connection characteristics and modes of the industrial chain of the PRD electronic information industry cluster, which is helpful for the coordinated development and planning layout of the electronic information industry in cities and urban agglomerations.

Keywords: industry cluster, spatial colocation and linkage, value chain, PRD

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756 Developing Cause-effect Model of Urban Resilience versus Flood in Karaj City using TOPSIS and Shannon Entropy Techniques

Authors: Mohammad Saber Eslamlou, Manouchehr Tabibian, Mahta Mirmoghtadaei


The history of urban development and the increasing complexities of urban life have long been intertwined with different natural and man-made disasters. Sometimes, these unpleasant events have destroyed the cities forever. The growth of the urban population and the increase of social and economic resources in the cities increased the importance of developing a holistic approach to dealing with unknown urban disasters. As a result, the interest in resilience has increased in most of the scientific fields, and the urban planning literature has been enriched with the studies of the social, economic, infrastructural, and physical abilities of the cities. In this regard, different conceptual frameworks and patterns have been developed focusing on dimensions of resilience and different kinds of disasters. As the most frequent and likely natural disaster in Iran is flooding, the present study aims to develop a cause-effect model of urban resilience against flood in Karaj City. In this theoretical study, desk research and documentary studies were used to find the elements and dimensions of urban resilience. In this regard, 6 dimensions and 32 elements were found for urban resilience and a questionnaire was made by considering the requirements of TOPSIS techniques (pairwise comparison). The sample of the research consisted of 10 participants who were faculty members, academicians, board members of research centers, managers of the Ministry of Road and Urban Development, board members of New Towns Development Company, experts, and practitioners of consulting companies who had scientific and research backgrounds. The gathered data in this survey were analyzed using TOPSIS and Shannon Entropy techniques. The results show that Infrastructure/Physical, Social, Organizational/ Institutional, Structural/Physical, Economic, and Environmental dimensions are the most effective factors in urban resilience against floods in Karaj, respectively. Finally, a comprehensive model and a systematic framework of factors that affect the urban resilience of Karaj against floods was developed. This cause – effect model shows how different factors are related and influence each other, based on their connected structure and preferences.

Keywords: urban resilience, TOPSIS, Shannon entropy, cause-effect model of resilience, flood

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755 Economic Valuation of Emissions from Mobile Sources in the Urban Environment of Bogotá

Authors: Dayron Camilo Bermudez Mendoza


Road transportation is a significant source of externalities, notably in terms of environmental degradation and the emission of pollutants. These emissions adversely affect public health, attributable to criteria pollutants like particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO), and also contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2). It is, therefore, crucial to quantify the emissions from mobile sources and develop a methodological framework for their economic valuation, aiding in the assessment of associated costs and informing policy decisions. The forthcoming congress will shed light on the externalities of transportation in Bogotá, showcasing methodologies and findings from the construction of emission inventories and their spatial analysis within the city. This research focuses on the economic valuation of emissions from mobile sources in Bogotá, employing methods like hedonic pricing and contingent valuation. Conducted within the urban confines of Bogotá, the study leverages demographic, transportation, and emission data sourced from the Mobility Survey, official emission inventories, and tailored estimates and measurements. The use of hedonic pricing and contingent valuation methodologies facilitates the estimation of the influence of transportation emissions on real estate values and gauges the willingness of Bogotá's residents to invest in reducing these emissions. The findings are anticipated to be instrumental in the formulation and execution of public policies aimed at emission reduction and air quality enhancement. In compiling the emission inventory, innovative data sources were identified to determine activity factors, including information from automotive diagnostic centers and used vehicle sales websites. The COPERT model was utilized to ascertain emission factors, requiring diverse inputs such as data from the national transit registry (RUNT), OpenStreetMap road network details, climatological data from the IDEAM portal, and Google API for speed analysis. Spatial disaggregation employed GIS tools and publicly available official spatial data. The development of the valuation methodology involved an exhaustive systematic review, utilizing platforms like the EVRI (Environmental Valuation Reference Inventory) portal and other relevant sources. The contingent valuation method was implemented via surveys in various public settings across the city, using a referendum-style approach for a sample of 400 residents. For the hedonic price valuation, an extensive database was developed, integrating data from several official sources and basing analyses on the per-square meter property values in each city block. The upcoming conference anticipates the presentation and publication of these results, embodying a multidisciplinary knowledge integration and culminating in a master's thesis.

Keywords: economic valuation, transport economics, pollutant emissions, urban transportation, sustainable mobility

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754 Digital Development of Cultural Heritage: Construction of Traditional Chinese Pattern Database

Authors: Shaojian Li


The traditional Chinese patterns, as an integral part of Chinese culture, possess unique values in history, culture, and art. However, with the passage of time and societal changes, many of these traditional patterns are at risk of being lost, damaged, or forgotten. To undertake the digital preservation and protection of these traditional patterns, this paper will collect and organize images of traditional Chinese patterns. It will provide exhaustive and comprehensive semantic annotations, creating a resource library of traditional Chinese pattern images. This will support the digital preservation and application of traditional Chinese patterns.

Keywords: digitization of cultural heritage, traditional Chinese patterns, digital humanities, database construction

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753 Microplastics in Urban Environment – Coimbra City Case Study

Authors: Inês Amorim Leitão, Loes van Shaick, António Dinis Ferreira, Violette Geissen


Plastic pollution is a growing concern worldwide: plastics are commercialized in large quantities and it takes a long time for them to degrade. When in the environment, plastic is fragmented into microplastics (<5mm), which have been found in all environmental compartments at different locations. Microplastics contribute to the environmental pollution in water, air and soil and are linked to human health problems. The progressive increase of population living in cities led to the aggravation of the pollution problem worldwide, especially in urban environments. Urban areas represent a strong source of pollution, through the roads, industrial production, wastewater, landfills, etc. It is expected that pollutants such as microplastics are transported diffusely from the sources through different pathways such as wind and rain. Therefore, it is very complex to quantify, control and treat these pollutants, designated current problematic issues by the European Commission. Green areas are pointed out by experts as natural filters for contaminants in cities, through their capacity of retention by vegetation. These spaces have thus the capacity to control the load of pollutants transported. This study investigates the spatial distribution of microplastics in urban soils of different land uses, their transport through atmospheric deposition, wind erosion, runoff and streams, as well as their deposition in vegetation like grass and tree leaves in urban environment. Coimbra, a medium large city located in the central Portugal, is the case-study. All the soil, sediments, water and vegetation samples were collected in Coimbra and were later analyzed in the Wageningen University & Research laboratory. Microplastics were extracted through the density separation using Sodium Phosphate as solution (~1.4 g cm−3) and filtration methods, visualized under a stereo microscope and identified using the u-FTIR method. Microplastic particles were found in all the different samples. In terms of soils, higher concentrations of microplastics were found in green parks, followed by landfills and industrial places, and the lowest concentrations in forests and pasture land-uses. Atmospheric deposition and streams after rainfall events seems to represent the strongest pathways of microplastics. Tree leaves can retain microplastics on their surfaces. Small leaves such as needle leaves seem to present higher amounts of microplastics per leaf area than bigger leaves. Rainfall episodes seem to reduce the concentration of microplastics on leaves surface, which suggests the wash of microplastics down to lower levels of the tree or to the soil. When in soil, different types of microplastics could be transported to the atmosphere through wind erosion. Grass seems to present high concentrations of microplastics, and the enlargement of the grass cover leads to a reduction of the amount of microplastics in soil, but also of the microplastics moved from the ground to the atmosphere by wind erosion. This study proof that vegetation can help to control the transport and dispersion of microplastics. In order to control the entry and the concentration of microplastics in the environment, especially in cities, it is essential to defining and evaluating nature-based land-use scenarios, considering the role of green urban areas in filtering small particles.

Keywords: microplastics, cities, sources, pathways, vegetation

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752 Data Protection, Data Privacy, Research Ethics in Policy Process Towards Effective Urban Planning Practice for Smart Cities

Authors: Eugenio Ferrer Santiago


The growing complexities of the modern world on high-end gadgets, software applications, scams, identity theft, and Artificial Intelligence (AI) make the “uninformed” the weak and vulnerable to be victims of cybercrimes. Artificial Intelligence is not a new thing in our daily lives; the principles of database management, logical programming, and garbage in and garbage out are all connected to AI. The Philippines had in place legal safeguards against the abuse of cyberspace, but self-regulation of key industry players and self-protection by individuals are primordial to attain the success of these initiatives. Data protection, Data Privacy, and Research Ethics must work hand in hand during the policy process in the course of urban planning practice in different environments. This paper focuses on the interconnection of data protection, data privacy, and research ethics in coming up with clear-cut policies against perpetrators in the urban planning professional practice relevant in sustainable communities and smart cities. This paper shall use expository methodology under qualitative research using secondary data from related literature, interviews/blogs, and the World Wide Web resources. The claims and recommendations of this paper will help policymakers and implementers in the policy cycle. This paper shall contribute to the body of knowledge as a simple treatise and communication channel to the reading community and future researchers to validate the claims and start an intellectual discourse for better knowledge generation for the good of all in the near future.

Keywords: data privacy, data protection, urban planning, research ethics

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751 Collaborative Approaches in Achieving Sustainable Private-Public Transportation Services in Inner-City Areas: A Case of Durban Minibus Taxis

Authors: Lonna Mabandla, Godfrey Musvoto


Transportation is a catalytic feature in cities. Transport and land use activity are interdependent and have a feedback loop between how land is developed and how transportation systems are designed and used. This recursive relationship between land use and transportation is reflected in how public transportation routes internal to the inner-city enhance accessibility, therefore creating spaces that are conducive to business activity, while the business activity also informs public transportation routes. It is for this reason that the focus of this research is on public transportation within inner-city areas where the dynamic is evident. Durban is the chosen case study where the dominating form of public transportation within the central business district (CBD) is minibus taxis. The paradox here is that minibus taxis still form part of the informal economy even though they are the leading form of public transportation in South Africa. There have been many attempts to formalise this industry to follow more regulatory practices, but minibus taxis are privately owned, therefore complicating any proposed intervention. The argument of this study is that the application of collaborative planning through a sustainable partnership between the public and private sectors will improve the social and environmental sustainability of public transportation. One of the major challenges that exist within such collaborative endeavors is power dynamics. As a result, a key focus of the study is on power relations. Practically, power relations should be observed over an extended period, specifically when the different stakeholders engage with each other, to reflect valid data. However, a lengthy data collection process was not possible to observe during the data collection phase of this research. Instead, interviews were conducted focusing on existing procedural planning practices between the inner-city minibus taxi association (South and North Beach Taxi Association), the eThekwini Transport Authority (ETA), and the eThekwini Town Planning Department. Conclusions and recommendations were then generated based on these data.

Keywords: collaborative planning, sustainability, public transport, minibus taxis

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750 The Interplay of Community-based Social Capital and Neighbourhood Dynamics in Enhancing SMEs’ Resilience During Crises: A Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach

Authors: Arash Sadeghi, Taimaz Larimian


This study explores the intricate interplay between community-based social capital (CBSC) and neighbourhood dynamics in enhancing resilience of Iranian SMEs, particularly under the strain of international sanctions. Utilising fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), we examine how different dimensions of CBSC—structural, relational, and cognitive—interact with neighbourhood socio-economic and built-environment characteristics to influence SME resilience. Findings reveal four configurations that contribute to the presence of resistance and five configurations associated with the adaptation outcome. Each configuration demonstrates a distinct combination of social capital elements, which vary according to the specific socio-economic and built-environmental characteristics of the neighbourhoods. The first configuration highlights the importance of structural social capital in deprived areas for building resistance, while the second emphasises the role of relational social capital in low-density, minimally deprived areas. Overall, cognitive social capital seems to be less effective in driving economic resilience compared to structural and relational types. This research contributes to the literature by providing a nuanced understanding of the synergistic effects of CBSC dimensions and neighbourhood characteristics on SME resilience. By adopting a configurational approach, we move beyond traditional methodologies, offering a comprehensive view of the complex dynamics of CBSC and neighbourhood characteristics and their impact on SME resilience in varying neighbourhoods.

Keywords: community-based social capital, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), place-based resilience, resistance

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749 The Morphogenesis of an Informal Settlement: An Examination of Street Networks through the Informal Development Stages Framework

Authors: Judith Margaret Tymon


As cities struggle to incorporate informal settlements into the fabric of urban areas, the focus has often been on the provision of housing. This study explores the underlying structure of street networks, with the goal of understanding the morphogenesis of informal settlements through the lens of the access network. As the stages of development progress from infill to consolidation and eventually, to a planned in-situ settlement, the access networks retain the form of the core segments; however, a majority of street patterns are adapted to a grid design to support infrastructure in the final upgraded phase. A case study is presented to examine the street network in the informal settlement of Gobabis Namibia as it progresses from its initial stages to a planned, in-situ, and permanently upgraded development. The Informal Development Stages framework of foundation, infill, and consolidation, as developed by Dr. Jota Samper, is utilized to examine the evolution of street networks. Data is gathered from historical Google Earth satellite images for the time period between 2003 and 2022. The results demonstrate that during the foundation through infill stages, incremental changes follow similar patterns, with pathways extended, lengthened, and densified as housing is created and the settlement grows. In the final stage of consolidation, the resulting street layout is transformed to support the installation of infrastructure; however, some elements of the original street patterns remain. The core pathways remain intact to accommodate the installation of infrastructure and the creation of housing plots, defining the shape of the settlement and providing the basis of the urban form. The adaptations, growth, and consolidation of the street network are critical to the eventual formation of the spatial layout of the settlement. This study will include a comparative analysis of findings with those of recent research performed by Kamalipour, Dovey, and others regarding incremental urbanism within informal settlements. Further comparisons will also include studies of street networks of well-established urban centers that have shown links between the morphogenesis of access networks and the eventual spatial layout of the city. The findings of the study can be used to guide and inform strategies for in-situ upgrading and can contribute to the sustainable development of informal settlements.

Keywords: Gobabis Namibia, incremental urbanism, informal development stages, informal settlements, street networks

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748 Research on the Calculation Method of Smartization Rate of Concrete Structure Building Construction

Authors: Hongyu Ye, Hong Zhang, Minjie Sun, Hongfang Xu


In the context of China's promotion of smart construction and building industrialization, there is a need for evaluation standards for the development of building industrialization based on assembly-type construction. However, the evaluation of smart construction remains a challenge in the industry's development process. This paper addresses this issue by proposing a calculation and evaluation method for the smartization rate of concrete structure building construction. The study focuses on examining the factors of smart equipment application and their impact on costs throughout the process of smart construction design, production, transfer, and construction. Based on this analysis, the paper presents an evaluation method for the smartization rate based on components. Furthermore, it introduces calculation methods for assessing the smartization rate of buildings. The paper also suggests a rapid calculation method for determining the smartization rate using Building Information Modeling (BIM) and information expression technology. The proposed research provides a foundation for the swift calculation of the smartization rate based on BIM and information technology. Ultimately, it aims to promote the development of smart construction and the construction of high-quality buildings in China.

Keywords: building industrialization, high quality building, smart construction, smartization rate, component

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747 Resilient Security System with Toll Free Call Services: Case Study of Adama City

Authors: Shanko Chura Aredo, Hailu Jeldie Wodajo, Muktar Jeylan, Kedir Ilka, Abdulnasir Husein


Toll-free numbers are calling numbers that have unique three or four digit numbers and that don’t require payment from phone lines in order to be called. With the help of these numbers, callers can connect with nearby organizations and/or people without incurring far-reaching fees. Calls to assistance centers are especially popular from toll-free phones. In the past, toll-free services have offered prospective clients and other parties a simple and cost-free means of getting in touch with enterprises. Nevertheless, unless they have an ”unlimited calling” plan, wireless subscribers will be billed for the airtime minutes used during a toll-free call. In Adama, the second largest city in Ethiopia, a call center has been installed as part of smart security system and serving since January 2023 for collection of complaints from different community levels. The call center is situated at the mayor office and has 11 active workers, 4 of these working the night time and the remaining during day time. The information reported in the form of complaints from individuals and groups are illegal constructions, illegal trade, income concealment or hiding, giving and receiving bribe, informing new faces of suspected enemies and exposing individual or group conflicts. This technology has been found to bring a significant outcome in minimizing illegal acts, public safety threats and service delivery problems.

Keywords: smart, safety, crime, call center, security

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746 Rethinking Urban Green Space Quality and Planning Models from Users and Experts’ Perspective for Sustainable Development: The Case of Debre Berhan and Debre Markos Cities, Ethiopia

Authors: Alemaw Kefale, Aramde Fetene, Hayal Desta


This study analyzed the users' and experts' views on the green space quality and planning models in Debre Berhan (DB) and Debre Markos (DM) cities in Ethiopia. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 350 park users (148 from DB and 202 from DM) to rate the accessibility, size, shape, vegetation cover, social and cultural context, conservation and heritage, community participation, attractiveness, comfort, safety, inclusiveness, and maintenance of green spaces using a Likert scale. A key informant interview was held with 13 experts in DB and 12 in DM. Descriptive statistics and tests of independence of variables using the chi-square test were done. A statistically significant association existed between the perception of green space quality attributes and users' occupation (χ² (160, N = 350) = 224.463, p < 0.001), age (χ² (128, N = 350) = 212.812, p < 0.001), gender (χ² (32, N = 350) = 68.443, p < 0.001), and education level (χ² (192, N = 350) = 293.396, p < 0.001). 61.7 % of park users were unsatisfied with the quality of urban green spaces. The users perceived dense vegetation cover as "good," with a mean value of 3.41, while the remaining were perceived as "medium with a mean value of 2.62 – 3.32". Only quantitative space standards are practiced as a green space planning model, while other models are unfamiliar and never used in either city. Therefore, experts need to be aware of and practice urban green models during urban planning to ensure that new developments include green spaces to accommodate the community's and the environment's needs.

Keywords: urban green space, quality, users and experts, green space planning models, Ethiopia

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745 Monitoring Urban Green Space Cover Change Using GIS and Remote Sensing in Two Rapidly Urbanizing Cities, Debre Berhan and Debre Markos, Ethiopia

Authors: Alemaw Kefale, Aramde Fetene, Hayal Desta


Monitoring the amount of green space in urban areas is important for ensuring sustainable development and proper management. The study analyzed changes in urban green space coverage over the past 20 years in two rapidly urbanizing cities in Ethiopia, Debre Berhan and Debre Markos, using GIS and remote sensing. The researchers used Landsat 5 and 8 data with a spatial resolution of 30 m to determine different land use and land cover classes, including urban green spaces, barren and croplands, built-up areas, and water bodies. The classification accuracy ranged between 90% and 91.4%, with a Kappa Statistic of 0.85 to 0.88. The results showed that both cities experienced significant decreases in vegetation cover in their urban cores between 2000 and 2020, with radical changes observed from green spaces and croplands to built-up areas. In Debre Berhan, barren and croplands decreased by 32.96%, while built-up and green spaces increased by 357.9% and 37.4%, respectively, in 2020. In Debre Markos, built-up areas increased by 224.2%, while green spaces and barren and croplands decreased by 41% and 5.71%, respectively. The spatial structure of cities and planning policies were noticed as the major factors for big green cover change. Thus it has an implication for other rapidly urbanized cities in Africa and Asia. Overall, rapid urbanization threatens green spaces and agricultural areas, highlighting the need for ecological-based spatial planning in rapidly urbanizing cities.

Keywords: green space coverage, GIS and remote sensing, Landsat, LULC, Ethiopia

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744 Enhancing Urban Sustainability through Integrated Green Spaces: A Focus on Tehran

Authors: Azadeh Mohajer Milani


Urbanization constitutes an irreversible global trend, presenting myriad challenges such as heightened energy consumption, pollution, congestion, and the depletion of natural resources. Today's urban landscapes have emerged as focal points for economic, social, and environmental challenges, underscoring the pressing need for sustainable development. This article delves into the realm of sustainable urban development, concentrating on the pivotal role played by integrated green spaces as an optimal solution to address environmental concerns within cities. The study utilizes Tehran as a case study. Our findings underscore the imperative of preserving and expanding green spaces in urban areas, coupled with the establishment of well-designed ecological networks, to enhance environmental quality and elevate the sustainability of cities. Notably, Tehran's urban green spaces exhibit a disjointed design, lacking a cohesive network to connect various patches and corridors, resulting in significant environmental impacts. The results emphasize the necessity of a balanced and proportional distribution of urban green spaces and the creation of a cohesive patch-corridor-matrix network tailored to the ecological and social needs of residents. This approach is crucial for fostering a more sustainable and livable urban environment for all species, with a specific focus on humans.

Keywords: ecology, sustainable urban development, sustainable landscape, urban green space network

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743 The Issue of Affordability in Housing and Implications for the Regional Planning of Drainage Infrastructure: A Case of Affordability as Part of Inclusive Decision Making

Authors: Kwadwo Afari Gyan


Cities are growing at unprecedented levels. Meanwhile, governments in the Global South are already overwhelmed by this growth and are unable to provide infrastructure proactively as expected. As a result, urban residents resort to providing their own infrastructure, such as drainage systems, as part of self-built housing development. Their small-scale, incremental housing practices, which often represent the formation of dense and diverse housing types, styles, and ages, have been identified to affect the planning of drainage systems at the regional scale. Such developments reflect the varied, affordable responses as part of a collective effort to curb regional problems, specifically flooding in this case. However, while some are included in this collective action, others are excluded as they are unable to afford to be included. This phenomenon, in addition to the formation of new autonomous localities, has led to challenges in mitigating flooding and has affected resilience to climate change. Using a qualitative approach, this paper explores how the mismatch between housing development, which occurs at an individual scale, and drainage infrastructure, which is provided at a regional scale, affects a regional effort to mitigate flooding in Tema, Ghana. It seeks to explore and reveal a relationship between affordability and inclusiveness. It also explores how density and diversity influence public infrastructure provision and their connection with affordability.

Keywords: climate change, affordability, inclusivity, equity, contextualization, regionalism

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742 Modernization from Above: The (re-)Creation of National Identity through Westernization in Mubarak-era Cairo

Authors: Mariam Aref Mahmoud


A myth surrounding the development of Cairo bases itself in the Fatimid era when the city, as we know it today, was built. Surrounding the city was a wall meant to protect the main center from any possible attack. The effects of global hierarchies of power extend further than labor regulations and trade statistics. Beyond that, they form dialectical oppositions between local and global identities within urban space. As such, those in power often aim to claim national identity as what they perceive to be the most nationally beneficial strategy. These claims over perceptions of national identity take over the streets, the advertisements, and the parks and eventually make their way into the different forms of media. Often, these claims take over the main planning goals of the city. Whether it is through the control over which sounds are allowed to be produced in public space, what type of people are encouraged to enter which spaces, or other forms of performing local and national identity, public space, property, and land have often been used as a method to present to both the public and the global population what people in power wish for these spaces to represent. In Egypt, these developments have been changing since the end of colonial rule. In particular, this paper will analyze how Hosni Mubarak, and to a certain extent Anwar el-Sadat, enacted neoliberal designs dedicated towards modernization in order to present an image of a Cairo that is not uniquely Egyptian but essentially Western cosmopolitan - a Cairo that belongs to a globalized world.

Keywords: Egypt, imperialism, westernization, housing

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741 Shaabi in the City: On Modernizing Sounds and Exclusion in Egyptian Cities

Authors: Mariam Aref Mahmoud


After centuries of historical development, Egypt is no stranger to national identity frustrations. What may or may not be counted as this “national identity” becomes a source of contention. Today, after decades of neoliberal reform, Cairo has become the center of Egypt’s cultural debacle. At its heart, the Egyptian capital serves as Egypt’s extension into global capitalism, its flailing hope to become part of the modernized, cosmopolitan world. Yet, to converge into this image of cosmopolitanism, Cairo must silence the perceived un-modernized sounds, cultures, and spaces that arise from within its alleyways. Currently, the agitation surrounding shaabi music, particularly, that of mahraganat, places these contentions to the center of the modernization debates. This paper will discuss the process through which the conversations between modernization, space, and culture have taken place through a historical analysis of national identity formation under Egypt’s neoliberal regimes. Through this, the paper concludes that music becomes a spatial force through which public space, identity, and globalization must be contested. From these findings researchers can then analyze Cairo through not only its physical landscapes, but also its metaphysical features – such as the soundscape.

Keywords: music, space, globalization, Cairo

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740 Dynamics Pattern of Land Use and Land Cover Change and Its Driving Factors Based on a Cellular Automata Markov Model: A Case Study at Ibb Governorate, Yemen

Authors: Abdulkarem Qasem Dammag, Basema Qasim Dammag, Jian Dai


Change in Land use and Land cover (LU/LC) has a profound impact on the area's natural, economic, and ecological development, and the search for drivers of land cover change is one of the fundamental issues of LU/LC change. The study aimed to assess the temporal and Spatio-temporal dynamics of LU/LC in the past and to predict the future using Landsat images by exploring the characteristics of different LU/LC types. Spatio-temporal patterns of LU/LC change in Ibb Governorate, Yemen, were analyzed based on RS and GIS from 1990, 2005, and 2020. A socioeconomic survey and key informant interviews were used to assess potential drivers of LU/LC. The results showed that from 1990 to 2020, the total area of vegetation land decreased by 5.3%, while the area of barren land, grassland, built-up area, and waterbody increased by 2.7%, 1.6%, 1.04%, and 0.06%, respectively. Based on socio-economic surveys and key informant interviews, natural factors had a significant and long-term impact on land change. In contrast, site construction and socio-economic factors were the main driving forces affecting land change in a short time scale. The analysis results have been linked to the CA-Markov Land Use simulation and forecasting model for the years 2035 and 2050. The simulation results revealed from the period 2020 to 2050, the trend of dynamic changes in land use, where the total area of barren land decreased by 7.0% and grassland by 0.2%, while the vegetation land, built-up area, and waterbody increased by 4.6%, 2.6%, and 0.1 %, respectively. Overall, these findings provide LULC's past and future trends and identify drivers, which can play an important role in sustainable land use planning and management by balancing and coordinating urban growth and land use and can also be used at the regional level in different levels to provide as a reference. In addition, the results provide scientific guidance to government departments and local decision-makers in future land-use planning through dynamic monitoring of LU/LC change.

Keywords: LU/LC change, CA-Markov model, driving forces, change detection, LU/LC change simulation

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739 Smart Mobility Planning Applications in Meeting the Needs of the Urbanization Growth

Authors: Caroline Atef Shoukry Tadros


Massive Urbanization growth threatens the sustainability of cities and the quality of city life. This raised the need for an alternate model of sustainability, so we need to plan the future cities in a smarter way with smarter mobility. Smart Mobility planning applications are solutions that use digital technologies and infrastructure advances to improve the efficiency, sustainability, and inclusiveness of urban transportation systems. They can contribute to meeting the needs of Urbanization growth by addressing the challenges of traffic congestion, pollution, accessibility, and safety in cities. Some example of a Smart Mobility planning application are Mobility-as-a-service: This is a service that integrates different transport modes, such as public transport, shared mobility, and active mobility, into a single platform that allows users to plan, book, and pay for their trips. This can reduce the reliance on private cars, optimize the use of existing infrastructure, and provide more choices and convenience for travelers. MaaS Global is a company that offers mobility-as-a-service solutions in several cities around the world. Traffic flow optimization: This is a solution that uses data analytics, artificial intelligence, and sensors to monitor and manage traffic conditions in real-time. This can reduce congestion, emissions, and travel time, as well as improve road safety and user satisfaction. Waycare is a platform that leverages data from various sources, such as connected vehicles, mobile applications, and road cameras, to provide traffic management agencies with insights and recommendations to optimize traffic flow. Logistics optimization: This is a solution that uses smart algorithms, blockchain, and IoT to improve the efficiency and transparency of the delivery of goods and services in urban areas. This can reduce the costs, emissions, and delays associated with logistics, as well as enhance the customer experience and trust. ShipChain is a blockchain-based platform that connects shippers, carriers, and customers and provides end-to-end visibility and traceability of the shipments. Autonomous vehicles: This is a solution that uses advanced sensors, software, and communication systems to enable vehicles to operate without human intervention. This can improve the safety, accessibility, and productivity of transportation, as well as reduce the need for parking space and infrastructure maintenance. Waymo is a company that develops and operates autonomous vehicles for various purposes, such as ride-hailing, delivery, and trucking. These are some of the ways that Smart Mobility planning applications can contribute to meeting the needs of the Urbanization growth. However, there are also various opportunities and challenges related to the implementation and adoption of these solutions, such as the regulatory, ethical, social, and technical aspects. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific context and needs of each city and its stakeholders when designing and deploying Smart Mobility planning applications.

Keywords: smart mobility planning, smart mobility applications, smart mobility techniques, smart mobility tools, smart transportation, smart cities, urbanization growth, future smart cities, intelligent cities, ICT information and communications technologies, IoT internet of things, sensors, lidar, digital twin, ai artificial intelligence, AR augmented reality, VR virtual reality, robotics, cps cyber physical systems, citizens design science

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738 Cities Under Pressure: Unraveling Urban Resilience Challenges

Authors: Sherine S. Aly, Fahd A. Hemeida, Mohamed A. Elshamy


In the face of rapid urbanization and the myriad challenges posed by climate change, population growth, and socio-economic disparities, fostering urban resilience has become paramount. This abstract offers a comprehensive overview of the study on "Urban Resilience Challenges," exploring the background, methodologies, major findings, and concluding insights. The paper unveils a spectrum of challenges encompassing environmental stressors and deep-seated socio-economic issues, such as unequal access to resources and opportunities. Emphasizing their interconnected nature, the study underscores the imperative for holistic and integrated approaches to urban resilience, recognizing the intricate web of factors shaping the urban landscape. Urbanization has witnessed an unprecedented surge, transforming cities into dynamic and complex entities. With this growth, however, comes an array of challenges that threaten the sustainability and resilience of urban environments. This study seeks to unravel the multifaceted urban resilience challenges, exploring their origins and implications for contemporary cities. Cities serve as hubs of economic, social, and cultural activities, attracting diverse populations seeking opportunities and a higher quality of life. However, the urban fabric is increasingly strained by climate-related events, infrastructure vulnerabilities, and social inequalities. Understanding the nuances of these challenges is crucial for developing strategies that enhance urban resilience and ensure the longevity of cities as vibrant and adaptive entities. This paper endeavors to discern strategic guidelines for enhancing urban resilience amidst the dynamic challenges posed by rapid urbanization. The study aims to distill actionable insights that can inform strategic approaches. Guiding the formulation of effective strategies to fortify cities against multifaceted pressures. The study employs a multifaceted approach to dissect urban resilience challenges. A qualitative method will be employed, including comprehensive literature reviews and data analysis of urban vulnerabilities that provided valuable insights into the lived experiences of resilience challenges in diverse urban settings. In conclusion, this study underscores the urgency of addressing urban resilience challenges to ensure the sustained vitality of cities worldwide. The interconnected nature of these challenges necessitates a paradigm shift in urban planning and governance. By adopting holistic strategies that integrate environmental, social, and economic considerations, cities can navigate the complexities of the 21st century. The findings provide a roadmap for policymakers, planners, and communities to collaboratively forge resilient urban futures that withstand the challenges of an ever-evolving urban landscape.

Keywords: resilient principles, risk management, sustainable cities, urban resilience

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737 The Evolution and Driving Forces Analysis of Urban Spatial Pattern in Tibet Based on Archetype Theory

Authors: Qiuyu Chen, Bin Long, Junxi Yang


Located in the southwest of the "roof of the world", Tibet is the origin center of Tibetan Culture.Lhasa, Shigatse and Gyantse are three famous historical and cultural cities in Tibet. They have always been prominent political, economic and cultural cities, and have accumulated the unique aesthetic orientation and value consciousness of Tibet's urban construction. "Archetype" usually refers to the theoretical origin of things, which is the collective unconscious precipitation. The archetype theory fundamentally explores the dialectical relationship between image expression, original form and behavior mode. By abstracting and describing typical phenomena or imagery of the archetype object can observe the essence of objects, explore ways in which object phenomena arise. Applying archetype theory to the field of urban planning helps to gain insight, evaluation, and restructuring of the complex and ever-changing internal structural units of cities. According to existing field investigations, it has been found that Dzong, Temple, Linka and traditional residential systems are important structural units that constitute the urban space of Lhasa, Shigatse and Gyantse. This article applies the thinking method of archetype theory, starting from the imagery expression of urban spatial pattern, using technologies such as ArcGIS, Depthmap, and Computer Vision to descriptively identify the spatial representation and plane relationship of three cities through remote sensing images and historical maps. Based on historical records, the spatial characteristics of cities in different historical periods are interpreted in a hierarchical manner, attempting to clarify the origin of the formation and evolution of urban pattern imagery from the perspectives of geopolitical environment, social structure, religious theory, etc, and expose the growth laws and key driving forces of cities. The research results can provide technical and material support for important behaviors such as urban restoration, spatial intervention, and promoting transformation in the region.

Keywords: archetype theory, urban spatial imagery, original form and pattern, behavioral driving force, Tibet

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736 Understanding the Conflict Between Ecological Environment and Human Activities in the Process of Urbanization

Authors: Yazhou Zhou, Yong Huang, Guoqin Ge


In the process of human social development, the coupling and coordinated development among the ecological environment(E), production(P), and living functions(L) is of great significance for sustainable development. This study uses an improved coupling coordination degree model (CCDM) to discover the coordination conflict between E and human settlement environment. The main work of this study is as follows: (1) It is found that in the process of urbanization development of Ya 'an city from 2014 to 2018, the degree of coupling (DOC) value between E, P, and L is high, but the coupling coordination degree (CCD) of the three is low, especially the DOC value of E and the other two has the biggest decline. (2) A more objective weight value is obtained, which can avoid the analysis error caused by subjective judgment weight value.

Keywords: ecological environment, coupling coordination degree, neural network, sustainable development

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735 Study on the Spatial Evolution Characteristics of Urban Agglomeration Integration in China: The Case of Chengdu-Chongqing Urban Agglomeration

Authors: Guoqin Ge, Minhui Huang, Yazhou Zhou


The growth of the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration has been designated as a national strategy in China. Analyzing its spatial evolution characteristics is crucial for devising relevant development strategies. This paper enhances the gravitational model by using temporal distance as a factor. It applies this improved model to assess the economic interconnection and concentration level of each geographical unit within the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration between 2011 and 2019. On this basis, this paper examines the spatial correlation characteristics of economic agglomeration intensity and urban-rural development equalization by employing spatial autocorrelation analysis. The study findings indicate that the spatial integration in the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration is currently in the "point-axis" development stage. The spatial organization structure is becoming more flattened, and there is a stronger economic connection between the core of the urban agglomeration and the peripheral areas. The integration of the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration is currently hindered by conflicting interests and institutional heterogeneity between Chengdu and Chongqing. Additionally, the connections between the relatively secondary spatial units are largely loose and weak. The strength and scale of economic ties and the level of urban-rural equilibrium among spatial units within the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration have increased, but regional imbalances have continued to widen, and such positive and negative changes have been characterized by the spatial and temporal synergistic evolution of the "core-periphery". Ultimately, this paper presents planning ideas for the future integration development of the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration, drawing from the findings.

Keywords: integration, planning strategy, space organization, space evolution, urban agglomeration

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734 Spatial Distribution, Characteristics, and Pollution Risk Assessment of Microplastics in Sediments from Karnaphuli River Estuary, Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Refat Jahan Rakiba, M. Belal Hossaina, Rakesh Kumarc, Md. Akram Ullaha, Sultan Al Nahiand, Nazmun Naher Rimaa, Tasrina Rabia Choudhury, Samia Islam Libaf, Jimmy Yub, Mayeen Uddin Khandakerg, Abdelmoneim Suliemanh, Mohamed Mahmoud Sayedi


Microplastics (MPs) have become an emerging global pollutant due to their wide spread and dispersion and potential threats to marine ecosystems. However, studies on MPs of estuarine and coastal ecosystems of Bangladesh are very limited or not available. In this study, we conducted the first study on the abundance, distribution, characteristics and potential risk assessment of microplastics in the sediment of Karnaphuli River estuary, Bangladesh. Microplastic particles were extracted from sediments of 30 stations along the estuary by density separation, and then enumerated and characterize by using steromicroscope and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In the collected sediment, the number of MPs varied from 22.29 - 59.5 items kg−1 of dry weight (DW) with an average of 1177 particles kg−1 DW. The mean abundance was higher in the downstream and left bank of estuary where the predominant shape, colour, and size of MPs were films (35%), white (19%), and >5000 μm (19%), respectively. The main polymer types were polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, polyethylene, cellulose, and nylon. MPs were found to pose risks (low to high) in the sediment of the estuary, with the highest risk occuring at one station near a sewage outlet, according to the results of risk analyses using the pollution risk index (PRI), polymer risk index (H), contamination factors (CFs), and pollution load index (PLI). The single value index, PLI clearly demonastated that all sampling sites were considerably polluted (as PLI >1) with microplastics. H values showed toxic polymers even in lower proportions possess higher polymeric hazard scores and vice versa. This investigation uncovered new insights on the status of MPs in the sediments of Karnaphuli River estuary, laying the groundwork for future research and control of microplastic pollution and management.

Keywords: microplastics, polymers, pollution risk assessment, Karnaphuli esttuary

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733 The Sociocultural, Economic, and Environmental Contestations of Agbogbloshie: A Critical Review

Authors: Khiddir Iddris, Martin Oteng – Ababio, Andreas Bürkert, Christoph Scherrer, Katharina Hemmler


Agbogbloshie, as an informal settlement and economy where the e-waste sector thrives, has become a global hub of complex urban contestations involving sociocultural, economic, and environmental dimensions due to the implication that e-waste and informal economic patterns have on livelihoods, urbanisation, development and sustainability. Multi-author collaborations have produced an ever-growing body of literature on Agbogbloshie and the informal e-waste economy. There is, however, a dearth of an assessment of Agbogbloshie as an urban informal settlement's intricate nexus of socioecological contestations. We address this gap by systematising, from literature, the context knowledge, navigating the complex terrain of Agbogbloshie's challenges, and employing a multidimensional lens to unravel the sociocultural intricacies, economic dynamics, and environmental complexities shaping its identity. A systematic critical review approach was espoused, with a pragmatic consolidation of content analysis and controversy mapping, grounded on the concept of ‘sustainable rurbanism,’ highlighted core themes and identified contrasting viewpoints. An analytical framework is presented. Five categories – geohistorical, sociocultural, economic, environmental and future trends - are proposed as an approach to systematising the literature. The review finds that the sociocultural dimension unveils a mosaic of cultural amalgamation, communal identity, and tensions impacting community cohesion. The analysis of economic intricacies reveals the prevalence of informal economies sustaining livelihoods yet entrenching economic disparities and marginalisation. Environmental scrutiny exposes the grim realities of e-waste disposal, pollution, and land use conflicts. The findings suggest that there is a high resilience within the community and the potential for sustainable trajectories. Theoretical and conceptual synergy is limited. This review provides a comprehensive exploration, offering insights and directions for future research, policy formulation, and community-driven interventions aimed at fostering sustainable transformations in Agbogbloshie and analogous urban contexts.

Keywords: Agbogbloshie, economic complexities, environmental challenges, resilience, sociocultural dynamics, sustainability, urban informal settlement

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732 Adaptation of Smart City Concept in Africa: Localization, Relevance and Bottleneck

Authors: Adeleye Johnson Adelagunayeja


The concept of making cities, communities, and neighborhoods smart, intelligent, and responsive is relatively new to Africa and its urban renewal agencies. Efforts must be made by relevant agencies to begin a holistic review of the implementation of infrastructural facilities and urban renewal methodologies that will revolve around the appreciation and application of artificial intelligence. The propagation of the ideals and benefits of the smart city concept are key factors that can encourage governments of African nations, the African Union, and other regional organizations in Africa to embrace the ideology. The ability of this smart city concept to curb insecurities – armed robbery, assassination, terrorism, and civil disorder – is one major reason, amongst others, why African governments must speedily embrace this contemporary developmental concept whose time has come! The seamlessness to access information and virtually cross-pollinate ideas with people living in already established smart cities, when combined with the great efficiency that the emergence of smart cities brings with it, are other reasons why Africa must come up with action plans that can enable the existing cities to metamorphose into smart cities. Innovations will be required to enable Africa to develop a smart city concept that will be compatible with the basic patterns of livelihood because the essence of the smart city evolution is to make life better for people to co-exist, to be productive and to enjoy standard infrastructural facilities. This research paper enumerates the multifaceted adaptive factors that have the potentials of making the adoption of smartcity concept in Africa seamless. It also proffers solutions to potential bottlenecks capable of undermining the execution of the smart city concept in Africa.

Keywords: smartcity compactibility innovation Africa government evolution, Africa as global village member, evolution in Africa, ways to make Africa adopt smartcity, localizing smartcity concept in Africa, bottleneck to smartcity developmet in Africa

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