Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 625

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Urban and Civil Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

625 Assessing the NYC's Single-Family Housing Typology for Urban Heat Vulnerability and Occupants’ Health Risk under the Climate Change Emergency

Authors: Eleni Stefania Kalapoda

Abstract:

Recurring heat waves due to the global climate change emergency pose continuous risks to human health and urban resources. Local and state decision-makers incorporate Heat Vulnerability Indices (HVIs) to quantify and map the relative impact on human health in emergencies. These maps enable government officials to identify the highest-risk districts and to concentrate emergency planning efforts and available resources accordingly (e.g., to reevaluate the location and the number of heat-relief centers). Even though the framework of conducting an HVI is unique per municipality, its accuracy in assessing the heat risk is limited. To resolve this issue, varied housing-related metrics should be included. This paper quantifies and classifies NYC’s single detached housing typology within high-vulnerable NYC districts using detailed energy simulations and post-processing calculations. The results show that the variation in indoor heat risk depends significantly on the dwelling’s design/operation characteristics, concluding that low-ventilated dwellings are the most vulnerable ones. Also, it confirmed that when building-level determinants of exposure are excluded from the assessment, HVI fails to capture important components of heat vulnerability. Lastly, the overall vulnerability ratio of the housing units was calculated between 0.11 to 1.6 indoor heat degrees in terms of ventilation and shading capacity, insulation degree, and other building attributes.

Keywords: heat vulnerability index, energy efficiency, urban heat, resiliency to heat, climate adaptation, climate mitigation, building energy

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624 Analysing Competitive Advantage of IoT and Data Analytics in Smart City Context

Authors: Petra Hofmann, Dana Koniel, Jussi Luukkanen, Walter Nieminen, Lea Hannola, Ilkka Donoghue

Abstract:

The Covid-19 pandemic forced people to isolate and become physically less connected. The pandemic has not only reshaped people’s behaviours and needs but also accelerated digital transformation (DT). DT of cities has become an imperative with the outlook of converting them into smart cities in the future. Embedding digital infrastructure and smart city initiatives as part of normal design, construction, and operation of cities provides a unique opportunity to improve the connection between people. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology and one of the drivers in DT. It has disrupted many industries by introducing different services and business models, and IoT solutions are being applied in multiple fields, including smart cities. As IoT and data are fundamentally linked together, IoT solutions can only create value if the data generated by the IoT devices is analysed properly. Extracting relevant conclusions and actionable insights by using established techniques, data analytics contributes significantly to the growth and success of IoT applications and investments. Companies must grasp DT and be prepared to redesign their offerings and business models to remain competitive in today’s marketplace. As there are many IoT solutions available today, the amount of data is tremendous. The challenge for companies is to understand what solutions to focus on and how to prioritise and which data to differentiate from the competition. This paper explains how IoT and data analytics can impact competitive advantage and how companies should approach IoT and data analytics to translate them into concrete offerings and solutions in the smart city context. The study was carried out as a qualitative, literature-based research. A case study is provided to validate the preservation of company’s competitive advantage through smart city solutions. The results of the research contribution provide insights into the different factors and considerations related to creating competitive advantage through IoT and data analytics deployment in the smart city context. Furthermore, this paper proposes a framework that merges the factors and considerations with examples of offerings and solutions in smart cities. The data collected through IoT devices, and the intelligent use of it, can create competitive advantage to companies operating in smart city business. Companies should take into consideration the five forces of competition that shape industries and pay attention to the technological, organisational, and external contexts which define factors for consideration of competitive advantages in the field of IoT and data analytics. Companies that can utilise these key assets in their businesses will most likely conquer the markets and have a strong foothold in the smart city business.

Keywords: data analytics, smart cities, competitive advantage, internet of things

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623 The Impact of Infectious Disease on Densely Populated Urban Area: In Terms of COVID-19

Authors: Samira Ghasempourkazemi

Abstract:

In terms of the COVID-19 pandemic, lots of mutations in the urban system, which have systemic impacts, have clearly appeared. COVID-19 not only had a direct impact on health but also caused significant losses to other departments, including the economy, education, tourism, environment and the construction industry. Therefore, the pandemic caused a disruption in the whole urban system. Particularly, today’s large urban areas are not designed in order to be compatible during a pandemic. Hence, cities are more vulnerable to infectious disease threats according to the population density, built environment and socioeconomic aspects. Considering the direct relationship between population and rate of infection, higher rates are given to those individuals located in areas with high-density populations. Population density can be a factor that seems to have a strong impact on the spread of infectious diseases. Thus, the preliminary hypothesis can be related to a densely populated areas which become hotspots for the rapid spread of the pandemic due to high levels of interaction. In addition, some other indicators can be effective in this condition, such as age range, education and socio-economy. To figure out the measure of infectious disease risk in densely populated areas in Istanbul is an objective of this study. Besides, this study intends to figure out Vulnerability Index in the case of COVID-19. In order to achieve the proper result, the considered method can be Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) by involving the mentioned variables. In the end, the study represents the COVID Vulnerability of densely populated areas in a metro city and the gaps that need to be identified and plugged for the pandemic-resilience city of tomorrow.

Keywords: infectious disease, COVID-19, urban system, densely populated area

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622 Understanding Tactical Urbanisms in Derelict Areas

Authors: Berna Yaylalı, Isin Can Traunmüller

Abstract:

This paper explores the emergent bottom-up practices in the fields of architecture and urban design within comparative perspectives of two cities. As a temporary, easily affordable intervention that gives the possibility of transforming neglected spaces into vibrant public spaces, tactical urbanism, together with creative place-making strategies, presents alternative ways of creating sustainable developments in derelict and underused areas. This study examines the potential of social and physical developments through a reading of case studies of two creative spatial practices: a pop-up garden transformed from an unused derelict space in Favoriten, Vienna, and an urban community garden in Kuzguncuk, Istanbul. Two cities are chosen according to their multicultural population and diversity. Istanbul was selected as a design city by UNESCO Creative Cities Network in 2017, and Vienna was declared an open and livable city by its local government. This research will use media archives and reports, interviews with locals and local governments, site observations, and visual recordings as methods to provide a critical reading on creative public spaces from the view of local users in these neighborhoods. Reflecting on these emergent ways, this study aims at discussing the production process of tactile urbanism with the practices of locals and the decision-making process with cases from İstanbul and Vienna. The comparison between their place-making strategies in tactical urbanism will give important insights for future developments.

Keywords: creative city, tactical urbanism, neglected area, public space

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621 Assessing Building Rooftop Potential for Solar Photovoltaic Energy and Rainwater Harvesting: A Sustainable Urban Plan for Atlantis, Western Cape

Authors: Adedayo Adeleke, Dineo Pule

Abstract:

The ongoing load-shedding in most parts of South Africa, combined with climate change causing severe drought conditions in Cape Town, has left electricity consumers seeking alternative sources of power and water. Solar energy, which is abundant in most parts of South Africa and is regarded as a clean and renewable source of energy, allows for the generation of electricity via solar photovoltaic systems. Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rainwater from building rooftops, allowing people without access to water to collect it. The lack of dependable energy and water source must be addressed by shifting to solar energy via solar photovoltaic systems and rainwater harvesting. Before this can be done, the potential of building rooftops must be assessed to determine whether solar energy and rainwater harvesting will be able to meet or significantly contribute to Atlantis industrial areas' electricity and water demands. This research project presents methods and approaches for automatically extracting building rooftops in Atlantis industrial areas and evaluating their potential for solar photovoltaics and rainwater harvesting systems using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial imagery. The four objectives were to: (1) identify an optimal method of extracting building rooftops from aerial imagery and LiDAR data; (2) identify a suitable solar radiation model that can provide a global solar radiation estimate of the study area; (3) estimate solar photovoltaic potential overbuilding rooftop; and (4) estimate the amount of rainwater that can be harvested from the building rooftop in the study area. Mapflow, a plugin found in Quantum Geographic Information System(GIS) was used to automatically extract building rooftops using aerial imagery. The mean annual rainfall in Cape Town was obtained from a 29-year rainfall period (1991- 2020) and used to calculate the amount of rainwater that can be harvested from building rooftops. The potential for rainwater harvesting and solar photovoltaic systems was assessed, and it can be concluded that there is potential for these systems but only to supplement the existing resource supply and offer relief in times of drought and load-shedding.

Keywords: roof potential, rainwater harvesting, urban plan, roof extraction

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620 Research on the Public Policy of Vehicle Restriction under Traffic Control

Authors: Wang Qian, Bian Cheng Xiang

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In recent years, with the improvement of China's urbanization level, the number of urban motor vehicles has grown rapidly. As residents' daily commuting necessities, cars cause a lot of exhaust emissions and urban traffic congestion. In the "Fourteenth Five Year Plan" of China, it is proposed to strive to reach the peak of carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. Urban transport accounts for a high proportion of carbon emission sources. It is an important driving force for the realization of China's carbon peak strategy. Some cities have introduced and implemented the policy of "car restriction" to solve related urban problems by reducing the use of cars. This paper analyzes the implementation of the "automobile restriction" policy, evaluates the relevant effects of the automobile restriction policy, and discusses how to better optimize the "automobile restriction" policy in the process of urban governance.

Keywords: carbon emission, traffic jams, vehicle restrictions, evaluate

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619 Analysis of Spatial Form and Gene of Historical and Cultural Settlements in Mountainous Areas: Illustrated by the Example of Anju Ancient Town

Authors: Sun Gang

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A variety of functional spaces are distributed on the vast mountain waterfront. Their functional positioning presents a spontaneous form of settlement space, and the construction features show a passive impact on the natural environment. As the precious heritage of inheriting human civilization and promoting historical culture, the traditional settlement space in mountainous areas is also the local expression of landscape pattern pattern gene. Under the impact of rapid urban construction and the stimulation of the transformation of social consumption demand, the original texture, scale and ecology of the traditional mountain settlement space, especially the historical and cultural settlement space, have been affected, and the decline of characteristics hinders the development. This paper selects Anju Ancient Town, the fourth largest ancient city in China, which is located in the city of mountains and waters as the research object, and combines spatial analysis and other methods to study the characteristics and causes of its spatial morphology, analyze the internal logic in its formation and development process, build a genetic analysis map, explore the possibility of settlement inheritance and development, and provide reference for the construction, protection and inheritance of traditional mountain settlements.

Keywords: mountain traditional settlement, historical and cultural settlement space, spatial form, spatial gene

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618 Analysis on the Development and Evolution of China’s Territorial Spatial Planning

Authors: He YuanYan

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In recent years, China has implemented the reform of land and space planning. As an important public policy, land and space planning plays a vital role in the construction and development of cities. Land and space planning throughout the country is in full swing, but there are still many disputes from all walks of life. The content, scope, and specific implementation process of land and space planning are also ambiguous, leading to the integration of multiple regulation problems such as unclear authority, unclear responsibilities, and poor planning results during the implementation of land and space planning. Therefore, it is necessary to sort out the development and evolution of domestic and foreign land space planning, clarify the problems and cruxes from the current situation of China's land space planning, and sort out the obstacles and countermeasures to the implementation of this policy, so as to deepen the understanding of the connotation of land space planning. It is of great practical significance for all planners to correctly understand and clarify the specific contents and methods of land space planning and to smoothly promote the implementation of land space planning at all levels.

Keywords: territorial spatial planning, public policy, land space, overall planning

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617 The Effect of Awareness-Raising on Household Water Consumption

Authors: R. Morbidelli, C. Saltalippi, A. Flammini, J. Dari

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This work analyses what effect systematic awareness-raising of the population on domestic water consumption produces. In a period where the availability of water is continually decreasing due to reduced rainfall, it is of paramount importance to raise awareness among the population. We conducted an experiment on a large sample of homes in urban areas of Central Italy. In the first phase, lasting three weeks, normal per capita, water consumption was quantified. Subsequently, instructions were given on how to save water during various uses in the household (showers, cleaning hands, use of water in toilets, watering small green areas, use of water in the kitchen, ...), and small visual messages were posted at water dispensers to remind users to behave properly. Finally, household consumption was assessed again for a further three weeks. This experiment made it possible to quantify the effect of the awareness-raising action on the reduction of water consumption without the use of any structural action (replacement of dispensers, improvement of the water system, ...).

Keywords: water saving, urban areas, awareness-raising, climate change

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616 Sustainable Traffic Flow: The Case Study of Un-Signalized Pedestrian Crossing at Stationary Bottleneck and Its Impact on Traffic Flow

Authors: Imran Badshah

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This paper study the impact of Un-signalized pedestrian on traffic flow at Stationary Bottleneck. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) analyze the methodology of level of service for Urban street segment but it does not include the impact of un-signalized pedestrian crossing at stationary bottleneck. The un-signalized pedestrian crossing in urban road segment causes conflict between vehicles and pedestrians. As a result, the average time taken by vehicle to travel along a road segment increased. The speed of vehicle and the level of service decreases as the running time of a segment increased. To analyze the delay, we need to determine the pedestrian speed while crossing the road at a stationary bottleneck. The objective of this research is to determine the speed of pedestrian and its impact on traffic flow at stationary bottleneck. In addition, the result of this study should be incorporated in the Urban Street Analysis Chapter of HCM.

Keywords: stationary bottleneck, traffic flow, pedestrian speed, HCM

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615 Simulation of Pedestrian Service Time at Different Delay Times

Authors: Imran Badshah

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Pedestrian service time reflects the performance of the facility, and it’s a key parameter to analyze the capability of facilities provided to serve pedestrians. The level of service of pedestrians (LOS) mainly depends on pedestrian time and safety. The pedestrian time utilized by taking a service is mainly influenced by the number of available services and the time utilized by each pedestrian in receiving a service; that is called a delay time. In this paper, we analyzed the simulated pedestrian service time with different delay times. A simulation is performed in AnyLogic by developing a model that reflects the real scenario of pedestrian services such as ticket machine gates at rail stations, airports, shopping malls, and cinema halls. The simulated pedestrian time is determined for various delay values. The simulated result shows how pedestrian time changes with the delay pattern. The histogram and time plot graph of a model gives the mean, maximum and minimum values of the pedestrian time. This study helps us to check the behavior of pedestrian time at various services such as subway stations, airports, shopping malls, and cinema halls.

Keywords: agent-based simulation, anylogic model, pedestrian behavior, time delay

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614 Development of an Integrated Framework for Life-Cycle Economic, Environmental and Human Health Impact Assessment for Reclaimed Water Use in Water Systems of Various Scales

Authors: Yu-Yao Wang, Xiao-Meng Hu, Joanne Yeung, Xiao-Yan Li

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The high private cost and unquantified external cost limit the development of reclaimed water. In this study, an integrated framework comprising life cycle assessment (LCA), quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), and life cycle costing (LCC) was developed to evaluate both costs of reclaimed water supply in water systems of various scales. LCA assesses the environmental impacts, and QMRA estimates the associated pathogenic impacts. These impacts are monetized as external costs and analyzed with the private cost by LCC to count the total life cycle cost. The framework evaluated the Hong Kong urban water system in the baseline scenario (BS) and five wastewater reuse scenarios (RS). They are RSI: substituting freshwater for toilet flushing only, RSII: substituting both freshwater and seawater for toilet flushing, RSIII: using reclaimed water for all non-potable uses, RSIV: using reclaimed water for all non-potable uses and indirect potable uses, and RSV: non-potable use and indirect potable use by conveying 100% reclaimed water to recharge the reservoirs. The results show that substituting freshwater and seawater for toilet flushing has the least total life cycle cost, exhibiting that it is the most cost-effective option for Hong Kong. Meanwhile, the evaluation results show that the external cost of each scenario is comparable to the corresponding private cost, indicating the importance of the inclusion of comprehensive external cost evaluation in private cost assessment of water systems with reclaimed water supply.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, life cycle costing, quantitative microbial risk assessment, water reclamation, reclaimed water, alternative water resources

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613 Outdoor Thermal Comfort Strategies: The Case of Cool Facades

Authors: Noelia L. Alchapar, Cláudia C. Pezzuto, Erica N. Correa

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Mitigating urban overheating is key to achieving the environmental and energy sustainability of cities. The management of the optical properties of the materials that make up the urban envelope -roofing, pavement, and facades- constitutes a profitable and effective tool to improve the urban microclimate and rehabilitate urban areas. Each material that makes up the urban envelope has a different capacity to reflect received solar radiation, which alters the fraction of solar radiation absorbed by the city. However, the paradigm of increasing solar reflectance in all areas of the city without distinguishing their relative position within the urban canyon can cause serious problems of overheating and discomfort among its inhabitants. The hypothesis that supports the research postulates that not all reflective technologies that contribute to urban radiative cooling favor the thermal comfort conditions of pedestrians to equal measure. The objective of this work is to determine to what degree the management of the optical properties of the facades modifies outdoor thermal comfort, given that the mitigation potential of materials with high reflectance in facades is strongly conditioned by geographical variables and by the geometric characteristics of the urban profile aspect ratio (H/W). This research was carried out under two climatic contexts, that of the city of Mendoza-Argentina and that of the city of Campinas-Brazil, according to the Köppen climate classification: BWk and Cwa, respectively. Two areas in two different climatic contexts (Mendoza - Argentina and Campinas - Brazil) were selected. Both areas have comparable urban morphology patterns. These areas are located in a region with low horizontal building density and residential zoning. The microclimatic conditions were monitored during the summer period with temperature and humidity fixed sensors inside vial channels. The microclimate model was simulated in ENVI-Met V5. A grid resolution of 3.5 x 3.5 x 3.5m was used for both cities, totaling an area of 145x145x30 grids. Based on the validated theoretical model, ten scenarios were simulated, modifying the height of buildings and the solar reflectivity of facades. The solar reflectivity façades ranges were: low (0.3) and high (0.75). The density scenarios range from 1th to the 5th level. The study scenarios' performance was assessed by comparing the air temperature, physiological equivalent temperature (PET), and thermal climate index (UTCI). As a result, it is observed that the behavior of the materials of the urban outdoor space depends on complex interactions. Many urban environmental factors influence including constructive characteristics, urban morphology, geographic locations, local climate, and so forth. The role of the vertical urban envelope is decisive for the reduction of urban overheating. One of the causes of thermal gain is the multiple reflections within the urban canyon, which affects not only the air temperature but also the pedestrian thermal comfort. One of the main findings of this work leads to the remarkable importance of considering both the urban warming and the thermal comfort aspects of pedestrians in urban mitigation strategies.

Keywords: materials facades, solar reflectivity, thermal comfort, urban cooling

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612 A Research on the Coordinated Development of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle under the Background of New Urbanization

Authors: Deng Tingting

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The coordinated and integrated development of regions is an inevitable requirement for China to move towards high-quality, sustainable development. As one of the regions with the best economic foundation and the strongest economic strength in western China, it is a typical area with national importance and strong network connection characteristics in terms of the comprehensive effect of linking the inland hinterland and connecting the western and national urban networks. The integrated development of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle is of great strategic significance for the rapid and high-quality development of the western region. In the context of new urbanization, this paper takes 16 urban units within the economic circle as the research object, based on the 5-year panel data of population, regional economy, and spatial construction and development from 2016 to 2020, using the entropy method and Theil index to analyze the three target layers, and cause analysis. The research shows that there are temporal and spatial differences in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle, and there are significant differences between the core city and the surrounding cities. Therefore, by reforming and innovating the regional coordinated development mechanism, breaking administrative barriers, and strengthening the "polar nucleus" radiation function to release the driving force for economic development, especially in the gully areas of economic development belts, not only promote the coordinated development of internal regions but also promote the coordinated and sustainable development of the western region and take a high-quality development path.

Keywords: Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle, new urbanization, coordinated regional development, Theil Index

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611 Social Impacts of Gentrification: Protest and Resistance: A Case Study in Monterrey’s City Center

Authors: Paulina Ramirez Leal

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Current debates have examined the effects of market-oriented development on gentrification, as well as the role of urban renewal, interventions, and planning policy in exacerbating this phenomenon. Despite the growing body of research recognizing the social impacts of gentrification, to date, there has been very little research directly investigating how resisting gentrification increases social cohesion, a crucial dimension of urban resilience. This contribution set out to explore these social impacts while identifying the different forms of protest and expressions of resistance to gentrification in Monterrey’s city center. The methods employed include documentary analysis and qualitative methods such as surveys and photographic documentation. Monterrey’s city center's ongoing process of gentrification illustrates the impacts of planning policies, specifically TOD. Some of the unintended consequences of the policy have resulted in inhabitants facing forced inner migration and displacement caused by vandalism of their homes and neighborhoods, as well as losing part of their urban identity.

Keywords: gentrification, social impacts, neighborhood identity, urban resilience, Monterrey’s City Center

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610 Temporal Transformation of Built-up Area and its Impact on Urban Flooding in Hyderabad, India

Authors: Subbarao Pichuka, Amar Balakrishna Tej, Vikas Vemula

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In recent years, the frequency and intensity of urban floods have increased due to climate change all over the world provoking a significant loss in terms of human lives and property. This study investigates the effect of Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes and population growth on the urban environmental conditions in the Indian metropolitan city namely Hyderabad. The centennial built-up area data have been downloaded from the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) web portal for various periods (1975 to 2014). The ArcGIS version 10.8 software is employed to convert the GHSL data into shape files and also to calculate the amount of built-up area in the study locations. The decadal population data are obtained from the Census from 1971 to 2011 and forecasted for the required years (1975 and 2014) utilizing the Geometric Increase Method. Next, the analysis has been carried out with respect to the increase in population and the corresponding rise in the built-up area. Further the effects of extreme rainfall events, which exacerbate urban flooding have also been reviewed. Results demonstrate that the population growth was the primary cause of the increase in impervious surfaces in the urban regions. It in turn leads to the intensification of surface runoff and thereby leads to Urban flooding. The built-up area has been doubled from 1975 to 2014 and the population growth has been observed between 109.24% to 400% for the past four decades (1971 to 2014) in the study area (Hyderabad). Overall, this study provides the hindsight on the current urban flooding scenarios, and the findings of this study can be used in the future planning of cities.

Keywords: urban LULC change, urban flooding, GHSL built-up data, climate change, ArcGIS

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609 Assessing Public Open Spaces Availability and Distribution in a Socially Challenged City: A Case Study of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdulwahab Alalyani, Mahbub Rashid

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Public Open Space (POS) availability and distribution among urban communities have a central role to promotes community health. However, growing health challenges in a city would raise attention to the planning quality of these community's assets. This research aims to measure the existing availability and distribution equity of POS in the context of Saudi Arabia using Riyadh city as a case study. The methodology for the POS availability was by calculating the total POS with respect to the population total (m²/inhabitant). All POS were mapped using geographical information systems (GIS), and the total area availability of POS was compared to global, regional, and local standards. To evaluate the significant differences in POS availability across low, medium, and high-income Riyadh neighborhoods, we used a One-way ANOVA analysis of covariance to test the differences. The results are as follows; POS availability was lower than global standers. Riyadh has only 1.40m² per capita of POS. Spatial equity of the availability were significantly different among Riyadh neighborhoods based on socioeconomic status. The future development of POS should be focused on increasing general POS availability and should be given priority to those low-income and unhealthy communities. Accessibility indicators of POS should be considered in future studies.

Keywords: open spaces availability, open spaces distribution, spatial equity, healthy city, Riyadh City

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608 Development of a Mobile APP for Establishing Thermal Sensation Maps using Citizen Participation

Authors: Jeong-Min Son, Jeong-Hee Eum, Jin-Kyu Min, Uk-Je Sung, Ju-Eun Kim

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While various environmental problems are severe due to climate change, especially in cities where population and development are concentrated, urban thermal environment problems such as heat waves and tropical nights are particularly worsening. Accordingly, the Korean government provides basic data related to the urban thermal environment to support each local government in effectively establishing policies to cope with heat waves. However, the basic data related to the thermal environment provided by the government has limitations in establishing a regional thermal adaptation plan with a minimum unit of cities, counties, and districts. In addition, the urban heat environment perceived by people differs in each region and space. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare practical measures that can be used to establish regional-based policies for heat wave adaptation by identifying people’s heat perception in the entire city. This study aims to develop a mobile phone application (APP) to gather people’s thermal sensation information and create Korea’s first thermal map based on this information. In addition, through this APP, citizens directly propose thermal adaptation policies, and urban planners and policymakers accept citizens' opinions, so this study provides a tool to solve local thermal environment problems. To achieve this purpose, first, the composition and contents of the app were discussed by examining various existing apps and cases for citizen participation and collection of heat information. In addition, factors affecting human thermal comfort, such as spatial, meteorological, and demographic factors, were investigated to construct the APP system. Based on these results, the basic version of the APP was developed. Second, the living lab methodology was adopted to gather people’s heat perception using the developed app to conduct overall evaluation and feedback of people on the APP. The people participating in the living lab were selected as those living in Daegu Metropolitan City, which is located in South Korea and annually records high temperatures. The user interface was improved through the living lab to make the app easier to use and the thermal map was modified. This study expects to establish high-resolution thermal maps for effective policies and measures and to solve local thermal environmental problems using the APP. The collected information can be used to evaluate spatial, meteorological, and demographic characteristics that affect the perceived heat of citizens. In addition, it is expected that the research can be expanded by gathering thermal information perceived by citizens of foreign cities as well as other cities in South Korea through the APP developed in this study.

Keywords: mobile application, living lab, thermal map, climate change adaptation

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607 Distribution Urban Public Spaces Among Riyadh Residential Neighborhoods

Authors: Abdulwahab Alalyani, Mahbub Rashid

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Urban Open Space (UOS) a central role to promotes community health, including daily activities, but these resources may not available, accessible enough, and or equitably be distributed. This paper measures and compares spatial equity of the availability and accessibility UOS among low, middle, and high-income neighborhoods in Riyadh city. The measurement mothdulgy for the UOSavailability was by calculating the total of UOS with respect to the population total (m2/inhabitant) and the accessibility indicted by using walking distance of a 0.25 mi (0.4 km) buffering streets network.All UOS were mapped and measured using geographical information systems. To evaluate the significant differences in UOS availability and accessibility across low, medium, and high-income Riyadh neighborhoods, we used a One-way ANOVA analysis of covariance to test the differences.The findings are as follows; finding, UOSavailability was lower than global standers. Riyadh has only 1.13 m2 per capita of UOS, and the coverage accessible area by walking distance to UOS was lower than 50%. The final finding, spatial equity of the availability and accessibility, were significantly different among Riyadh neighborhoods based on socioeconomic status. The future development of UOS should be focused on increasing Urban park availability and should be given priority to those low-income and unhealthy communities.

Keywords: distribution urban open space, urban open space accessibility, spatial equity, riyadh city

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606 Lived Experiences of Gentrification: A Participatory Ethnography in Two London Neighbourhoods

Authors: Beatrice Tura

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This work explores how people of ethnic minority heritage might experience processes of gentrification, with particular attention on those individuals and communities who managed to stay in gentrified or gentrifying neighborhoods. The analysis of their lived everyday realities contributes to new understandings of what ‘to stay’ means, thus, to knowledge about practices of resistance to and survival of gentrification. The methods adopted for this study were of an ethnographic nature and included participant observation and participatory qualitative interviews carried out over 18 months of fieldwork. Its findings were: a) that gentrification can be experienced in at least three ways – as neighborhood change over time, as a threat, and as an opportunity –depending on which aspects of the process and of their lives participants focus on; b) that these diverse experiences foreground different strategies for surviving and negotiating gentrification, where resistance becomes a multi-layered, complex and ambivalent process – sometimes entailing forms of compliance to gentrification; and c) that within such practices of resistance an interesting role is played by the notions of ethnicity and ethnic community, that become themselves engulfed in complex negotiations and are specifically mobilised for the construction of narratives aimed at resisting displacement. Overall, the project methodologically contributes to gentrification studies, as it demonstrates the affordances of ethnographic, participatory inquiry for diversifying our knowledge of the ethnic minority-gentrification nexus – moving beyond expulsion, exploitation, and overt opposition as the only options for ethnic minority populations experiencing gentrification.

Keywords: gentrification, ethnic minorities, London, neighbourhoods, resistance, ethnographic methods

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605 Urban Ecosystem Health and Urban Agriculture

Authors: Mahbuba Kaneez Hasna

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Introductory Statement outlining the background: Little has been written about political ecology of urban gardening, such as a network of knowledge generation, technologies of food production and distribution, food consumption practices, and the regulation of ‘agricultural activities. For urban food gardens to sustain as a long-term food security enterprise, we will need to better understand the anthropological, ecological, political, and institutional factors influencing their development, management, and ongoing viability. Significance of the study: Dhaka as one of the fastest growing city. There are currently no studies regards to Bangladesh on how urban slum dwellerscope with the changing urban environment in the city, where they overcome challenges, and how they cope with the urban ecological cycle of food and vegetable production. It is also essential to understand the importance of their access to confined spaces in the slums they apply their indigenous knowledge. These relationships in nature are important factors in community and conservation ecology. Until now, there has been no significant published academic work on relationships between urban and environmental anthropology, urban planning, geography, ecology, and social anthropology with a focus on urban agriculture and how this contributes to the moral economies, indigenous knowledge, and government policies in order to improve the lives and livelihoods of slum dwellers surrounding parks and open spaces in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methodology: it have applied participant observation, semi-structured questionnaire-based interviews, and focus group discussions to collect social data. Interviews were conducted with the urban agriculture practitioners who are slum dwellers who carry out their urban agriculture activities. Some of the interviews were conducted with non-government organisations (NGOs) and local and state government officials, using semi-structured interviews. Using these methods developed a clearer understanding of how green space cultivation, local economic self-reliance, and urban gardening are producing distinctive urban ecologies in Dhaka and their policy-implications on urban sustainability. Major findings of the study: The research provided an in-depth knowledge on the challenges that slum dwellers encounter in establishing and maintaining urban gardens, such as the economic development of the city, conflicting political agendas, and environmental constraints in areas within which gardening activities take place. The research investigated (i) How do slum dwellers perform gardening practices from rural areas to open spaces in the city? (ii) How do men and women’s ethno-botanical knowledge contribute to urban biodiversity; (iii) And how do slum dwellers navigate complex constellations of land use policy, competing political agendas, and conflicting land and water tenures to meet livelihood functions provided by their gardens. Concluding statement: Lack of infrastructure facilities such as water supply and sanitation, micro-drains and waste disposal areas, and poor access to basic health care services increase the misery of people in the slum areas. Lack of environmental health awareness information for farmers, such as the risks from the use of chemical pesticides in gardens and from grazing animals in contaminated fields or cropping and planting trees or vegetable in contaminated dumping grounds, can all cause high health risk to humans and their environment.

Keywords: gender, urban agriculture, ecosystem health, urban slum systems

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604 Phenomenon of Raveling Distress on the Flexible Pavements: An Overview

Authors: Syed Ali Shahbaz Shah

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In the last few years, Bituminous Asphaltic roads are becoming popular day by day in the world. Plenty of research has been carried out to identify many advantages like safety, environmental effects, and comfort. Some other benefits are minimal noise and skid resistance enhancement. Besides the benefits of asphaltic roads, the permeable structure of the road also causes some distress, and raveling is one of the crucial defects. The main reason behind this distress is the failure of adhesion between bitumen mortar, specifically due to excessive load from heavy traffic. The main focus of this study is to identify the root cause and propose both the long-term and the short-term solutions of raveling on a specific road section depicting the overall road situation from the bridge of Kahuta road towards the intersection of the Islamabad express highway. The methodology adopted for this purpose is visual inspections in-situ. It was noted that there were chunks of debris on the road surface, which indicates that the asphalt binder is aged the most probably. Further laboratory testing would confirm that either asphalt binder is aged or inadequate compaction was adept during cold weather paving.

Keywords: asphaltic roads, asphalt binder, distress, raveling

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603 How Strategic Urban Design Promote Sustainable Urban Mobility: A Comparative Analysis of Cities from Global North and Global South

Authors: Rati Sandeep Choudhari

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Mobility flows are considered one of the most important elements of urbanisation, with transport infrastructure serving as a backbone of urban fabrics. Although rapid urbanisation and changing land use patterns have led to an increase in urban mobility levels around the globe, mobility, in general, has become an unpleasant experience for city dwellers, making locations around the city inconvenient to access. With public transport featured in almost every sustainable mobility plan in developing countries, the intermodality and integration with appropriate non–motorised transport infrastructure is often neglected. As a result, people choose to use private cars and two-wheelers to travel, rendering public transit systems underutilised, and encroaching onto pedestrian space on streets, thus making urban mobility unsafe and inconvenient for a major section of society. On the other hand, cities in the West, especially in Europe, depend heavily on inter–modal transit systems, allowing people to shift between metros, buses, trams, walking, and cycling to access even the remote locations of the city. Keeping accessibility as the focal point while designing urban mobility plans and policies, these cities have appropriately refined their urban form, optimised urban densities, developed a multimodal transit system, and adopted place-making strategies to foster a sense of place, thus, improving the quality of urban mobility experience in cities. Using a qualitative research approach, the research looks in detail into the existing literature on what kind of strategies can be applied to improve the urban mobility experience for city dwellers. It further studies and draws out a comparative analysis of cities in both developed and developing parts of the world where these strategies have been used to create people-centric mobility systems, fostering a sense of place with respect to urban mobility and how these strategies affected their social, economic, and environmental dynamics. The examples reflect on how different strategies like redefining land use patterns to form close knit neighbourhoods, development of non – motorise transit systems, and their integration with public transport infrastructure and place-making approach has helped in enhancing the quality and experience of mobility infrastructure in cities. The research finally concludes by laying out strategies that can be adopted by cities of the Global South to develop future mobility systems in a people-centric and sustainable way.

Keywords: urban mobility, sustainable transport, strategic planning, people-centric approach

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602 Measuring Human Perception and Negative Elements of Public Space Quality Using Deep Learning: A Case Study of Area within the Inner Road of Tianjin City

Authors: Jiaxin Shi, Kaifeng Hao, Qingfan An, Zeng Peng

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Due to a lack of data sources and data processing techniques, it has always been difficult to quantify public space quality, which includes urban construction quality and how it is perceived by people, especially in large urban areas. This study proposes a quantitative research method based on the consideration of emotional health and physical health of the built environment. It highlights the low quality of public areas in Tianjin, China, where there are many negative elements. Deep learning technology is then used to measure how effectively people perceive urban areas. First, this work suggests a deep learning model that might simulate how people can perceive the quality of urban construction. Second, we perform semantic segmentation on street images to identify visual elements influencing scene perception. Finally, this study correlated the scene perception score with the proportion of visual elements to determine the surrounding environmental elements that influence scene perception. Using a small-scale labeled Tianjin street view data set based on transfer learning, this study trains five negative spatial discriminant models in order to explore the negative space distribution and quality improvement of urban streets. Then it uses all Tianjin street-level imagery to make predictions and calculate the proportion of negative space. Visualizing the spatial distribution of negative space along the Tianjin Inner Ring Road reveals that the negative elements are mainly found close to the five key districts. The map of Tianjin was combined with the experimental data to perform the visual analysis. Based on the emotional assessment, the distribution of negative materials, and the direction of street guidelines, we suggest guidance content and design strategy points of the negative phenomena in Tianjin street space in the two dimensions of perception and substance. This work demonstrates the utilization of deep learning techniques to understand how people appreciate high-quality urban construction, and it complements both theory and practice in urban planning. It illustrates the connection between human perception and the actual physical public space environment, allowing researchers to make urban interventions.

Keywords: human perception, public space quality, deep learning, negative elements, street images

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601 The Communication Between Visual Aesthetic Criteria of Product with User Experience and Social Sustainability: A Study of Street Furniture

Authors: Hassan Sadeghi Naeini, Mozhgan Sabzehparvar, Mahdiye Jafarnezhad, Neda Brumandi, Mohammad Parsa Sabzehparvar

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This study aims to discover the relationship between the factors of aesthetics, user experience, and social sustainability concerning the design of street furniture and the impact of these factors on the emotional arousal of citizens to encourage and make them prefer to use street furniture. The method used in this research included extracting indicators related to each of the factors of aesthetics, user experience, and social sustainability from the articles and then selecting indicators related to the purpose of the research in consultation with industrial design experts and architects. Finally, 9 variables for aesthetics, 7 variables for user experience, and 5 variables for evaluating social sustainability were selected. To identify the effect of each of these factors on street furniture and to recognize their relationship with each other. A 10-scale prioritization questionnaire, from 1, the least amount of importance, to 10, the most amount of importance, was answered by architects and industrial designers on the “Pors Line” online platform for three consecutive weeks, and a total of 82 people answered the questionnaire. The results showed that by using aesthetic factors in the design of street furniture and having a positive impact on users’ experience of using the product, we could expect the occurrence of behavioral factors, such as creating constructive interaction and product acceptance so that the satisfaction of the user in the use of street furniture and optimal interaction in the urban environment is formed, followed by that, the requirements of social sustainability will be met.

Keywords: visual aesthetic, user experience, social sustainability, street furniture

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600 Toward Green Infrastructure Development: Dispute Prevention Mechanisms along the Belt and Road and Beyond

Authors: Shahla Ali

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In the context of promoting green infrastructure development, new opportunities are emerging to re-examine sustainable development practices. This paper presents an initial exploration of the development of community-investor dispute prevention and facilitation mechanisms in the context of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) spanning Asia, Africa, and Europe. Given the widescale impact of China’s multi-jurisdictional development initiative, learning how to coordinate with local communities is vital to realizing inclusive and sustainable growth. In the 20 years since the development of the first multilateral community-investor dispute resolution mechanism developed by the International Finance Centre/World Bank, much has been learned about public facilitation, community engagement, and dispute prevention during the early stages of major infrastructure development programs. This paper will explore initial findings as they relate to initiatives underway along the BRI within the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Given the borderless nature of sustainability concerns, insights from diverse regions are critical to deepening insights into best practices. Drawing on a case-based methodology, this paper will explore the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned in community-investor dispute prevention and resolution for major infrastructure projects in the greater China region.

Keywords: law and development, dispute prevention, sustainable development, mitigation

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599 Environmental Education and Sustainable Development: the Contribution of Eco-Schools Program

Authors: Sara Rute Monteiro Silva Sousa

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Since the second half of the 20th century, environmental problems began to generate deep concern around the world. The harmful effects of human's irresponsible actions are increasingly evident, profoundly affecting biodiversity and even human health. Given the seriousness of this human footprint, governments, organizations, and civil society must all be more proactive and adopt more effective measures to solve environmental problems and promote sustainable development. This can be achieved through different tools, namely through a more efficient education that enables current and future generations to meet their needs in an integrated approach to the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. In this context, schools play a key role, being responsible for educating today's students and tomorrow's leaders, decision makers, intellectuals, managers, politicians, employers, and parents. Aware of this crucial role of education and schools, the Foundation for Environmental Education created the Eco-Schools program in 1992, ensuring that schools develop a whole-school approach to environmental and sus-tainable education. This research aims to increase knowledge and information about the efficiency of the Eco-Schools program as a promoter of more sustainable schools and communities. This research study analyses a specific case of a Portuguese higher education institution in the area of management, accounting, and administration. A description, reflection, and discussion are made on some of the main measures implemented in the last academic year of 2021/22 within the scope of the Eco-Schools program, concluding that, despite some implementation difficulties, the program was successfully developed, involving the participation of students, teachers, staff, and outside school community members, being awarded with the Green Flag as a recognition of its key contribution to a more sustainable society.

Keywords: sustainable development, environmental education, eco-schools program, higher education institutions, portugal

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598 Novel Urban Regulation Panorama in Latin America

Authors: Yeimis Milton, Palomino Pichihua

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The city, like living organisms, originates from codes, structured information in the form of rules that condition the physical form and performance of urban space. Usually, the so-called urban codes clash with the spontaneous nature of the city, with the urban Kháos that contextualizes the free creation (poiesis) of human collectives. This contradiction is especially evident in Latin America, which, like other developing regions, lacks adequate instruments to guide urban growth. Thus constructing a hybrid between the formal and informal city, categories that are difficult to separate one from the other. This is a comparative study focusing on the urban codes created to address the pandemic. The objective is to build an overview of these innovations in the region. The sample is made up of official norms published in pandemic, directly linked to urban planning and building control (urban form). The countries analyzed are Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Colombia, and Chile. The study uncovers a shared interest in facing future urban problems, in contrast to the inconsistency of proposed legal instruments. Factors such as the lack of articulation, validity time, and ambiguity, among others, accentuate this problem. Likewise, it evidences that the political situation of each country has a significant influence on the development of these norms and the possibility of their long-term impact. In summary, the global emergency has produced opportunities to transform urban systems from their internal rules; however, there are very few successful examples in this field. Therefore, Latin American cities have the task of learning from this defeat in order to lay the foundations for a more resilient and sustainable urban future.

Keywords: pandemic, regulation, urban planning, latin America

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597 Vertical Urbanization Over Public Structures: The Example of Mostar Junction in Belgrade, Serbia

Authors: Sladjana Popovic

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The concept of vertical space urbanization, defined in English as "air rights development," can be considered a mechanism for the development of public spaces in urban areas of high density. A chronological overview of the transformation of space within the vertical projection of the existing traffic infrastructure that penetrates through the central areas of a city is given in this paper through the analysis of two illustrative case studies: more advanced and recent - "Plot 13" in Boston, and less well-known European example of structures erected above highways throughout Italy - the "Pavesi auto grill" chain. The backbone of this analysis is the examination of the possibility of yielding air rights within the vertical projection of public structures in the two examples by considering the factors that would enable its potential application in capitals in Southeastern Europe. The cession of air rights in the Southeastern Europe region, as a phenomenon, has not been a recognized practice in urban planning. In a formal sense, legal and physical feasibility can be seen to some extent in local models of structures built above protected historical heritage (i.e., archaeological sites); however, the mechanisms of the legal process of assigning the right to use and develop air rights above public structures is not a recognized concept. The goal of the analysis is to shed light on the influence of institutional participants in the implementation of innovative solutions for vertical urbanization, as well as strategic planning mechanisms in public-private partnership models that would enable the implementation of the concept in the region. The main question is whether the manipulation of the vertical projection of space could provide for innovative urban solutions that overcome the deficit and excessive use of the available construction land, particularly above the dominant public spaces and traffic infrastructure that penetrate central parts of a city. Conclusions reflect upon vertical urbanization that can bridge the spatial separation of the city, reduce noise pollution and contribute to more efficient urban planning along main transportation corridors.

Keywords: air rights development, innovative urbanism, public-private partnership, transport infrastructure, vertical urbanization

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596 The Effectiveness of Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Policies to Promote Tourism Development in the Wild Coast, Eastern Cape

Authors: Siyamthanda Makhwabe

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Tourism development and spatial planning within the broader spectrum of the Eastern Cape needs to be strategically integrated to give effectiveness to development planning within the province. Tourism was severely affected and limited by policies of the previous regime. Tourism development in the Eastern Cape has been identified as one of the underdeveloped sectors that have the potential to improve the province’s local economic development trajectory The proposed study reviews literature on tourism development in an urban/rural and regional context in the Eastern Cape province. The proposed study will therefore offer an in-depth literature review on issues pertaining to spatial planning, land use management policies and tourism development within the Eastern Cape using the scoping review method. The intention of the proposed study is to identify synergies between the intertwined municipalities within the Wild Coast region in order to create a tourism belt that would yield benefit from Coffee Bay to East London.

Keywords: development, Eastern Cape, policies, spatial planning, tourism

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