Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 506

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Urban and Civil Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

506 A Molecular-Level Study of Combining the Waste Polymer and High-Concentration Waste Cooking Oil as an Additive on Reclamation of Aged Asphalt Pavement

Authors: Qiuhao Chang, Liangliang Huang, Xingru Wu


In the United States, over 90% of the roads are paved with asphalt. The aging of asphalt is the most serious problem that causes the deterioration of asphalt pavement. Waste cooking oils (WCOs) have been found they can restore the properties of aged asphalt and promote the reuse of aged asphalt pavement. In our previous study, it was found the optimal WCO concentration to restore the aged asphalt sample should be in the range of 10~15 wt% of the aged asphalt sample. After the WCO concentration exceeds 15 wt%, as the WCO concentration increases, some important properties of the asphalt sample can be weakened by the addition of WCO, such as cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, etc. However, maximizing the utilization of WCO can create environmental and economic benefits. Therefore, in this study, a new idea about using the waste polymer is another additive to restore the WCO modified asphalt that contains a high concentration of WCO (15-25 wt%) is proposed, which has never been reported before. In this way, both waste polymer and WCO can be utilized. The molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the effect of waste polymer on properties of WCO modified asphalt and understand the corresponding mechanism at the molecular level. The radial distribution function, self-diffusion, cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, adhesion energy between asphalt and aggregate are analyzed to validate the feasibility of combining the waste polymer and WCO to restore the aged asphalt. Finally, the optimal concentration of waste polymer and WCO are determined.

Keywords: reclaim aged asphalt pavement, waste cooking oil, waste polymer, molecular dynamics simulation

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505 Historical Analysis of Two Types of Urbanization Changing Both the Aspect and Identity of a Town in Transylvania, Romania

Authors: Ágota Ladó


Miercurea Ciuc is a town in the historical region of Szeklerland in Transylvania, Romania, with a predominantly Hungarian population (its name in Hungarian being Csíkszereda) having an urban landscape and environment that has been shaped dramatically by different perceptions of urbanization during the history. The town has been part of Hungary and the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. It even got an important role, becoming in 1876 the seat and administrative center of the historical Csík county. This marks the beginning of the first urbanization process: new administrative buildings, railways, a railway station, a hospital, a Redoute and new schools have been built, new streets have been opened. However, not only the public facilities have changed: the center of the town with its private houses has also transformed, new, modern decorative and lifestyle elements have appeared. One of the streets from the town center, Kossuth street, has been featured on many postcards of the time; even a novel has mentioned it as a symbol of modern urbanization. Right after the First World War, the town became part of Romania and aside from a short interruption (between 1940 and 1944), it is still part of it. The beginning of the second major urbanization process – exactly one hundred years later - is marked by the visit of the communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu in Miercurea Ciuc on the 6th of October 1976. In the upcoming years, he decided and started to demolish the old Kossuth street and to construct a new avenue with tall blocks of flats according to the principles of socialist urbanization. No other Transylvanian settlement has gone through such systematic abolition of its historical center and urban history during the Communist era. Not only the urban landscape has been affected. The collective memory and contemporary identity of the locals are also violated by this recent transformation of the town: important spaces, buildings, venues of activities and events simply cannot be localized, thus understood - by the younger generations.

Keywords: communist era, historical urban landscape, urban identity, urbanization

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504 Cities Idioms Together with ICT and Countries Interested in the Smart City: A Review of Current Status

Authors: Qasim HamaKhurshid HamaMurad, Normal Mat Jusoh, Uznir Ujang


The concept of the city with an infrastructure of (information and communication) Technology embraces several definitions depending on the meanings of the word "smart" are (intelligent city, smart city, knowledge city, ubiquitous city, sustainable city, digital city). Many definitions of the city exist, but this chapter explores which one has been universally acknowledged. From literature analysis, it emerges that Smart City is the most used terminologies in literature through the digital database to indicate the smartness of a city. This paper share exploration the research from main seven website digital databases and journal about Smart City from "January 2015 to the February of 2020" to (a) Time research, to examine the causes of the Smart City phenomenon and other concept literature in the last five years (b) Review of words, to see how and where the smart city specification and relation different definition And(c) Geographical research to consider where Smart Cities' greatest concentrations are in the world and are Malaysia has interacting with the smart city, and (d) how many papers published from all Malaysia from 2015 to 2020 about smart citie. Three steps are followed to accomplish the goal. (1)The analysis covered publications Build a systematic literature review search strategy to gather a representative sub-set of papers on Smart City and other definitions utilizing (GoogleScholar, Elsevier, Scopus, ScienceDirect, IEEEXplore, WebofScience, Springer) January2015-February2020. (2)A bibliometric map was formed based on the bibliometric evaluation using the mapping technique VOSviewer to visualize differences. (3)VOSviewer application program was used to build initial clusters. The Map of Bibliometric Visualizes the analytical findings which targeted the word harmony.

Keywords: bibliometric research, smart city, ICT, VOSviewer, urban modernization

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503 Statistical Relation Between Vegetation Cover and Land Surface Temperature in Phnom Penh City

Authors: Gulam Mohiuddin, Jan-Peter Mund


This study assessed the correlation between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in Phnom Penh City (Cambodia) within 2016-2020. Understanding the LST and NDVI can be helpful to understand the Urban Heat Island (UHI) scenario, and it can contribute to planning urban greening and combating the effects of UHI. The relation between NDVI and LST is a well-studied topic, and some studies focused on statistical analysis. Even though previous studies found a negative correlation between NDVI and LST, they could not agree on the magnitude of this relationship. The existing relevant studies produced a wide range of correlation coefficients (ranged from -0.18 to -0.78) depending on the sampling and analysis techniques. This study has implemented an approach that provides an alternative to the sampling-based statistical analysis and hence, a fresh look at the subject matter. The study used Landsat-8 images as the data for analysis. They have 100m spatial resolution (per pixel) in the thermal band. The current study is unique as it used an approach for the statistical analysis that considers every pixel from the study area instead of taking a few sample points or analyzing descriptive statistics. Also, this is the first study on this study area (Phnom Penh) examining the correlation between NDVI and LST with a spatially explicit approach. The study found a strong negative correlation between NDVI and LST (coefficient range -0.56 to -0.59), and this relationship is linear. This study showed a way to avoid the probable error from the sample-based approach in examining two spatial variables. The method is reproducible for a similar type of analysis on the correlation between spatial phenomena. The findings of this study will be used further to understand the causation behind land surface temperature change in that area triangulating LST, NDVI, and land-use changes.

Keywords: land surface temperature, NDVI, remote sensing, methodological development

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502 Regional Advantages Analysis: An Interactive Approach of Comparative and Competitive Advantages

Authors: Abdolrasoul Ghasemi, Ali Arabmazar Yazdi, Yasaman Boroumand, Aliasghar Banouei


In regional studies, choosing an appropriate approach to analyze regional success or failure has always been a challenge. Hence, this study introduces an innovative approach to establish a link between regional success and failure in the past as well as the potential success of a region in the future. The former can be sought in the historical evaluation of comparative advantages, while the latter is portrayed as competitive advantage analysis with a forward-looking approach. Based on the interaction of comparative and competitive advantages, activities are classified into four groups, including activities with no advantage, hidden advantage, fragile advantage and synergistic advantage. In analyzing the comparative advantage of activities, the location quotient method is applied, and in analyzing their competitive advantage, Porter`s diamond model using the survey method is applied. According to the results, the share of no advantage, fragile advantage, hidden advantage and synergic advantage activities are respectively 10%, 42%, 16%, and 32%. Also, to achieve economic development in regional activities, our model provides various levels of priority. First, the activities with synergistic advantage should be prioritized, then the ones with hidden advantage, and finally the activities with fragile advantage.

Keywords: regional advantage, comparative advantage, competitive advantage, Porter's diamond model

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501 A Comprehensive Approach to Create ‘Livable Streets’ in the Mixed Land Use of Urban Neighborhoods Applying Urban Design Principles Which Will Achieve Quality of Life for Pedestrians

Authors: K. C. Tanuja, Mamatha P. Raj


Urbanisation is happening rapidly all over the world. As population increasing in the urban settlements, its required to provide quality of life to all the inhabitants who live in. Urban design is a place making strategic planning. Urban design principles promote visualising any place environmentally, socially and economically viable. Urban design strategies include building mass, transit development, economic viability and sustenance and social aspects.

Keywords: livable streets, social interaction, pedestrian use, urban design

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500 A Visual Decoding of Environmental Awareness in Mass Media

Authors: Nergis Aşar, Elif Serdar Yakut


Media is a formative driver shaped and evolved by cultural momentum. The environmental consciousness, without an exception, has been part of this cultural momentum, especially after the 1960s where environmental problems were trending due to visible consequences in urban content. This popularity resonated in the media, and environmental problems became a part of mass media. Natural disasters such as water and air pollution or the destruction of nature due to urbanization, which affects social life and entails risks, come to the fore as ever-increasing matters. This substantial increase in environmental issues makes them more visible than ever before. There are many factors that cause this visibility, such as; public attention, accessibility of information, and media coverage. Although mass media, in particular, has a great potential for public awareness, it manifests as a latent and implicit capacity around the globe. In developing countries such as Turkey, the connexions of environmental issues and mass media is still impotent. Therefore, strengthening these relationships is crucial to anticipating social trends in the near future. In this paper, the aim is to elaborate on the elements of mass media in Turkey through the lenses of environmental awareness, climate-positive impact, and sustainability. For this purpose, visual media data is extracted from the mainstream broadcasts of certain channels that are able to reach a significant number of viewers. The main objective is to decode and identify the relationships between visual and syntactic associations relevant to environmental perception on a local scale. These associations are mostly pertaining to advertising, which gives indirect and direct messages to societies and mediately to the cities. The study has four phases: (1) identification of visuo-audio sources among mainstream media, (2) collection and preparation of visuo-audio data, (3) content analysis, and (4) evaluation of results. During this process of decoding and analyzing, the relevant concepts of sustainability will be elaborated to understand the key characteristics of the current situation about environmental problem communication in mass media. The outcomes of this study will portray the current trends in the communication of environmental issues in the mass media. With this approach, the research conducts an important debate on the awareness of society for the improvement of policies and directions on cities that change the environment. In this way, the research provides a basis for further and extended research on the impact on individual interaction with social media data.

Keywords: content analysis, environmental awareness, environmental problems in communication, mass media

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499 Factors Affecting Contractual Disputes In Construction ProJects In Sri Lanka

Authors: R.M. Rajapaksa


Construction industry is one of the key players in driving the economy of a country to achieve its prosperity. However, a dispute is one of the crucial factors which prevent the completion of construction contracts within the budgeted cost, scheduled time, and accepted quality. Disputes are inevitable in the construction contract. Accordingly, a study has been undertaken to identify the factors affecting contractual disputes in construction projects in Sri Lanka. The study was a mixed approach with major qualitative and minor quantitative. Qualitative study was set in the form of in-depth interviews with eighteen participants, and quantitative study was conducted using a questionnaire with twenty-four respondents from previously implemented projects by the National Water Supply & Drainage Board representing the employer, engineer and the Contractor to identify the factors affecting contractual disputes and to verify most critical factors respectively. Data analysis for qualitative and quantitative studies was carried out by means of transcribing, code & categorizeand average score methods, respectively. The study reveals that there are forty factors affecting the contractual disputes in construction contracts in Sri Lanka. The finding further illustrates that conflicting decisions by inexperience personnel in the higher position of the Employer, ambiguities resulting inadequate descriptions of the preliminary/general items in price schedule, unfair valuation and late confirmation of variations, unfair determination due to lack of experience of the Engineer/Consultant, under certification of progress payments, unfair grant of EOT & application of delay damages, unreasonable claims for variation of works, errors/discrepancies/ambiguities in the contract conditions and discrepancies & errors in designs & specifications are the most critical factors affecting contractual disputes. Finally, the study proposed remedial measures to most critical factors affecting contractual disputes.

Keywords: dispute, contractual, factors, employer, engineer, contractor, construction projects

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498 Research on Emotional Healing Street Furniture under the Background of Urban Micro-Renewal

Authors: Tanhao Gao, Hongtao Zhou


With the COVID-19 pandemic spreading worldwide, people are facing more significant mental pressure. The government and social groups are sparing no effort to find ways to heal people's emotions and return to normal life. Therefore, research on emotional healing has urgency and practical significance. From the perspective of urban planning, street furniture has the potential to become "emotional healing touchpoints." This study first analyzed the suitable places for adding emotional healing street furniture in the background of urban micro-renewal and combined the fifteen-minute living circle, the leftover space, and urban acupuncture theories, then used the 5W analysis method to show the main characteristics of emotionally healing street furniture. Finally, the research discovers four design strategies, which can be summarized as: A. Exploring the renewal potential of the leftover space; B. Integrating with local culture and the surrounding environment; C. Discovering quick and straightforward ways of interaction; D. Finding a delicate balance between artistry and functionality. Then, the author takes one emotional healing street furniture located on Chifeng Road as an example to show the design strategies vividly.

Keywords: emotional healing, street furniture, urban micro-renewal, urban acupuncture

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497 BIM-based Construction Noise Management Approach With a Focus on Inner-City Construction

Authors: Nasim Babazadeh


Growing demand for a quieter dwelling environment has turned the attention of construction companies to reducing the propagated noise of their project. In inner-city constructions, close distance between the construction site and surrounding buildings lessens the efficiency of passive noise control methods. Dwellers of the nearby areas may file complaints and lawsuits against the construction companies due to the emitted construction noise, thereby leading to the interruption of processes, compensation costs, or even suspension of the project. Therefore, construction noise should be predicted along with the project schedule. The advantage of managing the noise in the pre-construction phase is two-fold. Firstly, changes in the time plan and construction methods can be applied more flexibly. Thus, the costs related to rescheduling can be avoided. Secondly, noise-related legal problems are expected to be reduced. To implement noise mapping methods for the mentioned prediction, the required detailed information (such as the location of the noisy process, duration of the noisy work) can be exported from the 4D BIM model. The results obtained from the noise maps would be used to help the planners to define different work scenarios. The proposed approach has been applied for the foundation and earthwork of a site located in a residential area, and the obtained results are discussed.

Keywords: building information modeling, construction noise management, noise mapping, 4D BIM

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496 The Contribution of Experiencescapes to Building Resilience in Communities: A Comparative Case Study Approach

Authors: Jorn Fricke, Frans Melissen


Citizens in urban areas are prone to increased levels of stress due to urbanization, inadequate and overburdened infrastructure and services and environmental degradation. Moreover, communities are fragile and subject to shocks and stresses through various social and political processes. A loss of (a sense of) community is often seen as related to increasing political and civic disintegration. Feelings of community can manifest themselves in various ways but underlying all these manifestations is the need for trust between people. One of the main drivers of trust between individuals is (shared) experiences. It is these shared experiences that may play an important role in building resilience, i.e., the ability of a community and its members to adapt to and deal with stresses as well as ensure the ongoing development of a community. So far, experience design, as a discipline and academic field, has mainly focused on designing products or services. However, people-to-people experiences are the ones that play a pivotal role in building inclusiveness, safety and resilience in communities. These experiences represent challenging objects of design, as they develop in an interactive space of spontaneity, serendipity and uniqueness that is based on intuition, freedom of expression and interaction. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify which elements are required in designing the social and physical environment (or ‘experiencescape’) to increase the chance for people-to-people experiences to be successful and what elements are required for these experiences to help in building resilience in urban communities that can resist shocks and stresses. By means of a comparative case study approach in urban areas in Germany and the Netherlands, using a range of qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, storytelling techniques, and life stories, this research identifies relevant actors and their roles in creating building blocks of optimal experiencescapes for building resilience in communities.

Keywords: community development, experiences, experiencescapes, resilience

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495 Metropolitan Governance in Statutory Plan Making Process

Authors: Vibhore Bakshi


This research paper is a step towards understanding the role of governance in the plan preparation process. It addresses the complexities of the peri-urban, historical constructions, politics and policies of sustainability, and legislative frameworks. The paper reflects on the Delhi NCT as one of the classical cases that have happened to witness different structural changes in the master plan around 1981, 2001, 2021, and Proposed Draft 2041. The Delhi Landsat imageries for 1989 and 2018 show an increase in the built-up areas around the periphery of NCT. The peri-urbanization has been a result of increasing in-migration to peri–urban areas of Delhi. The built-up extraction for years 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2018 highlights the growing peri-urbanization on scarce land therefore, it becomes equally important to research the history of the land and its legislative measures. It is interesting to understand the streaks of changes that have occurred in the land of Delhi in accordance with the different master plans and land legislative policies. The process of masterplan process in Delhi has experienced a lot of complexities in juxtaposition to other metropolitan regions of the world. The paper identifies the shortcomings in the current master planning process approach in regard to the stage of the planning process, traditional planning approach, and lagging ICT-based interventions. The metropolitan governance systems across the globe and India depict diversity in the organizational setup and varied dissemination of functions. It addresses the complexity of the peri-urban, historical constructions, politics and policies of sustainability, and legislative frameworks.

Keywords: governance, land provisions, built-up areas, in migration, built up extraction, master planning process, legislative policies, metropolitan governance systems

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494 Towards Safety-Oriented System Design: Preventing Operator Errors by Scenario-Based Models

Authors: Avi Harel


Most accidents are commonly attributed in hindsight to human errors, yet most methodologies for safety focus on technical issues. According to the Black Swan theory, this paradox is due to insufficient data about the ways systems fail. The article presents a study of the sources of errors, and proposes a methodology for utility-oriented design, comprising methods for coping with each of the sources identified. Accident analysis indicates that errors typically result from difficulties of operating in exceptional conditions. Therefore, following STAMP, the focus should be on preventing exceptions. Exception analysis indicates that typically they involve an improper account of the operational scenario, due to deficiencies in the system integration. The methodology proposes a model, which is a formal definition of the system operation, as well as principles and guidelines for safety-oriented system integration. The article calls to develop and integrate tools for recording and analysis of the system activity during the operation, required to implement validate the model.

Keywords: accidents, complexity, errors, exceptions, interaction, modeling, resilience, risks

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493 Evaluation of Turbulence Prediction over Washington, D.C.: Comparison of DCNet Observations and North American Mesoscale Model Outputs

Authors: Nebila Lichiheb, LaToya Myles, William Pendergrass, Bruce Hicks, Dawson Cagle


Atmospheric transport of hazardous materials in urban areas is increasingly under investigation due to the potential impact on human health and the environment. In response to health and safety concerns, several dispersion models have been developed to analyze and predict the dispersion of hazardous contaminants. The models of interest usually rely on meteorological information obtained from the meteorological models of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS). However, due to the complexity of the urban environment, NWS forecasts provide an inadequate basis for dispersion computation in urban areas. A dense meteorological network in Washington, DC, called DCNet, has been operated by NOAA since 2003 to support the development of urban monitoring methodologies and provide the driving meteorological observations for atmospheric transport and dispersion models. This study focuses on the comparison of wind observations from the DCNet station on the U.S. Department of Commerce Herbert C. Hoover Building against the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model outputs for the period 2017-2019. The goal is to develop a simple methodology for modifying NAM outputs so that the dispersion requirements of the city and its urban area can be satisfied. This methodology will allow us to quantify the prediction errors of the NAM model and propose adjustments of key variables controlling dispersion model calculation.

Keywords: meteorological data, Washington D.C., DCNet data, NAM model

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492 B-SDA: Bird’s-Eye View Social Distancing Analysis System

Authors: Zhengye Yang, Mingfei Sun, Hongzhe Ye, Zihao Xiong, Gil Zussman, Zoran Kostic


Social distancing can reduce the infection rates in respiratory pandemics such as COVID-19. Traffic intersections are particularly suitable for monitoring and evaluation of social distancing behavior in metropolises. We propose and evaluate a privacy-preserving social distancing analysis system (B-SDA), which uses bird’s-eye view video recordings of pedestrians who cross traffic intersections. We devise algorithms for video pre-processing, object detection, and tracking, which are rooted in the known computer-vision and deep learning techniques but modified to address the problem of detecting very small objects/pedestrians captured by a highly elevated camera. B-SDA is able to extract pedestrian grouping information for improving the precision of social distancing violation detection. B-SDA is used to compare pedestrian behavior based on pre-pandemic and pandemic videos in a major metropolitan area. The accomplished pedestrian detection performance is 63:0% AP50, and the tracking performance is 47:6% MOTA. The social distancing violation rate of 15:6% during the pandemic is notably lower than the 31:4% pre-pandemic baseline, indicating that pedestrians followed CDC-prescribed social distancing recommendations. B-SDA system is applicable to real-world social distancing analysis.

Keywords: computer vision, deep learning, smart city, social distancing

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491 On the Transforming Overall Urban Design in China towards the Country’s 14th Five-Year Plan

Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Tian Chen, Junnan Liu


Facing a period of major change that’s rarely seen in a century, China formulates the 14th Five-Year Plan and places emphasis on promoting high-quality development. In this context, the overall urban design has become a crucial and systematic tool for high-quality urban development. However, there are bottlenecks in the nature definition, content scope and transmission mechanisms of the current overall urban design in China. The paper interprets the emerging demands of the 14th Five-Year Plan on urban design in terms of new value-quality priority, new dynamic-space performance, new target-region coordination and new path-refined governance. Based on the new trend and appeal, the multi-dimensional thinkings integrated with the major tasks of urban design are proposed accordingly, which is the biomass thinking in ecological, production and living element, the strategic thinking in spatial structure, the systematic thinking in the cityscape, the low-carbon thinking in urban form, the governance thinking in public space, the user thinking in design implementation. The paper explores the possibility of transforming the value thinking and technical system of urban design in China and provides a breakthrough path for the urban planning and design industry to better respond to the propositions of the country’s 14th Five-Year Plan.

Keywords: China’s 14th five-year plan, overall urban design, urban design thinking, transformation of urban design

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490 Improving the Prediction of Hazardous Material Dispersion in Washington, D.C: A Study With Hysplit Model

Authors: Nebila Lichiheb, LaToya Myles, William Pendergrass, Bruce Hicks, Dawson Cagle


Concerns about the consequences of intentional and adversarial releases of hazardous materials and the emissions from industrialization and traffic have resulted in a growing level of research focused on dispersion in urban areas. Several dispersion models have been developed to analyze and predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous contaminants, and they usually rely on meteorological information obtained from the meteorological models of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS). In this context, it has been shown that classical meteorological models from the NWS provide an inadequate basis for atmospheric dispersion forecasts in Washington, D.C. In recognition of this deficiency, a program called DCNetwas established by NOAA in 2003 to collect a large database of meteorological measurements in Washington, D.C. The goal of DCNet has been the provision of real-time meteorological observations over Washington, D.C., to support the use of atmospheric transport and diffusion models as well as to improve the prediction of the weather affecting residents. The DCNet data represent a large, relatively uniform urban city covering a broad spectrum of weather conditions, which permits an unparalleled description of atmospheric flow behavior over this type of terrain. DCNet data have been compared against NWS model outputs to produce adjustments of the basic physics and approximation parameters controlling dispersion model calculations. In this study, HYSPLIT dispersion model has been chosen as a test model with which to analyze the contribution of these adjustments to the production of greatly improved dispersion forecasts. HYSPLIT is one of the most extensively used transport and dispersion models in the global atmospheric sciences community. In general, the proposed adjustments could also be used for many different conventional dispersion forecasting systems in Washington, D.C., to determine impacts from the airborne release of chemicals and other contaminants.

Keywords: atmospheric dispersion, urban environment, hysplit, dncet network

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489 Strategies to Promote Safety and Reduce the Vulnerability of Urban Worn-out Textures to the Potential Risk of Earthquake

Authors: Bahareh Montakhabi


Earthquake is known as one of the deadliest natural disasters, with a high potential for damage to life and property. Some of Iran's cities were completely destroyed after major earthquakes, and the people of the region suffered a lot of mental, financial and psychological damage. Tehran is one of the cities located on the fault line. According to experts, the only city that could be severely damaged by a moderate earthquake in Earthquake Engineering Intensity Scale (EEIS) (70% destruction) is Tehran because Tehran is built precisely on the fault. Seismic risk assessment (SRA) of cities in the scale of urban areas and neighborhoods is the first phase of the earthquake crisis management process, which can provide the information required to make optimal use of available resources and facilities in order to reduce the destructive effects and consequences of an earthquake. This study has investigated strategies to promote safety and reduce the vulnerability of worn-out urban textures in the District 12 of Tehran to the potential risk of earthquake aimed at prioritizing the factors affecting the vulnerability of worn-out urban textures to earthquake crises and how to reduce them, using the analytical-exploratory method, analytical hierarchy process (AHP), Expert choice and SWOT technique. The results of SWAT and AHP analysis of the vulnerability of the worn-out textures of District 12 to internal threats (1.70) and external threats (2.40) indicate weak safety of the textures of District 12 regarding internal and external factors and a high possibility of damage.

Keywords: risk management, vulnerability, worn-out textures, earthquake

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488 Evaluation of Kabul BRT Route Network with Application of Integrated Land-use and Transportation Model

Authors: Mustafa Mutahari, Nao Sugiki, Kojiro Matsuo


The four decades of war, lack of job opportunities, poverty, lack of services, and natural disasters in different provinces of Afghanistan have contributed to a rapid increase in the population of Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan. Population census has not been conducted since 1979, the first and last population census in Afghanistan. However, according to population estimations by Afghan authorities, the population of Kabul has been estimated at more than 4 million people, whereas the city was designed for two million people. Although the major transport mode of Kabul residents is public transport, responsible authorities within the country failed to supply the required means of transportation systems for the city. Besides, informal resettlement, lack of intersection control devices, presence of illegal vendors on streets, presence of illegal and unstandardized on-street parking and bus stops, driver`s unprofessional behavior, weak traffic law enforcement, and blocked roads and sidewalks have contributed to the extreme traffic congestion of Kabul. In 2018, the government of Afghanistan approved the Kabul city Urban Design Framework (KUDF), a vision towards the future of Kabul, which provides strategies and design guidance at different scales to direct urban development. Considering traffic congestion of the city and its budget limitations, the KUDF proposes a BRT route network with seven lines to reduce the traffic congestion, and it is said to facilitate more than 50% of Kabul population to benefit from this service. Based on the KUDF, it is planned to increase the BRT mode share from 0% to 17% and later to 30% in medium and long-term planning scenarios, respectively. Therefore, a detailed research study is needed to evaluate the proposed system before the implementation stage starts. The integrated land-use transport model is an effective tool to evaluate the Kabul BRT because of its future assessment capabilities that take into account the interaction between land use and transportation. This research aims to analyze and evaluate the proposed BRT route network with the application of an integrated land-use and transportation model. The research estimates the population distribution and travel behavior of Kabul within small boundary scales. The actual road network and land-use detailed data of the city are used to perform the analysis. The BRT corridors are evaluated not only considering its impacts on the spatial interactions in the city`s transportation system but also on the spatial developments. Therefore, the BRT are evaluated with the scenarios of improving the Kabul transportation system based on the distribution of land-use or spatial developments, planned development typology and population distribution of the city. The impacts of the new improved transport system on the BRT network are analyzed and the BRT network is evaluated accordingly. In addition, the research also focuses on the spatial accessibility of BRT stops, corridors, and BRT line beneficiaries, and each BRT stop and corridor are evaluated in terms of both access and geographic coverage, as well.

Keywords: accessibility, BRT, integrated land-use and transport model, travel behavior, spatial development

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487 Prediction of California Bearing Ratio of a Black Cotton Soil Stabilized with Waste Glass and Eggshell Powder using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Biruhi Tesfaye, Avinash M. Potdar


The laboratory test process to determine the California bearing ratio (CBR) of black cotton soils is not only overpriced but also time-consuming as well. Hence advanced prediction of CBR plays a significant role as it is applicable In pavement design. The prediction of CBR of treated soil was executed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which is a Computational tool based on the properties of the biological neural system. To observe CBR values, combined eggshell and waste glass was added to soil as 4, 8, 12, and 16 % of the weights of the soil samples. Accordingly, the laboratory related tests were conducted to get the required best model. The maximum CBR value found at 5.8 at 8 % of eggshell waste glass powder addition. The model was developed using CBR as an output layer variable. CBR was considered as a function of the joint effect of liquid limit, plastic limit, and plastic index, optimum moisture content and maximum dry density. The best model that has been found was ANN with 5, 6 and 1 neurons in the input, hidden and output layer correspondingly. The performance of selected ANN has been 0.99996, 4.44E-05, 0.00353 and 0.0067 which are correlation coefficient (R), mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The research presented or summarized above throws light on future scope on stabilization with waste glass combined with different percentages of eggshell that leads to the economical design of CBR acceptable to pavement sub-base or base, as desired.

Keywords: CBR, artificial neural network, liquid limit, plastic limit, maximum dry density, OMC

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486 Probing Scientific Literature Metadata in Search for Climate Services in African Cities

Authors: Zohra Mhedhbi, Meheret Gaston, Sinda Haoues-Jouve, Julia Hidalgo, Pierre Mazzega


In the current context of climate change, supporting national and local stakeholders to make climate-smart decisions is necessary but still underdeveloped in many countries. To overcome this problem, the Global Frameworks for Climate Services (GFCS), implemented under the aegis of the United Nations in 2012, has initiated many programs in different countries. The GFCS contributes to the development of Climate Services, an instrument based on the production and transfer of scientific climate knowledge for specific users such as citizens, urban planning actors, or agricultural professionals. As cities concentrate on economic, social and environmental issues that make them more vulnerable to climate change, the New Urban Agenda (NUA), adopted at Habitat III in October 2016, highlights the importance of paying particular attention to disaster risk management, climate and environmental sustainability and urban resilience. In order to support the implementation of the NUA, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified the urban dimension as one of its priorities and has proposed a new tool, the Integrated Urban Services (IUS), for more sustainable and resilient cities. In the southern countries, there’s a lack of development of climate services, which can be partially explained by problems related to their economic financing. In addition, it is often difficult to make climate change a priority in urban planning, given the more traditional urban challenges these countries face, such as massive poverty, high population growth, etc. Climate services and Integrated Urban Services, particularly in African cities, are expected to contribute to the sustainable development of cities. These tools will help promoting the acquisition of meteorological and socio-ecological data on their transformations, encouraging coordination between national or local institutions providing various sectoral urban services, and should contribute to the achievement of the objectives defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the Paris Agreement, and the Sustainable Development Goals. To assess the state of the art on these various points, the Web of Science metadatabase is queried. With a query combining the keywords "climate*" and "urban*", more than 24,000 articles are identified, source of more than 40,000 distinct keywords (but including synonyms and acronyms) which finely mesh the conceptual field of research. The occurrence of one or more names of the 514 African cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants or countries, reduces this base to a smaller corpus of about 1410 articles (2990 keywords). 41 countries and 136 African cities are cited. The lexicometric analysis of the metadata of the articles and the analysis of the structural indicators (various centralities) of the networks induced by the co-occurrence of expressions related more specifically to climate services show the development potential of these services, identify the gaps which remain to be filled for their implementation and allow to compare the diversity of national and regional situations with regard to these services.

Keywords: African cities, climate change, climate services, integrated urban services, lexicometry, networks, urban planning, web of science

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485 An Assessment on the Economic Benefit of Cactus Crop in the Case of Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

Authors: Fikre Belay Tekulu


Cactus is a plant with very thick and fleshy stems. It is often covered with prickles, and it usually grows in desert and semi-desert areas of the world. Cactus has different benefits such as the source of food, medicine, chemical and income. Therefore, the objective of this research was to assess the economic benefit of cactus as a potential source of food for both humans and animals in the Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Tigray region of Ethiopia. For this study, questionnaires, structured interviews, field observations and documentary analysis were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households and concerned bodies. Probability and non - probability sampling methods were used in this study. The sample is selected using simple random sampling from the entire target of the population (1230, which is 135(11%). Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were used to describe the findings. Tables, charts and percentages were used in summarizing the quantitative data. The survey result shows that in the study area, out of the total area of the District, 1607.05 hectares of the land is covered by cactus crops. Even though the area is characterized by a potential on the cactus crop but the farmers used cactus crop only as of the diet for human beings and as forage for animals, particularly for cattle.

Keywords: cactus, economic, social, benefit

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484 Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Urban Sprawl: a Case Study of Adigrat City, Ethiopia

Authors: Fikre Belay Tekulu


This thesis presents the socio-economic and environmental impacts of urban sprawl in the case of Adigrat city, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. The main objective of this research is to assess major causes, trends, and socio-economic and environmental impacts of the urban sprawl of Adigrat city. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods as questionnaires, interviews, and observation used for data collection. Simple random sampling has been used to select the participants. The land use and land cover change for agricultural land and forest and grassland resource analysis is done with the aid of GIS. Urban sprawl is mainly caused by the rapid population growth, increase in the living and property cost in the core of the city, land demand and land speculation and the growth of transport, and an increase in income of people and demand of more living space. The study indicates 15726.24 hectares (515.49 percent) of new land added to the city jurisdiction from its adjacent Gantafeshum Wereda between 1986 and 2018. The population of Adigrat city increased by 9.045 percent per year, while the city expanded 16.01 percent per annum and theLCR was 0.0233 hectares per person between 1986 and 2018. Built-up area increased by 35.27 percent per annum, while agricultural land, forests, and grassland cover decreased by 1.68 percent and 1.26 percent per annum, respectively, in the last thirty three years. This rapid growth of urban sprawl brought social-economic and environmental change in the city that has been observed by the city residents. Therefore, the city administration should need strong, integrated, effective, and efficient work with its neighbor rural area and also done timely preparation, implementation, supervision, and evaluation of the structural plan of the city to bring out sustainable development of the city.

Keywords: causes, trends, urban sprawl, land use and land cover, GIS

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483 Knowledge Transfer to Builders in Improving Housing Resilience

Authors: Saima Shaikh, Andre Brown, Wallace Enegbuma


Earthquakes strike both developed and developing countries, causing tremendous damage and the loss of lives of millions of people, mainly due to the collapsing of buildings, particularly in poorer countries. Despite the socio-economic and technological restrictions, the poorer countries have adopted proven and established housing-strengthening techniques from affluent countries. Rural communities are aware of the earthquake-strengthening mechanisms for improving housing resilience, but owing to socio-economic and technological constraints, the seismic guidelines are rarely implemented, resulting in informal construction practice. Unregistered skilled laborers make substantial contributions to the informal construction sector, particularly in rural areas where knowledge is scarce. Laborers employ their local expertise in house construction; however, owing to a lack of seismic expertise in safe building procedures, the authorities' regulated seismic norms are not applied. From the perspective of seismic knowledge transformation in safe buildings practices, the study focuses on the feasibility of seismic guidelines implementation. The study firstly employs a literature review of massive-scale reconstruction after the 2005 earthquake in rural Pakistan. The 2005-earthquake damaged over 400,000 homes, killed 70,000 people and displaced 2.8 million people. The research subsequently corroborated the pragmatic approach using questionnaire field survey among the rural people in 2005-earthquake affected areas. Using the literature and the questionnaire survey, the research analyzing people's perspectives on technical acceptability, financial restrictions, and socioeconomic viability and examines the effectiveness of seismic knowledge transfer in safe buildings practices. The findings support the creation of a knowledge transfer framework in disaster mitigation and recovery planning, assisting rural communities and builders in minimising losses and improving response and recovery, as well as improving housing resilience and lowering vulnerabilities. Finally, certain conclusions are obtained in order to continue the resilience research. The research can be further applied in rural areas of developing countries having similar construction practices.

Keywords: earthquakes, knowledge transfer, resilience, informal construction practices

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482 Assessing Organizational Resilience Capacity to Flooding: Index Development and Application to Greek Small & Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Antonis Skouloudis, Konstantinos Evangelinos, Walter Leal-Filho, Panagiotis Vouros, Ioannis Nikolaou


Organizational resilience capacity to extreme weather events (EWEs) has sparked a growth in scholarly attention over the past decade as an essential aspect in business continuity management, with supporting evidence for this claim to suggest that it retains a key role in successful responses to adverse situations, crises and shocks. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are more vulnerable to face floods compared to their larger counterparts, so they are disproportionately affected by such extreme weather events. The limited resources at their disposal, the lack of time and skills all conduce to inadequate preparedness to challenges posed by floods. SMEs tend to plan in the short-term, reacting to circumstances as they arise and focussing on their very survival. Likewise, they share less formalised structures and codified policies while they are most usually owner-managed, resulting in a command-and-control management culture. Such characteristics result in them having limited opportunities to recover from flooding and quickly turnaround their operation from a loss making to a profit making one. Scholars frame the capacity of business entities to be resilient upon an EWE disturbance (such as flash floods) as the rate of recovery and restoration of organizational performance to pre-disturbance conditions, the amount of disturbance (i.e. threshold level) a business can absorb before losing structural and/or functional components that will alter or cease operation, as well as the extent to which the organization maintains its function (i.e. impact resistance) before performance levels are driven to zero. Nevertheless, while it seems to be accepted as an essential trait of firms effectively transcending uncertain conditions, research deconstructing the enabling conditions and/or inhibitory factors of SMEs resilience capacity to natural hazards is still sparse, fragmentary and mostly fuelled by anecdotal evidence or normative assumptions. Focusing on the individual level of analysis, i.e. the individual enterprise and its endeavours to succeed, the emergent picture from this relatively new research strand delineates the specification of variables, conceptual relationships or dynamic boundaries of resilience capacity components in an attempt to provide prescriptions for policy-making as well as business management. This study will present the development of a flood resilience capacity index (FRCI) and its application to Greek SMEs. The proposed composite indicator pertains to cognitive, behavioral/managerial and contextual factors that influence an enterprise’s ability to shape effective responses to meet flood challenges. Through the proposed indicator-based approach, an analytical framework is set forth that will help standardize such assessments with the overarching aim of reducing the vulnerability of SMEs to flooding. This will be achieved by identifying major internal and external attributes explaining resilience capacity which is particularly important given the limited resources these enterprises have and that they tend to be primary sources of vulnerabilities in supply chain networks, generating Single Points of Failure (SPOF).

Keywords: Floods, Small & Medium-Sized enterprises, organizational resilience capacity, index development

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481 Construction Port Requirements for Floating Wind Turbines

Authors: Alan Crowle, Philpp Thies


As the floating offshore wind turbine industry continues to develop and grow, the capabilities of established port facilities need to be assessed as to their ability to support the expanding construction and installation requirements. This paper assesses current infrastructure requirements and projected changes to port facilities that may be required to support the floating offshore wind industry. Understanding the infrastructure needs of the floating offshore renewable industry will help to identify the port-related requirements. Floating Offshore Wind Turbines can be installed further out to sea and in deeper waters than traditional fixed offshore wind arrays, meaning that it can take advantage of stronger winds. Separate ports are required for substructure construction, fit-out of the turbines, moorings, subsea cables and maintenance. Large areas are required for the laydown of mooring equipment; inter-array cables, turbine blades and nacelles. The capabilities of established port facilities to support floating wind farms are assessed by evaluation of the size of substructures, the height of wind turbine with regards to the cranes for fitting of blades, distance to offshore site and offshore installation vessel characteristics. The paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using large land-based cranes, inshore floating crane vessels or offshore crane vessels at the fit-out port for the installation of the turbine. Water depths requirements for import of materials and export of the completed structures will be considered. There are additional costs associated with any emerging technology. However part of the popularity of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines stems from the cost savings against permanent structures like fixed wind turbines. Floating Offshore Wind Turbine developers can benefit from lighter, more cost-effective equipment which can be assembled in port and towed to the site rather than relying on large, expensive installation vessels to transport and erect fixed bottom turbines. The ability to assemble Floating Offshore Wind Turbines equipment onshore means minimizing highly weather-dependent operations like offshore heavy lifts and assembly, saving time and costs and reducing safety risks for offshore workers. Maintenance might take place in safer onshore conditions for barges and semi-submersibles. Offshore renewables, such as floating wind, can take advantage of this wealth of experience, while oil and gas operators can deploy this experience at the same time as entering the renewables space The floating offshore wind industry is in the early stages of development and port facilities are required for substructure fabrication, turbine manufacture, turbine construction and maintenance support. The paper discusses the potential floating wind substructures as this provides a snapshot of the requirements at the present time, and potential technological developments required for commercial development. Scaling effects of demonstration-scale projects will be addressed, however, the primary focus will be on commercial-scale (30+ units) device floating wind energy farms.

Keywords: floating wind, port, marine construction, offshore renewables

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480 Delineation of Green Infrastructure Buffer Areas with a Simulated Annealing: Consideration of Ecosystem Services Trade-Offs in the Objective Function

Authors: Andres Manuel Garcia Lamparte, Rocio Losada Iglesias, Marcos BoullóN Magan, David Miranda Barros


The biodiversity strategy of the European Union for 2030, mentions climate change as one of the key factors for biodiversity loss and considers green infrastructure as one of the solutions to this problem. In this line, the European Commission has developed a green infrastructure strategy which commits members states to consider green infrastructure in their territorial planning. This green infrastructure is aimed at granting the provision of a wide number of ecosystem services to support biodiversity and human well-being by countering the effects of climate change. Yet, there are not too many tools available to delimit green infrastructure. The available ones consider the potential of the territory to provide ecosystem services. However, these methods usually aggregate several maps of ecosystem services potential without considering possible trade-offs. This can lead to excluding areas with a high potential for providing ecosystem services which have many trade-offs with other ecosystem services. In order to tackle this problem, a methodology is proposed to consider ecosystem services trade-offs in the objective function of a simulated annealing algorithm aimed at delimiting green infrastructure multifunctional buffer areas. To this end, the provision potential maps of the regulating ecosystem services considered to delimit the multifunctional buffer areas are clustered in groups, so that ecosystem services that create trade-offs are excluded in each group. The normalized provision potential maps of the ecosystem services in each group are added to obtain a potential map per group which is normalized again. Then the potential maps for each group are combined in a raster map that shows the highest provision potential value in each cell. The combined map is then used in the objective function of the simulated annealing algorithm. The algorithm is run both using the proposed methodology and considering the ecosystem services individually. The results are analyzed with spatial statistics and landscape metrics to check the number of ecosystem services that the delimited areas produce, as well as their regularity and compactness. It has been observed that the proposed methodology increases the number of ecosystem services produced by delimited areas, improving their multifunctionality and increasing their effectiveness in preventing climate change impacts.

Keywords: ecosystem services trade-offs, green infrastructure delineation, multifunctional buffer areas, climate change

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479 Thermo-Oxidative Degradation of Asphalt Modified with High Density Polyethylene and Engine Oil

Authors: Helder Shelton Abel Manguene, Giovanna Buonocore, Herminio Francisco Muiambo


Paved roads are designed for 10-15 years of life. However, many asphalted roads suffer degradation before reaching their lifetime due to aging caused by load conditions and climatic factors. Oxidation is the main asphalt aging mechanism, which leads to a reduced bond between aggregate particles, increasing the potential for stripping and moisture damage, decreasing fatigue lifetime and reducing resistance to thermal cracking. To improve the performance of asphalt and mitigate these problems, modifiers such as polymers, oils and certain residues have been used. This work aims to study the influence of the addition of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and engine oil on the thermal stability of asphalt in an oxidizing atmosphere. For the study, compositions containing asphalt, motor oil and HDPE were prepared, varying the concentration of the motor oil by 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% and keeping the HDPE concentration fixed at 5%. The results show that the pure asphalt sample is degraded in a single step that starts at approximately 311 ºC; All samples of modified asphalt except the one that contains 5% of motor oil have three degradation steps that start below the starting temperature of degradation of pure asphalt (about 250-300 ºC); The temperature of onset of degradation of the modified asphalt is shown to decrease as the concentration of the motor oil increases, suggesting a slight loss of thermal stability of the asphalt as the quantity of the motor oil increases.

Keywords: Asphalt, DTG, engine oil, HDPE, TGA

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478 Thermomechanical Behavior of Asphalt Modified with Thermoplastic Polymer and Nanoclay Dellite 43B

Authors: L. F. Tamele Jr., G. Buonocore, H. F. Muiambo


Asphalt binders play an essential role in the performance and properties of asphalt mixtures. The increase in heavy loads, greater traffic volume, and high tire pressure, combined with a substantial variation in daily and seasonal pavement temperatures, are the main responsible for the failure of asphalt pavements. To avoid or mitigate these failures, the present research proposes the use of thermoplastic polymers, HDPE and LLDPE, and nanoclay Dellite 43B for modification of asphalt in order to improve its thermomechanical and rheological properties. The nanocomposites were prepared by the solution intercalation method in a high shear mixer for a mixing time of 2 h, at 180℃ and 5000 rpm. The addition of Dellite 43B improved the physical, rheological, and thermal properties of asphalt, either separated or in the form of polymer/bitumen blends. The results of the physical characterization showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in softening point, thermal susceptibility, viscosity, and stiffness. On the other hand, thermal characterization showed that the nanocomposites have greater stability at higher temperatures by exhibiting greater amounts of residues and improved initial and final decomposition temperatures. Thus, the modification of asphalt by polymers and nanoclays seems to be a suitable solution for road pavement in countries which experiment with high temperatures combined with long heavy rain seasons.

Keywords: asphalt, nanoclay dellite 43B, polymer modified asphalt, thermal and rheological properties

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477 Digital Publics, Analogue Institutions: Everyday Urban Politics in Gated Neighborhoods in India

Authors: Praveen Priyadarshi


What is the nature of the 'political subjects' in the new urban spaces of the Indian cities? How do they become a 'public'? The paper explores these questions by studying the National Capital Region's gated communities in India. Even as the 'gated-ness' of these neighborhoods constantly underlines the definitive spatial boundary of the 'public' that it is constituted within the walls of a particular gated community, the making of this 'public' occurs as much in the digital spaces—in the digital space of online messaging apps and platforms—populated by unique digital identities. It is through constant exchanges of the digital identities that the 'public' is created. However, the institutional framework and the formal rules governing the making of the public are still analogue because they presume and privilege traditional modes of participation for people to constitute a 'public'. The institutions are designed as rules and norms governing people's behavior when they participate in traditional, physical mode, whereas rules and norms designed in the algorithms regulate people's social and political behavior in the digital domain. In exploring this disjuncture between the analogue institutions and the digital public, the paper analytically evaluates the nature of everyday politics in gates neighborhoods in India.

Keywords: gated communities, everyday politics, new urban spaces, digital publics

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