Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12031

Search results for: viscous effect

12031 Numerical Investigation of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Microtube with Viscous Dissipation Effect

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Hossein Shokouhmand, Mohammad Kalteh, Behrang Hasanpour


In this paper, nanofluid conjugate heat transfer through a microtube with viscous dissipation effect is investigated numerically. The fluid flow is considered as a laminar regime. A constant heat flux is applied on the microtube outer wall and the two ends of its wall are considered adiabatic. Conjugate heat transfer problem is solved and investigated for this geometry. It is shown that viscous dissipation effect which is induced by shear stresses can not be neglected in microtubes. Viscous heating behaves as an energy source in the fluid and affects the temperature distribution. The effect of Reynolds number, particle volume fraction and the nanoparticles diameter on the energy source are investigated and an attempt on establishing suitable equations for assessing the value of the energy source based on Re, Dp and Φ is performed and they are depicted as 3D diagrams. Finally, the significance of viscous dissipation and the influence of these parameters on convective heat transfer coefficient are studied.

Keywords: convective heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer, microtube, nanofluid, viscous dissipation

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12030 3D Microbubble Dynamics in a Weakly Viscous Fluid Near a Rigid Boundary Subject to Ultrasound

Authors: K. Manmi, Q. X. Wang


This paper investigates microbubble dynamics subject to ultrasound in a weakly viscous fluid near a rigid boundary. The phenomenon is simulated using a boundary integral method. The weak viscous effects are incorporated into the model through the normal stress balance across the bubble surface. The model agrees well with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a spherical bubble for several cycles. The effects of the fluid viscosity in the bubble dynamics are analyzed, including jet development, centroid movement and bubble volume.

Keywords: microbubble dynamics, bubble jetting, viscous effect, boundary integral method

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12029 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy


The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation

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12028 Effects of Viscous Dissipation and Concentration Based Internal Heat Source on Convective Instability in A Porous Medium with Throughflow

Authors: N. Deepika, P. A. L. Narayana


Linear stability analysis of double diffusive convection in a horizontal porous layer saturated with fluid is examined by considering the effects of viscous dissipation, concentration based internal heat source and vertical throughflow. The basic steady state solution for Governing equations is computed. Linear stability analysis has been implemented numerically by using Runge-kutta method. Critical thermal Rayleigh number Rac is obtained for various values of solutal Rayleigh number Sa, vertical Peclet number Pe, Gebhart number Ge, Lewis number Le and measure of concentration based internal heat source $\gamma$. It is observed that Ge has destabilizing effect for upward throughflow and stabilizing effect for downward throughflow. For sufficient value of Pe, $\gamma$ has considerable destabilizing effect for upward throughflow, insignificant destabilizing effect for downward throughflow.

Keywords: porous medium, concentration based internal heat source, vertical throughflow, viscous dissipation

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12027 Effect of Mesh Size on the Supersonic Viscous Flow Parameters around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Haoui Rabah


The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the flow parameters and detached shock position. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the mesh size is significant on the shear stress and velocity profile. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, blunt body

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12026 Heat Transfer Enhancement through Hybrid Metallic Nanofluids Flow with Viscous Dissipation and Joule Heating Effect

Authors: Khawar Ali


We present the numerical study of unsteady hydromagnetic (MHD) flow and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting water-based hybrid metallic nanofluid (containing Cu-Au/ H₂O nanoparticles) between two orthogonally moving porous coaxial disks with suction. Different from the classical shooting methodology, we employ a combination of a direct and an iterative method (SOR with optimal relaxation parameter) for solving the sparse systems of linear algebraic equations arising from the FD discretization of the linearized self similar nonlinear ODEs. Effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer are discussed and presented through tables and graphs. The findings of the present investigation may be beneficial for the electronic industry in maintaining the electronic components under effectiveand safe operational conditions.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, hybrid metallic nanofluid, viscous dissipation and joule heating effect , Two dimensional flow

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12025 Effect of Viscous Dissipation on 3-D MHD Casson Flow in Presence of Chemical Reaction: A Numerical Study

Authors: Bandari Shanker, Alfunsa Prathiba


The influence of viscous dissipation on MHD Casson 3-D fluid flow in two perpendicular directions past a linearly stretching sheet in the presence of a chemical reaction is explored in this work. For exceptional circumstances, self-similar solutions are obtained and compared to the given data. The enhancement in the values Ecert number the temperature boundary layer increases. Further, the current findings are observed to be in great accord with the existing data. In both directions, non - dimensional velocities and stress distribution are achieved. The relevant data are graphed and explained quantitatively in relation to changes in the Casson fluid parameter as well as other fluid flow parameters.

Keywords: viscous dissipation, 3-D Casson flow, chemical reaction, Ecert number

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12024 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin


In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

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12023 Thermal Instability in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous Nanofluid with Connective Boundary Condition: Effect of Vertical Throughflow

Authors: Shivani Saini


The effect of vertical throughflow on the onset of convection in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous nanofluid with convective boundary condition is investigated. The flow is stimulated with modified Darcy model under the assumption that the nanoparticle volume fraction is not actively managed on the boundaries. The heat conservation equation is formulated by introducing the convective term of nanoparticle flux. A linear stability analysis based upon normal mode is performed, and an approximate solution of eigenvalue problems is obtained using the Galerkin weighted residual method. Investigation of the dependence of the Rayleigh number on various viscous and nanofluid parameter is performed. It is found that through flow and nanofluid parameters hasten the convection while capacity ratio, kinematics viscoelasticity, and Vadasz number do not govern the stationary convection. Using the convective component of nanoparticle flux, critical wave number is the function of nanofluid parameters as well as the throughflow parameter. The obtained solution provides important physical insight into the behavior of this model.

Keywords: Darcy model, nanofluid, porous layer, throughflow

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12022 Study of Seismic Behavior of an Earth Dam with Sealing Walls: The Case of Kef Eddir’s Dam, Tipaza, Algeria

Authors: M. Boumaiza, S. Mohamadi, B. Moussai


In this article the study of the seismic response of an earth dam with sealing walls has been made by introducing the effect of the change of position and depth of the sealing wall and the effect of non-linear behavior of soil of the foundation by taking into account the variation of the viscous damping and shear modulus in each layer of soil on the seismic response of the dam. As a case study, we take the Algerian dam Kef-Eddir which lies in the far west of the territory of the Wilaya of Tipaza (wadi Eddamous), classified according to the RPA 2003 as a high seismicity zone (zone III). With a height of 71m above the foundation and a width of 478m. The seismic event applied to the rock, is the earthquake of Chenoua (29 October, 1989), with a magnitude Mw=6 that hit the region.

Keywords: earth dam, earthquake, sealing walls, viscous damping

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12021 Magneto-Solutal Convection in Newtonian Fluid Layer with Modulated Gravity

Authors: Om Prakash Keshri, Anand Kumar, Vinod K. Gupta


In the present study, the effect of gravity modulation on the onset of convection in viscous fluid layer under the influence of induced magnetic field, salted from above on the boundaries, has been investigated. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis has been performed. A linear stability analysis is performed to show that the gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. A method based on small amplitude of the modulation is used to compute the critical value of Rayleigh number and wave number. The effect of Smith number, salute Rayleigh number and magnetic Prandtl number on the stability of the system is investigated.

Keywords: viscous fluid, induced magnetic field, gravity modulation, salute convection

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12020 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures Retrofitted with Damped Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Mohamed Nour Eldin, Jinkoo Kim


In this study, the seismic performance and life cycle cost (LCC) are evaluated of the structure retrofitted with the damped cable system (DCS). The DCS is a seismic retrofit system composed of a high-strength steel cable and pressurized viscous dampers. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in SAP2000, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the DCS and viscous dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the residual displacements of the structure equipped with the DCS are smaller than those of the structure with retrofitted with only conventional viscous dampers, due to the enhanced stiffness/strength and self-centering capability of the damped cable system. The fragility analysis shows that the structure retrofitted with the DCS has the least probability of reaching the specific limit states compared to the bare structure and the structure with viscous damper. It is also observed that the initial cost of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers and that the LCC of the structure equipped with the DCS is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers.

Keywords: damped cable system, fragility curve, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit, self-centering

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12019 Quantom Magnetic Effects of P-B Fusion in Plasma Focus Devices

Authors: M. Habibi


The feasibility of proton-boron fusion in plasmoids caused by magneto hydrodynamics instabilities in plasma focus devices is studied analytically. In plasmoids, fusion power for 76 keV < Ti < 1500 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss (W/Pb=5.39). In such situation gain factor and the ratio of Te to Ti for a typical 150 kJ plasma focus device will be 7.8 and 4.8 respectively. Also with considering the ion viscous heating effect, W/Pb and Ti/Te will be 2.7 and 6 respectively. Strong magnetic field will reduces ion-electron collision rate due to quantization of electron orbits. While approximately there is no change in electron-ion collision rate, the effect of quantum magnetic field makes ions much hotter than electrons which enhance the fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss. Therefore self-sustained p-11B fusion reactions would be possible and it could be said that p-11B fuelled plasma focus device is a clean and efficient source of energy.

Keywords: plasmoids, p11B fuel, ion viscous heating, quantum magnetic field, plasma focus device

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12018 Optimum Parameter of a Viscous Damper for Seismic and Wind Vibration

Authors: Soltani Amir, Hu Jiaxin


Determination of optimal parameters of a passive control system device is the primary objective of this study. Expanding upon the use of control devices in wind and earthquake hazard reduction has led to development of various control systems. The advantage of non-linearity characteristics in a passive control device and the optimal control method using LQR algorithm are explained in this study. Finally, this paper introduces a simple approach to determine optimum parameters of a nonlinear viscous damper for vibration control of structures. A MATLAB program is used to produce the dynamic motion of the structure considering the stiffness matrix of the SDOF frame and the non-linear damping effect. This study concluded that the proposed system (variable damping system) has better performance in system response control than a linear damping system. Also, according to the energy dissipation graph, the total energy loss is greater in non-linear damping system than other systems.

Keywords: passive control system, damping devices, viscous dampers, control algorithm

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12017 Analysis of Wall Deformation of the Arterial Plaque Models: Effects of Viscoelasticity

Authors: Eun Kyung Kim, Kyehan Rhee


Viscoelastic wall properties of the arterial plaques change as the disease progresses, and estimation of wall viscoelasticity can provide a valuable assessment tool for plaque rupture prediction. Cross section of the stenotic coronary artery was modeled based on the IVUS image, and the finite element analysis was performed to get wall deformation under pulsatile pressure. The effects of viscoelastic parameters of the plaque on luminal diameter variations were explored. The result showed that decrease of viscous effect reduced the phase angle between the pressure and displacement waveforms, and phase angle was dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the wall. Because viscous effect of tissue components could be identified using the phase angle difference, wall deformation waveform analysis may be applied to predict plaque wall composition change and vascular wall disease progression.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, diameter variation, finite element method, viscoelasticity

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12016 A Comparative Study on the Performance of Viscous and Friction Dampers under Seismic Excitation

Authors: Apetsi K. Ampiah, Zhao Xin


Earthquakes over the years have been known to cause devastating damage on buildings and induced huge loss on human life and properties. It is for this reason that engineers have devised means of protecting buildings and thus protecting human life. Since the invention of devices such as the viscous and friction dampers, scientists/researchers have been able to incorporate these devices into buildings and other engineering structures. The viscous damper is a hydraulic device which dissipates the seismic forces by pushing fluid through an orifice, producing a damping pressure which creates a force. In the friction damper, the force is mainly resisted by converting the kinetic energy into heat by friction. Devices such as viscous and friction dampers are able to absorb almost all the earthquake energy, allowing the structure to remain undamaged (or with some amount of damage) and ready for immediate reuse (with some repair works). Comparing these two devices presents the engineer with adequate information on the merits and demerits of these devices and in which circumstances their use would be highly favorable. This paper examines the performance of both viscous and friction dampers under different ground motions. A two-storey frame installed with both devices under investigation are modeled in commercial computer software and analyzed under different ground motions. The results of the performance of the structure are then tabulated and compared. Also included in this study is the ease of installation and maintenance of these devices.

Keywords: friction damper, seismic, slip load, viscous damper

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12015 Innovative Pump Design Using the Concept of Viscous Fluid Sinusoidal Excitation

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


The concept of applying a prescribed oscillation to viscous fluids to aid or increase flow is used to produce a maintenance free pump. Application of this technique to fluids presents unique problems such as physical separation; control of heat and mass transfer in certain industrial applications; and improvement of some fluid process methods. The problem as stated is to obtain the velocity distribution, wall shear stress and energy expended when a pipe containing a stagnant viscous fluid is externally excited by a sinusoidal pulse, one end of the pipe being pinned. On the other hand, the effect of different parameters on the results are presented. Such parameters include fluid viscosity, frequency of oscillations and pipe geometry. It was found that the flow velocity through the pump is maximum at the pipe wall, and it decreases rapidly towards the pipe centerline. The frequency of oscillation should be above a certain value in order to obtain meaningful flow velocity. The amount of energy absorbed in the system is mainly due to pipe wall strain energy, while the fluid pressure and kinetic energies are comparatively small.

Keywords: sinusoidal excitation, pump, shear stress, flow

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12014 Bianchi Type- I Viscous Fluid Cosmological Models with Stiff Matter and Time Dependent Λ- Term

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Dubey


Einstein’s field equations with variable cosmological term Λ are considered in the presence of viscous fluid for Bianchi type I space time. Exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations are obtained by assuming cosmological term Λ Proportional to (R is a scale factor and m is constant). We observed that the shear viscosity is found to be responsible for faster removal of initial anisotropy in the universe. The physical significance of the cosmological models has also been discussed.

Keywords: bianchi type, I cosmological model, viscous fluid, cosmological constant Λ

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12013 Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Transpiration on Transient/Steady Natural Convection Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid in a Vertical Channel Formed by Two Vertical Porous Plates

Authors: Ahmad K. Samaila, Basant K. Jha


This study is devoted to investigate the effect of transpiration on transient as well as steady-state natural convection flow of a reactive viscous fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite vertical parallel porous plates. The Boussinesq assumption is applied and the nonlinear governing equations of energy and momentum are developed. The problem is solved numerically using implicit finite difference method and analytically for steady-state case using perturbation method. Solutions are presented in graphical form for fluid temperature, velocity, and skin-friction and wall heat transfer rate for various parametric values. It is found that velocity, temperature, rate of heat transfer as well as skin-friction are strongly affected by mass leakage through the porous plates.

Keywords: transpiration, reactive viscous fluid, porous plates, natural convection, suction/injection

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12012 Effects of Viscoelastic and Viscous Links on Seismic Pounding Mitigation in Buildings

Authors: Ali Reza Mirzagoltabar Roshan, H. Ahmadi Taleshian, A. Eliasi


This paper examines the effects of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an efficient technique for seismic pounding mitigation. To aim that, 15 steel frame models with different numbers of stories and bays and also with different types of ductility were analyzed under 10 different earthquake records for assigned values of link damping and stiffness and the most suitable values of damper parameters (damping and stiffness) are presented. Moreover, it is demonstrated that viscous dampers can perform as efficiently as viscoelastic alternative with a more economical aspect for pounding mitigation purposes.

Keywords: adjacent buildings, separation distance, seismic pounding mitigation, viscoelastic link

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12011 Shaking Table Test and Seismic Performance Evaluation of Spring Viscous Damper Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Jinkoo Kim


This research proposes a self-centering passive damping system consisting of a spring viscous damper linked with a preloaded tendon. The seismic performance of the spring viscous damper is evaluated by pseudo-dynamic tests, and the results are used for the formulation of an analytical model of the damper in the structural analysis program. The shaking table tests of a two-story steel frame installed with the proposed damping system are carried out using five different earthquake records. The results from the shaking table tests are verified by numerical simulation of the retrofitted structure. The results obtained from experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed damping system with self-centering capability is effective in reducing earthquake-induced displacement and member forces.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, spring viscous damper, shaking table test, earthquake resistant structures

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12010 Effects of Soil-Structure Interaction on Seismic Performance of Steel Structures Equipped with Viscous Fluid Dampers

Authors: Faramarz Khoshnoudian, Saeed Vosoughiyan


The main goal of this article is to clarify the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on the seismic performance of steel moment resisting frame buildings which are rested on soft soil and equipped with viscous fluid dampers (VFDs). For this purpose, detailed structural models of a ten-story SMRF with VFDs excluding and including the SSI are constructed first. In order to simulate the dynamic response of the foundation, in this paper, the simple cone model is applied. Then, the nonlinear time-history analysis of the models is conducted using three kinds of earthquake excitations with different intensities. The analysis results have demonstrated that the SSI effects on the seismic performance of a structure equipped with VFDs and supported by rigid foundation on soft soil need to be considered. Also VFDs designed based on rigid foundation hypothesis fail to achieve the expected seismic objective while SSI goes into effect.

Keywords: nonlinear time-history analysis, soil-structure interaction, steel moment resisting frame building, viscous fluid dampers

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12009 Investigating Viscous Surface Wave Propagation Modes in a Finite Depth Fluid

Authors: Arash Ghahraman, Gyula Bene


The object of this study is to investigate the effect of viscosity on the propagation of free-surface waves in an incompressible viscous fluid layer of arbitrary depth. While we provide a more detailed study of properties of linear surface waves, the description of fully nonlinear waves in terms of KdV-like (Korteweg-de Vries) equations is discussed. In the linear case, we find that in shallow enough fluids, no surface waves can propagate. Even in any thicker fluid layers, propagation of very short and very long waves is forbidden. When wave propagation is possible, only a single propagating mode exists for any given horizontal wave number. The numerical results show that there can be two types of non-propagating modes. One type is always present, and there exist still infinitely many of such modes at the same parameters. In contrast, there can be zero, one or two modes belonging to the other type. Another significant feature is that KdV-like equations. They describe propagating nonlinear viscous surface waves. Since viscosity gives rise to a new wavenumber that cannot be small at the same time as the original one, these equations may not exist. Nonetheless, we propose a reasonable nonlinear description in terms of 1+1 variate functions that make possible successive approximations.

Keywords: free surface wave, water waves, KdV equation, viscosity

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12008 Effect of Damper Combinations in Series or Parallel on Structural Response

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sinha, Sharad Singh, Anukriti Sinha


Passive energy dissipation method for earthquake protection of structures is undergoing developments for improved performance. Combined use of different types of damping mechanisms has shown positive results in the near past. Different supplemental damping methods like viscous damping, frictional damping and metallic damping are being combined together for optimum performance. The conventional method of connecting passive dampers to structures is a parallel connection between the damper unit and structural member. Researchers are investigating coupling effect of different types of dampers. The most popular choice among the research community is coupling of viscous dampers and frictional dampers. The series and parallel coupling of these damping units are being studied for relative performance of the coupled system on response control of structures against earthquake. In this paper an attempt has been made to couple Fluid Viscous Dampers and Frictional Dampers in series and parallel to form a single unit of damping system. The relative performance of the coupled units has been studied on three dimensional reinforced concrete framed structure. The current theories of structural dynamics in practice for viscous damping and frictional damping have been incorporated in this study. The time history analysis of the structural system with coupled damper units, uncoupled damper units as well as of structural system without any supplemental damping has been performed in this study. The investigations reported in this study show significant improved performance of coupled system. A higher natural frequency of the system outside the forcing frequency has been obtained for structural systems with coupled damper units as against the other cases. The structural response of the structure in terms of storey displacement and storey drift show significant improvement for the case with coupled damper units as against the cases with uncoupled units or without any supplemental damping. The results are promising in terms of improved response of the structure with coupled damper units. Further investigations in this regard for a comparative performance of the series and parallel coupled systems will be carried out to study the optimum behavior of these coupled systems for enhanced response control of structural systems.

Keywords: frictional damping, parallel coupling, response control, series coupling, supplemental damping, viscous damping

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12007 Viscous Flow Computations for the Diffuser Section of a Large Cavitation Tunnel

Authors: Ahmet Y. Gurkan, Cagatay S. Koksal, Cagri Aydin, U. Oral Unal


The present paper covers the viscous flow computations for the asymmetric diffuser section of a large, high-speed cavitation tunnel which will be constructed in Istanbul Technical University. The analyses were carried out by using the incompressible Reynold-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations. While determining the diffuser geometry, a high quality, separation-free flow field with minimum energy loses was particularly aimed. The expansion angle has a critical role on the diffuser hydrodynamic performance. In order obtain a relatively short diffuser length, due to the constructive limitations, and hydrodynamic energy effectiveness, three diffuser sections with varying expansion angles for side and bottom walls were considered. A systematic study was performed to determine the most effective diffuser configuration. The results revealed that the inlet condition of the diffuser greatly affects its flow field. The inclusion of the contraction section in the computations substantially modified the flow topology in the diffuser. The effect of the diffuser flow on the test section flow characteristics was clearly observed. The influence of the introduction of small chamfers at the corners of the diffuser geometry is also presented.

Keywords: asymmetric diffuser, diffuser design, cavitation tunnel, viscous flow, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), rans

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12006 Contributions at the Define of the Vortex Plane Cyclic Motion

Authors: Petre Stan, Marinica Stan


In this paper, a new way to define the vortex plane cyclic motion is exposed, starting from the physical cause of reacting the vortex. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in cylindrical coordinates for viscous fluids in laminar motion, and are integrated in case of a infinite long revolving cylinder which rotates around a pintle in a viscous fluid that occupies the entire space up to infinite. In this way, a revolving field of velocities in fluid is obtained, having the shape of a vortex in which the intensity is obtained objectively, being given by the physical phenomenon that generates this vortex.

Keywords: cylindrical coordinates, Navier-Stokes equations, viscous fluid, vortex plane

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12005 Transient/Steady Natural Convective Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid in Vertical Porous Pipe

Authors: Ahmad K. Samaila, Basant K. Jha


This paper presents the effects of suction/injection of transient/steady natural convection flow of reactive viscous fluid in a vertical porous pipe. The mathematical model capturing the time dependent flow of viscous reactive fluid is solved using implicit finite difference method while the corresponding steady state model is solved using regular perturbation technique. Results of analytical and numerical solutions are reported for various parametric conditions to illustrate special features of the solutions. The coefficient of skin friction and rate of heat transfer are obtained and illustrated graphically. The numerical solution is shown to be in excellent agreement with the closed form analytical solution. It is interesting to note that time required to reach steady state is higher in case of injection in comparison to suction.

Keywords: porous pipe, reactive viscous fluid, transient natural-convective flow, analytical solution

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12004 Influence оf Viscous Dampers on Seismic Response оf Isolated Bridges Including Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Marija Vitanova, Aleksandra Bogdanovic, Kemal Edip, Viktor Hristovski, Vlado Micov


Bridges represent critical structures in lifeline systems. They provide reliable modes of transportation, so their failure can seriously obstruct relief and rehabilitation work. Earthquake ground motions can cause significant damages in bridges, so during the strong earthquakes, they can easily collapse. The base isolation technique has been quite effective in seismic response mitigation of the bridges in reducing the piers base shear. The effect of soil structure interaction on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three span girder bridge with viscous dampers is investigated. Viscous dampers are installed in the mid span of the bridge to control bearing displacement. The soil surrounding the foundation of piers has been analyzed by applying different soil densities in order to consider the soil stiffness. The soil medium has been assumed as a four layered infill as dense and loose medium. The boundaries in the soil medium are considered as infinite elements in order to absorb the radiating waves. The formulation of infinite elements is the same as for the finite elements in addition to the mapping of the domain. Based on the iso-parametric concept, the infinite element in global coordinate is mapped onto an element in local coordinate system. In the formulation of the infinite element, only the positive direction extends to infinity thus allowing the waves to propagate outside of the soil medium. Dynamic analyses for two levels of earthquake intensity are performed in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the isolated and controlled isolated bridges are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the piers has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with the installation of the viscous dampers.

Keywords: viscous dampers, reinforced concrete girder bridges, seismic response, SSI

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12003 Direct-Displacement Based Design for Buildings with Non-Linear Viscous Dampers

Authors: Kelly F. Delgado-De Agrela, Sonia E. Ruiz, Marco A. Santos-Santiago


An approach is proposed for the design of regular buildings equipped with non-linear viscous dissipating devices. The approach is based on a direct-displacement seismic design method which satisfies seismic performance objectives. The global system involved is formed by structural regular moment frames capable of supporting gravity and lateral loads with elastic response behavior plus a set of non-linear viscous dissipating devices which reduce the structural seismic response. The dampers are characterized by two design parameters: (1) a positive real exponent α which represents the non-linearity of the damper, and (2) the damping coefficient C of the device, whose constitutive force-velocity law is given by F=Cvᵃ, where v is the velocity between the ends of the damper. The procedure is carried out using a substitute structure. Two limits states are verified: serviceability and near collapse. The reduction of the spectral ordinates by the additional damping assumed in the design process and introduced to the structure by the viscous non-linear dampers is performed according to a damping reduction factor. For the design of the non-linear damper system, the real velocity is considered instead of the pseudo-velocity. The proposed design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel moment frame building equipped with non-linear viscous dampers, located in intermediate soil zone of Mexico City, with a dominant period Tₛ = 1s. In order to validate the approach, nonlinear static analyses and nonlinear time history analyses are performed.

Keywords: based design, direct-displacement based design, non-linear viscous dampers, performance design

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12002 Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model with Time Dependent Gravitational Constant and Cosmological Constant in General Relativity

Authors: Reena Behal, D. P. Shukla


In this paper, we investigate Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model with Time dependent gravitational constant and cosmological constant in general Relativity by assuming ξ(t)=ξ_(0 ) p^m where ξ_(0 ) and m are constants. We also assume a variation law for Hubble parameter as H(R) = a (R^(-n)+1), where a>0, n>1 being constant. Two universe models were obtained, and their physical behavior has been discussed. When n=1 the Universe starts from singular state whereas when n=0 the cosmology follows a no singular state. The presence of bulk viscosity increase matter density’s value.

Keywords: Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model, hubble constants, gravitational constant, cosmological constants

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