Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: P. A. L. Narayana

15 Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Multiple Floor Fire Loads

Authors: Suresh Narayana, Chaitanya Akkannavar

Abstract:

Assessment of behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected to fire load, and its behavior for the multi-floor fire have been presented in this paper. This research is the part of the study to evaluate the performance of ten storied RC structure when it is subjected to fire loads at multiple floors and to evaluate the post-fire effects on structure such as deflection and stresses occurring due to combined effect of static and thermal loading. Thermal loading has been assigned to different floor levels to estimate the critical floors that initiate the collapse of the structure. The structure has been modeled and analyzed in Solid Works and commercially available Finite Element Software ABAQUS. Results are analyzed, and particular design solution has been suggested.

Keywords: collapse mechanism, fire analysis, RC structure, stress vs temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
14 Influence of Internal Heat Source on Thermal Instability in a Horizontal Porous Layer with Mass Flow and Inclined Temperature Gradient

Authors: Anjanna Matta, P. A. L. Narayana

Abstract:

An investigation has been presented to analyze the effect of internal heat source on the onset of Hadley-Prats flow in a horizontal fluid saturated porous medium. We examine a better understanding of the combined influence of the heat source and mass flow effect by using linear stability analysis. The resultant eigenvalue problem is solved by using shooting and Runga-Kutta methods for evaluate critical thermal Rayleight number with respect to various flow governing parameters. It is identified that the flow is switch from stabilizing to destabilizing as the horizontal thermal Rayleigh number is enhanced. The heat source and mass flow increases resulting a stronger destabilizing effect.

Keywords: linear stability analysis, heat source, porous medium, mass flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
13 Study of Heat Conduction in Multicore Chips

Authors: K. N. Seetharamu, Naveen Teggi, Kiranakumar Dhavalagi, Narayana Kamath

Abstract:

A method of temperature calculations is developed to study the conditions leading to hot spot occurrence on multicore chips. A physical model which has salient features of multicore chips is incorporated for the analysis. The model consists of active and background cell laid out in a checkered pattern, and this pattern repeats itself in each fine grain active cells. The die has three layers i) body ii) buried oxide layer iii) wiring layer, stacked one above the other with heat source placed at the interface between wiring and buried oxide layer. With this model we propose analytical method to calculate the target hotspot temperature, heat flow to top and bottom layers of the die and thermal resistance components at each granularity level, assuming appropriate values of die dimensions and parameters. Finally we attempt to find an easier method for the calculation of the target hotspot temperature using graph.

Keywords: checkered pattern, granularity level, heat conduction, multicore chips, target hotspot temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
12 Nutrient Foramina in the Shaft of Long Bones of Upper Limb

Authors: Madala Venkateswara Rao

Abstract:

The major blood supply to the long bones occurs through the nutrient arteries, which enters through the nutrient foramina. This is the study of nutrient Foramina in the shaft of upper limb long bones taken from the department of Anatomy at Narayana medical college nellore. Nutrient foramina play an important role in nutrition and growth of the bones. Most of the nutrient arteries follow the rule, 'to the elbow I go, from the knee I flee' but they are very variable in position. Their number, location, direction & its importance in the growing end of long bones were studied in the long bones of upper limb. The present study has variations in the position & direction of long bones especially in the radius & ulna, as most of the nutrient foramina are found in anterior surface of upper 1/3rd and middle 1/3rd of these bones. The study of nutrient foramina is not only of academic interest but also in medico-legal practice in relation to their position. Careful observation has also been made on the position of nutrient foramina in relation to upper end of long bones. This study also gives importance of length long bones to know the height of an individual. With the knowledge of variations in the nutrient foramen, placement of internal fixation devices can be appropriately done.

Keywords: nutrient artery, nutrient foramina, shaft of long bones, upper limb bones

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
11 Effects of Viscous Dissipation and Concentration Based Internal Heat Source on Convective Instability in A Porous Medium with Throughflow

Authors: N. Deepika, P. A. L. Narayana

Abstract:

Linear stability analysis of double diffusive convection in a horizontal porous layer saturated with fluid is examined by considering the effects of viscous dissipation, concentration based internal heat source and vertical throughflow. The basic steady state solution for Governing equations is computed. Linear stability analysis has been implemented numerically by using Runge-kutta method. Critical thermal Rayleigh number Rac is obtained for various values of solutal Rayleigh number Sa, vertical Peclet number Pe, Gebhart number Ge, Lewis number Le and measure of concentration based internal heat source $\gamma$. It is observed that Ge has destabilizing effect for upward throughflow and stabilizing effect for downward throughflow. For sufficient value of Pe, $\gamma$ has considerable destabilizing effect for upward throughflow, insignificant destabilizing effect for downward throughflow.

Keywords: porous medium, concentration based internal heat source, vertical throughflow, viscous dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
10 An Evaluative Approach for Successful Implementation of Lean and Green Manufacturing in Indian SMEs

Authors: Satya S. N. Narayana, P. Parthiban, T. Niranjan, N. Kannan

Abstract:

Enterprises adopt methodologies to increase their business performance and to stay competent in the volatile global market. Lean manufacturing is one such manufacturing paradigm which focuses on reduction of cost by elimination of wastes or non-value added activities. With increased awareness about social responsibility and the necessary to meet the terms of the environmental policy, green manufacturing is becoming increasingly important for industries. Large plants have more resources, have started implementing lean and green practices and they are getting good results. Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) are facing problems in implementing lean and green concept. This paper aims to identify the key issues for implementation of lean and green concept in Indian SMEs. The key factors identified based on literature review and expert opinions are grouped into different levels by Modified Interpretive Structural Modeling (MISM) to explore the importance among the factors to implement lean and green manufacturing. Finally, Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) method has been used to determine the extent to which the main principles of lean and green manufacturing have been carried out in the six Indian medium scale manufacturing industries.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, green manufacturing, MISM, FANP

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
9 Vibration Response of Soundboards of Classical Guitars

Authors: Meng Koon Lee, Mohammad Hosseini Fouladi, Satesh Narayana Namasivayam

Abstract:

Research is focused on the response of soundboards of Classical guitars at frequencies up to 5 kHz as the soundboard is a major contributor to acoustic radiation at high frequencies when compared to the bridge and sound hole. A thin rectangular plate of variable thickness that is simply-supported on all sides is used as an analytical model of the research. This model is used to study the response of the guitar soundboard as the latter can be considered as a modified form of a rectangular plate. Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is selected as a mathematical method to obtain an analytical solution of the 4th-order parabolic partial differential equation of motion of the rectangular plate of constant thickness viewed as a linear problem. This procedure is generalized to the nonlinear problem of the rectangular plate with variable thickness and an analytical solution can also be obtained. Sound power is used as a parameter to investigate the acoustic radiation of soundboards made from spruce using various bracing patterns. The sound power of soundboards made from Malaysian softwood such as damar minyak, sempilor or podo are investigated to determine the viability of replacing spruce as future materials for soundboards of Classical guitars.

Keywords: rectangular plates, analytical solution, homotopy perturbation, natural frequencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
8 Standardization of Propagation Techniques in Selected Native Plants of Kuwait

Authors: Laila Almulla, Narayana Bhat, Majda Suleiman, Sheena Jacob

Abstract:

Biodiversity conservation has become one of the challenging priorities to combat species extinction for many countries, including the state of Kuwait. Since native plants are better adapted to the local environment, can endure long spells of drought, withstand high soil salinity levels and provide a more natural effect to landscape projects, their use will both conserve natural resources and produce sustainable greenery. When native plants are properly blended with naturalized exotic ornamental plants in a landscape, they can improve social and cultural benefits. Screening of exotic and native plants in Kuwait during the past two decades has led to the selection of some very promising plants. Continuation of evaluation of additional native and exotic plants is essential to increase diversity of plant resources for greenery projects. Therefore, an effort was made to evaluate further native plants for their suitability for greenery applications. In the present study, various treatments were used to mass multiply selected plants using seeds to secure maximum germination. Seeds were subjected to nine treatments, and each treatment was replicated five times with ten seeds per treatment unit. After the treatment, the seeds of Zygophyllum qatarense were incubated at 30 °C, three lights for 12 h, at 40% humidity; where as the seeds of Haloxylon salicornicum were incubated at 22 °C with continuous light, at 40% humidity. Soaking in 250-ppm GA3 resulted in highest germination percentage of 20% in Zygophyllum qatarense and, Soaking in 500-ppm GA3 resulted in 6% germination in Haloxylon salicornicum. Germination of the viable seeds is influenced by various external and internal factors, seed must not be in a state of dormancy and the environmental requirements for germination of that seed must be met, before germination can occur.

Keywords: landscape, native plants, revegetation, seed germination

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
7 On-Line Super Critical Fluid Extraction, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, a Technique in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Authors: Narayana Murthy Akurathi, Vijaya Lakshmi Marella

Abstract:

The literature is reviewed with regard to online Super critical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled directly with supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) -mass spectrometry that have typically more sensitive than conventional LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. It is becoming increasingly interesting to use on-line techniques that combine sample preparation, separation and detection in one analytical set up. This provides less human intervention, uses small amount of sample and organic solvent and yields enhanced analyte enrichment in a shorter time. The sample extraction is performed under light shielding and anaerobic conditions, preventing the degradation of thermo labile analytes. It may be able to analyze compounds over a wide polarity range as SFC generally uses carbon dioxide which was collected as a by-product of other chemical reactions or is collected from the atmosphere as it contributes no new chemicals to the environment. The diffusion of solutes in supercritical fluids is about ten times greater than that in liquids and about three times less than in gases which results in a decrease in resistance to mass transfer in the column and allows for fast high resolution separations. The drawback of SFC when using carbon dioxide as mobile phase is that the direct introduction of water samples poses a series of problems, water must therefore be eliminated before it reaches the analytical column. Hundreds of compounds analysed simultaneously by simple enclosing in an extraction vessel. This is mainly applicable for pharmaceutical industry where it can analyse fatty acids and phospholipids that have many analogues as their UV spectrum is very similar, trace additives in polymers, cleaning validation can be conducted by putting swab sample in an extraction vessel, analysing hundreds of pesticides with good resolution.

Keywords: super critical fluid extraction (SFE), super critical fluid chromatography (SFC), LCMS/MS, GCMS/MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
6 Single Ion Transport with a Single-Layer Graphene Nanopore

Authors: Vishal V. R. Nandigana, Mohammad Heiranian, Narayana R. Aluru

Abstract:

Graphene material has found tremendous applications in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free from the hydration shell. This region is called “Coulomb blockade region”. In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore. The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology, mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts a super capacitor.

Keywords: graphene nanomembrane, single ion transport, Coulomb blockade, nanofluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
5 Condition Monitoring of a 3-Ø Induction Motor by Vibration Spectrum Analysis Using FFT Analyzer- a Case Study

Authors: Adi Narayana S Sudhakar. I

Abstract:

Energy conversion is one of the inevitable parts of any industries. It involves either conversion of mechanical energy in to electrical or vice versa. The later conversion of energy i.e. electrical to mechanical emphasizes the need of motor .Statistics reveals, about 8 % of industries’ annual turnover met on maintenance. Thus substantial numbers of efforts are required to minimize in incurring expenditure met towards break down maintenance. Condition monitoring is one of such techniques based on vibration widely used to recognize premature failures and paves a way to minimize cumbersome involved during breakdown of machinery. The present investigation involves a case study of squirrel cage induction motor (frequently in the electro machines) has been chosen for the conditional monitoring to predict its soundness on the basis of results of FFT analyser. Accelerometer which measures the acceleration converts in to impulses by FFT analyser generates vibration spectrum and time spectrum has been located at various positions on motor under different conditions. Results obtained from the FFT analyzer are compared to that of ISO standard vibration severity charts are taken to predict the preventative condition of considered machinery. Initial inspection of motor revealed that stator faults, broken end rings in rotor, eccentricity faults and misalignment between bearings are trouble shootings areas for present investigation. From the results of the shaft frequencies, it can be perceived that there is a misalignment between the bearings at both the ends. The higher order harmonics of FTF shows the presence of cracks on the race of the bearings at both the ends which are in the incipient stage. Replacement of the bearings at both the drive end (6306) and non-drive end (6206) and the alignment check between the bearings in the shaft are suggested as the constructive measures towards preventive maintenance of considered squirrel cage induction motor.

Keywords: FFT analyser, condition monitoring, vibration spectrum, time spectrum accelerometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4 Ponticuli of Atlas Vertebra: A Study in South Coastal Region of Andhra Pradesh

Authors: Hema Lattupalli

Abstract:

Introduction: A bony bridge extends from the lateral mass of the atlas to postero medial margin of vertebral artery groove, termed as a posterior bridge of atlas or posterior ponticulus. The foramen formed by the bridge is called as arcuate foramen or retroarticulare superior. Another bony bridge sometimes extends laterally from lateral mass to posterior root of transverse foramen forming and additional groove for vertebral artery, above and behind foramen transversarium called Lateral bridge or ponticulus lateralis. When both posterior and lateral are present together it is called as Posterolateral ponticuli. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to detect the presence of such Bridge or Ponticuli called as Lateral, Posterior and Posterolateral reported by earlier investigators in atlas vertebrae. Material and Methods: The study was done on 100 Atlas vertebrae from the Department of Anatomy Narayana Medical College Nellore, and also from SVIMS Tirupati was collected over a period of 2 years. The parameters that were studied include the presence of ponticuli, complete and incomplete and right and left side ponticuli. They were observed for all these parameters and the results were documented and photographed. Results: Ponticuli were observed in 25 (25%) of atlas vertebrae. Posterior ponticuli were found in 16 (16%), Lateral in 01 (01%) and Posterolateral in 08(08%) of the atlas vertebrae. Complete ponticuli were present in 09 (09%) and incomplete ponticuli in 16 (16%) of the atlas vertebrae. Bilateral ponticuli were seen in 10 (10%) and unilateral ponticuli were seen in 15 (15%) of the atlas vertebrae. Right side ponticuli were seen in 04 (04%) and Left side ponticuli in 05 (05%) of the atlas vertebrae respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: In the present study posterior complete ponticuli were said to be more than the lateral complete ponticuli. The presence of Bilateral Incomplete Posterior ponticuli is higher and also Atlantic ponticuli. The present study is to say that knowledge of normal anatomy and variations in the atlas vertebra is very much essential to the neurosurgeons giving a message that utmost care is needed to perform surgeries related to craniovertebral regions. This is additional information to the Anatomists, Neurosurgeons and Radiologist. This adds an extra page to the literature.

Keywords: atlas vertebra, ponticuli, posterior arch, arcuate foramen

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
3 Structural Health Assessment of a Masonry Bridge Using Wireless

Authors: Nalluri Lakshmi Ramu, C. Venkat Nihit, Narayana Kumar, Dillep

Abstract:

Masonry bridges are the iconic heritage transportation infrastructure throughout the world. Continuous increase in traffic loads and speed have kept engineers in dilemma about their structural performance and capacity. Henceforth, research community has an urgent need to propose an effective methodology and validate on real-time bridges. The presented research aims to assess the structural health of an Eighty-year-old masonry railway bridge in India using wireless accelerometer sensors. The bridge consists of 44 spans with length of 24.2 m each and individual pier is 13 m tall laid on well foundation. To calculate the dynamic characteristic properties of the bridge, ambient vibrations were recorded from the moving traffic at various speeds and the same are compared with the developed three-dimensional numerical model using finite element-based software. The conclusions about the weaker or deteriorated piers are drawn from the comparison of frequencies obtained from the experimental tests conducted on alternative spans. Masonry is a heterogeneous anisotropic material made up of incoherent materials (such as bricks, stones, and blocks). It is most likely the earliest largely used construction material. Masonry bridges, which were typically constructed of brick and stone, are still a key feature of the world's highway and railway networks. There are 1,47,523 railway bridges across India and about 15% of these bridges are built by masonry, which are around 80 to 100 year old. The cultural significance of masonry bridges cannot be overstated. These bridges are considered to be complicated due to the presence of arches, spandrel walls, piers, foundations, and soils. Due to traffic loads and vibrations, wind, rain, frost attack, high/low temperature cycles, moisture, earthquakes, river overflows, floods, scour, and soil under their foundations may cause material deterioration, opening of joints and ring separation in arch barrels, cracks in piers, loss of brick-stones and mortar joints, distortion of the arch profile. Few NDT tests like Flat jack Tests are being employed to access the homogeneity, durability of masonry structure, however there are many drawbacks because of the test. A modern approach of structural health assessment of masonry structures by vibration analysis, frequencies and stiffness properties is being explored in this paper.

Keywords: masonry bridges, condition assessment, wireless sensors, numerical analysis modal frequencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
2 Social Enterprises in India: Conceptualization and Challenges

Authors: Prajakta Khare

Abstract:

There is a huge number of social enterprises operating in India, across all enterprise sizes and forms addressing diverse social issues. Some cases such as such as Aravind eye care, Narayana Hridalaya, SEWA have been studied extensively in management literature and are known cases in social entrepreneurship. But there are several smaller social enterprises in India that are not called so per se due to the lack of understanding of the concept. There is a lack of academic research on social entrepreneurship in India and the term ‘social entrepreneurship’ is not yet widely known in the country, even by people working in this field as was found by this study. The present study aims to identify the most prominent form of social enterprises in India, the profile of the entrepreneurs, challenges faced, the lessons (theory and practices) emerging from their functioning and finally the factors contributing to the enterprises’ success. This is a preliminary exploratory study using primary data from 30 social enterprises in India. The study used snow ball sampling and a qualitative analysis. Data was collected from founders of social enterprises through written structured questionnaires, open-ended interviews and field visits to enterprises. The sample covered enterprises across sectors such as environment, affordable education, children’s rights, rain water harvesting, women empowerment etc. The interview questions focused on founder’s background and motivation, qualifications, funding, challenges, founder’s understanding and perspectives on social entrepreneurship, government support, linkages with other organizations etc. apart from several others. The interviews were conducted across 3 languages - Hindi, Marathi, English and were then translated and transcribed. 50% of founders were women and 65% of the total founders were highly qualified with a MBA, PhD or MBBS. The most important challenge faced by these entrepreneurs is recruiting skilled people. When asked about their understanding of the term, founders had diverse perspectives. Also, their understandings about the term social enterprise and social entrepreneur were extremely varied. Some founders identified the terms with doing something good for the society, some thought that every business can be called a social enterprise. 35% of the founders were not aware of the term social entrepreneur/ social entrepreneurship. They said that they could identify themselves as social entrepreneurs after discussions with the researcher. The general perception in India is that ‘NGOs are corrupt’- fighting against this perception to secure funds is also another problem as pointed out by some founders. There are unique challenges that social entrepreneurs in India face, as the political, social, economic environment around them is rapidly changing; and getting adequate support from the government is a problem. The research in its subsequent stages aims to clarify existing, missing and new definitions of the term to provide deeper insights in the terminology and issues relating to Social Entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: challenges, India, social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurs

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1 Phytochemical Composition, Antimicrobial Potential and Antioxidant Activity of Peganum harmala L. Extracts

Authors: Narayana Bhat, Majda Khalil, Hamad Al-Mansour, Anitha Manuvel, Vimla Yeddu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential and phytochemical composition of Peganum harmala L. For this purpose, powdered shoot, root, and seed samples were extracted in an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with methanol, ethanol, acetone, and dichloromethane. The residues were reconstituted in the above solvents and 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The antimicrobial activity of these extracts was tested against two bacterial (Escherichia coli E49 and Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507) and two fungi Candida albicans ATCC 24433, Candida glabrata ATCC 15545) strains using the well-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth pattern of these test strains were determined using microbroth dilution method, and the phospholipase assay was performed to detect tissue damage in the host cells. Results revealed that ethanolic, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts of seeds exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against all tested strains, whereas the acetone extract of seeds was effective against E. coli only. Similarly, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of roots were effective against two bacterial strains only. One sixth of percent (0.6%) yield of methanol extract of seeds was found to be the MIC for Escherichia coli E49, Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507, and Candida glabrata ATCC 15545. Overall, seed extracts had greater antimicrobial activities compared to roots and shoot extracts. The original plant extract and MIC dilutions prevented phospholipase secretion in Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507 and Candida albicans ATCC 24433. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay revealed radical scavenging activities ranging from 71.80 ± 4.36% to 87.75 ± 1.70%. The main compound present in the root extract was 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline (RT: 44.171), followed by norlapachol (3.62%), benzopyrazine (2.20%), palmitic acid (2.12%) and vasicinone (1.96%). In contrast, phenol,4-ethenyl-2-methoxy was in abundance in the methonolic extract of the shoot, whereas 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline (79.59%), linoleic acid (9.05%), delta-tocopherol (5.02%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (2.65%), benzene, 1,1-1,2 ethanediyl bis 3,4dimethyl (1.15%), anthraquinone (0.58%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (0.54%), palmitic acid (0.35%) and methyl stearate (0.18%) were present in the methanol extract of seeds. Major findings of this study, along with their relevance to developing effective, safe drugs, will be discussed in this presentation.

Keywords: medicinal plants, secondary metabolites, phytochemical screening, bioprospecting, radical scavenging

Procedia PDF Downloads 42