Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: viscoplastic

13 A Constitutive Model for Time-Dependent Behavior of Clay

Authors: T. N. Mac, B. Shahbodaghkhan, N. Khalili

Abstract:

A new elastic-viscoplastic (EVP) constitutive model is proposed for the analysis of time-dependent behavior of clay. The proposed model is based on the bounding surface plasticity and the concept of viscoplastic consistency framework to establish continuous transition from plasticity to rate dependent viscoplasticity. Unlike the overstress based models, this model will meet the consistency condition in formulating the constitutive equation for EVP model. The procedure of deriving the constitutive relationship is also presented. Simulation results and comparisons with experimental data are then presented to demonstrate the performance of the model.

Keywords: bounding surface, consistency theory, constitutive model, viscosity

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12 Simulation of Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Nickel-Based Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Harish Ramesh Babu, Marco Böcker, Mario Raddatz, Sebastian Henkel, Horst Biermann, Uwe Gampe

Abstract:

Thermal power machines are subjected to cyclic loading conditions under elevated temperatures. At these extreme conditions, the durability of the components has a significant influence. The material mechanical behaviour has to be known in detail for a failsafe construction. For this study a nickel-based alloy is considered, the deformation and fatigue behaviour of the material is analysed under cyclic loading. A viscoplastic model is used for calculating the deformation behaviour as well as to simulate the rate-dependent and cyclic plasticity effects. Finally, the cyclic deformation results of the finite element simulations are compared with low cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments.

Keywords: complex low cycle fatigue, elevated temperature, fe-simulation, viscoplastic

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11 Power Consumption for Viscoplastic Fluid in a Rotating Vessel with an Anchor Impeller

Authors: Draoui Belkacem, Rahmani Lakhdar, Benachour Elhadj, Seghier Oussama

Abstract:

Rheology is known to have a strong impact on the flow behavior and the power consumption of mechanically agitated vessels. The laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with an anchor impeller in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work the objective of this paper is: to evaluate the power consumption for yield stress fluids in standard mixing system. The power consumption is calculated for the different types of anchor impeller configurations and an optimum configuration is proposed.The hydrodynamic fields of incompressible yield stress fluid with model of Bingham in a cylindrical vessel not chicaned equipped with anchor stirrer was undertaken by means of numerical simulation. The flow structures, and especially the effect of inertia, the plasticity and the yield stress, are discussed.

Keywords: rheology, 2D, numerical, anchor, rotating vissel, non-Newtonien fluid

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10 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub

Abstract:

In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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9 A Transient Coupled Numerical Analysis of the Flow of Magnetorheological Fluids in Closed Domains

Authors: Wael Elsaady, S. Olutunde Oyadiji, Adel Nasser

Abstract:

The non-linear flow characteristics of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in MR dampers are studied via a coupled numerical approach that incorporates a two-phase flow model. The approach couples the Finite Element (FE) modelling of the damper magnetic circuit, with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the flow field in the damper. The two-phase flow CFD model accounts for the effect of fluid compressibility due to the presence of liquid and gas in the closed domain of the damper. The dynamic mesh model included in ANSYS/Fluent CFD solver is used to simulate the movement of the MR damper piston in order to perform the fluid excitation. The two-phase flow analysis is studied by both Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) model and mixture model that are included in ANSYS/Fluent. The CFD models show that the hysteretic behaviour of MR dampers is due to the effect of fluid compressibility. The flow field shows the distributions of pressure, velocity, and viscosity contours. In particular, it shows the high non-Newtonian viscosity in the affected fluid regions by the magnetic field and the low Newtonian viscosity elsewhere. Moreover, the dependence of gas volume fraction on the liquid pressure inside the damper is predicted by the mixture model. The presented approach targets a better understanding of the complicated flow characteristics of viscoplastic fluids that could be applied in different applications.

Keywords: viscoplastic fluid, magnetic FE analysis, computational fluid dynamics, two-phase flow, dynamic mesh, user-defined functions

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8 An Elasto-Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for Unsaturated Soils: Numerical Implementation and Validation

Authors: Maria Lazari, Lorenzo Sanavia

Abstract:

Mechanics of unsaturated soils has been an active field of research in the last decades. Efficient constitutive models that take into account the partial saturation of soil are necessary to solve a number of engineering problems e.g. instability of slopes and cuts due to heavy rainfalls. A large number of constitutive models can now be found in the literature that considers fundamental issues associated with the unsaturated soil behaviour, like the volume change and shear strength behaviour with suction or saturation changes. Partially saturated soils may either expand or collapse upon wetting depending on the stress level, and it is also possible that a soil might experience a reversal in the volumetric behaviour during wetting. Shear strength of soils also changes dramatically with changes in the degree of saturation, and a related engineering problem is slope failures caused by rainfall. There are several states of the art reviews over the last years for studying the topic, usually providing a thorough discussion of the stress state, the advantages, and disadvantages of specific constitutive models as well as the latest developments in the area of unsaturated soil modelling. However, only a few studies focused on the coupling between partial saturation states and time effects on the behaviour of geomaterials. Rate dependency is experimentally observed in the mechanical response of granular materials, and a viscoplastic constitutive model is capable of reproducing creep and relaxation processes. Therefore, in this work an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for unsaturated soils is proposed and validated on the basis of experimental data. The model constitutes an extension of an existing elastoplastic strain-hardening constitutive model capable of capturing the behaviour of variably saturated soils, based on energy conjugated stress variables in the framework of superposed continua. The purpose was to develop a model able to deal with possible mechanical instabilities within a consistent energy framework. The model shares the same conceptual structure of the elastoplastic laws proposed to deal with bonded geomaterials subject to weathering or diagenesis and is capable of modelling several kinds of instabilities induced by the loss of hydraulic bonding contributions. The novelty of the proposed formulation is enhanced with the incorporation of density dependent stiffness and hardening coefficients in order to allow the modeling of the pycnotropy behaviour of granular materials with a single set of material constants. The model has been implemented in the commercial FE platform PLAXIS, widely used in Europe for advanced geotechnical design. The algorithmic strategies adopted for the stress-point algorithm had to be revised to take into account the different approach adopted by PLAXIS developers in the solution of the discrete non-linear equilibrium equations. An extensive comparison between models with a series of experimental data reported by different authors is presented to validate the model and illustrate the capability of the newly developed model. After the validation, the effectiveness of the viscoplastic model is displayed by numerical simulations of a partially saturated slope failure of the laboratory scale and the effect of viscosity and degree of saturation on slope’s stability is discussed.

Keywords: PLAXIS software, slope, unsaturated soils, Viscoplasticity

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7 Coupled Space and Time Homogenization of Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Composites

Authors: Sarra Haouala, Issam Doghri

Abstract:

In this work, a multiscale computational strategy is proposed for the analysis of structures, which are described at a refined level both in space and in time. The proposal is applied to two-phase viscoelastic-viscoplastic (VE-VP) reinforced thermoplastics subjected to large numbers of cycles. The main aim is to predict the effective long time response while reducing the computational cost considerably. The proposed computational framework is a combination of the mean-field space homogenization based on the generalized incrementally affine formulation for VE-VP composites, and the asymptotic time homogenization approach for coupled isotropic VE-VP homogeneous solids under large numbers of cycles. The time homogenization method is based on the definition of micro and macro-chronological time scales, and on asymptotic expansions of the unknown variables. First, the original anisotropic VE-VP initial-boundary value problem of the composite material is decomposed into coupled micro-chronological (fast time scale) and macro-chronological (slow time-scale) problems. The former is purely VE, and solved once for each macro time step, whereas the latter problem is nonlinear and solved iteratively using fully implicit time integration. Second, mean-field space homogenization is used for both micro and macro-chronological problems to determine the micro and macro-chronological effective behavior of the composite material. The response of the matrix material is VE-VP with J2 flow theory assuming small strains. The formulation exploits the return-mapping algorithm for the J2 model, with its two steps: viscoelastic predictor and plastic corrections. The proposal is implemented for an extended Mori-Tanaka scheme, and verified against finite element simulations of representative volume elements, for a number of polymer composite materials subjected to large numbers of cycles.

Keywords: asymptotic expansions, cyclic loadings, inclusion-reinforced thermoplastics, mean-field homogenization, time homogenization

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6 Numerical Study of Two Mechanical Stirring Systems for Yield Stress Fluid

Authors: Amine Benmoussa, Mebrouk Rebhi, Rahmani Lakhdar

Abstract:

Mechanically agitated vessels are commonly used for various operations within a wide range process in chemical, pharmaceutical, polymer, biochemical, mineral, petroleum industries. Depending on the purpose of the operation carried out in mixer, the best choice for geometry of the tank and agitator type can vary widely. In this paper, the laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with straight and circular gate impellers in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), where the velocity profile, the velocity fields and power consumption was analyzed.

Keywords: CFD, mechanical stirring, power consumption, yield stress fluid

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5 Study the Effect of Friction on Barreling Behavior during Upsetting Process Using Anand Model

Authors: H. Mohammadi Majd, M. Jalali Azizpour, V. Tavaf, A. Jaderi

Abstract:

In upsetting processes contact friction significantly influence metal flow, stress-strain state and process parameters. Furthermore, tribological conditions influence workpiece deformation and its dimensional precision. A viscoplastic constitutive law, the Anand model, was applied to represent the inelastic deformation behavior in upsetting process. This paper presents research results of the influence of contact friction coefficient on a workpiece deformation in upsetting process.finite element parameters. This technique was tested for three different specimens simulations of the upsetting and the corresponding material and can be successfully employed to predict the deformation of the upsetting process.

Keywords: friction, upsetting, barreling, Anand model

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4 Influence of Rainfall Intensity on Infiltration and Deformation of Unsaturated Soil Slopes

Authors: Bouziane Mohamed Tewfik

Abstract:

In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behaviour of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

Keywords: unsaturated soil, slope stability, rainfall infiltration, numerical analysis

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3 Virtual Modelling of Turbulent Fibre Flow in a Low Consistency Refiner for a Sustainable and Energy Efficient Process

Authors: Simon Ingelsten, Anton Lundberg, Vijay Shankar, Lars-Olof Landström, Örjan Johansson

Abstract:

The flow in a low consistency disc refiner is simulated with the aim of identifying flow structures possibly being of importance for a future study to optimise the energy efficiency in refining processes. A simplified flow geometry is used, where a single groove of a refiner disc is modelled. Two different fibre models are used to simulate turbulent fibre suspension flow in the groove. The first model is a Bingham viscoplastic fluid model where the fibre suspension is treated as a non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress. The second model is a new model proposed in a recent study where the suspended fibres effect on flow is accounted for through a modelled orientation distribution function (ODF). Both models yielded similar results with small differences. Certain flow characteristics that were expected and that was found in the literature were identified. Some of these flow characteristics may be of importance in a future process to optimise the refiner geometry to increase the energy efficiency. Further study and a more detailed flow model is; however, needed in order for the simulations to yield results valid for quantitative use in such an optimisation study. An outline of the next steps in such a study is proposed.

Keywords: disc refiner, fibre flow, sustainability, turbulence modelling

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2 Effect of Temperature and CuO Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of a Phase Change Material

Authors: V. Bastian Aguila, C. Diego Vasco, P. Paula Galvez, R. Paula Zapata

Abstract:

The main results of an experimental study of the effect of temperature and nanoparticle concentration on thermal conductivity and viscosity of a nanofluid are shown. The nanofluid was made by using octadecane as a base fluid and CuO spherical nanoparticles of 75 nm (MkNano). Since the base fluid is a phase change material (PCM) to be used in thermal storage applications, the engineered nanofluid is referred as nanoPCM. Three nanoPCM were prepared through the two-step method (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%wv). In order to increase the stability of the nanoPCM, the surface of the CuO nanoparticles was modified with sodium oleate, and it was verified by IR analysis. The modified CuO nanoparticles were dispersed by using an ultrasonic horn (Hielscher UP50H) during one hour (amplitude of 180 μm at 50 W). The thermal conductivity was measured by using a thermal properties analyzer (KD2-Pro) in the temperature range of 30ºC to 40ºC. The viscosity was measured by using a Brookfield DV2T-LV viscosimeter to 30 RPM in the temperature range of 30ºC to 55ºC. The obtained results for the nanoPCM showed that thermal conductivity is almost constant in the analyzed temperature range, and the viscosity decreases non-linearly with temperature. Respect to the effect of the nanoparticle concentration, both thermal conductivity and viscosity increased with nanoparticle concentration. The thermal conductivity raised up to 9% respect to the base fluid, and the viscosity increases up to 60%, in both cases for the higher concentration. Finally, the viscosity measurements for different rotation speeds (30 RPM - 80 RPM) exhibited that the addition of nanoparticles modifies the rheological behavior of the base fluid, from a Newtonian to a viscoplastic (Bingham) or shear thinning (power-law) non-Newtonian behavior.

Keywords: NanoPCM, thermal conductivity, viscosity, non-Newtonian fluid

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1 Finite Element Modeling of Global Ti-6Al-4V Mechanical Behavior in Relationship with Microstructural Parameters

Authors: Fatna Benmessaoud, Mohammed Cheikh, Vencent Velay, Vanessa Vedal, Farhad Rezai-Aria, Christine Boher

Abstract:

The global mechanical behavior of materials is strongly linked to their microstructure, especially their crystallographic texture and their grains morphology. These material aspects determine the mechanical fields character (heterogeneous or homogeneous), thus, they give to the global behavior a degree of anisotropy according the initial microstructure. For these reasons, the prediction of global behavior of materials in relationship with the microstructure must be performed with a multi-scale approach. Therefore, multi-scale modeling in the context of crystal plasticity is widely used. In this present contribution, a phenomenological elasto-viscoplastic model developed in the crystal plasticity context and finite element method are used to investigate the effects of crystallographic texture and grains sizes on global behavior of a polycrystalline equiaxed Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The constitutive equations of this model are written on local scale for each slip system within each grain while the strain and stress mechanical fields are investigated at the global scale via finite element scale transition. The beta phase of Ti-6Al-4V alloy modeled is negligible; its percent is less than 10%. Three families of slip systems of alpha phase are considered: basal and prismatic families with a burgers vector and pyramidal family with a burgers vector. The twinning mechanism of plastic strain is not observed in Ti-6Al-4V, therefore, it is not considered in the present modeling. Nine representative elementary volumes (REV) are generated with Voronoi tessellations. For each individual equiaxed grain, the own crystallographic orientation vis-à-vis the loading is taken into account. The meshing strategy is optimized in a way to eliminate the meshing effects and at the same time to allow calculating the individual grain size. The stress and strain fields are determined in each Gauss point of the mesh element. A post-treatment is used to calculate the local behavior (in each grain) and then by appropriate homogenization, the macroscopic behavior is calculated. The developed model is validated by comparing the numerical simulation results with an experimental data reported in the literature. It is observed that the present model is able to predict the global mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and investigate the microstructural parameters' effects. According to the simulations performed on the generated volumes (REV), the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V is strongly linked to the active slip systems family (prismatic, basal or pyramidal). The crystallographic texture determines which family of slip systems can be activated; therefore it gives to the plastic strain a heterogeneous character thus an anisotropic macroscopic mechanical behavior. The average grains size influences also the Ti-6Al-4V mechanical proprieties, especially the yield stress; by decreasing of the average grains size, the yield strength increases according to Hall-Petch relationship. The grains sizes' distribution gives to the strain fields considerable heterogeneity. By increasing grain sizes, the scattering in the localization of plastic strain is observed, thus, in certain areas the stress concentrations are stronger than other regions.

Keywords: microstructural parameters, multi-scale modeling, crystal plasticity, Ti-6Al-4V alloy

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