Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Horst Biermann

7 Simulation of Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Nickel-Based Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Harish Ramesh Babu, Marco Böcker, Mario Raddatz, Sebastian Henkel, Horst Biermann, Uwe Gampe

Abstract:

Thermal power machines are subjected to cyclic loading conditions under elevated temperatures. At these extreme conditions, the durability of the components has a significant influence. The material mechanical behaviour has to be known in detail for a failsafe construction. For this study a nickel-based alloy is considered, the deformation and fatigue behaviour of the material is analysed under cyclic loading. A viscoplastic model is used for calculating the deformation behaviour as well as to simulate the rate-dependent and cyclic plasticity effects. Finally, the cyclic deformation results of the finite element simulations are compared with low cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments.

Keywords: complex low cycle fatigue, elevated temperature, fe-simulation, viscoplastic

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6 Geological Characteristics of the Beni Snouss District

Authors: N. Hadj Mohamed, A. Boutaleb

Abstract:

The Beni Snouss area is characterized by horst and graben structures and it comprises deformed Palaeozoic sedimentary and magmatic rocks overlapping by Mesozoic sediments. Two structural units are distinguished: a Palaeozoic basement and a Mesozoic cover. The study area is densely faulted and major faults strike N110° to N140° and dip vertically The mineralized fault zones are readily distinguishable by their argillic wall rock alteration. The fault zones that are filled with mineralizations, aplites, microgranites and quartz run roughly parallel to each other and are apparently in the same fault system. The Palaeozoic basement rocks contain mineralization occurring as veins, veinlets and disseminations. The Liassic carbonate platform sequence contains Ba (Pb-Zn) sulphide deposits occurring mainly as strata bound, and open space filling.

Keywords: Algeria, basement, Beni Snouss, cover

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5 Alpha-To-Omega Phase Transition in Bulk Nanostructured Ti and (α+β) Ti Alloys

Authors: Askar Kilmametov, Julia Ivanisenko, Boris Straumal, Horst Hahn

Abstract:

The high-pressure α- to ω-phase transition was discovered in elemental Ti and Zr fifty years ago using static high pressure and then observed to appear between 2 and 12 GPa at room temperature, depending on the experimental technique, the pressure environment, and the sample purity. The fact that ω-phase is retained in a metastable state in ambient condition after the removal of the pressure has been used to check the changes in magnetic and superconductive behavior, electron band structure and mechanical properties. However, the fundamental knowledge on a combination of both mechanical treatment and high applied pressure treatments for ω-phase formation in Ti alloys is currently lacking and has to be studied in relation to improved mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured states. In the present study, nanostructured (α+β) Ti alloys containing β-stabilizing elements such as Co, Fe, Cr, Nb were performed by severe plastic deformation, namely high pressure torsion (HPT) technique. HPT-induced α- to ω-phase transformation was revealed in dependence on applied pressure and shear strains by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation kinetics was compared with the kinetics of pressure-induced transition. Orientation relationship between α-, β- and ω-phases was taken into consideration and analyzed according to theoretical calculation proposed earlier. The influence of initial state before HPT appeared to be considerable for subsequent α- to ω-phase transition. Thermal stability of the HPT-induced ω-phase was discussed as well in the frame of mechanical behavior of Ti and Ti-based alloys produced by shear deformation under high applied pressure.

Keywords: bulk nanostructured materials, high pressure phase transitions, severe plastic deformation, titanium alloys

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4 An Evaluation of Discontinuities in Rock Mass Using Coupled Hydromechanical Finite Element and Discrete Element Analyses

Authors: Mohammad Moridzadeh, Aaron Gallant

Abstract:

The paper will present the design and construction of the underground excavations of a pump station forebay and its related components including connector tunnels, access shaft, riser shaft and well shafts. The underground openings include an 8 m-diameter riser shaft, an 8-m-diameter access shaft, 34 2.4-m-diameter well shafts, a 107-m-long forebay with a cross section having a height of 11 m and width of 10 m, and a 6 m by 6 m stub connector tunnel between the access shaft and a future forebay extension. The riser shaft extends down from the existing forebay connector tunnel at elevation 247 m to the crown of the forebay at elevation 770.0 feet. The access shaft will extend from the platform at the surface down to El. 223.5 m. The pump station will have the capacity to deliver 600 million gallons per day. The project is located on an uplifted horst consisting of a mass of Precambrian metamorphic rock trending in a north-south direction. The eastern slope of the area is very steep and pronounced and is likely the result of high-angle normal faulting. Toward the west, the area is bordered by a high angle normal fault and recent alluvial, lacustrine, and colluvial deposits. An evaluation of rock mass properties, fault and discontinuities, foliation and joints, and in situ stresses was performed. The response of the rock mass was evaluated in 3DEC using Discrete Element Method (DEM) by explicitly accounting for both major and minor discontinuities within the rock mass (i.e. joints, shear zones, faults). Moreover, the stability of the entire subsurface structure including the forebay, access and riser shafts, future forebay, well shafts, and connecting tunnels and their interactions with each other were evaluated using a 3D coupled hydromechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

Keywords: coupled hydromechanical analysis, discontinuities, discrete element, finite element, pump station

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3 Concentration Conditions of Industrially Valuable Accumulations of Gold Ore Mineralization of the Tulallar Ore-Bearing Structure

Authors: Narmina Ismayilova, Shamil Zabitov, Fuad Askerzadeh, Raqif Seyfullayev

Abstract:

Tulallar volcano-tectonic structure is located in the conjugation zone of the Gekgel horst-uplift, Dashkesan, and Agzhakend synclinorium. Regionally, these geological structures are an integral part of the Lok-Karabakh island arc system. Tulallar field is represented by three areas (Central, East, West). The area of the ore field is located within a partially eroded oblong volcano-tectonic depression. In the central part, the core is divided by the deep Tulallar-Chiragdara-Toganalinsky fault with arcuate fragments of the ring structure into three blocks -East, Central, and West, within which the same areas of the Tulallar field are located. In general, for the deposit, the position of both ore-bearing vein zones and ore-bearing blocks is controlled by fractures of two systems - sub-latitudinal and near-meridional orientations. Mineralization of gold-sulfide ores is confined to these zones of disturbances. The zones have a northwestern and northeastern (near-meridian) strike with a steep dip (70-85◦) to the southwest and southeast. The average thickness of the zones is 35 m; they are traced for 2.5 km along the strike and 500 m along with the dip. In general, for the indicated thickness, the zones contain an average of 1.56 ppm Au; however, areas enriched in noble metal are distinguished within them. The zones are complicated by postore fault tectonics. Gold mineralization is localized in the Kimmeridgian volcanics of andesi-basalt-porphyritic composition and their vitrolithoclastic, agglomerate tuffs, and tuff breccias. For the central part of the Tulallar ore field, a map of geochemical anomalies was built on the basis of analysis data carried out in an international laboratory. The total gold content ranges from 0.1-5 g/t, and in some places, even more than 5 g/t. The highest gold content is observed in the monoquartz facies among the secondary quartzites with quartz veins. The smallest amount of gold content appeared in the quartz-kaolin facies. And also, anomalous values of gold content are located in the upper part of the quartz vein. As a result, an en-echelon arrangement of anomalous values of gold along the strike and dip was revealed.

Keywords: geochemical anomaly, gold deposit, mineralization, Tulallar

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2 Structural-Lithological Conditions of Formation of Epithermal Gold Sulphide Satellite Deposits in the North Part of Chovdar Ore Area

Authors: Nabat Gojaeva, Mikayil Naghiyev, Sultan Jafarov, Gular Mikayilova

Abstract:

Chovdar ore area is located in the contact of Dashkesan caldera and Shamkir horst-graben uplift, which comprises the central part of Lok-Karabakh Island arcs of South Caucasus metallogenic province in terms of regional tectonics. One of the main structural features of formation of the Mereh and Aghyokhush group of low sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, locating in the north peripheric part of the ore area, is involving the crossing areas of ore-hosting and ore-forming Pan-Caucasian-direction structurally-compound faults with the meridional, rhombically shaped faults. In addition, another significant feature is the temporally two- or three-stage ore formation. In the first stage -an early phase of Upper Bathonian age, sulfides are the dominant minerals, in the second stage- late ‘productive’ phase of Upper Bathonian age, mainly gold mineralization is formed. Also, in the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous ages, rarely-encountered Cu-polymetallic ore formations are documented. Finally, in the last stage, the re-dislocation of ore-formation is foreseen in the previously-formed mineralization areas. The faults in the strike and dip directions formed shearing, brecciation, sulfide mineralization aureoles, and hydrothermal alteration zones in the wall rocks along with the local depression blocks. The geological-structural analysis of the area shows that multiple and various morphogenetic volcano-tectonically fault systems have developed in the area. These fault systems have played a trap role for ore-formation in the intersected parts of faults mentioned above. Thus, in the referred parts, mostly predominance of felsic volcanism and metasomatic alteration (silicification, argillitic, etc.) of wall rocks, as well as the products of this volcanism, account for the inclusion of hydrothermal ore-forming fluids along these faults. It is possible to determine temporally and lithological-structural connection between the ore-formation along with local depression blocks and faults as borders for products of felsic volcanism of Upper Cretaceous-Lesser Jurassic ages, in the results of the replacement of hydrothermal alteration zones with relatively low-temperature metasomatic alterations while moving from the felsic parts to the margins, and due to being non-ore bearing intermediate and intermediate-felsic magmatic facies.

Keywords: Aghyokhush, fault, gold deposit, Mereh

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1 A Magnetic Hydrochar Nanocomposite as a Potential Adsorbent of Emerging Pollutants

Authors: Aura Alejandra Burbano Patino, Mariela Agotegaray, Veronica Lassalle, Fernanda Horst

Abstract:

Water pollution is of worldwide concern due to its importance as an essential resource for life. Industrial and urbanistic growth are anthropogenic activities that have caused an increase of undesirable compounds in water. In the last decade, emerging pollutants have become of great interest since, at very low concentrations (µg/L and ng/L), they exhibit a hazardous effect on wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and human organisms. One group of emerging pollutants that are a matter of study are pharmaceuticals. Their high consumption rate and their inappropriate disposal have led to their detection in wastewater treatment plant influent, effluent, surface water, and drinking water. In consequence, numerous technologies have been developed to efficiently treat these pollutants. Adsorption appears like an easy and cost-effective technology. One of the most used adsorbents of emerging pollutants removal is carbon-based materials such as hydrochars. This study aims to use a magnetic hydrochar nanocomposite to be employed as an adsorbent for diclofenac removal. Kinetics models and the adsorption efficiency in real water samples were analyzed. For this purpose, a magnetic hydrochar nanocomposite was synthesized through the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) technique hybridized to co-precipitation to add the magnetic component into the hydrochar, based on iron oxide nanoparticles. The hydrochar was obtained from sunflower husk residue as the precursor. TEM, TGA, FTIR, Zeta potential as a function of pH, DLS, BET technique, and elemental analysis were employed to characterize the material in terms of composition and chemical structure. Adsorption kinetics were carried out in distilled water and real water at room temperature, pH of 5.5 for distilled water and natural pH for real water samples, 1:1 adsorbent: adsorbate dosage ratio, contact times from 10-120 minutes, and 50% dosage concentration of DCF. Results have demonstrated that magnetic hydrochar presents superparamagnetic properties with a saturation magnetization value of 55.28 emu/g. Besides, it is mesoporous with a surface area of 55.52 m²/g. It is composed of magnetite nanoparticles incorporated into the hydrochar matrix, as can be proven by TEM micrographs, FTIR spectra, and zeta potential. On the other hand, kinetic studies were carried out using DCF models, finding percent removal efficiencies up to 85.34% after 80 minutes of contact time. In addition, after 120 minutes of contact time, desorption of emerging pollutants from active sites took place, which indicated that the material got saturated after that t time. In real water samples, percent removal efficiencies decrease up to 57.39%, ascribable to a possible mechanism of competitive adsorption of organic or inorganic compounds, ions for active sites of the magnetic hydrochar. The main suggested adsorption mechanism between the magnetic hydrochar and diclofenac include hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as well as hydrogen bonds. It can be concluded that the magnetic hydrochar nanocomposite could be valorized into a by-product which appears as an efficient adsorbent for DCF removal as a model emerging pollutant. These results are being complemented by modifying experimental variables such as pollutant’s initial concentration, adsorbent: adsorbate dosage ratio, and temperature. Currently, adsorption assays of other emerging pollutants are being been carried out.

Keywords: environmental remediation, emerging pollutants, hydrochar, magnetite nanoparticles

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