Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Rajkumar N. Ingle

17 Existence Theory for First Order Functional Random Differential Equations

Authors: Rajkumar N. Ingle


In this paper, the existence of a solution of nonlinear functional random differential equations of the first order is proved under caratheodory condition. The study of the functional random differential equation has got importance in the random analysis of the dynamical systems of universal phenomena. Objectives: Nonlinear functional random differential equation is useful to the scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, who are engaged in N.F.R.D.E. analyzing a universal random phenomenon, govern by nonlinear random initial value problems of D.E. Applications of this in the theory of diffusion or heat conduction. Methodology: Using the concepts of probability theory, functional analysis, generally the existence theorems for the nonlinear F.R.D.E. are prove by using some tools such as fixed point theorem. The significance of the study: Our contribution will be the generalization of some well-known results in the theory of Nonlinear F.R.D.E.s. Further, it seems that our study will be useful to scientist, engineers, economists and mathematicians in their endeavors to analyses the nonlinear random problems of the universe in a better way.

Keywords: Random Fixed Point Theorem, functional random differential equation, N.F.R.D.E., universal random phenomenon

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16 An Approximation Technique to Automate Tron

Authors: P. Jayashree, S. Rajkumar


With the trend of virtual and augmented reality environments booming to provide a life like experience, gaming is a major tool in supporting such learning environments. In this work, a variant of Voronoi heuristics, employing supervised learning for the TRON game is proposed. The paper discusses the features that would be really useful when a machine learning bot is to be used as an opponent against a human player. Various game scenarios, nature of the bot and the experimental results are provided for the proposed variant to prove that the approach is better than those that are currently followed.

Keywords: artificial Intelligence, automation, machine learning, TRON game, Voronoi heuristics

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15 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar


Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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14 Optimization of Process Parameters by Using Taguchi Method for Bainitic Steel Machining

Authors: Vinay Patil, Swapnil Kekade, Ashish Supare, Vinayak Pawar, Shital Jadhav, Rajkumar Singh


In recent days, bainitic steel is used in automobile and non-automobile sectors due to its high strength. Bainitic steel is difficult to machine because of its high hardness, hence in this paper machinability of bainitic steel is studied by using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) approach. Convectional turning experiments were done by using L16 orthogonal array for three input parameters viz. cutting speed, depth of cut and feed. The Taguchi method is applied to study the performance characteristics of machining parameters with surface roughness (Ra), cutting force and tool wear rate. By using Taguchi analysis, optimized process parameters for best surface finish and minimum cutting forces were analyzed.

Keywords: conventional turning, Taguchi method, S/N ratio, bainitic steel machining

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13 Decomposing the Socio-Economic Inequalities in Utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries: Insight from Demographic and Health Survey

Authors: Jeetendra Yadav, Geetha Menon, Anita Pal, Rajkumar Verma


Even after encouraging maternal and child wellness programs at worldwide level, lower-middle income nations are not reached the goal set by the UN yet. This study quantified the contribution of socioeconomic determinants of inequality to the utilization of Antenatal Care in South Asian Countries. This study used data from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) of the selected countries were used, and Oaxaca decomposing were applied for socioeconomic inequalities in utilization of antenatal care. Finding from the multivariate analysis shows that mother’s age at the time of birth, birth order and interval, mother’s education, mass media exposure and economic status were significant determinants of the utilization of antenatal care services in South Asian countries. Considering, concentration index curve, the line of equity was greatest in Pakistan which followed by India and Nepal.

Keywords: antenatal care, decomposition, inequalities, South Asian countries

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12 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW

Authors: S. Ramesh, A. S. Sasiraaju, K. Sidhaarth, N. Sudhan Rajkumar, V. Manivel Muralidaran


This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.

Keywords: chromoly, gas metal arc weld (GMAW), hardness, multi pass weld, shielding gas composition

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11 Effects of Flame Retardant Nano Bio-Filler on the Fire Behaviour of Thin Film Intumescent Coatings

Authors: Ming Chian Yew, Ming Kun Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Tan Ching Ng, Rajkumar Durairaj, Jing Han Beh


This paper analyzes the fire protection performance, char formation and heat release characteristics of the thin film intumescent coatings that incorporate waste eggshell (ES) as a nano bio-filler. In this study, the Bunsen burner and the fire propagation (BS 476: Part 6) tests of coatings were measured. Experiments on the samples were also tested to evaluate their fire behavior using a cone calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 specifications. On exposure, the samples B, C and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fire propagation indexes of the samples were less than 12. Samples B and D showed a significant reduction in total heat rate (B=11.6 MJ/m² and D=12.0 MJ/m²) and uniform char structures with the addition of 3.30 wt.% and 2.75 wt.% ES nano bio-filler, respectively. As a result, ES nano bio-filler composition good to slow down the fire expanding and demonstrate better fire protection due to its positive synergistic effect with flame retardant ingredients on physical and chemical reactions in fire protection.

Keywords: cone calorimeter, eggshell, fire protection, heat release rate, intumescent coating

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10 Study of Effect of Gear Tooth Accuracy on Transmission Mount Vibration

Authors: Kalyan Deepak Kolla, Ketan Paua, Rajkumar Bhagate


Transmission dynamics occupy major role in customer perception of the product in both senses of touch and quality of sound. The quantity and quality of sound perceived is more concerned with the whine noise of the gears engaged. Whine noise is tonal in nature and tonal noises cause fatigue and irritation to customers, which in turn affect the quality of the product. Transmission error is the usual suspect for whine noise, which can be caused due to misalignments, tolerances, manufacturing variabilities. In-cabin noise is also more sensitive to the gear design. As the details of the gear tooth design and manufacturing are in microns, anything out of the tolerance zone, either in design or manufacturing, will cause a whine noise. This will also cause high variation in stress and deformation due to change in the load and leads to the fatigue failure of the gears. Hence gear design and development take priority in the transmission development process. This paper aims to study such variability by considering five pairs of helical spur gears and their effect on the transmission error, contact pattern and vibration level on the transmission.

Keywords: gears, whine noise, manufacturing variability, mount vibration variability

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9 PEINS: A Generic Compression Scheme Using Probabilistic Encoding and Irrational Number Storage

Authors: P. Jayashree, S. Rajkumar


With social networks and smart devices generating a multitude of data, effective data management is the need of the hour for networks and cloud applications. Some applications need effective storage while some other applications need effective communication over networks and data reduction comes as a handy solution to meet out both requirements. Most of the data compression techniques are based on data statistics and may result in either lossy or lossless data reductions. Though lossy reductions produce better compression ratios compared to lossless methods, many applications require data accuracy and miniature details to be preserved. A variety of data compression algorithms does exist in the literature for different forms of data like text, image, and multimedia data. In the proposed work, a generic progressive compression algorithm, based on probabilistic encoding, called PEINS is projected as an enhancement over irrational number stored coding technique to cater to storage issues of increasing data volumes as a cost effective solution, which also offers data security as a secondary outcome to some extent. The proposed work reveals cost effectiveness in terms of better compression ratio with no deterioration in compression time.

Keywords: compression ratio, generic compression, irrational number storage, probabilistic encoding

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8 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

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7 Silver Nanoparticles in Drinking Water Purification

Authors: S. Pooja Pragati, B. Sudarsan, S. Rajkumar


Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known for their excellent antimicrobial agents, and thus can be used as alternative disinfectant agents. However, released silver nanoparticles is a threat to naturally occurring microorganisms. This paper exhibits information on the environmental fate, toxicological effects, and application of AgNP and the current estimate on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of AgNP in different aqueous solutions, as well as their application as alternative disinfectants in water-treatment systems. It also gives a better approximation and experimental data of AgNP’s antimicrobial properties at different water chemistry conditions. A saturation-type fitting curve was established, showing the survival of bacteria under different water chemistry conditions as a function of the size of the nanoparticles. The results obtained show that silver nanoparticles in surface water, ground water, and brackish water are stable. The paper demonstrates the comparative study of AgNP-impregnated point-of-use ceramic water filters and ceramic filters impregnated with silver nitrate. It is observed that AgNP-impregnated ceramic water filters are more appropriate for this application due to the lesser amount of silver desorbed. Experimental data of the comparison of a polymer-based quaternary amine functionalized silsesquioxanes compound and AgNP are also tabulated and conclusions are analysed with the goal of optimizing. The simplicity of synthesis and application of Silver nanoparticles enables us to consider its effective modified version for the purification of water.

Keywords: disinfectant agent, purification of water, nano particles, water treatment

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6 Development and Characterization of Synthetic Non-Woven for Sound Absorption

Authors: P. Sam Vimal Rajkumar, K. Priyanga


Acoustics is the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles –compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. The noise sources are increased day by day and annoying level is strongly violated in different locations by traffic, sound systems, and industries. There is simple evidence showing that the high noise levels cause sleep disturbance, hearing loss, decrease in productivity, learning disability, lower scholastic performance and increase in stress related hormones and blood pressure. Therefore, achieving a pleasing and noise free environment is one of the endeavours of many a research groups. This can be obtained by using various techniques. One such technique is by using suitable materials with good sound absorbing properties. The conventionally used materials that possess sound absorbing properties are rock wool or glass wool. In this work, an attempt is made to use synthetic material in both fibrous and sheet form and use it for manufacturing of non-woven for sound absorption.

Keywords: acoustics, fibre, non-woven, noise, sound absorption properties, sound absorption coefficient

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5 Detection and Classification of Mammogram Images Using Principle Component Analysis and Lazy Classifiers

Authors: Rajkumar Kolangarakandy


Feature extraction and selection is the primary part of any mammogram classification algorithms. The choice of feature, attribute or measurements have an important influence in any classification system. Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) coefficients are one of the prominent features for representing images in frequency domain. The features obtained after the decomposition of the mammogram images using wavelet transformations have higher dimension. Even though the features are higher in dimension, they were highly correlated and redundant in nature. The dimensionality reduction techniques play an important role in selecting the optimum number of features from the higher dimension data, which are highly correlated. PCA is a mathematical tool that reduces the dimensionality of the data while retaining most of the variation in the dataset. In this paper, a multilevel classification of mammogram images using reduced discrete wavelet transformation coefficients and lazy classifiers is proposed. The classification is accomplished in two different levels. In the first level, mammogram ROIs extracted from the dataset is classified as normal and abnormal types. In the second level, all the abnormal mammogram ROIs is classified into benign and malignant too. A further classification is also accomplished based on the variation in structure and intensity distribution of the images in the dataset. The Lazy classifiers called Kstar, IBL and LWL are used for classification. The classification results obtained with the reduced feature set is highly promising and the result is also compared with the performance obtained without dimension reduction.

Keywords: PCA, wavelet transformation, lazy classifiers, Kstar, IBL, LWL

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4 Ghost Frequency Noise Reduction through Displacement Deviation Analysis

Authors: Paua Ketan, Bhagate Rajkumar, Adiga Ganesh, M. Kiran


Low gear noise is an important sound quality feature in modern passenger cars. Annoying gear noise from the gearbox is influenced by the gear design, gearbox shaft layout, manufacturing deviations in the components, assembly errors and the mounting arrangement of the complete gearbox. Geometrical deviations in the form of profile and lead errors are often present on the flanks of the inspected gears. Ghost frequencies of a gear are very challenging to identify in standard gear measurement and analysis process due to small wavelengths involved. In this paper, gear whine noise occurring at non-integral multiples of gear mesh frequency of passenger car gearbox is investigated and the root cause is identified using the displacement deviation analysis (DDA) method. DDA method is applied to identify ghost frequency excitations on the flanks of gears arising out of generation grinding. Frequency identified through DDA correlated with the frequency of vibration and noise on the end-of-line machine as well as vehicle level measurements. With the application of DDA method along with standard lead profile measurement, gears with ghost frequency geometry deviations were identified on the production line to eliminate defective parts and thereby eliminate ghost frequency noise from a vehicle. Further, displacement deviation analysis can be used in conjunction with the manufacturing process simulation to arrive at suitable countermeasures for arresting the ghost frequency.

Keywords: displacement deviation analysis, gear whine, ghost frequency, sound quality

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3 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar


Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

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2 Stereoselective Glycosylation and Functionalization of Unbiased Site of Sweet System via Dual-Catalytic Transition Metal Systems/Wittig Reaction

Authors: Mukul R. Gupta, Rajkumar Gandhi, Rajitha Sachan, Naveen K. Khare


The field of glycoscience has burgeoned in the last several decades, leading to the identification of many glycosides which could serve critical roles in a wide range of biological processes. This has prompted a resurgence in synthetic interest, with a particular focus on new approaches to construct the selective glycosidic bond. Despite the numerous elegant strategies and methods developed for the formation of glycosidic bonds, stereoselective construction of glycosides remains challenging. Here, we have recently developed the novel Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) catalyzed stereoselective glycosylation methods by using KDN imidate glycosyl donor and a variety of alcohols in excellent yield. This method is broadly applicable to a wide range of substrates and with excellent selectivity of glycoside. Also, herein we are reporting the functionalization of the unbiased side of newly formed glycosides by dual-catalytic transition metal systems (Ru- or Fe-). We are using the innovative Reverse & Catalyst strategy, i.e., a reversible activation reaction by one catalyst with a functionalization reaction by another catalyst, together with enabling functionalization of substrates at their inherently unreactive sites. As well, we are targeting the diSia derivative synthesis by Wittig reaction. This synthetic method is applicable in mild conditions, functional group tolerance of the dual-catalytic systems and also highlights the potential of the multicatalytic approach to address challenging transformations to avoid multistep procedures in carbohydrate synthesis.

Keywords: KDN, stereoselective glycosylation, dual-catalytic functionalization, Wittig reaction

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1 Determining the Thermal Performance and Comfort Indices of a Naturally Ventilated Room with Reduced Density Reinforced Concrete Wall Construction over Conventional M-25 Grade Concrete

Authors: P. Crosby, Shiva Krishna Pavuluri, S. Rajkumar


Purpose: Occupied built-up space can be broadly classified as air-conditioned and naturally ventilated. Regardless of the building type, the objective of all occupied built-up space is to provide a thermally acceptable environment for human occupancy. Considering this aspect, air-conditioned spaces allow a greater degree of flexibility to control and modulate the comfort parameters during the operation phase. However, in the case of naturally ventilated space, a number of design features favoring indoor thermal comfort should be mandatorily conceptualized starting from the design phase. One such primary design feature that requires to be prioritized is, selection of building envelope material, as it decides the flow of energy from outside environment to occupied spaces. Research Methodology: In India and many countries across globe, the standardized material used for building envelope is re-enforced concrete (i.e. M-25 grade concrete). The comfort inside the RC built environment for warm & humid climate (i.e. mid-day temp of 30-35˚C, diurnal variation of 5-8˚C & RH of 70-90%) is unsatisfying to say the least. This study is mainly focused on reviewing the impact of mix design of conventional M25 grade concrete on inside thermal comfort. In this mix design, air entrainment in the range of 2000 to 2100 kg/m3 is introduced to reduce the density of M-25 grade concrete. Thermal performance parameters & indoor comfort indices are analyzed for the proposed mix and compared in relation to the conventional M-25 grade. There are diverse methodologies which govern indoor comfort calculation. In this study, three varied approaches specifically a) Indian Adaptive Thermal comfort model, b) Tropical Summer Index (TSI) c) Air temperature less than 33˚C & RH less than 70% to calculate comfort is adopted. The data required for the thermal comfort study is acquired by field measurement approach (i.e. for the new mix design) and simulation approach by using design builder (i.e. for the conventional concrete grade). Findings: The analysis points that the Tropical Summer Index has a higher degree of stringency in determining the occupant comfort band whereas also providing a leverage in thermally tolerable band over & above other methodologies in the context of the study. Another important finding is the new mix design ensures a 10% reduction in indoor air temperature (IAT) over the outdoor dry bulb temperature (ODBT) during the day. This translates to a significant temperature difference of 6 ˚C IAT and ODBT.

Keywords: Indian adaptive thermal comfort, indoor air temperature, thermal comfort, tropical summer index

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